269 relations: Abdullah I of Jordan, Acre Subdistrict, Mandatory Palestine, Acre, Israel, Al-Husayni clan, Alan Cunningham, Aleph, Alfred A. Knopf, Aliyah Bet, All-Palestine Government, American trusteeship proposal for Palestine, Amin al-Husseini, Angel Bakeries, Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry, Anti-Zionism, Antisemitism, Arab League, Arab nationalism, Arabic, Arthur Grenfell Wauchope, Assembly of Representatives (Mandatory Palestine), Assembly of Representatives election, 1920, Avraham Sela, Axis powers, Bahá'í Faith, Balfour Declaration, Bank Leumi, Bantam Books, Basel Program, Battle of Haifa (1948), Battle of Jerusalem, Beacon Press, Beersheba, Beit She'an, Beta Israel, Biltmore Conference, Black Hand (Mandatory Palestine), Black Sea, Bricha, British Empire, British Mandate for Palestine (legal instrument), Cairo, Cambridge University Press, Chaim Weizmann, Charles Tegart, Christianity, Circassians, Civil and political rights, Condominium (international law), Confessional community, Corpus separatum (Jerusalem), ..., Covenant of the League of Nations, Cyprus internment camps, Czechoslovakia, David Ben-Gurion, Districts of Mandatory Palestine, Doubleday (publisher), Druze, Edmund Allenby, 1st Viscount Allenby, Egyptian Expeditionary Force, Egyptian pound, Eliyahu Bet-Zuri, Eliyahu Hakim, Emirate of Transjordan, English language, Ernest Benjamin, Ernest Bevin, Erwin Rommel, Faisal–Weizmann Agreement, Federated Malay States, Folke Bernadotte, Fourteen Points, Gaza City, Gaza District, Gaza Strip, General strike, Geopolitical ontology, Governance of the Gaza Strip, Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Haavara Agreement, Haganah, Haifa, Haiti, Harry Herbert Trusted, Harry S. Truman, Hashemites, Hebrew calendar, Hebrew language, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Hebron, Heinrich Himmler, Hejaz, Henry Holt and Company, Herbert Dowbiggin, Herbert Samuel, 1st Viscount Samuel, High Commissioners for Palestine and Transjordan, Histadrut, Homeland for the Jewish people, Human Development Index, I.B. Tauris, Independence Party (Mandatory Palestine), Institute for Palestine Studies, International Court of Justice, Interwar period, Iran, Irgun, Islam, Israel, Israel Defense Forces, Israel's Secret Wars, Israeli Declaration of Independence, Italian bombing of Mandatory Palestine in World War II, Italian Campaign (World War II), Izz ad-Din al-Qassam, Jaffa, Jaffa Road, Jamal al-Husayni, Jenin, Jerusalem, Jewish Agency for Israel, Jewish Brigade, Jewish insurgency in Mandatory Palestine, Jewish National Council, Jewish National Fund, Jewish Resistance Movement, Jewish Settlement Police, Jewish Virtual Library, Jezreel Valley, John Bagot Glubb, Jordanian annexation of the West Bank, JSTOR, Judaism, Kamil al-Husayni, King David Hotel bombing, Kiryat Shmuel, Jerusalem, Land of Israel, Leadership, League of Nations, League of Nations mandate, Lehi (militant group), Levant, Liberal Party (Mandatory Palestine), List of Irgun operations, List of post offices in Mandatory Palestine, London Conference of 1939, Mandatory Palestine passport, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Mauritius, McMahon–Hussein Correspondence, Menachem Begin, Michael McDonnell, Millet (Ottoman Empire), Morrison–Grady Plan, Mossad LeAliyah Bet, Museum of Underground Prisoners, Muslim-Christian Associations, Nablus, Nashashibi clan, Nazareth, Nazi Germany, Nazism and race, Negev, Nicholas Bethell, 4th Baron Bethell, Nur Masalha, Occupied Enemy Territory Administration, Operation Atlas (Mandatory Palestine), Operation Kilshon, Orde Wingate, Order in Council, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Syria, Oxford University Press, Palestine (region), Palestine Airways, Palestine Arab Congress, Palestine Command, Palestine Jewish Colonization Association, Palestine Police Force, Palestine pound, Palestinian Legislative Council election, 1923, Palestinians, Palmach, Peel Commission, Peru, Pinhas Rutenberg, Plan Dalet, Political Science Quarterly, Population growth, Postage stamps and postal history of Palestine, Qadi, Quincy Wright, Raghib al-Nashashibi, Ramallah, Ramat David Airbase, Ramla, Rashid Khalidi, Routledge, Royal Navy, Russian Compound, Safed, San Remo conference, Schooner, Selvino children, Sharia, Shchuka-class submarine, Sinai and Palestine Campaign, Southern Syria, Soviet Union, Special Night Squads, Spring 1945 offensive in Italy, Struma disaster, Suez Canal, SUNY Press, Supreme Muslim Council, Sykes–Picot Agreement, Syria Palaestina, Tarvisio, Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, Tegart's Wall, Tel Aviv, The Holocaust, The Hunting Season, The Sergeants affair, Thomas Haycraft, Tiberias, Tnuva, Trans-Jordan memorandum, Transaction Publishers, Treaty of Berlin (1878), Tulkarm, United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine, United Nations Special Committee on Palestine, University of North Carolina Press, Uruguay, Walter Guinness, 1st Baron Moyne, Waqf, West Bank, Western Wall, White Paper of 1939, William James Fitzgerald (jurist), William Ormsby-Gore, 4th Baron Harlech, William Peel, 1st Earl Peel, Winston Churchill, World War I, World War II, World Zionist Congress, Ya'bad, Yemenite Jews, Yibna, Yigal Allon, Yishuv, YMCA, Yodh, Young Men's Muslim Association, Yugoslavia, Zikhron Ya'akov, Zionism, Zionist Commission, 1920 Nebi Musa riots, 1921 Jaffa riots, 1922 census of Palestine, 1929 Hebron massacre, 1929 Palestine riots, 1931 census of Palestine, 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine, 1937 Ben-Gurion letter, 1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine, 1948 Arab–Israeli War, 1948 Palestinian exodus, 200 days of dread. 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Abdullah I bin al-Hussein, King of Jordan (عبد الله الأول بن الحسين, Abd Allāh ibn al-Husayn, February 1882 – 20 July 1951), born in Mecca, Hejaz, Ottoman Empire, was the second of three sons of Hussein bin Ali, Sharif and Emir of Mecca and his first wife Abdiyya bint Abdullah (d. 1886).
The Acre Subdistrict (قضاء عكا Qadaa Akka, נפת עכו Nefat Akko) was one of the subdistricts of Mandatory Palestine.
Acre (or, עַכּוֹ, ʻAko, most commonly spelled as Akko; عكّا, ʻAkkā) is a city in the coastal plain region of Israel's Northern District at the extremity of Haifa Bay.
Husayni (الحسيني also spelled Husseini) is the name of a prominent Palestinian Arab clan formerly based in Jerusalem, which claims descent from Husayn ibn Ali (the son of Ali).
