537 relations: Air Force Materiel Command, Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion, Alabama Army Ammunition Plant, Albert Einstein, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Alcoa, Allied invasion of Italy, Allis-Chalmers, Allotropes of plutonium, Alpha particle, Alsos Mission, Alvin M. Weinberg, Ames Laboratory, Ames process, Ames Project, Ames, Iowa, Anderson County, Tennessee, Arc welding, Argonne National Laboratory, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project, Army Specialized Training Program, Army-Navy "E" Award, Arthur Compton, Atomic Age, Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Atomic Energy Act of 1946, Atomic Heritage Foundation, Atomic spies, Attack on Pearl Harbor, Autocatalysis, Avro Lancaster, B Reactor, Babcock & Wilcox, Bakelite, Baratol, Baruch Plan, Belgian Congo, Belgian government in exile, Bell Labs, Bennett Lewis, Berkeley, California, Big Science, Bikini Atoll, Bisingen, Bismuth phosphate process, Bleacher, Bockscar, Boeing B-29 Superfortress, Bomb bay, Boris Pash, ..., Brehon B. Somervell, Brigadier general (United States), British Defence Staff – US, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, C. D. Howe, Calutron, Captain (United States O-6), Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker, Carnegie Institution for Science, Catalysis, Chalk River Laboratories, Chapman–Enskog theory, Charles Allen Thomas, Charles Sweeney, Chemical Corps, Chester W. Nimitz, Chicago Pile-1, Chicago Pile-3, Chief of Naval Operations, Chief of Staff of the United States Army, Chien-Shiung Wu, Childersburg, Alabama, Christopher Columbus, Chromium(III) oxide, Claude R. Wickard, Cleveland, Clinton Engineer Works, Colonel (United States), Columbia River, Columbia University, Combined Development Agency, Communism, Composition B, Control rod, Cost-plus contract, Counterintelligence Corps, Crawford Greenewalt, Critical mass, Curie, Cyclotron, Dana, Indiana, Daniel W. Bell, David Enskog, David Greenglass, David Hawkins (philosopher), Dayton Project, Debate over the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Deep River, Ontario, Demon core, Detonator, Deuterium, Donald J. Hughes, Donald M. Nelson, Douglas C-54 Skymaster, DuPont, Duralumin, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Eastman Chemical Company, Edgar Sengier, Edward Teller, Edward Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax, Edwards Air Force Base, Edwin McMillan, Effusion, Eger V. Murphree, Einstein–Szilárd letter, El Paso, Texas, Eldorado Mine (Northwest Territories), Eldorado Mining and Refining, Elza, Tennessee, Emil Konopinski, Emilio Segrè, Eminent domain, Enola Gay, Enriched uranium, Enrico Fermi, Ernest Lawrence, Ernest Titterton, Esso, Ether, Eugene Reybold, Eugene Wigner, European theatre of World War II, Experimental physics, Exploding-bridgewire detonator, Explosive lens, Fascism, Fat Man, Felix Bloch, Fire balloon, Fissile material, Fizzle (nuclear explosion), Fluid dynamics, Fluoride selective electrode, Forest Preserve District of Cook County, Franck Report, Franco Rasetti, Frank Oppenheimer, Frank Spedding, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Franklin Matthias, Frédéric Joliot-Curie, Frederick Ashworth, Frisch–Peierls memorandum, Fritz Strassmann, Gamma ray, Garrison Petawawa, Gas centrifuge, Gaseous diffusion, Geiger counter, General (United States), General Electric, George B. Pegram, George Kistiakowsky, George Koval, George L. Harrison, George Marshall, George Veazey Strong, George Washington University, Georgy Flyorov, German nuclear weapon project, Glenn T. Seaborg, Godmanchester, Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Governor of Tennessee, Graham's law, Graphite, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Gregory Breit, Guam, Gun-type fission weapon, Haakon Chevalier, Haigerloch, Half-life, Hanford Site, Hanford, Washington, Hans Bethe, Hans von Halban, Harold Urey, Harry Gold, Harry S Truman Building, Harry S. Truman, Harry S. Truman Presidential Library and Museum, Harvey Hollister Bundy, Heavy water, Hechingen, Henry A. Wallace, Henry DeWolf Smyth, Henry H. Arnold, Henry L. Stimson, Henry Maitland Wilson, Henry Morgenthau Jr., High Explosive Research, Hillbilly, Hiroshima, Holloman Air Force Base, Hot pressing, Hyman G. Rickover, Interim Committee, International Security (journal), Iodine-131, Ionization chamber, Iowa State University, Isidor Isaac Rabi, Isotope, Isotope separation, Isotopes of lanthanum, Isotopes of neptunium, Isotopes of uranium, J. Robert Oppenheimer, James Bryant Conant, James C. Marshall, James Chadwick, James F. Byrnes, Japanese nuclear weapon program, Jáchymov, Jean Tatlock, Jemez Springs, New Mexico, Jerrold R. Zacharias, Jesse Beams, Joan Hinton, John Anderson, 1st Viscount Waverley, John Archibald Wheeler, John Cockcroft, John Dill, John Gilbert Winant, John Hasbrouck Van Vleck, John Henry Manley, John Llewellin, 1st Baron Llewellin, John R. Dunning, John von Neumann, Joseph Stalin, Josephine Herrick, Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, Karl P. Cohen, KBR (company), Kenneth Bainbridge, Kenneth Nichols, Kilogram, Kirtland Air Force Base, Klaus Clusius, Klaus Fuchs, Knoxville, Tennessee, Kokura, Kurt Diebner, Kyoto, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Legion of Merit, Leo Szilard, Leona Woods, Leslie Groves, Lieutenant colonel (United States), Life (magazine), Liquid–liquid extraction, Lise Meitner, List of United States Army Corps of Engineers Chiefs of Engineers, Little Boy, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos Ranch School, Lucius D. Clay, Luis Walter Alvarez, Lyman James Briggs, Major general (United States), Mallinckrodt, Manhattan, Manhattan Project National Historical Park, Mark Oliphant, Mass spectrometry, MAUD Committee, McDonald Ranch House, Medal for Merit, Medical Corps (United States Army), Metallurgical Laboratory, Modulated neutron initiator, Molecular mass, Monsanto, Monticello, Utah, Montreal Laboratory, Morgantown, West Virginia, Mushroom cloud, Nagasaki, National Academy of Sciences, National Defense Research Committee, National Institute of Standards and Technology, National Research Council (Canada), National Safety Council, Natural nuclear fission reactor, Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake, Nazi Germany, Neutron, Neutron moderator, Neutron poison, Neutron temperature, Nevada, New York Life Insurance Company, Newport Chemical Depot, Newport, Indiana, Niels Bohr, Niigata, Niigata, Nitric acid, Nobel Prize, Normandy landings, Norris Bradbury, Norris Dam, North Atlantic Division, North Field (Tinian), Norwegian heavy water sabotage, NRX, Nuclear arms race, Nuclear chain reaction, Nuclear cross section, Nuclear fallout, Nuclear fission, Nuclear fission product, Nuclear fusion, Nuclear graphite, Nuclear medicine, Nuclear navy, Nuclear reactor, Nuclear reprocessing, Nuclear transmutation, Nuclear weapon, Nuclear weapon design, Nuclear weapons testing, Nuclear-powered aircraft, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Occupation of Japan, Office of Censorship, Office of Naval Intelligence, Office of Scientific Research and Development, Oliver P. Echols, Operation Crossroads, Operation Epsilon, Operation Harborage, Operation Overlord, Operation Peppermint, Oranienburg, Order of magnitude, Ordnance Corps (United States Army), Otto Hahn, Otto Robert Frisch, Oxidation state, Oxnard Field, P-9 Project, Paul Tibbets, Pearl S. Buck, Phelps Dodge, Philip Abelson, Phosphorus-32, Pickling (metal), Pilot plant, Pit (nuclear weapon), Plutonium, Plutonium-239, Plutonium–gallium alloy, Port Radium, Potsdam Conference, Potsdam Declaration, Prentice Cooper, President of the United States, Pressure vessel, Princeton University, Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Project Alberta, Project Camel, Project Y, Pumpkin bomb, Quebec Agreement, Radiology, Radionuclide, RaLa Experiment, Ralph Austin Bard, Raytheon, Rear admiral (United States), Red Gate Woods, Redox, Richard C. Tolman, Richland, Washington, Roane County, Tennessee, Robert Bacher, Robert P. Patterson, Robert Serber, Rochester, New York, Ronald Ian Campbell, Roscoe Charles Wilson, Rudolf Peierls, S-1 Executive Committee, Sacrificial metal, San Antonio de los Baños Airfield, Sandia Base, Sandia National Laboratories, Sangre de Cristo Mountains, Santa Fe, New Mexico, Sapienza University of Rome, Second General Army (Japan), Seth Neddermeyer, Shaped charge, Shinkolobwe, Shock wave, Short ton, Silumin, Silverplate, Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, Slag, Smyth Report, Soviet atomic bomb project, Soviet occupation zone, Soviet Union, Soviet–Japanese War, Special Engineer Detachment, Spheroid, Staßfurt, Stafford L. Warren, Stagg Field, Stan Frankel, Stanislaw Ulam, Staten Island, Stone & Webster, Sydney Chapman (mathematician), Sylacauga, Alabama, Szilárd petition, Teck Resources, Tennessee Valley Authority, The Making of the Atomic Bomb, The New York Times, The Saturday Evening Post, Theodore Hall, Thermonuclear weapon, Thermophoresis, Thin Man (nuclear bomb), Thomas Farrell (general), Tinian, Tizard Mission, TNT, TNT equivalent, Tower 270, Trail, British Columbia, Trinitite, Trinity (nuclear test), Tritium, Troy weight, Tube Alloys, Tucson, Arizona, Turner Construction, Union Carbide, Union Minière du Haut Katanga, United Nations Atomic Energy Commission, United States Army Air Forces, United States Army Corps of Engineers, United States Army Services of Supply, United States Atomic Energy Commission, United States Congress, United States declaration of war on Japan, United States declaration of war upon Germany (1941), United States Department of Energy, United States Department of Energy national laboratories, United States Department of State, United States Department of War, United States Deputy Secretary of the Treasury, United States Forest Service, United States Marshals Service, United States Naval Research Laboratory, United States Secretary of Agriculture, United States Secretary of State, United States Secretary of War, United States Under Secretary of War, University of Birmingham, University of California Press, University of California, Berkeley, University of Chicago, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, University of Rochester Medical Center, University of Virginia, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Upton, New York, Urakami, Uranium, Uranium dioxide, Uranium hexafluoride, Uranium mining in Colorado, Uranium ore, Uranium oxide, Uranium trioxide, Uranium-235, Uranium-238, Uranyl nitrate, Uravan, Colorado, Vannevar Bush, Walter Bedell Smith, Walter Gerlach, Walter S. Carpenter Jr., Wanapum, War Manpower Commission, War Production Board, Warren K. Lewis, Washington and Lee University, Washington, D.C., Wendover Air Force Base, Werner Heisenberg, West Point Mint, Western Allied invasion of Germany, Western Defense Command, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Westinghouse Lamp Plant, White Bluffs, Washington, White Sands Missile Range, WIFO (Nazi company), Wigner effect, Wilhelm D. Styer, Willard C. Kruger, William L. Clayton, William L. Laurence, William R. Purnell, William Sterling Parsons, Winston Churchill, Women's Army Corps, World War II, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, X-10 Graphite Reactor, Xenon-135, Y-12 National Security Complex, ZEEP, 393d Bomb Squadron, 509th Composite Group, 5th Division (Imperial Japanese Army). Expand index (487 more) » « Shrink index
Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC) is a major command of the United States Air Force (USAF).
The Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion (ANP) program and the preceding Nuclear Energy for the Propulsion of Aircraft (NEPA) project worked to develop a nuclear propulsion system for aircraft.
The Alabama Army Ammunition Plant (ALAAP), was a United States munitions plant built and operated during World War II.
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
Albuquerque (Beeʼeldííl Dahsinil; Arawageeki; Vakêêke; Gołgéeki) is the most populous city in the U.S. state of New Mexico.
Alcoa Corporation (from Aluminum Company of America) is an American industrial corporation.
The Allied invasion of Italy was the Allied amphibious landing on mainland Italy that took place on 3 September 1943 during the early stages of the Italian Campaign of World War II.
Allis-Chalmers was a U.S. manufacturer of machinery for various industries.
Plutonium occurs in a variety of allotropes, even at ambient pressure.
Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium-4 nucleus.
The Alsos Mission was an organized effort by a team of United States military, scientific, and intelligence personnel to discover enemy scientific developments during World War II.
Alvin Martin Weinberg (April 20, 1915 – October 18, 2006) was an American nuclear physicist who was the administrator at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during and after the Manhattan Project.
Ames Laboratory is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory located in Ames, Iowa and affiliated with Iowa State University.
The Ames process is a process by which pure uranium metal is obtained.
The Ames Project was a research and development project that was part of the larger Manhattan Project to build the first atomic bombs during World War II.
Ames is a city located in the central part of Story County, Iowa, United States.
Anderson County is a county located in the U.S. state of Tennessee.
Arc welding is a process that is used to join metal to metal by using electricity to create enough heat to melt metal, and the melted metals when cool result in a binding of the metals.
Argonne National Laboratory is a science and engineering research national laboratory operated by the University of Chicago Argonne LLC for the United States Department of Energy located near Lemont, Illinois, outside Chicago.
The Armed Forces Special Weapons Project (AFSWP) was a United States military agency responsible for those aspects of nuclear weapons remaining under military control after the Manhattan Project was succeeded by the Atomic Energy Commission on 1 January 1947.
The Army Specialized Training Program (ASTP) was a military training program instituted by the United States Army during World War II to meet wartime demands both for junior officers and soldiers with technical skills.
The Army-Navy "E" Award was an honor presented to companies during World War II whose production facilities achieved "Excellence in Production" ("E") of war equipment.
Arthur Holly Compton (September 10, 1892 – March 15, 1962) was an American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1927 for his 1923 discovery of the Compton effect, which demonstrated the particle nature of electromagnetic radiation.
The Atomic Age, also known as the Atomic Era, is the period of history following the detonation of the first nuclear ("atomic") bomb, Trinity, on July 16, 1945, during World War II.
During the final stage of World War II, the United States detonated two nuclear weapons over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1945, respectively.
The Atomic Energy Act of 1946 (McMahon Act) determined how the United States would control and manage the nuclear technology it had jointly developed with its World War II allies, the United Kingdom and Canada.
The Atomic Heritage Foundation (AHF) is a nonprofit organization in Washington, DC, dedicated to the preservation and interpretation of the Manhattan Project and the Atomic Age and its legacy.
"Atomic spies" or "atom spies" were people in the United States, Great Britain, and Canada who are known to have illicitly given information about nuclear weapons production or design to the Soviet Union during World War II and the early Cold War.
The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Territory, on the morning of December 7, 1941.
A single chemical reaction is said to be autocatalytic if one of the reaction products is also a catalyst for the same or a coupled reaction.
The Avro Lancaster is a British four-engined Second World War heavy bomber.
The B Reactor at the Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington, was the first large-scale nuclear reactor ever built.
Babcock & Wilcox Enterprises, originally Babcock, Wilcox & Company and then The Babcock & Wilcox Company, is an American power generation company headquartered in Charlotte, North Carolina.
Bakelite (sometimes spelled Baekelite), or polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride, is the first plastic made from synthetic components.
Baratol is an explosive made of a mixture of TNT and barium nitrate, with a small quantity (about 1%) of paraffin wax used as a phlegmatizing agent.
The Baruch Plan was a proposal by the United States government, written largely by Bernard Baruch but based on the Acheson–Lilienthal Report, to the United Nations Atomic Energy Commission (UNAEC) during its first meeting in June 1946.
The Belgian Congo (Congo Belge,; Belgisch-Congo) was a Belgian colony in Central Africa between 1908 and 1960 in what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).
The Belgian government in London (Gouvernement belge à Londres, Belgische regering in Londen), also known as the Pierlot IV Government, was the government in exile of Belgium between October 1940 and September 1944 during World War II.
Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named AT&T Bell Laboratories, Bell Telephone Laboratories and Bell Labs) is an American research and scientific development company, owned by Finnish company Nokia.
Wilfrid Bennett Lewis, (June 24, 1908 – January 10, 1987) was a Canadian nuclear scientist and administrator, and was centrally involved in the development of the CANDU reactor.
Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern Alameda County, California.
Big science is a term used by scientists and historians of science to describe a series of changes in science which occurred in industrial nations during and after World War II, as scientific progress increasingly came to rely on large-scale projects usually funded by national governments or groups of governments.
Bikini Atoll (pronounced or; Marshallese: 'Pikinni',, meaning "coconut place") is an atoll in the Marshall Islands which consists of 23 islands totalling surrounding a central lagoon.
Bisingen is a municipality in the Zollernalbkreis district, in Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
The bismuth-phosphate process was used to extract plutonium from irradiated uranium taken from nuclear reactors.
In the United States, bleachers or stands are raised, tiered rows of benches found at sports fields and other spectator events.
Bockscar, sometimes called Bock's Car, is the name of the United States Army Air Forces B-29 bomber that dropped a Fat Man nuclear weapon over the Japanese city of Nagasaki during World War II in the second – and last – nuclear attack in history.
The Boeing B-29 Superfortress is a four-engine propeller-driven heavy bomber designed by Boeing, which was flown primarily by the United States during World War II and the Korean War.
The bomb bay or weapons bay on some military aircraft is a compartment to carry bombs, usually in the aircraft's fuselage, with "bomb bay doors" which open at the bottom.
Boris Theodore Pash (born Boris Fedorovich Pashkovsky; Russian: Борис Фёдорович Пашковский) 20 June 1900 – 11 May 1995) was a United States Army military intelligence officer. He commanded the Alsos Mission during World War II and retired with the rank of colonel.
Brehon Burke Somervell (9 May 1892 – 13 February 1955) was a general in the United States Army and Commanding General of the Army Service Forces in World War II.
In the United States Armed Forces, brigadier general (BG, BGen, or Brig Gen) is a one-star general officer with the pay grade of O-7 in the U.S. Army, U.S. Marine Corps, and U.S. Air Force.
The British Defence Staff – US, which was previously known as British Joint Staff Mission and British Defence Staff (Washington), is the home of the Ministry of Defence in the United States of America and its purpose is to serve the interests of Her Majesty's Government in the USA.
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory located in Upton, New York, on Long Island, and was formally established in 1947 at the site of Camp Upton, a former U.S. Army base.
The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists is a nontechnical academic journal, published by Taylor and Francis that covers global security and public policy issues related to the dangers posed by nuclear threats, weapons of mass destruction, climate change, and emerging technologies and biological hazards.
Clarence Decatur "C.
A calutron is a mass spectrometer originally designed and used for separating the isotopes of uranium.
In the United States Navy, United States Coast Guard, United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps (USPHS), and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Officer Corps (NOAA Corps), captain is the senior-most commissioned officer rank below that of flag officer (i.e., admirals).
Carl Friedrich Freiherr von Weizsäcker (28 June 1912 – 28 April 2007) was a German physicist and philosopher.
The Carnegie Institution of Washington (the organization's legal name), known also for public purposes as the Carnegie Institution for Science (CIS), is an organization in the United States established to fund and perform scientific research.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
Chalk River Laboratories (Laboratoires de Chalk River; also known as CRL, Chalk River Labs and formerly Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories) is a Canadian nuclear research facility in Deep River, Renfrew County, Ontario, near Chalk River, about north-west of Ottawa.
Chapman–Enskog theory presents equations for dynamics of a multicomponent gas mixture in states close to local equilibrium.
Charles Allen Thomas (February 15, 1900 – March 29, 1982) was a noted American chemist and businessman, and an important figure in the Manhattan Project.
Major General Charles W. Sweeney (December 27, 1919 – July 16, 2004) was an officer in the United States Army Air Forces during World War II and the pilot who flew Bockscar carrying the Fat Man atomic bomb to the Japanese city of Nagasaki on August 9, 1945.
The Chemical Corps is the branch of the United States Army tasked with defending against chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) weapons.
Chester William Nimitz, Sr. (February 24, 1885February 20, 1966) was a fleet admiral of the United States Navy.
Chicago Pile-1 (CP-1) was the world's first nuclear reactor.
Chicago Pile-3 (CP-3) was the first heavy water reactor in the world, going critical on 15 May 1944.
The Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) is the most senior officer in the United States Navy.
The Chief of Staff of the Army (CSA) is a statutory office held by a four-star general in the United States Army.
Chien-Shiung Wu (May 31, 1912 – February 16, 1997) was a Chinese-American experimental physicist who made significant contributions in the field of nuclear physics.
Childersburg is a city in Talladega County in the U.S. state of Alabama.
Christopher Columbus (before 31 October 145120 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer.
Chromium(III) oxide (or chromia) is the inorganic compound of the formula.
Claude Raymond Wickard (February 28, 1893 – April 29, 1967) was a Democratic politician who served as the Secretary of Agriculture during the administrations of Presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman from 1940 to 1945.
Cleveland is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio, and the county seat of Cuyahoga County.
The Clinton Engineer Works (CEW) was the production installation of the Manhattan Project that during World War II produced the enriched uranium used in the 1945 bombing of Hiroshima, as well as the first examples of reactor-produced plutonium.
In the United States Army, Marine Corps, and Air Force, colonel is the most senior field grade military officer rank, immediately above the rank of lieutenant colonel and immediately below the rank of brigadier general.
The Columbia River is the largest river in the Pacific Northwest region of North America.
Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.
The Combined Development Agency (CDA), originally the Combined Development Trust (CDT), was a defense purchasing authority established in 1944 by the governments of the United States and the United Kingdom.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
Composition B, colloquially "Comp B", is an explosive consisting of castable mixtures of RDX and TNT.
Control rods are used in nuclear reactors to control the fission rate of uranium and plutonium.
A cost-plus contract, also termed a cost reimbursement contract, is a contract where a contractor is paid for all of its allowed expenses, plus additional payment to allow for a profit.
The United States Army Counter Intelligence Corps (Army CIC) was a World War II and early Cold War intelligence agency within the United States Army consisting of highly trained Special Agents.
Crawford Hallock Greenewalt (August 16, 1902 – September 28, 1993) was an American chemical engineer who served as president of the DuPont Company from 1948 to 1962 and as board chairman from 1962 to 1967.
A critical mass is the smallest amount of fissile material needed for a sustained nuclear chain reaction.
The curie (symbol Ci) is a non-SI unit of radioactivity originally defined in 1910.
A cyclotron is a type of particle accelerator invented by Ernest O. Lawrence in 1929-1930 at the University of California, Berkeley, and patented in 1932.
Dana is a town in Helt Township, Vermillion County, Indiana, United States.
Daniel Wafena Bell (July 23, 1891 – October 4, 1971) was an American civil servant and businessman.
David Enskog (April 22, 1884, Västra Ämtervik, Sunne – June 1, 1947, Stockholm) was a Swedish mathematical physicist.
David Greenglass (March 2, 1922 – July 1, 2014) was an atomic spy for the Soviet Union who worked on the Manhattan Project.
David Hawkins (February 28, 1913 – February 24, 2002) was a professor whose interests included the philosophy of science, mathematics, economics, childhood science education, and ethics.
The Dayton Project was a research and development project to produce polonium during World War II, as part of the larger Manhattan Project to build the first atomic bombs.
The debate over the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki concerns the ethical, legal, and military controversies surrounding the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 August and 9 August 1945 at the close of World War II (1939–45).
Deep River is a town in Renfrew County, Ontario, Canada.
The demon core was a subcritical mass of plutonium measuring in diameter, which was involved in two criticality accidents.
A detonator, frequently a blasting cap, is a device used to trigger an explosive device.
Deuterium (or hydrogen-2, symbol or, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen (the other being protium, or hydrogen-1).
Donald J. Hughes (April 2, 1915 – April 12, 1960) was an American nuclear physicist, chiefly notable as one of the signers of the Franck Report in June, 1945, recommending that the United States not use the atomic bomb as a weapon to prompt the surrender of Japan in World War II.
Donald Marr Nelson (1888–1959) was an American business executive and public servant, serving as the executive vice president of Sears Roebuck before accepting the position of director of priorities of the United States Office of Production Management (1941–1942).
The Douglas C-54 Skymaster is a four-engined transport aircraft used by the United States Army Air Forces in World War II and the Korean War.
Duralumin (also called duraluminum, duraluminium, duralum, dural(l)ium, or dural) is a trade name for one of the earliest types of age-hardenable aluminium alloys.
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.
Eastman Chemical Company, an American Fortune 500 company, is a global specialty chemical company that produces a broad range of advanced materials, chemicals and fibers for everyday purposes.
Edgar Edouard Bernard Sengier (9 October 1879 – 26 July 1963) was a Belgian businessman and director of the Union Minière du Haut Katanga (UMHK) mining company that operated in Belgian Congo during World War II.
Edward Teller (Teller Ede; January 15, 1908 – September 9, 2003) was a Hungarian-American theoretical physicist who is known colloquially as "the father of the hydrogen bomb", although he claimed he did not care for the title.
Edward Frederick Lindley Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax, (16 April 1881 – 23 December 1959), styled Lord Irwin from 1925 until 1934 and Viscount Halifax from 1934 until 1944, was one of the most senior British Conservative politicians of the 1930s.
Edwards Air Force Base (AFB) is a United States Air Force installation located in Kern County in southern California, about northeast of Lancaster and east of Rosamond.
Edwin Mattison McMillan (September 18, 1907 – September 7, 1991) was an American physicist and Nobel laureate credited with being the first-ever to produce a transuranium element, neptunium.
In physics and chemistry, effusion is the process in which a gas escapes through a hole of diameter considerably smaller than the mean free path of the molecules.
Eger Vaughan Murphree (November 3, 1898 – October 29, 1962) was an American chemist, best known for his co-invention of the process of fluid catalytic cracking.
The Einstein–Szilárd letter was a letter written by Leó Szilárd and signed by Albert Einstein that was sent to the United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt on August 2, 1939.
El Paso (from Spanish, "the pass") is a city in and the seat of El Paso County, Texas, United States.
Eldorado Mine is located at Port Radium, Northwest Territories, Canada.
The Eldorado Mining and Refining Limited company was originally organized in 1927 as Eldorado Gold Mines Limited to develop a gold mine in Manitoba.
Elza was a community in Anderson County, Tennessee, that existed before 1942, when the area was acquired for the Manhattan Project.
Emil John (Jan) Konopinski (December 25, 1911 in Michigan City, Indiana – May 26, 1990 in Bloomington, Indiana) was an American nuclear scientist, New York Times of Polish origin.
Emilio Gino Segrè (1 February 1905 – 22 April 1989) was an Italian-American physicist and Nobel laureate, who discovered the elements technetium and astatine, and the antiproton, a subatomic antiparticle, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1959.
Eminent domain (United States, Philippines), land acquisition (Singapore), compulsory purchase (United Kingdom, New Zealand, Ireland), resumption (Hong Kong, Uganda), resumption/compulsory acquisition (Australia), or expropriation (France, Italy, Mexico, South Africa, Canada, Brazil, Portugal, Spain, Chile, Denmark, Sweden) is the power of a state, provincial, or national government to take private property for public use.
The Enola Gay is a Boeing B-29 Superfortress bomber, named after Enola Gay Tibbets, the mother of the pilot, Colonel Paul Tibbets, who selected the aircraft while it was still on the assembly line.
Enriched uranium is a type of uranium in which the percent composition of uranium-235 has been increased through the process of isotope separation.
Enrico Fermi (29 September 1901 – 28 November 1954) was an Italian-American physicist and the creator of the world's first nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1.
Ernest Orlando Lawrence (August 8, 1901 – August 27, 1958) was a pioneering American nuclear scientist and winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1939 for his invention of the cyclotron.
Sir Ernest William Titterton (4 March 1916 – 8 February 1990) was a British nuclear physicist.
Esso is a trading name for ExxonMobil and its related companies.
Ethers are a class of organic compounds that contain an ether group—an oxygen atom connected to two alkyl or aryl groups.
Eugene Reybold (February 13, 1884 – November 21, 1961) was distinguished as the World War II Chief of Engineers who directed the largest United States Army Corps of Engineers in the nation's history.
Eugene Paul "E.
The European theatre of World War II, also known as the Second European War, was a huge area of heavy fighting across Europe, from Germany's and the Soviet Union's joint invasion of Poland in September 1939 until the end of the war with the Soviet Union conquering most of Eastern Europe along with the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945 (Victory in Europe Day).
Experimental physics is the category of disciplines and sub-disciplines in the field of physics that are concerned with the observation of physical phenomena and experiments.
The exploding-bridgewire detonator (EBW, also known as exploding wire detonator) is a type of detonator used to initiate the detonation reaction in explosive materials, similar to a blasting cap because it is fired using an electric current.
An explosive lens—as used, for example, in nuclear weapons—is a highly specialized shaped charge.
Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian ultranationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.
"Fat Man" was the codename for the atomic bomb that was detonated over the Japanese city of Nagasaki by the United States on 9 August 1945.
Felix Bloch (23 October 1905 – 10 September 1983) was a Swiss physicist, working mainly in the U.S. He and Edward Mills Purcell were awarded the 1952 Nobel Prize for Physics for "their development of new ways and methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements."Sohlman, M (Ed.) Nobel Foundation directory 2003. Vastervik, Sweden: AB CO Ekblad; 2003.
A, or, was a weapon launched by Japan during World War II.
In nuclear engineering, fissile material is material capable of sustaining a nuclear fission chain reaction.
A fizzle occurs when the detonation of a device for creating a nuclear explosion (such as a nuclear weapon) grossly fails to meet its expected yield.
In physics and engineering, fluid dynamics is a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that describes the flow of fluids - liquids and gases.
A fluoride selective electrode is a type of ion selective electrode sensitive to the concentration of the fluoride ion.
The Forest Preserve District of Cook County is a governmental commission in Cook County, Illinois, that owns and manages the Cook County Forest Preserves.
The Franck Report of June 1945 was a document signed by several prominent nuclear physicists recommending that the United States not use the atomic bomb as a weapon to prompt the surrender of Japan in World War II.
Franco Dino Rasetti (August 10, 1901 – December 5, 2001) was an Italian scientist who, together with Enrico Fermi, discovered key processes leading to nuclear fission.
