138 relations: Aluminium, Aluminium oxide, Andrija Mohorovičić, Asteroid, Asthenosphere, Atmospheric pressure, Boundary layer, Calcium, Calcium oxide, Callisto (moon), Cambridge University Press, Cape Verde, Caribbean Sea, Chaos theory, Chikyū, Clausius–Clapeyron relation, Cobalt-60, Continental drift, Convection, Convergent boundary, Core–mantle boundary, Crust (geology), Density, Diamond anvil cell, Don L. Anderson, Donald L. Turcotte, Dotdash, Dunite, Dynamic topography, Earth, Earth's internal heat budget, Eclogite, Europa (moon), Ferropericlase, Fluid, Ganymede (moon), Garnet, Geologic time scale, Geothermal gradient, Gerald Schubert, Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment, Gros Morne National Park, Hotspot (geology), Ice, Inge Lehmann, Io (moon), Iron, JOIDES Resolution, Jupiter, Keith Edward Bullen, ..., Lehmann discontinuity, Lithosphere, Lizard complex, Low-velocity zone, Macquarie Island, Magnesium, Magnesium oxide, Mantle convection, Mantle plume, Mars, Melting, Melting point, Mercury (planet), Mesosphere (mantle), Mohorovičić discontinuity, Moon, MSNBC, NASA, Natural satellite, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nickel, Nova Science Publishers, Numerical modeling (geology), Oceanic crust, Olivine, Ophiolite, Outer core, Overburden pressure, Oxygen, Pascal (unit), Peridotite, Perovskite (structure), Phys.org, Planetary body, Planetary core, Planetary differentiation, Plasticity (physics), Plate tectonics, Polymorphism (materials science), Post-perovskite, Potassium, Potassium oxide, Primitive mantle, Project Mohole, Provinces and territories of Canada, Pyroxene, Rheology, Ringwoodite, Rock (geology), RRS James Cook, S-wave, Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, Science (journal), Science Daily, Science News, Scientific American, Seismology, Semail Ophiolite, Silicate, Silicate perovskite, Silicon, Silicon dioxide, Slab (geology), Sodium, Sodium oxide, Solidus (chemistry), Spinel, Structure of the Earth, Subduction, Supercomputer, Terrestrial planet, Thorium, Tibetan Plateau, Titan (moon), Transition zone (Earth), Triton (moon), Troodos Ophiolite, Tungsten, Uranium, Venus, Viscosity, Volcanism, Wadsleyite, Wüstite, World Ocean, Xenolith, Zabargad Island, 4 Vesta. Expand index (88 more) » « Shrink index
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Aluminium oxide (British English) or aluminum oxide (American English) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula 23.
Andrija Mohorovičić (23 January 1857 – 18 December 1936) was a Croatian meteorologist and seismologist.
Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System.
The asthenosphere (from Greek ἀσθενής asthenḗs 'weak' + "sphere") is the highly viscous, mechanically weak and ductilely deforming region of the upper mantle of the Earth.
Atmospheric pressure, sometimes also called barometric pressure, is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet).
In physics and fluid mechanics, a boundary layer is an important concept and refers to the layer of fluid in the immediate vicinity of a bounding surface where the effects of viscosity are significant.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound.
Callisto (Jupiter IV) is the second-largest moon of Jupiter, after Ganymede.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Cape Verde or Cabo Verde (Cabo Verde), officially the Republic of Cabo Verde, is an island country spanning an archipelago of 10 volcanic islands in the central Atlantic Ocean.
The Caribbean Sea (Mar Caribe; Mer des Caraïbes; Caraïbische Zee) is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean in the tropics of the Western Hemisphere.
Chaos theory is a branch of mathematics focusing on the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions.
is a Japanese scientific drilling ship built for the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP).
The Clausius–Clapeyron relation, named after Rudolf Clausius and Benoît Paul Émile Clapeyron, is a way of characterizing a discontinuous phase transition between two phases of matter of a single constituent.
Cobalt-60,, is a synthetic radioactive isotope of cobalt with a half-life of 5.2714 years.
Continental drift is the movement of the Earth's continents relative to each other, thus appearing to "drift" across the ocean bed.