General Sir Alan Gordon Cunningham (1 May 1887 – 30 January 1983) was a senior officer of the British Army noted for his victories over Italian forces in the East African Campaign during World War II.
Aleph (or alef or alif) is the first letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician 'Ālep 𐤀, Hebrew 'Ālef א, Aramaic Ālap 𐡀, Syriac ʾĀlap̄ ܐ, Arabic ا, Urdu ا, and Persian.
Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. is a New York publishing house that was founded by Alfred A. Knopf Sr. and Blanche Knopf in 1915.
Aliyah Bet (עלייה ב', "Aliyah 'B'" – bet being the second letter of the Hebrew alphabet) was the code name given to illegal immigration by Jews, most of whom were Holocaust survivors and refugees from Nazi Germany, to Mandatory Palestine between 1934-48, in violation of the restrictions laid out in the British White Paper of 1939.
The All-Palestine Government (حكومة عموم فلسطين) was established by the Arab League on 22 September 1948 during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War to govern the Egyptian-controlled enclave in Gaza. It was soon recognized by all Arab League members except Transjordan. Though jurisdiction of the Government was declared to cover the whole of the former Mandatory Palestine, its effective jurisdiction was limited to the Gaza Strip.Gelber, Y. Palestine, 1948. Pp. 177–78 The Prime Minister of the Gaza-seated administration was Ahmed Hilmi Pasha, and the President was Hajj Amin al-Husseini, former chairman of the Arab Higher Committee. Shortly thereafter the Jericho Conference named King Abdullah I of Transjordan "King of Arab Palestine". The Congress called for the union of Arab Palestine and Transjordan and Abdullah announced his intention to annex the West Bank. The other Arab League member states opposed Abdullah's plan. The All-Palestine Government is regarded by some as the first attempt to establish an independent Palestinian state. It was under official Egyptian protection, but it had no executive role. The government had mostly political and symbolic implications. Its importance gradually declined, especially after the relocation of its seat of government from Gaza to Cairo following the Israeli invasion in late 1948. Though the Gaza Strip remained under Egyptian control through the war the All-Palestine Government remained in exile in Cairo, managing Gazan affairs from outside. In 1959, the All-Palestine Government was officially merged into the United Arab Republic, coming under formal Egyptian military administration, who appointed Egyptian military administrators in Gaza. Egypt, however, both formally and informally renounced any and all territorial claims to Palestinian territory (in contrast to the government of Transjordan, which declared its annexation of the Palestinian West Bank). The All-Palestine Government's credentials as a bona fide sovereign state were questioned by many mainly due to the government's effective reliance upon not only Egyptian military support but also Egyptian political and economic power.
The American trusteeship proposal for Palestine, formally known as the United States Proposal for Temporary United Nations Trusteeship for Palestine and announced by President Harry S. Truman on 25 March 1948, was a revised plan from the United States government for the future of the British Mandate for Palestine.
Mohammed Amin al-Husseini (محمد أمين الحسيني; 1897 – 4 July 1974) was a Palestinian Arab nationalist and Muslim leader in Mandatory Palestine.
Angel Bakeries (מאפיות אנג'ל Ma'afiyot Anjel), also known as Angel's Bakery, is the largest commercial bakery in Israel, producing 275,000 loaves of bread and 275,000 rolls daily and controlling 30 percent of the country's bread market.
The Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry was a joint British and American committee assembled in Washington on 4 January 1946.
Anti-Zionism is opposition to Zionism.
Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.
The Arab League (الجامعة العربية), formally the League of Arab States (جامعة الدول العربية), is a regional organization of Arab states in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa and Arabia.
Arab nationalism (القومية العربية al-Qawmiyya al-`arabiyya) is a nationalist ideology that asserts the Arabs are a nation and promotes the unity of Arab people, celebrating the glories of Arab civilization, the language and literature of the Arabs, calling for rejuvenation and political union in the Arab world.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
General Sir Arthur Grenfell Wauchope (1 March 1874 – 14 September 1947) was a British soldier and colonial administrator.
The Assembly of Representatives (אספת הנבחרים, Asefat HaNivharim) was the elected parliamentary assembly of the Jewish community in Mandatory Palestine.
Independents | seats9.
Avraham Sela is an Israeli historian and scholar on the Middle East and international relations.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.
The Balfour Declaration was a public statement issued by the British government during World War I announcing support for the establishment of a "national home for the Jewish people" in Palestine, then an Ottoman region with a minority Jewish population (around 3–5% of the total).
Bank Leumi (בנק לאומי, lit. National Bank) is an Israeli bank.
Bantam Books is an American publishing house owned entirely by parent company Random House, a subsidiary of Penguin Random House; it is an imprint of the Random House Publishing Group.
The Basel Program was the first manifesto of the Zionist movement, drafted between 27-30 August 1897 and adopted unanimously at the First Zionist Congress in Basel (Basle), Switzerland on 30 August 1897.
The Battle of Haifa, called by the Jewish forces Operation Bi'ur Hametz (מבצע ביעור חמץ "Passover Cleaning"), was a Haganah operation carried out on 21–22 April 1948 and was a major event in the final stages of the civil war in Palestine, leading up to the 1948 Arab-Israeli War.
The Battle of Jerusalem occurred during the British Empire's "Jerusalem Operations" against the Ottoman Empire, when fighting for the city developed from 17 November, continuing after the surrender until 30 December 1917, to secure the final objective of the Southern Palestine Offensive during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of World War I. Before Jerusalem could be secured, two battles were recognised by the British as being fought in the Judean Hills to the north and east of the Hebron–Junction Station line.
Beacon Press is an American non-profit book publisher.
Beersheba, also spelled Beer-Sheva (בְּאֵר שֶׁבַע; بئر السبع), is the largest city in the Negev desert of southern Israel.
Beit She'an (בֵּית שְׁאָן; بيسان,, Beisan or Bisan), is a city in the Northern District of Israel which has played an important role in history due to its geographical location at the junction of the Jordan River Valley and the Jezreel Valley.
Beta Israel (בֵּיתֶא יִשְׂרָאֵל, Beyte (beyt) Yisrael; ቤተ እስራኤል, Bēta 'Isrā'ēl, modern Bēte 'Isrā'ēl, EAE: "Betä Ǝsraʾel", "House of Israel" or "Community of Israel"), also known as Ethiopian Jews (יְהוּדֵי אֶתְיוֹפְּיָה: Yehudey Etyopyah; Ge'ez: የኢትዮጵያ አይሁድዊ, ye-Ityoppya Ayhudi), are Jews whose community developed and lived for centuries in the area of the Kingdom of Aksum and the Ethiopian Empire that is currently divided between the Amhara and Tigray Regions of Ethiopia and Eritrea.
The Biltmore Conference, also known by its resolution as the Biltmore Program, was a fundamental departure from traditional Zionist policyAmerican Jewish Year Book Vol.