Frank Harold Spedding (22 October 1902 – 15 December 1984) was a Canadian American chemist.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
Franklin Thompson Matthias (13 March 1908 – 3 December 1993) was an American civil engineer who directed construction of the Hanford nuclear site, a key facility of the Manhattan Project during World War II.
Jean Frédéric Joliot-Curie (19 March 1900 – 14 August 1958), born Jean Frédéric Joliot, was a French physicist, husband of Irène Joliot-Curie with whom he was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Frederick Lincoln "Dick" Ashworth (24 January 1912 – 3 December 2005) was a United States Navy officer who served as the weaponeer on the B-29 Bockscar that dropped a Fat Man atomic bomb on Nagasaki, Japan on 9 August 1945 during World War II.
The Frisch–Peierls memorandum was the first technical exposition of a practical nuclear weapon.
Friedrich Wilhelm "Fritz" Strassmann (Straßmann; 22 February 1902 – 22 April 1980) was a German chemist who, with Otto Hahn in early 1939, identified barium in the residue after bombarding uranium with neutrons, results which, when confirmed, demonstrated the previously unknown phenomenon of nuclear fission.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
Garrison Petawawa is located in Petawawa, Ontario.
A gas centrifuge is a device that performs isotope separation of gases.
Gaseous diffusion is a technology used to produce enriched uranium by forcing gaseous uranium hexafluoride (UF6) through semipermeable membranes.
The Geiger counter is an instrument used for detecting and measuring ionizing radiation used widely in applications such as radiation dosimetry, radiological protection, experimental physics and the nuclear industry.
In the United States Army, United States Marine Corps, and United States Air Force, general (abbreviated as GEN in the Army or Gen in the Air Force and Marine Corps) is a four-star general officer rank, with the pay grade of O-10.
General Electric Company (GE) is an American multinational conglomerate incorporated in New York and headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts.
George Braxton Pegram (October 24, 1876 – August 12, 1958) was an American physicist who played a key role in the technical administration of the Manhattan Project.
George Bogdanovich Kistiakowsky (November 18, 1900 – December 7, 1982) (Георгій Богданович Кістяківський, Георгий Богданович Кистяковский) was a Ukrainian-American physical chemistry professor at Harvard who participated in the Manhattan Project and later served as President Dwight D. Eisenhower's Science Advisor.
George Abramovich Koval (a, Zhorzh Abramovich Koval, December 25, 1913 – January 31, 2006) was an American who acted as a Soviet intelligence officer for the Soviet atomic bomb project.
George Leslie Harrison (January 26, 1887 – March 5, 1958) was an American banker, insurance executive and advisor to Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson during World War II.
George Catlett Marshall Jr. (December 31, 1880 – October 16, 1959) was an American statesman and soldier.
George Veazey Strong (March 4, 1880 – January 10, 1946) was a U.S. Army general with the rank of Major General, who is most famous for his service as Commander of the Military Intelligence Corps during World War II.
Georgy Nikolayevich Flyorov (p; 2 March 1913 – 19 November 1990) was a Russian physicist who is known for his discovery of spontaneous fission and his contribution towards the physics of thermal reactions.
The German nuclear weapon project (Uranprojekt; informally known as the Uranverein; Uranium Society or Uranium Club) was a scientific effort led by Germany to develop and produce nuclear weapons during World War II.
Glenn Theodore Seaborg (April 19, 1912February 25, 1999) was an American chemist whose involvement in the synthesis, discovery and investigation of ten transuranium elements earned him a share of the 1951 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Godmanchester (pronounced; traditionally) is a small town and civil parish in the Huntingdonshire district of Cambridgeshire, in England.
The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company is an American multinational tire manufacturing company founded in 1898 by Frank Seiberling and based in Akron, Ohio.
The Governor of Tennessee is the head of government of the U.S. state of Tennessee.
Graham's law of effusion (also called Graham's law of diffusion) was formulated by Scottish physical chemist Thomas Graham in 1848.
Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.
Great Smoky Mountains National Park is an American national park and UNESCO World Heritage Site that straddles the ridgeline of the Great Smoky Mountains, part of the Blue Ridge Mountains, which are a division of the larger Appalachian Mountain chain.
Gregory Breit (Григорий Альфредович Брейт-Шнайдер, Grigory Alfredovich Breit-Shneider; July 14, 1899, Mykolaiv, Kherson Governorate – September 13, 1981, Salem, Oregon) was a Russian-born American physicist and professor at NYU (1929–1934), U. of Wisconsin–Madison (1934–1947), Yale (1947–1968), and Buffalo (1968–1973).
Guam (Chamorro: Guåhån) is an unincorporated and organized territory of the United States in Micronesia in the western Pacific Ocean.
Gun-type fission weapons are fission-based nuclear weapons whose design assembles their fissile material into a supercritical mass by the use of the "gun" method: shooting one piece of sub-critical material into another.
Haakon Maurice Chevalier (Lakewood Township, New Jersey, September 10, 1901 – July 4, 1985) was an American author, translator, and professor of French literature at the University of California, Berkeley best known for his friendship with physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer, whom he met at Berkeley, California in 1937.
Haigerloch is a town in the north-western part of the Swabian Alb in Germany.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
The Hanford Site is a decommissioned nuclear production complex operated by the United States federal government on the Columbia River in the U.S. state of Washington.
Hanford was a small agricultural community in Benton County, Washington, United States.
Hans Albrecht Bethe (July 2, 1906 – March 6, 2005) was a German-American nuclear physicist who made important contributions to astrophysics, quantum electrodynamics and solid-state physics, and won the 1967 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis.
Hans Heinrich von Halban (24 January 1908 – 28 November 1964) was a French physicist, of Austrian-Jewish descent.
Harold Clayton Urey (April 29, 1893 – January 5, 1981) was an American physical chemist whose pioneering work on isotopes earned him the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1934 for the discovery of deuterium.
Harry Gold (December 11, 1910 – August 28, 1972) was a laboratory chemist and spy for a number of Soviet spy rings operating in the United States during the Manhattan Project.
The Harry S Truman Building is the headquarters of the United States Department of State.
Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was an American statesman who served as the 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953), taking office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
The Harry S. Truman Presidential Library and Museum is the presidential library and resting place of Harry S. Truman, the 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953), located on U.S. Highway 24 in Independence, Missouri.
Harvey Hollister Bundy Sr. (March 30, 1888 – October 7, 1963) was an American lawyer, special assistant to the Secretary of War during World War II, and father of William Bundy and McGeorge Bundy, who both served at high levels as government advisors.
Heavy water (deuterium oxide) is a form of water that contains a larger than normal amount of the hydrogen isotope deuterium (or D, also known as heavy hydrogen), rather than the common hydrogen-1 isotope (or H, also called protium) that makes up most of the hydrogen in normal water.
Hechingen is a town in central Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
Henry Agard Wallace (October 7, 1888 – November 18, 1965) served as the 33rd Vice President of the United States (1941–1945), the 11th Secretary of Agriculture (1933–1940), and the 10th Secretary of Commerce (1945–1946).
Henry DeWolf "Harry" Smyth (May 1, 1898 – September 11, 1986) was an American physicist, diplomat, and bureaucrat.
Henry Harley "Hap" Arnold (June 25, 1886 – January 15, 1950) was an American general officer holding the grades of General of the Army and General of the Air Force.
Henry Lewis Stimson (September 21, 1867 – October 20, 1950) was an American statesman, lawyer and Republican Party politician.
Field Marshal Henry Maitland Wilson, 1st Baron Wilson, (5 September 1881 – 31 December 1964), also known as Jumbo Wilson, was a senior British Army officer of the 20th century.
Henry Morgenthau Jr. (May 11, 1891 – February 6, 1967) was the United States Secretary of the Treasury during the administration of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
High Explosive Research was the British project to independently develop atomic bombs after the Second World War.
"Hillbilly" is a term (often derogatory) for people who dwell in rural, mountainous areas in the United States, primarily in Appalachia and the Ozarks.
is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture and the largest city in the Chūgoku region of western Honshu - the largest island of Japan.
Holloman Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located six miles (10 km) southwest of the central business district of Alamogordo, and a census-designated place in Otero County, New Mexico, United States.
Hot pressing is a high-pressure, low-strain-rate powder metallurgy process for forming of a powder or powder compact at a temperature high enough to induce sintering and creep processes.
Admiral Hyman G. Rickover (January 27, 1900 – July 8, 1986), U.S. Navy, directed the original development of naval nuclear propulsion and controlled its operations for three decades as director of Naval Reactors.
The Interim Committee was a secret high-level group created in May 1945 by United States Secretary of War, Henry L. Stimson at the urging of leaders of the Manhattan Project and with the approval of President Harry S. Truman to advise on matters pertaining to nuclear energy.
International Security is a peer-reviewed academic journal in the field of international and national security.
Iodine-131 (131I) is an important radioisotope of iodine discovered by Glenn Seaborg and John Livingood in 1938 at the University of California, Berkeley.
The ionization chamber is the simplest of all gas-filled radiation detectors, and is widely used for the detection and measurement of certain types of ionizing radiation; X-rays, gamma rays, and beta particles.
Iowa State University of Science and Technology, generally referred to as Iowa State, is a public flagship land-grant and space-grant research university located in Ames, Iowa, United States.
Isidor Isaac Rabi (born Israel Isaac Rabi, 29 July 1898 – 11 January 1988) was an American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1944 for his discovery of nuclear magnetic resonance, which is used in magnetic resonance imaging.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Isotope separation is the process of concentrating specific isotopes of a chemical element by removing other isotopes.
Naturally occurring lanthanum (57La) is composed of one stable (139La) and one radioactive (138La) isotope, with the stable isotope, 139La, being the most abundant (99.91% natural abundance).
Neptunium (93Np) is usually considered an artificial element, although trace quantities are found in nature, so thus a standard atomic weight cannot be given.
Uranium (92U) is a naturally occurring radioactive element that has no stable isotopes but two primordial isotopes (uranium-238 and uranium-235) that have long half-life and are found in appreciable quantity in the Earth's crust, along with the decay product uranium-234.
Julius Robert Oppenheimer (April 22, 1904 – February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist and professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley.
James Bryant Conant (March 26, 1893 – February 11, 1978) was an American chemist, a transformative President of Harvard University, and the first U.S. Ambassador to West Germany.
Brigadier General James Creel Marshall (15 October 1897 – 19 July 1977) was a United States Army Corps of Engineers officer who was initially in charge of the Manhattan Project to build an atomic bomb during World War II.
