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Mandate of Heaven

Index Mandate of Heaven

The Mandate of Heaven or Tian Ming is a Chinese political and religious doctrine used since ancient times to justify the rule of the King or Emperor of China. [1]

78 relations: Amaterasu, Auctoritas, Book of Documents, Book of Rites, Book of Song, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Celestial Empire, Celestial navigation, China, Classic of Poetry, Confucianism, Confucius, Divine right of kings, Doctrine, Emperor Gaozong of Tang, Emperor of China, Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, Fujiwara clan, God, Han Chinese, Han dynasty, Heaven, Heian period, History of China, I Ching, Imperial examination, Imperial House of Japan, Japan, Japanese militarism, Jin dynasty (1115–1234), Joseon, Justice, Kangxi Emperor, Khan of Heaven, Khitan people, Khvarenah, King Wu of Zhou, Kublai Khan, Later Han (Five Dynasties), Later Jin (Five Dynasties), Later Liang (Five Dynasties), Later Tang, Later Zhou, Legalism (Chinese philosophy), Meiji oligarchy, Meiji Restoration, Mencius, Ming dynasty, Monarch, Natural disaster, ..., Noblesse oblige, Occupation of Japan, Old History of the Five Dynasties, Post-occupation Japan, Poverty, Qin (state), Qin dynasty, Qin Shi Huang, Qing dynasty, Right of revolution, Shang dynasty, Shangdi, Shatuo, Shōgun, Silk Road, Solar deity, Son of Heaven, Song dynasty, Taihō Code, Taishō period, Tang dynasty, Tian, Tianxia, Translatio imperii, Xue Juzheng, Yuan dynasty, Zhou dynasty, Zhu Wen. Expand index (28 more) »

Amaterasu

,, or is a deity of the Japanese myth cycle and also a major deity of the Shinto religion.

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Auctoritas

Auctoritas is a Latin word and is the origin of English "authority".

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Book of Documents

The Book of Documents (Shujing, earlier Shu-king) or Classic of History, also known as the Shangshu ("Esteemed Documents"), is one of the Five Classics of ancient Chinese literature.

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Book of Rites

The Book of Rites or Liji is a collection of texts describing the social forms, administration, and ceremonial rites of the Zhou dynasty as they were understood in the Warring States and the early Han periods.

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Book of Song

The Book of Song (Sòng Shū) is a historical text of the Liu Song Dynasty of the Southern Dynasties of China.

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Cambridge, Massachusetts

Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and part of the Boston metropolitan area.

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Celestial Empire

The Celestial Empire was a name used to refer to China.

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Celestial navigation

Celestial navigation, also known as astronavigation, is the ancient and modern practice of position fixing that enables a navigator to transition through a space without having to rely on estimated calculations, or dead reckoning, to know their position.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Classic of Poetry

The Classic of Poetry, also Shijing or Shih-ching, translated variously as the Book of Songs, Book of Odes, or simply known as the Odes or Poetry is the oldest existing collection of Chinese poetry, comprising 305 works dating from the 11th to 7th centuries BC.

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Confucianism

Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.

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Confucius

Confucius (551–479 BC) was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history.

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Divine right of kings

The divine right of kings, divine right, or God's mandate is a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy.

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Doctrine

Doctrine (from doctrina, meaning "teaching", "instruction" or "doctrine") is a codification of beliefs or a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the essence of teachings in a given branch of knowledge or in a belief system.

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Emperor Gaozong of Tang

Emperor Gaozong of Tang (21 July 628 – 27 December 683), personal name Li Zhi, was the third emperor of the Tang dynasty in China, ruling from 649 to 683 (although after January 665 much of the governance was in the hands of his second wife Empress Wu, later known as Wu Zetian).

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Emperor of China

The Emperor or Huangdi was the secular imperial title of the Chinese sovereign reigning between the founding of the Qin dynasty that unified China in 221 BC, until the abdication of Puyi in 1912 following the Xinhai Revolution and the establishment of the Republic of China, although it was later restored twice in two failed revolutions in 1916 and 1917.

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Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period

The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period was an era of political upheaval in 10th-century Imperial China.

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Fujiwara clan

, descending from the Nakatomi clan and through them Ame-no-Koyane-no-Mikoto, was a powerful family of regents in Japan.

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God

In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.

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Han Chinese

The Han Chinese,.