The Black Hand (translit) was an anti-Zionist and anti-British Jihadist militant organization in Mandatory Palestine.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Bricha (בריחה, translit. Briẖa, "escape" or "flight"), also called the Bericha Movement, was the underground organized effort that helped Jewish Holocaust survivors escape post–World War II Europe to the British Mandate for Palestine in violation of the White Paper of 1939.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The British Mandate for Palestine (valid 29 September 1923 - 15 May 1948), also known as the Mandate for Palestine or the Palestine Mandate, was a "Class A" League of Nations mandate for the territories of Mandatory Palestine – in which the Balfour Declaration's "national home for the Jewish people" was to be established – and a separate Arab Emirate of Transjordan, both of which were conceded by the Ottoman Empire under the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Chaim Azriel Weizmann (חיים עזריאל ויצמן, Хаим Вейцман Khaim Veytsman; 27 November 1874 – 9 November 1952) was a Zionist leader and Israeli statesman who served as President of the Zionist Organization and later as the first President of Israel.
Sir Charles Augustus Tegart KPM (1881 – 6 April 1946) was a British colonial police officer in India and Mandatory Palestine.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
The Circassians (Черкесы Čerkesy), also known by their endonym Adyghe (Circassian: Адыгэхэр Adygekher, Ады́ги Adýgi), are a Northwest Caucasian nation native to Circassia, many of whom were displaced in the course of the Russian conquest of the Caucasus in the 19th century, especially after the Russian–Circassian War in 1864.
Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals.
In international law, a condominium (plural either condominia, as in Latin, or condominiums) is a political territory (state or border area) in or over which multiple sovereign powers formally agree to share equal dominium (in the sense of sovereignty) and exercise their rights jointly, without dividing it into "national" zones.
A confessional community is a group of people with similar religious beliefs.
Corpus separatum (Latin for "separated body") is a term used to describe the Jerusalem area in the 1947 United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine.
The Covenant of the League of Nations was the charter of the League of Nations.
Cyprus internment camps were camps run by the British government for internment of Jews who had immigrated or attempted to immigrate to Mandatory Palestine in violation of British policy.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
David Ben-Gurion (דָּוִד בֶּן-גּוּרִיּוֹן;, born David Grün; 16 October 1886 – 1 December 1973) was the primary national founder of the State of Israel and the first Prime Minister of Israel.
The districts of Mandatory Palestine formed the first level of administrative division and existed through the whole era of Mandatory Palestine, namely from 1920 to 1948.
Doubleday is an American publishing company founded as Doubleday & McClure Company in 1897 that by 1947 was the largest in the United States.
The Druze (درزي or, plural دروز; דרוזי plural דרוזים) are an Arabic-speaking esoteric ethnoreligious group originating in Western Asia who self-identify as unitarians (Al-Muwaḥḥidūn/Muwahhidun).
Field Marshal Edmund Henry Hynman Allenby, 1st Viscount Allenby, (23 April 1861 – 14 May 1936) was an English soldier and British Imperial Governor.
The Egyptian Expeditionary Force (EEF) was a British Empire military formation, formed on 10 March 1916 under the command of General Archibald Murray from the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force and the Force in Egypt (1914–15), at the beginning of the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of the First World War.
The Egyptian pound (جنيه مصرى; sign: E£, L.E. ج.م; code: EGP) is the currency of Egypt.
Eliyahu Bet-Zuri (אליהו בית צורי 10 February 1922 – 22 March 1945) was a member of Lehi, who was executed in Egypt for his part in the assassination of Lord Moyne, the British Minister Resident in the Middle East.
Eliyahu Hakim (אליהו חכים; January 2, 1925–March 22, 1945) was a Lehi member, known for taking part in the 1944 assassination of Lord Moyne, the British Minister Resident in the Middle East.
The Emirate of Transjordan (إمارة شرق الأردن lit. "Emirate of east Jordan"), also hyphenated as Trans-Jordan and previously known as Transjordania or Trans-Jordania, was a British protectorate established in April 1921.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Brigadier Ernest Frank Benjamin (לוי בנימין) (5 February 1900 – 14 March 1969) was a Canadian-born British Jewish officer who commanded the British Army's Jewish Brigade during the Second World War.
Ernest Bevin (9 March 1881 – 14 April 1951) was a British statesman, trade union leader, and Labour politician.
Erwin Rommel (15 November 1891 – 14 October 1944) was a German general and military theorist.
The Faisal–Weizmann Agreement was a 3 January 1919 agreement between Emir Faisal, the third son of Hussein of the short-lived Kingdom of Hejaz, and Chaim Weizmann, a Zionist leader who had negotiated the 1917 Balfour Declaration with the British Government, signed two weeks before the start of the Paris Peace Conference.
The Federated Malay States (FMS) was a federation of four protected states in the Malay Peninsula—Selangor, Perak, Negeri Sembilan and Pahang—established by the British government in 1895, which lasted until 1946, when they, together with two of the former Straits Settlements (Malacca and Penang) and the Unfederated Malay States, formed the Malayan Union.
Folke Bernadotte, Count of Wisborg (2 January 1895 – 17 September 1948) was a Swedish diplomat and nobleman.
U.S. President Woodrow Wilson The Fourteen Points was a statement of principles for peace that was to be used for peace negotiations in order to end World War I. The principles were outlined in a January 8, 1918 speech on war aims and peace terms to the United States Congress by President Woodrow Wilson.
Gaza (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998),, p. 761 "Gaza Strip /'gɑːzə/ a strip of territory in Palestine, on the SE Mediterranean coast including the town of Gaza...". غزة,; Ancient Ġāzā), also referred to as Gaza City, is a Palestinian city in the Gaza Strip, with a population of 515,556, making it the largest city in the State of Palestine.
Gaza District was one of the districts of Mandatory Palestine.
The Gaza Strip (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p.761 "Gaza Strip /'gɑːzə/ a strip of territory under the control of the Palestinian National Authority and Hamas, on the SE Mediterranean coast including the town of Gaza...". قطاع غزة), or simply Gaza, is a self-governing Palestinian territory on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, that borders Egypt on the southwest for and Israel on the east and north along a border.
A general strike (or mass strike) is a strike action in which a substantial proportion of the total labour force in a city, region, or country participates.
The FAO geopolitical ontology is an Ontology developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) to describe, manage and exchange data related to geopolitical entities such as countries, territories, regions and other similar areas.
The governance of the Gaza Strip is carried out by the Hamas administration, led by Ismail Haniyeh, from 2007, until 2014 and again from 2016.
The Grand Mufti of Jerusalem is the Sunni Muslim cleric in charge of Jerusalem's Islamic holy places, including the Al-Aqsa Mosque.
The Haavara Agreement was an agreement between Nazi Germany and Zionist German Jews signed on 25 August 1933.
Haganah (הַהֲגָנָה, lit. The Defence) was a Jewish paramilitary organization in the British Mandate of Palestine (1921–48), which became the core of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF).
Haifa (חֵיפָה; حيفا) is the third-largest city in Israel – after Jerusalem and Tel Aviv– with a population of in.
Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a sovereign state located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.
Sir Harry Herbert Trusted, QC (27 June 1888 – 1985) was a British Colonial Attorney-General and Chief Justice.
Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was an American statesman who served as the 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953), taking office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
The Hashemites (الهاشميون, Al-Hāshimīyūn; also House of Hashim) are the ruling royal family of Jordan.
The Hebrew or Jewish calendar (Ha-Luah ha-Ivri) is a lunisolar calendar used today predominantly for Jewish religious observances.
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (האוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים, Ha-Universita ha-Ivrit bi-Yerushalayim; الجامعة العبرية في القدس, Al-Jami'ah al-Ibriyyah fi al-Quds; abbreviated HUJI) is Israel's second oldest university, established in 1918, 30 years before the establishment of the State of Israel.
Hebron (الْخَلِيل; חֶבְרוֹן) is a Palestinian.
Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was Reichsführer of the Schutzstaffel (Protection Squadron; SS), and a leading member of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) of Germany.
The Hejaz (اَلْـحِـجَـاز,, literally "the Barrier"), is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia.
Henry Holt and Company is an American book publishing company based in New York City.
Sir Herbert Layard Dowbiggin (26 December 1880 – 24 May 1966) was the eighth British colonial Inspector General of Police of Ceylon from 1913 to 1937, the longest tenure of office of an Inspector General of Police (IGP).
Herbert Louis Samuel, 1st Viscount Samuel, (6 November 1870 – 5 February 1963) was a British Liberal politician who was the party leader from 1931 to 1935.
The High Commissioner for Palestine was the highest ranking authority representing the United Kingdom in the mandated territories of Palestine and Transjordan under the British Mandate for Palestine.
Histadrut or the General Organization of Workers in Israel originally (ההסתדרות הכללית של העובדים בארץ ישראל, HaHistadrut HaKlalit shel HaOvdim B'Eretz Yisrael) is Israel's national trade union centre, representing the majority of trade unionists in the State of Israel.
A homeland for the Jewish people is an idea rooted in Jewish culture and religion.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
I.B. Tauris (usually typeset as I.B.Tauris) was an independent publishing house with offices in London and New York City.
The Independence Party of Palestine (Hizb al-Istiqlal) was an Arab nationalist political party established on 13 August 1932 in Palestine during the British Mandate.
The Institute for Palestine Studies (IPS) is the oldest independent nonprofit public service research institute in the Arab world.
The International Court of Justice (abbreviated ICJ; commonly referred to as the World Court) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN).
In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end of the First World War in November 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Irgun (ארגון; full title:, lit. "The National Military Organization in the Land of Israel") was a Zionist paramilitary organization that operated in Mandate Palestine between 1931 and 1948.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The Israel Defense Forces (IDF; צְבָא הַהֲגָנָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, lit. "The Army of Defense for Israel"; جيش الدفاع الإسرائيلي), commonly known in Israel by the Hebrew acronym Tzahal, are the military forces of the State of Israel.
Israel's Secret Wars: A History of Israel's Intelligence Services (also known as Israel's Secret Wars: The Untold History of Israeli Intelligence) is a 1991 book written by Ian Black and Benny Morris about the history of the Israeli intelligence services from the period of the Yishuv to the end of the 1980s.
The Israeli Declaration of Independence,Hebrew: הכרזת העצמאות, Hakhrazat HaAtzma'ut/מגילת העצמאות Megilat HaAtzma'utArabic: وثيقة إعلان قيام دولة إسرائيل, Wathiqat 'iielan qiam dawlat 'iisrayiyl formally the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel (הכרזה על הקמת מדינת ישראל), was proclaimed on 14 May 1948 (5 Iyar 5708) by David Ben-Gurion, the Executive Head of the World Zionist OrganizationThen known as the Zionist Organization.
The Italian bombing of Mandatory Palestine in World War II was part of an effort by the Italian Royal Air Force (Regia Aeronautica) to strike at the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth of Nations throughout the Middle East during World War II.
The Italian Campaign of World War II consisted of the Allied operations in and around Italy, from 1943 to the end of the war in Europe.
Izz ad-Din Abd al-Qadar ibn Mustafa ibn Yusuf ibn Muhammad al-Qassam (1881 or 19 December 1882 – 20 November 1935) (عز الدين بن عبد القادر بن مصطفى بن يوسف بن محمد القسام / ALA-LC) was a Syrian Muslim preacher, and a leader in the local struggles against British and French Mandatory rule in the Levant, and a militant opponent of Zionism in the 1920s and 1930s.
Jaffa, in Hebrew Yafo, or in Arabic Yaffa (יפו,; يَافَا, also called Japho or Joppa), the southern and oldest part of Tel Aviv-Yafo, is an ancient port city in Israel.
Jaffa Road (רחוב יפו, Rehov Yaffo, شارع يافا) is one of the longest and oldest major streets in Jerusalem, Israel.
Jamal al-Husayni (1894-1982) (جمال الحُسيني) was born in Jerusalem and was a member of the highly influential and respected Husayni family.
Jenin (جنين) is a Palestinian city in the northern West Bank.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
The Jewish Agency for Israel (הסוכנות היהודית לארץ ישראל, HaSochnut HaYehudit L'Eretz Yisra'el) is the largest Jewish nonprofit organization in the world.
The Jewish Infantry Brigade Group, more commonly known as the Jewish Brigade Group or Jewish Brigade, was a military formation of the British Army composed of Jews from the Yishuv in Mandatory Palestine commanded by British-Jewish officers that served in Europe during World War II.
The Jewish insurgency in Mandatory Palestine involved paramilitary actions carried out by Jewish underground groups against the British forces and officials in Mandatory Palestine.
The Jewish National Council (JNC) (ועד לאומי, Va'ad Le'umi), also known as the Jewish People's Council was the main national executive institution of the Jewish community (Yishuv) within Mandatory Palestine.
The Jewish National Fund (קרן קיימת לישראל, Keren Kayemet LeYisrael previously הפונד הלאומי, Ha Fund HaLeumi) was founded in 1901 to buy and develop land in Ottoman Palestine (later the British Mandate for Palestine, and subsequently Israel and the Palestinian territories) for Jewish settlement.
The Jewish Resistance Movement (תנועת המרי העברי, Tnu'at HaMeri HaIvri, literally Hebrew Rebellion Movement), also called United Resistance Movement (URM), was an alliance of the Zionist paramilitary organizations Haganah, Irgun and Lehi in the British Mandate of Palestine.
The Jewish Settlement Police (JSP) (Mishteret Ha-Yishuvim Ha-Ivri'yim) were a division of the Notrim established in Mandatory Palestine in 1936, during the 1936-39 Arab revolt.
The Jewish Virtual Library ("JVL", formerly known as JSOURCE) is an online encyclopedia published by the American–Israeli Cooperative Enterprise (AICE).
The Jezreel Valley (עמק יזרעאל, translit. Emek Yizra'el), (Marj Ibn Āmir) is a large fertile plain and inland valley south of the Lower Galilee region in Israel.