Sir James Chadwick, (20 October 1891 – 24 July 1974) was an English physicist who was awarded the 1935 Nobel Prize in Physics for his discovery of the neutron in 1932.
James Francis Byrnes (May 2, 1882 – April 9, 1972) was an American judge and politician from the state of South Carolina.
The Japanese program to develop nuclear weapons was conducted during World War II.
Jáchymov, until 1945 known by its German name of Sankt Joachimsthal or Joachimsthal (meaning "Saint Joachim's Valley"; Thal, or Tal in modern orthography) is a spa town in the Karlovy Vary Region of Bohemia, now part of the Czech Republic.
Jean Frances Tatlock (February 21, 1914 – January 4, 1944) was an American psychiatrist and physician.
Jemez Springs (pronounced HEH-mes) is a village in Sandoval County, New Mexico, United States.
Jerrold Reinach Zacharias (January 23, 1905 – July 16, 1986) was an American physicist and Institute Professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, as well as an education reformer.
Jesse Wakefield Beams (December 25, 1898 in Belle Plaine, Kansas – July 23, 1977) was an American physicist at the University of Virginia.
Joan Chase Hinton (Chinese name: 寒春, Pinyin: Hán Chūn; 20 October 1921 – 8 June 2010) was a nuclear physicist and one of the few women scientists who worked for the Manhattan Project in Los Alamos.
John Anderson, 1st Viscount Waverley, (8 July 1882 – 4 January 1958) was a British civil servant and politician who is best known for his service in the Cabinet during the Second World War, for which he was nicknamed the "Home Front Prime Minister".
John Archibald Wheeler (July 9, 1911 – April 13, 2008) was an American theoretical physicist.
Sir John Douglas Cockcroft, (27 May 1897 – 18 September 1967) was a British physicist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1951 for splitting the atomic nucleus with Ernest Walton, and was instrumental in the development of nuclear power.
Field Marshal Sir John Greer Dill, (25 December 1881 – 4 November 1944) was a senior British Army officer with service in both the First World War and the Second World War.
John Gilbert Winant OM (February 23, 1889 – November 3, 1947) was an American politician with the Republican party after a brief career as a teacher in Concord, New Hampshire.
John Hasbrouck Van Vleck (March 13, 1899 – October 27, 1980) was an American physicist and mathematician, co-awarded the 1977 Nobel Prize in Physics, for his contributions to the understanding of the behavior of electrons in magnetic solids.
John Henry Manley (July 21, 1907 – June 11, 1990) was an American physicist who worked with J. Robert Oppenheimer at the University of California, Berkeley before becoming a group leader during the Manhattan Project.
Colonel John Jestyn Llewellin, 1st Baron Llewellin (6 February 1893 – 24 January 1957) was a British army officer, Conservative Party politician and minister in Winston Churchill's war government.
John Ray Dunning (September 24, 1907 – August 25, 1975) was an American physicist who played key roles in the Manhattan Project that developed the first atomic bombs.
John von Neumann (Neumann János Lajos,; December 28, 1903 – February 8, 1957) was a Hungarian-American mathematician, physicist, computer scientist, and polymath.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Josephine Ursula Herrick (August 1, 1897 – March 27, 1972) was an American photographer, humanitarian, entrepreneur and teacher.
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were United States citizens who spied for the Soviet Union and were tried, convicted, and executed by the Federal government of the United States.
Karl Paley Cohen (February 5, 1913 – April 6, 2012) was a physical chemist who became a mathematical physicist and helped usher in the age of nuclear energy and reactor development.
KBR, Inc. (formerly Kellogg Brown & Root) is an American engineering, procurement, and construction company, formerly a subsidiary of Halliburton.
Kenneth Tompkins Bainbridge (July 27, 1904 – July 14, 1996) was an American physicist at Harvard University who did work on cyclotron research.
Major General Kenneth David Nichols (13 November 1907 – 21 February 2000), also known by Nick, was an army officer in the United States Army, and a civil engineer who is notable for his classified works in the Manhattan Project, which developed the atomic bomb during World War II, as Deputy District Engineer to James C. Marshall, and from 13 August 1943 as the District Engineer of the Manhattan Engineer District.
The kilogram or kilogramme (symbol: kg) is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI), and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK, also known as "Le Grand K" or "Big K"), a cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy stored by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Saint-Cloud, France.
Kirtland Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located in the southeast quadrant of the Albuquerque, New Mexico urban area, adjacent to the Albuquerque International Sunport.
Klaus Paul Alfred Clusius (19 March 1903 – 28 May 1963) was a German physical chemist from Breslau (Wrocław), Silesia.
Emil Julius Klaus Fuchs (29 December 1911 – 28 January 1988) was a German theoretical physicist and atomic spy who, in 1950, was convicted of supplying information from the American, British, and Canadian Manhattan Project to the Soviet Union during and shortly after the Second World War.
Knoxville is a city in the U.S. state of Tennessee, and the county seat of Knox County.
is an ancient castle town and the center of Kitakyushu, Japan, guarding the Straits of Shimonoseki between Honshu and Kyushu with its suburb Moji.
Kurt Diebner (13 May 1905 – 13 July 1964) was a German nuclear physicist who is well known for directing and administrating the German nuclear energy project, a secretive program aiming to build nuclear weapons for Nazi Germany during the course of World War II.
, officially, is the capital city of Kyoto Prefecture, located in the Kansai region of Japan.
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), commonly referred to as Berkeley Lab, is a United States national laboratory located in the Berkeley Hills near Berkeley, California that conducts scientific research on behalf of the United States Department of Energy (DOE).
The Legion of Merit (LOM) is a military award of the United States Armed Forces that is given for exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services and achievements.
Leo Szilard (Szilárd Leó; Leo Spitz until age 2; February 11, 1898 – May 30, 1964) was a Hungarian-German-American physicist and inventor.
Leona Harriet Woods (August 9, 1919 – November 10, 1986), later known as Leona Woods Marshall and Leona Woods Marshall Libby, was an American physicist who helped build the first nuclear reactor and the first atomic bomb.
Lieutenant General Leslie Richard Groves Jr. (17 August 1896 – 13 July 1970) was a United States Army Corps of Engineers officer who oversaw the construction of the Pentagon and directed the Manhattan Project, a top secret research project that developed the atomic bomb during World War II.
In the United States Army, U.S. Marine Corps, and U.S. Air Force, a lieutenant colonel is a field grade military officer rank just above the rank of major and just below the rank of colonel.
Life was an American magazine that ran regularly from 1883 to 1972 and again from 1978 to 2000.
Liquid–liquid extraction (LLE), also known as solvent extraction and partitioning, is a method to separate compounds or metal complexes, based on their relative solubilities in two different immiscible liquids, usually water (polar) and an organic solvent (non-polar).
Lise Meitner (7 November 1878 – 27 October 1968) was an Austrian-Swedish physicist who worked on radioactivity and nuclear physics.
The Chief of Engineers is a principal Army staff officer at The Pentagon.
"Little Boy" was the codename for the atomic bomb dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima on 6 August 1945 during World War II by the Boeing B-29 Superfortress Enola Gay, piloted by Colonel Paul W. Tibbets, Jr., commander of the 509th Composite Group of the United States Army Air Forces.
Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos or LANL for short) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory initially organized during World War II for the design of nuclear weapons as part of the Manhattan Project.
Los Alamos Ranch School was a private ranch school for boys in Los Alamos County, New Mexico, USA, founded in 1917 near San Ildefonso Pueblo.
General Lucius Dubignon Clay (April 23, 1898 – April 16, 1978) was a senior officer of the United States Army who was known for his administration of occupied Germany after World War II.
Luis Walter Alvarez (June 13, 1911 – September 1, 1988) was an American experimental physicist, inventor, and professor who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1968.
Lyman James Briggs (May 7, 1874 – March 25, 1963) was an American engineer, physicist and administrator.
In the United States Army, United States Marine Corps, and United States Air Force, major general is a two-star general-officer rank, with the pay grade of O-8.
Mallinckrodt Pharmaceuticals, based in Staines-upon-Thames, England, with its U.S. headquarters in St. Louis, Missouri, produces specialty pharmaceutical products, including generic drugs and imaging agents.
Manhattan is the most densely populated borough of New York City, its economic and administrative center, and its historical birthplace.
Manhattan Project National Historical Park is a United States National Historical Park commemorating the Manhattan Project that is run jointly by the National Park Service and Department of Energy.
Sir Marcus Laurence Elwin "Mark" Oliphant (8 October 1901 – 14 July 2000) was an Australian physicist and humanitarian who played an important role in the first experimental demonstration of nuclear fusion and also the development of nuclear weapons.
Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that ionizes chemical species and sorts the ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio.
The MAUD Committee was a British scientific working group formed during the Second World War.
The McDonald Ranch House, also known as Trinity Site, in the Oscura Mountains of Socorro County, New Mexico, was the location of assembly of the world's first nuclear weapon.
The Medal for Merit was, during the period it was awarded, the highest civilian decoration of the United States, awarded by the President of the United States to civilians for "exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services...
The Medical Corps (MC) of the U.S. Army is a staff corps (non-combat specialty branch) of the U.S. Army Medical Department (AMEDD) consisting of commissioned medical officers – physicians with either an M.D. or a D.O. degree, at least one year of post-graduate clinical training, and a state medical license.
The Metallurgical Laboratory (or Met Lab) was a scientific laboratory at the University of Chicago that was established in February 1942 to study and use the newly discovered chemical element plutonium.
A modulated neutron initiator is a neutron source capable of producing a burst of neutrons on activation.
Relative Molecular mass or molecular weight is the mass of a molecule.
Monsanto Company was an agrochemical and agricultural biotechnology corporation.
Monticello is a city located in San Juan County, Utah, and is the county seat.
The Montreal Laboratory in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, was established by the National Research Council of Canada during World War II to undertake nuclear research in collaboration with the United Kingdom, and to absorb some of the scientists and work of the Tube Alloys nuclear project in Britain.
Morgantown is a city in and the county seat of Monongalia County, West Virginia, situated along the banks of the Monongahela River.
A mushroom cloud is a distinctive pyrocumulus mushroom-shaped cloud of debris/smoke and usually condensed water vapor resulting from a large explosion.