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Han dynasty

The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.

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Heaven

Heaven, or the heavens, is a common religious, cosmological, or transcendent place where beings such as gods, angels, spirits, saints, or venerated ancestors are said to originate, be enthroned, or live.

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Heian period

The is the last division of classical Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185.

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History of China

The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.

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I Ching

The I Ching,.

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Imperial examination

The Chinese imperial examinations were a civil service examination system in Imperial China to select candidates for the state bureaucracy.

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Imperial House of Japan

The, also referred to as the Imperial Family and the Yamato Dynasty, comprises those members of the extended family of the reigning Emperor of Japan who undertake official and public duties.

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Japan

Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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Japanese militarism

refers to the ideology in the Empire of Japan that militarism should dominate the political and social life of the nation, and that the strength of the military is equal to the strength of a nation.

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Jin dynasty (1115–1234)

The Jin dynasty, officially known as the Great Jin, lasted from 1115 to 1234 as one of the last dynasties in Chinese history to predate the Mongol invasion of China.

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Joseon

The Joseon dynasty (also transcribed as Chosŏn or Chosun, 조선; officially the Kingdom of Great Joseon, 대조선국) was a Korean dynastic kingdom that lasted for approximately five centuries.

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Justice

Justice is the legal or philosophical theory by which fairness is administered.

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Kangxi Emperor

The Kangxi Emperor (康熙; 4 May 165420 December 1722), personal name Xuanye, was the fourth emperor of the Qing dynasty, the first to be born on Chinese soil south of the Shanhai Pass near Beijing, and the second Qing emperor to rule over that part of China, from 1661 to 1722.

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Khan of Heaven

Khan of Heaven or Tian Khehan, Celestial Khagan, Tengri Khan was a title addressed to Emperor Taizong of Tang by various Turkic nomads.

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Khitan people

The Khitan people were a nomadic people from Northeast Asia who, from the 4th century, inhabited an area corresponding to parts of modern Mongolia, Northeast China and the Russian Far East.

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Khvarenah

Khvarenah or khwarenah (𐬓𐬀𐬭𐬆𐬥𐬀𐬵) is an Avestan word for a Zoroastrian concept literally denoting "glory" or "splendour" but understood as a divine mystical force or power projected upon and aiding the appointed.

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King Wu of Zhou

King Wu of Zhou was the first king of the Zhou dynasty of ancient China.

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Kublai Khan

Kublai (Хубилай, Hubilai; Simplified Chinese: 忽必烈) was the fifth Khagan (Great Khan) of the Mongol Empire (Ikh Mongol Uls), reigning from 1260 to 1294 (although due to the division of the empire this was a nominal position).

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Later Han (Five Dynasties)

The Later Han was founded in 947.

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Later Jin (Five Dynasties)

The Later Jìn (936–947), also called Shi Jin (石晉), was one of the Five Dynasties during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period in China.

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Later Liang (Five Dynasties)

The Later Liang (1 June 907 – 19 November 923), also known as Zhu Liang, was one of the Five Dynasties during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period in China.

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Later Tang

Tang, known in history as Later Tang, was a short-lived imperial dynasty that lasted from 923 to 937 during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period in the history of China.

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Later Zhou

The Later Zhou was the last in a succession of five dynasties that controlled most of northern China during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, which lasted from 907 to 960 and bridged the gap between the Tang Dynasty and the Song Dynasty.

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Legalism (Chinese philosophy)

Fajia or Legalism is one of Sima Tan's six classical schools of thought in Chinese philosophy.

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Meiji oligarchy

The Meiji oligarchy was the name used to describe the new ruling class of Meiji period Japan.

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Meiji Restoration

The, also known as the Meiji Ishin, Renovation, Revolution, Reform, or Renewal, was an event that restored practical imperial rule to the Empire of Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji.

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Mencius

Mencius or Mengzi (372–289 BC or 385–303 or 302BC) was a Chinese philosopher who has often been described as the "second Sage", that is after only Confucius himself.

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Ming dynasty

The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.

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Monarch

A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy.

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Natural disaster

A natural disaster is a major adverse event resulting from natural processes of the Earth; examples include floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, and other geologic processes.

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Noblesse oblige

Noblesse oblige is a French expression used in English.

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Occupation of Japan

The Allied occupation of Japan at the end of World War II was led by General Douglas MacArthur, the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, with support from the British Commonwealth.