Lieutenant-General Sir John Bagot Glubb, KCB, CMG, DSO, OBE, MC, KStJ, KPM (16 April 1897 – 17 March 1986), known as Glubb Pasha, was a British soldier, scholar and author, who led and trained Transjordan's Arab Legion between 1939 and 1956 as its commanding general.
The Jordanian annexation of the West Bank was the occupation and consequent annexation of the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) by Jordan (formerly Transjordan) in the aftermath of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War.
JSTOR (short for Journal Storage) is a digital library founded in 1995.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Kamil al-Husayni (كامل الحسيني, also Kamel al-Hussaini) (23 February 1867 – 31 March 1921) was a Sunni Muslim religious leader in Palestine.
The King David Hotel bombing was a terrorist attack carried out on Monday, July 22, 1946, by the militant right-wing Zionist underground organization the Irgun on the British administrative headquarters for Palestine, which was housed in the southern wing of the King David Hotel in Jerusalem.
Kiryat Shmuel (Hebrew: קריית שמואל) is a neighborhood in central Jerusalem, Israel founded in 1926.
The Land of Israel is the traditional Jewish name for an area of indefinite geographical extension in the Southern Levant.
Leadership is both a research area and a practical skill encompassing the ability of an individual or organization to "lead" or guide other individuals, teams, or entire organizations.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
A League of Nations mandate was a legal status for certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another following World War I, or the legal instruments that contained the internationally agreed-upon terms for administering the territory on behalf of the League of Nations.
Lehi (לח"י – לוחמי חרות ישראל Lohamei Herut Israel – Lehi, "Fighters for the Freedom of Israel – Lehi"), often known pejoratively as the Stern Gang,"This group was known to its friends as LEHI and to its enemies as the Stern Gang." Blumberg, Arnold.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
The Liberal Party (Hizb al-Ahrar) in Mandatory Palestine was established in 1930 by Hassan Sidqi al-Dajani and others.
During the 1936–39 Arab revolt in Palestine against the Mandatory Palestine, the militant Zionist group Irgun carried out 60 attacks against Palestinian people and the British Army.
The List of post offices in the British Mandate of Palestine refers to post offices operated in Palestine under allied British military control of the Occupied Enemy Territory Administration and, after 1920, the civil administration of the British Mandate of Palestine.
The London Conference (1939), or St James's Palace Conference, which took place between 7 February-17 March 1939, was called by the British Government to plan the future governance of Palestine and an end of the Mandate.
The Mandatory Palestine passport refers to the travel document that was intended for residents of Mandatory Palestine between 1925 and 1948.
Martinus Nijhoff Publishers was an independent academic publishing company dating back to the nineteenth century, which is now an imprint of Brill Publishers.
Mauritius (or; Maurice), officially the Republic of Mauritius (République de Maurice), is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about off the southeast coast of the African continent.
The McMahon–Hussein Correspondence was a series of letters exchanged during World War I in which the British government agreed to recognize Arab independence after the war in exchange for the Sharif of Mecca launching the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire.
Menachem Begin (Menaḥem Begin,; Menakhem Volfovich Begin; 16 August 1913 – 9 March 1992) was an Israeli politician, founder of Likud and the sixth Prime Minister of Israel.
Sir Michael Francis Joseph McDonnell (1882–1956) was Chief Justice of Palestine between 1927 and 1936.
In the Ottoman Empire, a millet was a separate court of law pertaining to "personal law" under which a confessional community (a group abiding by the laws of Muslim Sharia, Christian Canon law, or Jewish Halakha) was allowed to rule itself under its own laws.
The Morrison–Grady Plan, also known as the Morrison Plan or the Provincial Autonomy Plan was a joint Anglo-American plan for the creation of a unitary federal trusteeship in Mandatory Palestine, announced on 31 July 1946.
The Mossad LeAliyah Bet (המוסד לעלייה ב', lit. Institution for Immigration B) was a branch of the Haganah in the British Mandate of Palestine, and later the State of Israel that operated to facilitate Jewish immigration to British Palestine (later Israel).
Museum of Underground Prisoners is a museum in Jerusalem, Israel, commemorating the activity of the Jewish underground—Haganah, Irgun and Lehi—during the period leading up the establishment of the State of Israel.
In 1918, following the British defeat of the Ottoman army and their establishment of a Military Government in Palestine, a number of political clubs called Muslim-Christian Associations (Al-Jam'iah al-Islamiya al-Massihiya) were established in all the major towns.
Nablus (نابلس, שכם, Biblical Shechem ISO 259-3 Škem, Νεάπολις Νeapolis) is a city in the northern West Bank, approximately north of Jerusalem, (approximately by road), with a population of 126,132.
Nashashibi (خراعلى النشاشيبي.; transliteration, an-Nashāshībī) is the name of a prominent Palestinian family based in Jerusalem.
Nazareth (נָצְרַת, Natzrat; النَّاصِرَة, an-Nāṣira; ܢܨܪܬ, Naṣrath) is the capital and the largest city in the Northern District of Israel.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Nazism and race concerns the Nazi Party's adoption and further development of several hypotheses concerning their concept of race.
The Negev (הַנֶּגֶב, Tiberian vocalization:; النقب an-Naqab) is a desert and semidesert region of southern Israel.
Nicholas William Bethell, 4th Baron Bethell (19 July 1938 – 8 September 2007) was a British politician.
Nur-eldeen (Nur) Masalha (نور مصالحة; born 4 January 1957 in Galilee, Israel) is a Palestinian writer and academic.
The Occupied Enemy Territory Administration (OETA) was a joint British and French military administration over Levantine and Mesopotamian provinces of the former Ottoman Empire between 1918–20, set up following the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of World War I. The administration ended following the assignment of the French Mandate of Syria and Lebanon and British Mandate for Palestine at the 19–26 April 1920 San Remo conference.
Operation Atlas was the code name for an operation carried out by a special commando unit of the Waffen SS which took place in October 1944.
From 13–18 May 1948 Jewish forces from the Haganah and Irgun executed Operation Kilshon ("Pitchfork").
Orde Charles Wingate & Two Bars (26 February 1903 – 24 March 1944) was a senior British Army officer, known for his creation of the Chindit deep-penetration missions in Japanese-held territory during the Burma Campaign of World War II.
An Order in Council is a type of legislation in many countries, especially the Commonwealth realms.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Ottoman Syria refers to the parts of modern-day Syria or of Greater Syria which were subjected to Ottoman rule, anytime between the Ottoman conquests on the Mamluk Sultanate in the early 16th century and the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire in 1922.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Palestine (فلسطين,,; Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Palaestina; פלשתינה. Palestina) is a geographic region in Western Asia.
Palestine Airways (also: Palestine Air Transport) was an airline founded by Zionist Pinhas Rutenberg in British Palestine, in conjunction with the Histadrut and the Jewish Agency.