() is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture on the island of Kyushu in Japan.
The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
The National Defense Research Committee (NDRC) was an organization created "to coordinate, supervise, and conduct scientific research on the problems underlying the development, production, and use of mechanisms and devices of warfare" in the United States from June 27, 1940, until June 28, 1941.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is one of the oldest physical science laboratories in the United States.
The National Research Council (NRC, Conseil national de recherches Canada) is the primary national research and technology organization (RTO) of the Government of Canada, in science and technology research and development.
The National Safety Council (NSC) is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit, nongovernmental public service organization promoting health and safety in the United States of America.
A natural nuclear fission reactor is a uranium deposit where self-sustaining nuclear chain reactions have occurred.
Naval Air Weapons Station (NAWS) China Lake is a part of Navy Region Southwest under Commander, Navy Installations Command and is located in the Western Mojave Desert region of California, approximately north of Los Angeles.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
In nuclear engineering, a neutron moderator is a medium that reduces the speed of fast neutrons, thereby turning them into thermal neutrons capable of sustaining a nuclear chain reaction involving uranium-235 or a similar fissile nuclide.
In applications such as nuclear reactors, a neutron poison (also called a neutron absorber or a nuclear poison) is a substance with a large neutron absorption cross-section.
The neutron detection temperature, also called the neutron energy, indicates a free neutron's kinetic energy, usually given in electron volts.
Nevada (see pronunciations) is a state in the Western, Mountain West, and Southwestern regions of the United States of America.
New York Life Insurance Company (NYLIC) is the third-largest life insurance company in the United States and one of the largest life insurers in the world, ranking #65 on the 2017 Fortune 500 list, with about $570 billion in total assets under management, and more than $25 billion in surplus and AVR.
The Newport Chemical Depot, previously known as the Wabash River Ordnance Works and the Newport Army Ammunition Plant, was a bulk chemical storage and destruction facility that was operated by the United States Army.
Newport is a town in Vermillion Township, Vermillion County, in the U.S. state of Indiana.
Niels Henrik David Bohr (7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962) was a Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922.
is the capital and the most populous city of Niigata Prefecture located in the Chūbu region of Japan.
Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
The Normandy landings were the landing operations on Tuesday, 6 June 1944 of the Allied invasion of Normandy in Operation Overlord during World War II.
Norris Edwin Bradbury (30 May 1909 – 20 August 1997), was an American physicist who served as Director of the Los Alamos National Laboratory for 25 years from 1945 to 1970.
Norris Dam is a hydroelectric and flood control structure located on the Clinch River in Anderson County and Campbell County, Tennessee, United States.
The North Atlantic Division of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is one of the eight permanent divisions within the Corps.
North Field is a former World War II airfield on Tinian in the Mariana Islands.
The Norwegian heavy water sabotage (Tungtvannsaksjonen, Tungtvassaksjonen) was a series of operations undertaken by Norwegian saboteurs during World War II to prevent the German nuclear weapon project from acquiring heavy water (deuterium oxide), which could have been used by the Germans to produce nuclear weapons.
NRX (National Research Experimental) was a heavy water moderated, light water cooled, nuclear research reactor at the Canadian Chalk River Laboratories, which came into operation in 1947 at a design power rating of 10 MW (thermal), increasing to 42 MW by 1954.
The nuclear arms race was a competition for supremacy in nuclear warfare between the United States, the Soviet Union, and their respective allies during the Cold War.
A nuclear chain reaction occurs when one single nuclear reaction causes an average of one or more subsequent nuclear reactions, thus leading to the possibility of a self-propagating series of these reactions.
The nuclear cross section of a nucleus is used to characterize the probability that a nuclear reaction will occur.
Nuclear fallout, or simply fallout, is the residual radioactive material propelled into the upper atmosphere following a nuclear blast, so called because it "falls out" of the sky after the explosion and the shock wave have passed.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).
Nuclear fission products are the atomic fragments left after a large atomic nucleus undergoes nuclear fission.
In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons).
Nuclear graphite is any grade of graphite, usually synthetic graphite, specifically manufactured for use as a moderator or reflector within a nuclear reactor.
Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty involving the application of radioactive substances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.
Nuclear navy, or nuclear-powered navy consists of naval ships powered by relatively small onboard nuclear reactors known as naval reactors.
A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.
Nuclear reprocessing technology was developed to chemically separate and recover fissionable plutonium from spent nuclear fuel.
Nuclear transmutation is the conversion of one chemical element or an isotope into another chemical element.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
Nuclear weapon designs are physical, chemical, and engineering arrangements that cause the physics package of a nuclear weapon to detonate.
Nuclear weapons tests are experiments carried out to determine the effectiveness, yield, and explosive capability of nuclear weapons.
A nuclear-powered aircraft is a concept for an aircraft intended to be powered by nuclear energy.
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is an American multiprogram science and technology national laboratory sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and administered, managed, and operated by UT-Battelle as a federally funded research and development center (FFRDC) under a contract with the DOE.
Oak Ridge is a city in Anderson and Roane counties in the eastern part of the U.S. state of Tennessee, about west of Knoxville.
The Allied occupation of Japan at the end of World War II was led by General Douglas MacArthur, the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, with support from the British Commonwealth.
The Office of Censorship was an emergency wartime agency set up on December 19, 1941 to aid in the censorship of all communications coming into and going out of the United States.
The Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI) is the military intelligence agency of the United States Navy.
The Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) was an agency of the United States federal government created to coordinate scientific research for military purposes during World War II.
Oliver Patton Echols (March 4, 1892 – May 15, 1954) was an American military officer who brought success in World War II to the United States Army Air Forces by expanding the inventory of America's air arm to meet the needs of the coming war.
Operation Crossroads was a pair of nuclear weapon tests conducted by the United States at Bikini Atoll in mid-1946.
Operation Epsilon was the codename of a program in which Allied forces near the end of World War II detained ten German scientists who were thought to have worked on Nazi Germany's nuclear program.
Operation Harborage was an operation to capture German nuclear energy program scientists, materiel and facilities in southwestern Germany in the waning days of World War II.
Operation Overlord was the codename for the Battle of Normandy, the Allied operation that launched the successful invasion of German-occupied Western Europe during World War II.
Operation Peppermint was the codename given during World War II to preparations by the Manhattan Project and the European Theater of Operations United States Army (ETOUSA) to counter the danger that the Germans might disrupt the June 1944 Normandy landings with radioactive poisons.
Oranienburg is a town in Brandenburg, Germany.
An order of magnitude is an approximate measure of the number of digits that a number has in the commonly-used base-ten number system.
The United States Army Ordnance Corps, formerly the United States Army Ordnance Department, is a Sustainment branch of the United States Army, headquartered at Fort Lee, Virginia.
Otto Hahn, (8 March 1879 – 28 July 1968) was a German chemist and pioneer in the fields of radioactivity and radiochemistry.
Otto Robert Frisch FRS (1 October 1904 – 22 September 1979) was an Austrian-British physicist.
The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.
Oxnard Field (also known at various times as Albuquerque Airport and Albuquerque Army Air Field) was the first airport in Albuquerque, New Mexico.
The P-9 Project was the codename given during World War II to the Manhattan Project's heavy water production program.
Paul Warfield Tibbets Jr. (23 February 1915 – 1 November 2007) was a brigadier general in the United States Air Force.
Pearl Sydenstricker Buck (June 26, 1892 – March 6, 1973; also known by her Chinese name Sai Zhenzhu) was an American writer and novelist.
Phelps Dodge Corporation was an American mining company founded in 1834 as an import-export firm by Anson Greene Phelps and his two British sons-in-law William Earle Dodge, Sr. and Daniel James.
Philip Hauge Abelson (April 27, 1913 – August 1, 2004) was an American physicist, a scientific editor, and a science writer.
Phosphorus-32 is a radioactive isotope of phosphorus.
Pickling is a metal surface treatment used to remove impurities, such as stains, inorganic contaminants, rust or scale from ferrous metals, copper, precious metals and aluminum alloys.
A pilot plant is a pre-commercial production system that employs new production technology and/or produces small volumes of new technology-based products, mainly for the purpose of learning about the new technology.
The pit, named after the hard core found in fruits such as peaches and apricots, is the core of an implosion nuclear weapon – the fissile material and any neutron reflector or tamper bonded to it.
Plutonium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.
Plutonium-239 is an isotope of plutonium.
Plutonium–gallium alloy (Pu–Ga) is an alloy of plutonium and gallium, used in nuclear weapon pits, the component of a nuclear weapon where the fission chain reaction is started.
Port Radium is a mining area on the eastern shore of Great Bear Lake, Northwest Territories, Canada.
The Potsdam Conference (Potsdamer Konferenz) was held at Cecilienhof, the home of Crown Prince Wilhelm, in Potsdam, occupied Germany, from 17 July to 2 August 1945.
The Potsdam Declaration or the Proclamation Defining Terms for Japanese Surrender was a statement that called for the surrender of all Japanese armed forces during World War II.
William Prentice Cooper, Jr. (September 28, 1895May 18, 1969) was an American politician and diplomat who served as Governor of Tennessee from 1939 to 1945.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
A pressure vessel is a container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure substantially different from the ambient pressure.
Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey.
Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society is a quarterly philosophy peer-reviewed journal published by the American Philosophical Society since 1838.
Project Alberta, also known as Project A, was a section of the Manhattan Project which assisted in delivering the first nuclear weapons in the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki during World War II.
Project Camel was the codename given to work performed by the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in support of the Manhattan Project during World War II.
The Los Alamos Laboratory, also known as Project Y, was a secret laboratory established by the Manhattan Project and operated by the University of California during World War II.
Pumpkin bombs were conventional aerial bombs developed by the Manhattan Project and used by the United States Army Air Forces against Japan during World War II.
The Quebec Agreement was an agreement between the United Kingdom and the United States outlining the terms for the coordinated development of the science and engineering related to nuclear energy, and, specifically nuclear weapons.
Radiology is the science that uses medical imaging to diagnose and sometimes also treat diseases within the body.
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
The RaLa Experiment, or RaLa, was a series of tests during and after the Manhattan Project designed to study the behavior of converging shock waves to achieve the spherical implosion necessary for compression of the plutonium pit of the nuclear weapon.