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Old History of the Five Dynasties

The Old History of the Five Dynasties (Jiù Wǔdài Shǐ) was an official history of the Five Dynasties (907–960), which controlled much of northern China.

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Post-occupation Japan

Post-occupation Japan is the period in Japanese history which started after the Allied occupation of Japan and ended in 1952.

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Poverty

Poverty is the scarcity or the lack of a certain (variant) amount of material possessions or money.

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Qin (state)

Qin (Old Chinese: *) was an ancient Chinese state during the Zhou dynasty.

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Qin dynasty

The Qin dynasty was the first dynasty of Imperial China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC.

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Qin Shi Huang

Qin Shi Huang (18 February 25910 September 210) was the founder of the Qin dynasty and was the first emperor of a unified China.

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Qing dynasty

The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.

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Right of revolution

In political philosophy, the right of revolution (or right of rebellion) is the right or duty of the people of a nation to overthrow a government that acts against their common interests and/or threatens the safety of the people without cause.

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Shang dynasty

The Shang dynasty or Yin dynasty, according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty and followed by the Zhou dynasty.

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Shangdi

Shangdi, also written simply, "Emperor", is the Chinese term for "Supreme Deity" or "Highest Deity" in the theology of the classical texts, especially deriving from Shang theology and finding an equivalent in the later Tian ("Heaven" or "Great Whole") of Zhou theology.

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Shatuo

The Shatuo (or, also: Shato, Sha-t'o, Sanskrit Sart Zuev Yu.A., "Horse Tamgas from Vassal Princedoms (Translation of Chinese composition "Tanghuyao" of 8-10th centuries)", Kazakh SSR Academy of Sciences, Alma-Ata, I960, p. 127 (In Russian)) were a Turkic tribe that heavily influenced northern Chinese politics from the late ninth century through the tenth century.

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Shōgun

The was the military dictator of Japan during the period from 1185 to 1868 (with exceptions).

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Silk Road

The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.

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Solar deity

A solar deity (also sun god or sun goddess) is a sky deity who represents the Sun, or an aspect of it, usually by its perceived power and strength.

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Son of Heaven

Son of Heaven, or Tian Zi, was the sacred imperial title of the Chinese emperor.

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Song dynasty

The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.

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Taihō Code

The was an administrative reorganization enacted in 703 in Japan, at the end of the Asuka period.

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Taishō period

The, or Taishō era, is a period in the history of Japan dating from July 30, 1912, to December 25, 1926, coinciding with the reign of the Emperor Taishō.

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Tang dynasty

The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.

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Tian

Tiān (天) is one of the oldest Chinese terms for heaven and a key concept in Chinese mythology, philosophy, and religion.

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Tianxia

Tianxia is a Chinese term for an ancient Chinese cultural concept that denoted either the entire geographical world or the metaphysical realm of mortals, and later became associated with political sovereignty.

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Translatio imperii

Translatio imperii (Latin for "transfer of rule") is a historiographical concept, originating in the Middle Ages, in which history is viewed as a linear succession of transfers of an imperium that invests supreme power in a singular ruler, an "emperor" (or sometimes even several emperors, i.e., the Eastern Byzantine Empire and the Western Holy Roman Empire).

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Xue Juzheng

Xue Juzheng (912 – 12 July 981, courtesy name Ziping) was a scholar-official who successively served the Later Jin, Later Han, Later Zhou and Song dynasties.

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Yuan dynasty

The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.

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Zhou dynasty

The Zhou dynasty or the Zhou Kingdom was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty and preceded the Qin dynasty.

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Zhu Wen

Emperor Taizu of Later Liang (後梁太祖), personal name Zhu Quanzhong (朱全忠) (852–912), né Zhu Wen (朱溫), name later changed to Zhu Huang (朱晃), nickname Zhu San (朱三, literally, "the third Zhu"), was a Jiedushi (military governor) at the end of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, who previously served as a general under the rival Emperor Huang Chao's Empire of Qi and overthrew Empire of Tang in 907, established the Later Liang as its emperor, and ushered in the era of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms.

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Redirects here:

Decree of Heaven, Heaven's mandate, Heavenly Mandate, MANDATE OF HEAVEN, Mandate of heaven, T'ien Ming, Tian Ming, Tiānmìng, 天命.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mandate_of_Heaven

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