The Palestine Arab Congress was a series of congresses held by the Palestinian Arab population, organized by a nationwide network of local Muslim-Christian Associations, in the British Mandate of Palestine.
Palestine Command was a British military command in Mandatory Palestine and the Emirate of Transjordan.
The Palestine Jewish Colonization Association, commonly known by its Yiddish acronym PICA (פיק"א), was established in 1924 and played a major role in supporting the Yishuv in Mandatory Palestine and later the State of Israel until its disbandment in 1957.
The Palestine Police Force was a British colonial police service established in Mandatory Palestine on 1 July 1920,Sinclair, 2006.
The Palestine pound (جُنَيْه فِلَسْطَينِيّ, junyah filastini; פֿוּנְט פַּלֶשְׂתִינָאִי א"י)), funt palestina'i (eretz-yisra'eli), also לירה א"י)) lira eretz-yisra'elit) was the currency of the British Mandate of Palestine from 1927 to May 14, 1948, and of the State of Israel between May 15, 1948, and June 23, 1952, when it was replaced with the Israeli lira.
Legislative Council elections were held in Mandatory Palestine in February and March 1923.
The Palestinian people (الشعب الفلسطيني, ash-sha‘b al-Filasṭīnī), also referred to as Palestinians (الفلسطينيون, al-Filasṭīniyyūn, פָלַסְטִינִים) or Palestinian Arabs (العربي الفلسطيني, al-'arabi il-filastini), are an ethnonational group comprising the modern descendants of the peoples who have lived in Palestine over the centuries, including Jews and Samaritans, and who today are largely culturally and linguistically Arab.
The Palmach (Hebrew:, acronym for Plugot Maḥatz (Hebrew), lit. "strike forces") was the elite fighting force of the Haganah, the underground army of the Yishuv (Jewish community) during the period of the British Mandate for Palestine.
The Peel Commission, formally known as the Palestine Royal Commission, was a British Royal Commission of Inquiry, headed by Lord Peel, appointed in 1936 to investigate the causes of unrest in Mandatory Palestine, which was administered by Britain, following the six-month-long Arab general strike in Mandatory Palestine.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
Pinhas Rutenberg (5 February 1879 – 3 January 1942; Пётр Моисеевич Рутенберг, Pyotr Moiseyevich Rutenberg; פנחס רוטנברג) was a Russian Jewish engineer, businessman, and political activist.
Plan Dalet (תוכנית ד', Tokhnit dalet) was a plan worked out by the Haganah in Mandatory Palestine in March 1948.
Political Science Quarterly is an American double blind peer-reviewed academic journal covering government, politics, and policy, published since 1886 by the Academy of Political Science.
In biology or human geography, population growth is the increase in the number of individuals in a population.
The postage stamps and postal history of Palestine emerges from its geographic location as a crossroads amidst the empires of the ancient Near East, the Levant and the Middle East.
A qadi (قاضي; also cadi, kadi or kazi) is the magistrate or judge of the Shariʿa court, who also exercises extrajudicial functions, such as mediation, guardianship over orphans and minors, and supervision and auditing of public works.
Philip Quincy Wright (December 28, 1890 – October 17, 1970) was an American political scientist based at the University of Chicago known for his pioneering work and expertise in international law and international relations.
Raghib al-Nashashibi (راغب النشاشيبي) (1881–1951), CBE (hon), was a wealthy landowner and public figure during the Ottoman Empire, the British Mandate and the Jordanian administration.
Ramallah (رام الله) is a Palestinian city in the central West Bank located north of Jerusalem at an average elevation of above sea level, adjacent to al-Bireh. It currently serves as the de facto administrative capital of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA). Ramallah was historically an Arab Christian town. Today Muslims form the majority of the population of nearly 27,092 in 2007, with Christians making up a significant minority.
Ramat David Israeli Air Force Base (בָּסִיס חֵיל-הַאֲוִיר רָמַת דָּוִד Basis Kheil HaAvir Ramat David) is one of three principal airbases of the Israeli Air Force, located southeast of Haifa, close to kibbutz Ramat David and Megiddo in the Jezreel Valley.
Ramla (רַמְלָה, Ramla; الرملة, ar-Ramlah) (also Ramlah, Ramle, Remle and sometimes Rama) is a city in central Israel.
Rashid Ismail Khalidi (رشيد خالدي; born 1948) is a Palestinian American historian of the Middle East, the Edward Said Professor of Modern Arab Studies at Columbia University, and director of the Middle East Institute of Columbia's School of International and Public Affairs.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
The Russian Compound (מִגְרַשׁ הָרוּסִים, Migraš ha-Rusim, المسكوبية, al-Muskubīya) is one of the oldest districts in central Jerusalem, featuring a large Russian Orthodox church and several former pilgrim hostels, some of which are used as Israeli government buildings (such as the Moscovia Detention Centre) and for the Museum of Underground Prisoners.
Safed (צְפַת Tsfat, Ashkenazi: Tzfas, Biblical: Ṣ'fath; صفد, Ṣafad) is a city in the Northern District of Israel.
The San Remo conference was an international meeting of the post-World War I Allied Supreme Council as an outgrowth of the Paris Peace Conference, held at Villa Devachan in Sanremo, Italy, from 19 to 26 April 1920.
A schooner is a type of sailing vessel with fore-and-aft sails on two or more masts.
The Selvino children were a group of approximately 810 Jewish children orphaned by the Holocaust,Ahron Megged; Vivien Eden,, August 2001, Valentine Mitchell & Co Ltd, rescued after World War II from ghettos and concentration camps and housed in a former Fascist children's home called Sciesopoli in the Alpine town of Selvino, Italy.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
The Shchuka-class submarines (Щука), also referred to as Sh or Shch-class submarines, were a medium-sized class of Soviet submarines, built in large numbers and used during World War II.
The Sinai and Palestine Campaign of the Middle Eastern theatre of World War I was fought between the British Empire and the Ottoman Empire, supported by the German Empire.
Southern Syria (سوريا الجنوبية, Suriyya al-Janubiyya) is the southern part of the Syria region, roughly corresponding to the Southern Levant.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Special Night Squads (SNS) (Hebrew: Plugot Ha'Layla Ha'Meyukhadot, פלוגות הלילה המיוחדות) were a joint British-Jewish counter-insurgency unit, established by Captain Orde Wingate in Mandatory Palestine in 1938, during the 1936-1939 Arab revolt.
The spring 1945 offensive in Italy, codenamed Operation Grapeshot, was the final Allied attack during the Italian Campaign in the final stages of the Second World War.
The Struma disaster was the sinking on 24 February 1942 of a ship,, that had been trying to take nearly 800 Jewish refugees from Axis-allied Romania to Mandatory Palestine.
thumb The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez.
The State University of New York Press (or SUNY Press), is a university press and a Center for Scholarly Communication.
The Supreme Muslim Council (SMC) (in Arabic المجلس الإسلامي الاعلى) was the highest body in charge of Muslim community affairs in Mandatory Palestine under British control.