Ralph Austin Bard (July 29, 1884 – April 5, 1975) was a Chicago financier who served as Assistant Secretary of the Navy, 1941–1944, and as Under Secretary, 1944–1945.
The Raytheon Company is a major U.S. defense contractor and industrial corporation with core manufacturing concentrations in weapons and military and commercial electronics.
Rear admiral in the United States refers to two different ranks of commissioned officers — one-star flag officers and two-star flag officers.
Red Gate Woods is part of a forest preserve within the Palos Division of the Forest Preserve District of Cook County, Illinois.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Richard Chace Tolman (March 4, 1881 – September 5, 1948) was an American mathematical physicist and physical chemist who was an authority on statistical mechanics.
Richland is a city in Benton County in the southeastern part of the State of Washington, at the confluence of the Yakima and the Columbia Rivers.
Roane County is a county of the U.S. state of Tennessee.
Robert Fox Bacher (August 31, 1905 – November 18, 2004) was an American nuclear physicist and one of the leaders of the Manhattan Project.
Robert Porter Patterson Sr. (February 12, 1891 – January 22, 1952) was the United States Under Secretary of War under President Franklin Roosevelt and the United States Secretary of War under President Harry S. Truman from September 27, 1945 to July 18, 1947.
Robert Serber (March 14, 1909 – June 1, 1997) was an American physicist who participated in the Manhattan Project.
Rochester is a city on the southern shore of Lake Ontario in western New York.
Sir Ronald Ian Campbell (7 June 1890 – 22 April 1983) was a British diplomat.
Roscoe Charles Wilson (11 June 1905 – 21 August 1986) was a United States Air Force general who was Commandant of the Air War College from 1951 to 1954 and Deputy Chief of Staff, Development, from 1958 to 1961.
Sir Rudolf Ernst Peierls, (5 June 1907 – 19 September 1995) was a German-born British physicist who played a major role in the Manhattan Project and Tube Alloys, Britain's nuclear programme.
The Uranium Committee was a committee of the National Defense Research Committee (NDRC) that succeeded the Advisory Committee on Uranium and later evolved into the S-1 Section of the Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD), when that organization absorbed the NDRC in June 1941, and the S-1 Executive Committee in June 1942.
A sacrificial metal is a metal used as a sacrificial anode in cathodic protection that corrodes to prevent a primary metal from corrosion, galvanization or rusting.
San Antonio de los Baños Airfield is a military air base located near San Antonio de los Baños, a municipality in the province of Havana (La Habana) in Cuba.
Sandia Base was, from 1946 to 1971, the principal nuclear weapons installation of the United States Department of Defense.
The Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), managed and operated by the National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia (a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International), is one of three National Nuclear Security Administration research and development laboratories.
The Sangre de Cristo Mountains (Spanish for "Blood of Christ") are the southernmost subrange of the Rocky Mountains.
Santa Fe (or; Tewa: Ogha Po'oge, Yootó) is the capital of the U.S. state of New Mexico.
The Sapienza University of Rome (Italian: Sapienza – Università di Roma), also called simply Sapienza or the University of Rome, is a collegiate research university located in Rome, Italy.
The was an army group of the Imperial Japanese Army responsible for the defense of western Honshū, Kyūshū and Shikoku during the final stage of the Pacific War.
Seth Henry Neddermeyer (September 16, 1907 – January 29, 1988) was an American physicist who co-discovered the muon, and later championed the Implosion-type nuclear weapon while working on the Manhattan Project at the Los Alamos Laboratory during World War II.
A shaped charge is an explosive charge shaped to focus the effect of the explosive's energy.
Shinkolobwe, or Kasolo, or Chinkolobew, or Shainkolobwe, is a radium and uranium mine in the Katanga province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), located 20 km west of Likasi, 20 km south of Kambove, and about 145 km northwest of Lubumbashi.
In physics, a shock wave (also spelled shockwave), or shock, is a type of propagating disturbance.
The short ton is a unit of weight equal to.
Silumin is a group of lightweight, high-strength aluminium alloys based on an aluminum–silicon system.
Silverplate was the code reference for the United States Army Air Forces' participation in the Manhattan Project during World War II.
Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP (SOM) is an American architectural, urban planning, and engineering firm.
Slag is the glass-like by-product left over after a desired metal has been separated (i.e., smelted) from its raw ore.
The Smyth Report is the common name of an administrative history written by American physicist Henry DeWolf Smyth about the Manhattan Project, the Allied effort to develop atomic bombs during World War II.
The Soviet atomic bomb project (Russian: Советский проект атомной бомбы, Sovetskiy proyekt atomnoy bomby) was the classified research and development program that was authorized by Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union to develop nuclear weapons during World War II.
The Soviet Occupation Zone (Sovetskaya okkupatsionnaya zona Germanii, "Soviet Occupation Zone of Germany") was the area of central Germany occupied by the Soviet Union from 1945 on, at the end of World War II.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Soviet–Japanese War (Советско-японская война; ソ連対日参戦, "Soviet Union entry into war against Japan") was a military conflict within the Second World War beginning soon after midnight on August 9, 1945, with the Soviet invasion of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo.
Special Engineer Detachment (SED) was a US Army program that identified enlisted personnel with technical skills, such as machining, or who had some science education beyond high school.
A spheroid, or ellipsoid of revolution, is a quadric surface obtained by rotating an ellipse about one of its principal axes; in other words, an ellipsoid with two equal semi-diameters.
Staßfurt (Stassfurt) is a town in the Salzlandkreis district, in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
Stafford Leak Warren (July 19, 1896 - July 26, 1981) was an American physician and radiologist who was a pioneer in the field of nuclear medicine and best known for his invention of the mammogram.
Amos Alonzo Stagg Field is the name of two different football fields for the University of Chicago.
Stanley Phillips "Stan" Frankel (1919 – May, 1978) was an American computer scientist.
Stanisław Marcin Ulam (13 April 1909 – 13 May 1984) was a Polish-American scientist in the fields of mathematics and nuclear physics.
Staten Island is the southernmost and westernmost of the five boroughs of New York City in the U.S. state of New York.
Stone & Webster was an American engineering services company based in Stoughton, Massachusetts.
Sydney Chapman FRS (29 January 1888 – 16 June 1970) was a British mathematician and geophysicist.
Sylacauga is a city in Talladega County, Alabama, United States.
The Szilárd petition, drafted by scientist Leo Szilard, was signed by 70 scientists working on the Manhattan Project in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and the Metallurgical Laboratory in Chicago, Illinois.
Teck Resources Limited known as Teck Cominco until late 2008, is a Canadian metals and mining company.
The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is a federally owned corporation in the United States created by congressional charter on May 18, 1933, to provide navigation, flood control, electricity generation, fertilizer manufacturing, and economic development to the Tennessee Valley, a region particularly affected by the Great Depression.
The Making of the Atomic Bomb is a contemporary history book written by the American journalist and historian Richard Rhodes, first published by Simon & Schuster in 1987.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Saturday Evening Post is an American magazine published six times a year.
Theodore Alvin Hall (October 20, 1925 – November 1, 1999) was an American physicist and an atomic spy for the Soviet Union, who, during his work on US efforts to develop the first and second atomic bombs during World War II (the Manhattan Project), gave a detailed description of the "Fat Man" plutonium bomb, and of several processes for purifying plutonium, to Soviet intelligence.
A thermonuclear weapon is a second-generation nuclear weapon design using a secondary nuclear fusion stage consisting of implosion tamper, fusion fuel, and spark plug which is bombarded by the energy released by the detonation of a primary fission bomb within, compressing the fuel material (tritium, deuterium or lithium deuteride) and causing a fusion reaction.
Thermophoresis (also thermomigration, thermodiffusion, the Soret effect, or the Ludwig–Soret effect) is a phenomenon observed in mixtures of mobile particles where the different particle types exhibit different responses to the force of a temperature gradient.
"Thin Man" was the codename for a proposed plutonium gun-type nuclear bomb using plutonium-239 which the United States was developing during the Manhattan Project.
Major General Thomas Francis Farrell (3 December 1891 – 11 April 1967) was the Deputy Commanding General and Chief of Field Operations of the Manhattan Project, acting as executive officer to Major General Leslie R. Groves, Jr. Farrell graduated from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute with a degree in civil engineering in 1912.
Tinian is one of the three principal islands of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.
The Tizard Mission, officially the British Technical and Scientific Mission, was a British delegation that visited the United States during the Second World War in order to obtain the industrial resources to exploit the military potential of the research and development (R&D) work completed by the UK up to the beginning of World War II, but that Britain itself could not exploit due to the immediate requirements of war-related production.
Trinitrotoluene (TNT), or more specifically 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, is a chemical compound with the formula C6H2(NO2)3CH3.
TNT equivalent is a convention for expressing energy, typically used to describe the energy released in an explosion.
Tower 270 (also known as 270 Broadway, Arthur Levitt State Office Building, 80 Chambers Street, and 86 Chambers Street) is a 28-story mixed use building in Civic Center, New York City having of floor space on a plot with facing Broadway and on Chambers Street.
Trail is a city in the West Kootenay region of the Interior of British Columbia, Canada.
Trinitite, also known as atomsite or Alamogordo glass, is the glassy residue left on the desert floor after the plutonium-based Trinity nuclear bomb test on July 16, 1945, near Alamogordo, New Mexico.
Trinity was the code name of the first detonation of a nuclear weapon.
Tritium (or; symbol or, also known as hydrogen-3) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen.
Troy weight is a system of units of mass customarily used for precious metals and gemstones.
Tube Alloys was a code name of the clandestine research and development programme, authorised by the United Kingdom, with participation from Canada, to develop nuclear weapons during the Second World War.
Tucson is a city and the county seat of Pima County, Arizona, United States, and home to the University of Arizona.
Turner Construction Company is an American construction company.
Union Carbide Corporation is a wholly owned subsidiary (since 2001) of Dow Chemical Company.
The Union Minière du Haut-Katanga (French; "Mining Union of Upper Katanga"), often abbreviated to Union Minière or UMHK, was a Belgian mining company which operated in the former Congo Free State and Belgian Congo between 1906 and 1966.