The Sykes–Picot Agreement, officially known as the Asia Minor Agreement, was a secret 1916 agreement between the United Kingdom and France, to which the Russian Empire assented.
Syria Palaestina was a Roman province between 135 AD and about 390.
Tarvisio (German and Tarvis, Trbiž) is a comune (town) in the Province of Udine, the northeastern part of the autonomous Friuli Venezia Giulia region in Italy.
The Technion – Israel Institute of Technology (הטכניון – מכון טכנולוגי לישראל Ha-Tekhniyon — Makhon Tekhnologi le-Yisrael) is a public research university in Haifa, Israel.
Tegart's Wall was a barbed wire fence erected in May-June 1938 by British Mandatory authorities in the Upper Galilee near the northern border of the territory in order to keep militants from infiltrating from French-controlled Mandatory Lebanon and Syria to join the 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine.
Tel Aviv (תֵּל אָבִיב,, تل أَبيب) is the second most populous city in Israel – after Jerusalem – and the most populous city in the conurbation of Gush Dan, Israel's largest metropolitan area.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
The Hunting Season or The Saison (הסזון, short for la saison de chasse) was the name given to the Haganah's attempt, as ordered by the official bodies of the pre-state Yishuv to suppress the Irgun's insurgency against the government of the British Mandate in Palestine, from November 1944 to February 1945.
The Sergeants affair (פרשת הסרג'נטים) was an incident that took place in Mandate Palestine in July 1947 during Jewish insurgency in Palestine, in which the Jewish underground group Irgun kidnapped two British Army Intelligence Corps NCOs, Sergeant Clifford Martin and Sergeant Mervyn Paice and threatened to hang them if the death sentences passed on three Irgun militants: Avshalom Haviv, Meir Nakar, and Yaakov Weiss, were carried out.
Sir Thomas Wagstaffe Haycraft (1859–1936) was successively the Chief Justice of Grenada and Palestine.
Tiberias (טְבֶרְיָה, Tverya,; طبرية, Ṭabariyyah) is an Israeli city on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee.
Tnuva, or Tenuvah, (תנובה, fruit or produce) was for its first seventy years an Israeli food processing cooperative (co-op) owned by the kibbutzim (collective farms) and moshavim (agricultural communities), and historically specializing in milk and dairy products; it was subsequently sold by its members as a limited company and, since 2014, has been controlled by a Chinese state company, Bright Food.
The Transjordan memorandum was a British memorandum passed by the Council of the League of Nations on 16 September 1922.
Transaction Publishers was a New Jersey–based publishing house that specialized in social science books.
The Treaty of Berlin (formally the Treaty between Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Russia, and the Ottoman Empire for the Settlement of Affairs in the East) was signed on July 13, 1878.
Tulkarm or Tulkarem (طولكرم, Ṭūlkarm) is a Palestinian city in the West Bank, located in the Tulkarm Governorate.
The United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine was a proposal by the United Nations, which recommended a partition of Mandatory Palestine at the end of the British Mandate. On 29 November 1947, the UN General Assembly adopted the Plan as Resolution 181 (II). The resolution recommended the creation of independent Arab and Jewish States and a Special International Regime for the city of Jerusalem. The Partition Plan, a four-part document attached to the resolution, provided for the termination of the Mandate, the progressive withdrawal of British armed forces and the delineation of boundaries between the two States and Jerusalem. Part I of the Plan stipulated that the Mandate would be terminated as soon as possible and the United Kingdom would withdraw no later than 1 August 1948. The new states would come into existence two months after the withdrawal, but no later than 1 October 1948. The Plan sought to address the conflicting objectives and claims of two competing movements, Palestinian nationalism and Jewish nationalism, or Zionism. Molinaro, Enrico The Holy Places of Jerusalem in Middle East Peace Agreements Page 78 The Plan also called for Economic Union between the proposed states, and for the protection of religious and minority rights. The Plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency for Palestine, despite its perceived limitations. Arab leaders and governments rejected it and indicated an unwillingness to accept any form of territorial division, arguing that it violated the principles of national self-determination in the UN Charter which granted people the right to decide their own destiny.Sami Hadawi, Olive Branch Press, (1989)1991 p.76. Immediately after adoption of the Resolution by the General Assembly, a civil war broke out and the plan was not implemented.
The United Nations Special Committee on Palestine (UNSCOP) was created on 15 May 1947 in response to a United Kingdom government request that the General Assembly "make recommendations under article 10 of the Charter, concerning the future government of Palestine".
The University of North Carolina Press (or UNC Press), founded in 1922, is a university press that is part of the University of North Carolina.
Uruguay, officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay (República Oriental del Uruguay), is a sovereign state in the southeastern region of South America.
Walter Edward Guinness, 1st Baron Moyne, DSO & Bar, PC (29 March 1880 – 6 November 1944) was an Anglo-Irish politician and businessman.
A waqf (وقف), also known as habous or mortmain property, is an inalienable charitable endowment under Islamic law, which typically involves donating a building, plot of land or other assets for Muslim religious or charitable purposes with no intention of reclaiming the assets.
The West Bank (الضفة الغربية; הגדה המערבית, HaGadah HaMa'aravit) is a landlocked territory near the Mediterranean coast of Western Asia, the bulk of it now under Israeli control, or else under joint Israeli-Palestinian Authority control.
The Western Wall, Wailing Wall, or Kotel, known in Arabic as Al-Buraq Wall, is an ancient limestone wall in the Old City of Jerusalem.
The White Paper of 1939Occasionally also known as the MacDonald White Paper (e.g. Caplan, 2015, p.117) after Malcolm MacDonald, the British Colonial Secretary who presided over its creation.
Sir William James Fitzgerald (May 1894 – July 1989) was a British and Irish jurist who served as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Palestine during the time of the British Mandate.
William George Arthur Ormsby-Gore, 4th Baron Harlech, (11 April 1885 – 14 February 1964) was a British Conservative politician and banker.
William Robert Wellesley Peel, 1st Earl Peel, (7 January 1867 – 28 September 1937), known as The Viscount Peel from 1912 to 1929, was a British politician.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The Zionist Congress was established in 1897 by Theodor Herzl as the supreme organ of the Zionist Organization (ZO) and its legislative authority.
Ya'bad (يعبد; יעבד) is a Palestinian town in the northern West Bank, 20 kilometers west of Jenin in the Jenin Governorate.
Yemenite Jews or Yemeni Jews or Teimanim (from Yehudey Teman; اليهود اليمنيون) are those Jews who live, or once lived, in Yemen.
Yibna (يبنى; Jabneh or Jabneel in Biblical times; Jamnia in Roman times; Ibelin to the Crusaders), was a Palestinian village with a population of 5,420 in 1948, located 15 kilometers southwest of Ramla.
Yigal Allon (יגאל אלון; 10 October 1918 – 29 February 1980) was an Israeli politician, a commander of the Palmach, and a general in the IDF.
The Yishuv (ישוב, literally "settlement") or Ha-Yishuv (the Yishuv, הישוב) or Ha-Yishuv Ha-Ivri (the Hebrew Yishuv, הישוב העברי) is the term referring to the body of Jewish residents in the land of Israel (corresponding to Ottoman Syria until 1917, OETA South 1917–1920 and later Mandatory Palestine 1920–1948) prior to the establishment of the State of Israel.
The Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA), often simply called the Y, is a worldwide organization based in Geneva, Switzerland, with more than 58 million beneficiaries from 125 national associations.
Yodh (also spelled yud, yod, jod, or jodh) is the tenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Yōd, Hebrew Yōd, Aramaic Yodh, Syriac Yōḏ ܚ, and Arabic ي (in abjadi order, 28th in modern order).
The Young Men's Muslim Association (جمعية الشبان المسلمين) (Jam'iyyat al-Shubban al-Muslimin) was founded in Egypt in 1926, two years before the founding of the Muslim Brotherhood.
Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija/Југославија; Jugoslavija; Југославија; Pannonian Rusyn: Югославия, transcr. Juhoslavija)Jugosllavia; Jugoszlávia; Juhoslávia; Iugoslavia; Jugoslávie; Iugoslavia; Yugoslavya; Югославия, transcr. Jugoslavija.
Zikhron Ya'akov (זִכְרוֹן יַעֲקֹב, lit. "Jacob's Memorial"; often shortened to just Zikhron; زخرون يعكوف) is a town in Israel, south of Haifa, and part of the Haifa District.
Zionism (צִיּוֹנוּת Tsiyyonut after Zion) is the national movement of the Jewish people that supports the re-establishment of a Jewish homeland in the territory defined as the historic Land of Israel (roughly corresponding to Canaan, the Holy Land, or the region of Palestine).
The Zionist Commission for Palestine was a group chaired by Chaim Weizmann, president of the British Zionist Federation following British promulgation of the pro-Zionist, Balfour Declaration of 1917.
The 1920 Nebi Musa riots or 1920 Jerusalem riots took place in British-controlled part of Occupied Enemy Territory Administration (which would shortly become Mandatory Palestine) between Sunday, 4 and Wednesday, 7 April 1920 in and around the Old City of Jerusalem.
The Jaffa riots (commonly known in Me'oraot Tarpa) was a series of violent riots in Mandatory Palestine on May 1–7, 1921, which began as a fight between two Jewish groups but developed into an attack by Arabs on Jews during which many were killed.
The 1922 census of Palestine was the first census carried out by the authorities of the British Mandate of Palestine, on 23 October 1922.
The Hebron massacre refers to the killing of sixty-seven or sixty-nine Jews on 24 August 1929 in Hebron, then part of Mandatory Palestine, by Arabs incited to violence by rumors that Jews were planning to seize control of the Temple Mount in Jerusalem.
The 1929 Arab riots in Palestine, or the Buraq Uprising (ثورة البراق), also known as the 1929 Massacres, (מאורעות תרפ"ט,, lit. Events of 5689 Anno Mundi) refers to a series of demonstrations and riots in late August 1929 when a long-running dispute between Muslims and Jews over access to the Western Wall in Jerusalem escalated into violence.
1931 census of Palestine was the second census carried out by the authorities of the British Mandate for Palestine.
The 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine, later came to be known as "The Great Revolt", was a nationalist uprising by Palestinian Arabs in Mandatory Palestine against the British administration of the Palestine Mandate, demanding Arab independence and the end of the policy of open-ended Jewish immigration and land purchases with the stated goal of establishing a "Jewish National Home". The dissent was directly influenced by the Qassamite rebellion, following the killing of Sheikh Izz ad-Din al-Qassam in 1935, as well as the declaration by Hajj Amin al-Husseini of 16 May 1936 as 'Palestine Day' and calling for a General Strike. The revolt was branded by many in the Jewish Yishuv as "immoral and terroristic", often comparing it to fascism and nazism. Ben Gurion however described Arab causes as fear of growing Jewish economic power, opposition to mass Jewish immigration and fear of the English identification with Zionism.Morris, 1999, p. 136. The general strike lasted from April to October 1936, initiating the violent revolt. The revolt consisted of two distinct phases.Norris, 2008, pp. 25, 45. The first phase was directed primarily by the urban and elitist Higher Arab Committee (HAC) and was focused mainly on strikes and other forms of political protest. By October 1936, this phase had been defeated by the British civil administration using a combination of political concessions, international diplomacy (involving the rulers of Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Transjordan and Yemen) and the threat of martial law. The second phase, which began late in 1937, was a violent and peasant-led resistance movement provoked by British repression in 1936 that increasingly targeted British forces. During this phase, the rebellion was brutally suppressed by the British Army and the Palestine Police Force using repressive measures that were intended to intimidate the Arab population and undermine popular support for the revolt. During this phase, a more dominant role on the Arab side was taken by the Nashashibi clan, whose NDP party quickly withdrew from the rebel Arab Higher Committee, led by the radical faction of Amin al-Husseini, and instead sided with the British – dispatching "Fasail al-Salam" (the "Peace Bands") in coordination with the British Army against nationalist and Jihadist Arab "Fasail" units (literally "bands"). According to official British figures covering the whole revolt, the army and police killed more than 2,000 Arabs in combat, 108 were hanged, and 961 died because of what they described as "gang and terrorist activities". In an analysis of the British statistics, Walid Khalidi estimates 19,792 casualties for the Arabs, with 5,032 dead: 3,832 killed by the British and 1,200 dead because of "terrorism", and 14,760 wounded. Over ten percent of the adult male Palestinian Arab population between 20 and 60 was killed, wounded, imprisoned or exiled. Estimates of the number of Palestinian Jews killed range from 91 to several hundred.Morris, 1999, p. 160. The Arab revolt in Mandatory Palestine was unsuccessful, and its consequences affected the outcome of the 1948 Palestine war.Morris, 1999, p. 159. It caused the British Mandate to give crucial support to pre-state Zionist militias like the Haganah, whereas on the Palestinian Arab side, the revolt forced the flight into exile of the main Palestinian Arab leader of the period, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem – Haj Amin al-Husseini.
The 1937 Ben-Gurion letter is a letter written by David Ben-Gurion, then head of the executive committee of the Jewish Agency, to his son Amos on 5 October 1937.
The 1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine was the first phase of the 1948 Palestine war.
The 1948 Arab–Israeli War, or the First Arab–Israeli War, was fought between the State of Israel and a military coalition of Arab states over the control of Palestine, forming the second stage of the 1948 Palestine war.
The 1948 Palestinian exodus, also known as the Nakba (النكبة, al-Nakbah, literally "disaster", "catastrophe", or "cataclysm"), occurred when more than 700,000 Palestinian Arabs fled or were expelled from their homes, during the 1948 Palestine war.
The 200 days of dread (Hebrew: מאתיים ימי חרדה) was a period of 200 days in the history of the Yishuv, from the spring of 1942 to November 3, 1942, when the German Afrika Korps under the command of General Erwin Rommel was heading east toward the Suez Canal and Palestine.