The United Nations Atomic Energy Commission (UNAEC) was founded on 24 January 1946 by Resolution 1 of the United Nations General Assembly resolution "to deal with the problems raised by the discovery of atomic energy." The General Assembly asked the Commission to "make specific proposals: (a) for extending between all nations the exchange of basic scientific information for peaceful ends; (b) for control of atomic energy to the extent necessary to ensure its use only for peaceful purposes; (c) for the elimination from national armaments of atomic weapons and of all other major weapons adaptable to mass destruction; (d) for effective safeguards by way of inspection and other means to protect complying States against the hazards of violations and evasions." On 14 December 1946, the General Assembly passed a follow-up resolution urging an expeditious completion of the report by the Commission as well as its consideration by the United Nations Security Council.
The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF or AAF), informally known as the Air Force, was the aerial warfare service of the United States of America during and immediately after World War II (1939/41–1945), successor to the previous United States Army Air Corps and the direct predecessor of the United States Air Force of today, one of the five uniformed military services.
The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is a U.S. federal agency under the Department of Defense and a major Army command made up of some 37,000 civilian and military personnel, making it one of the world's largest public engineering, design, and construction management agencies.
The Services Of Supply or "SOS" branch of the Army of the USA was created on 28 February 1942 by Executive Order Number 9082 "Reorganizing the Army and the War Department" and War Department Circular No.
The United States Atomic Energy Commission, commonly known as the AEC, was an agency of the United States government established after World War II by U.S. Congress to foster and control the peacetime development of atomic science and technology.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
On December 8, 1941, the United States Congress declared war (Public Law 77-328, 55 STAT 795) on the Empire of Japan in response to that country's surprise attack on Pearl Harbor the prior day.
On December 11, 1941, the United States Congress declared war upon Germany (Sess. 1, ch. 564), hours after Germany declared war on the United States after the attack on Pearl Harbor by the Empire of Japan.
The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material.
The United States Department of Energy National Laboratories and Technology Centers are a system of facilities and laboratories overseen by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for the purpose of advancing science and technology to fulfill the DOE mission.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The United States Department of War, also called the War Department (and occasionally War Office in the early years), was the United States Cabinet department originally responsible for the operation and maintenance of the United States Army, also bearing responsibility for naval affairs until the establishment of the Navy Department in 1798, and for most land-based air forces until the creation of the Department of the Air Force on September 18, 1947.
The Deputy Secretary of the Treasury, in the United States government, advises and assists the Secretary of the Treasury in the supervision and direction of the Department of the Treasury and its activities, and succeeds the Secretary in his absence, sickness, or unavailability.
The United States Forest Service (USFS) is an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture that administers the nation's 154 national forests and 20 national grasslands, which encompass.
The United States Marshals Service (USMS) is a federal law-enforcement agency within the U.S. Department of Justice.
The United States Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is the corporate research laboratory for the United States Navy and the United States Marine Corps.
The United States Secretary of Agriculture is the head of the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
The Secretary of State is a senior official of the federal government of the United States of America, and as head of the U.S. Department of State, is principally concerned with foreign policy and is considered to be the U.S. government's equivalent of a Minister for Foreign Affairs.
The Secretary of War was a member of the United States President's Cabinet, beginning with George Washington's administration.
The Under Secretary of War was a position created by an act of 16 December 1940 (54 Stat. 1224).
The University of Birmingham (informally Birmingham University) is a public research university located in Edgbaston, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.
The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.
The University of Illinois Urbana–Champaign (also known as U of I, Illinois, or colloquially as the University of Illinois or UIUC) is a public research university in the U.S. state of Illinois and the flagship institution of the University of Illinois System.
The University of Rochester Medical Center (URMC), located in Rochester, New York, is one of the main campuses of the University of Rochester and comprises the university's primary medical education, research and patient care facilities.
The University of Virginia (U.Va. or UVA), frequently referred to simply as Virginia, is a public research university and the flagship for the Commonwealth of Virginia.
The University of Wisconsin–Madison (also known as University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin, UW, or regionally as UW–Madison, or simply Madison) is a public research university in Madison, Wisconsin, United States.
Upton, New York is a hamlet and census-designated place (CDP) on Long Island in the town of Brookhaven.
Urakami was an area in the northern part of the city of Nagasaki, Japan.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
Uranium dioxide or uranium(IV) oxide (2), also known as urania or uranous oxide, is an oxide of uranium, and is a black, radioactive, crystalline powder that naturally occurs in the mineral uraninite.
Uranium hexafluoride, referred to as "hex" in the nuclear industry, is a compound used in the uranium enrichment process that produces fuel for nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons.
Uranium mining in Colorado, United States, goes back to 1872, when pitchblende ore was taken from gold mines near Central City, Colorado.
Uranium ore deposits are economically recoverable concentrations of uranium within the Earth's crust.
Uranium oxide is an oxide of the element uranium.
Uranium trioxide (UO3), also called uranyl oxide, uranium(VI) oxide, and uranic oxide, is the hexavalent oxide of uranium.
Uranium-235 (235U) is an isotope of uranium making up about 0.72% of natural uranium.
Uranium-238 (238U or U-238) is the most common isotope of uranium found in nature, with a relative abundance of 99%.
Uranyl nitrate (UO2(NO3)2) is a water soluble yellow uranium salt.
Uravan (a contraction of Uranium vanadium) is an abandoned uranium mining town in western Montrose County, Colorado, United States, that is now a Superfund site.
Vannevar Bush (March 11, 1890 – June 28, 1974) was an American engineer, inventor and science administrator, who during World War II headed the U.S. Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD), through which almost all wartime military R&D was carried out, including initiation and early administration of the Manhattan Project.
General Walter Bedell "Beetle" Smith (5 October 1895 – 9 August 1961) was a senior officer of the United States Army who served as General Dwight D. Eisenhower's chief of staff at Allied Forces Headquarters (AFHQ) during the Tunisia Campaign and the Allied invasion of Italy in 1943 during World War II.
Walther Gerlach (1 August 1889 – 10 August 1979) was a German physicist who co-discovered spin quantization in a magnetic field, the Stern–Gerlach effect.
Walter Samuel Carpenter Jr. (January 8, 1888 – February 2, 1976) was an American corporate executive from Wilmington, Delaware, who oversaw the DuPont company's involvement in the Manhattan Project to produce an atomic bomb for use during World War II.
The Wanapum tribe of Native Americans formerly lived along the Columbia River from above Priest Rapids down to the mouth of the Snake River in what is now the US state of Washington.
The War Manpower Commission was a World War II agency of the United States Government charged with planning to balance the labor needs of agriculture, industry and the armed forces.
The War Production Board (WPB) was an agency of the United States government that supervised war production during World War II.
Warren Kendall Lewis (21 August 1882 – 9 March 1975) was an MIT professor who has been called the father of modern chemical engineering.
Washington and Lee University (Washington and Lee or W&L) is a private liberal arts university in Lexington, Virginia, United States.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
Wendover Air Force Base is a former United States Air Force base in Utah now known as Wendover Airport.
Werner Karl Heisenberg (5 December 1901 – 1 February 1976) was a German theoretical physicist and one of the key pioneers of quantum mechanics.
The West Point Mint Facility was erected in 1937 near the U.S. Military Academy in West Point, New York, United States.
The Western Allied invasion of Germany was coordinated by the Western Allies during the final months of hostilities in the European theatre of World War II.
Western Defense Command (WDC) was established on 17 March 1941 as the command formation of the U.S. Army responsible for coordinating the defense of the Pacific Coast region of the United States.
The Westinghouse Electric Corporation was an American manufacturing company.
The Westinghouse Lamp Plant located in Bloomfield, New Jersey, was one of the lamp manufacturing plants of Westinghouse Electric Corporation.
White Bluffs was an agricultural town in Benton County, Washington, United States.
White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) is a United States Army military testing area of almost in parts of five counties in southern New Mexico.
Wirtschaftliche Forschungsgesellschaft mbh (WiFo, Economic Research Company) was a Nazi Germany-owned company "charged with the construction and operation of solid fuel (natural and synthetic) storage depots.".
The Wigner effect (named for its discoverer, Eugene Wigner), also known as the discomposition effect or Wigner's Disease, is the dislocation of atoms in a solid caused by neutron radiation.
Wilhelm Delp Styer (22 July 1893 – 26 February 1975) was a lieutenant general in the United States Army during World War II.
Willard Carl Kruger (1910-1984), sometimes misidentified as "William Kruger" was an American architect born in Sperry, Texas, who grew up in Raton, New Mexico.
William Lockhart "Will" Clayton (February 7, 1880 – February 8, 1966) was an American business leader and government official.
William Leonard Laurence (March 7, 1888 – March 19, 1977) was a Jewish Lithuanian-born American journalist known for his science journalism writing of the 1940s and 1950s while working for The New York Times.
Rear Admiral William Reynolds Purnell (6 September 1886 – 3 March 1955) was an officer in the United States Navy who served in World War I and World War II.
Rear Admiral William Sterling "Deak" Parsons (26 November 1901 – 5 December 1953) was an American naval officer who worked as an ordnance expert on the Manhattan Project during World War II.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
The Women's Army Corps (WAC) was the women's branch of the United States Army.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) is a United States Air Force base and census-designated place just east of Dayton, Ohio, in Greene and Montgomery counties.
The X-10 Graphite Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, formerly known as the Clinton Pile and X-10 Pile, was the world's second artificial nuclear reactor (after Enrico Fermi's Chicago Pile-1), and the first designed and built for continuous operation.
Xenon-135 (135Xe) is an unstable isotope of xenon with a half-life of about 9.2 hours.
The Y-12 National Security Complex is a United States Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration facility located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, near the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
The ZEEP (Zero Energy Experimental Pile) reactor was a nuclear reactor built at the Chalk River Laboratories near Chalk River, Ontario, Canada (which superseded the Montreal Laboratory for nuclear research in Canada).
The 393d Bomb Squadron (393 BS) is part of the 509th Bomb Wing at Whiteman Air Force Base, Missouri.
The 509th Composite Group (509 CG) was a unit of the United States Army Air Forces created during World War II and tasked with the operational deployment of nuclear weapons.
The was an infantry division of the Imperial Japanese Army.
Development of Substitute Materials, Development of the atomic bomb, Manhattan District, Manhattan District Project, Manhattan Engineer District, Manhattan Engineering District, Manhattan project, Manhatten Project, Manhatten project, Military Policy Committee, Nathan Safferstein, Project Manhattan, The Manhattan Project, United States atomic bomb project, United States. Army. Corps of Engineers. Manhattan District.