Convection is the heat transfer due to bulk movement of molecules within fluids such as gases and liquids, including molten rock (rheid).
In plate tectonics, a convergent boundary, also known as a destructive plate boundary, is a region of active deformation where two or more tectonic plates or fragments of the lithosphere are near the end of their life cycle.
The core–mantle boundary (CMB in the parlance of solid earth geophysicists) of the Earth lies between the planet's silicate mantle and its liquid iron-nickel outer core.
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
A diamond anvil cell (DAC) is a high-pressure device used in scientific experiments.
Don Lynn Anderson (March 5, 1933 – December 2, 2014) was an American geophysicist who made significant contributions to the understanding of the origin, evolution, structure, and composition of Earth and other planets.
Donald L. Turcotte (born 22 April 1932) is an American geophysicist, most famous for his work on the boundary layer theory of mantle convection as part of the theory of plate tectonics.
Dotdash (formerly About.com) is an American Internet-based network of content that publishes articles and videos about various subjects on its "topic sites", of which there are nearly 1,000.
Dunite (also known as olivinite, not to be confused with the mineral olivenite) is an igneous, plutonic rock, of ultramafic composition, with coarse-grained or phaneritic texture.
The term dynamic topography is used in geodynamics to refer to elevation differences caused by the flow within the Earth's mantle.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Earth's internal heat budget is fundamental to the thermal history of the Earth.
Eclogite is a mafic metamorphic rock.
Europa or as Ευρώπη (Jupiter II) is the smallest of the four Galilean moons orbiting Jupiter, and the sixth-closest to the planet.
Ferropericlase or magnesiowüstite is a magnesium/iron oxide ((Mg,Fe)O) that is interpreted to be one of the main constituents of the Earth's lower mantle together with silicate perovskite, a magnesium/iron silicate with a perovskite structure.
In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress.
Ganymede (Jupiter III) is the largest and most massive moon of Jupiter and in the Solar System.
Garnets are a group of silicate minerals that have been used since the Bronze Age as gemstones and abrasives.
The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that relates geological strata (stratigraphy) to time.
Geothermal gradient is the rate of increasing temperature with respect to increasing depth in the Earth's interior.
Gerald Schubert (born 1939) is a geophysicist and Professor Emeritus of Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences at UCLA.
The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) was a joint mission of NASA and the German Aerospace Center.
Gros Morne National Park is a world heritage site located on the west coast of Newfoundland.
In geology, the places known as hotspots or hot spots are volcanic regions thought to be fed by underlying mantle that is anomalously hot compared with the surrounding mantle.
Ice is water frozen into a solid state.
Inge Lehmann (13 May 1888 – 21 February 1993) was a Danish seismologist and geophysicist.
Io (Jupiter I) is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of the planet Jupiter.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Drillship ''JOIDES Resolution'' in 1988 The riserless research vessel JOIDES Resolution (Joint Oceanographic Institutions for Deep Earth Sampling), often referred to as the JR, is one of the scientific drilling ships used by the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP), an international, multi-drilling platform research program.
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.
Keith Edward Bullen FAA FRS (29 June 1906 – 23 September 1976) was a New Zealand-born mathematician and geophysicist.
The Lehmann discontinuity is an abrupt increase of ''P''-wave and ''S''-wave velocities at the depth of 220±30 km, discovered by seismologist Inge Lehmann.
A lithosphere (λίθος for "rocky", and σφαίρα for "sphere") is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial-type planet, or natural satellite, that is defined by its rigid mechanical properties.
The Lizard Complex, Cornwall is generally accepted to represent a preserved example of an exposed ophiolite complex in the United Kingdom.
The low-velocity zone (LVZ) occurs close to the boundary between the lithosphere and the asthenosphere in the upper mantle.
Macquarie Island, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, lies in the southwest Pacific Ocean, about halfway between New Zealand and Antarctica, at 54° 30' S, 158° 57' E.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Magnesium oxide (MgO), or magnesia, is a white hygroscopic solid mineral that occurs naturally as periclase and is a source of magnesium (see also oxide).
Mantle convection is the slow creeping motion of Earth's solid silicate mantle caused by convection currents carrying heat from the interior of the Earth to the surface.
A mantle plume is an upwelling of abnormally hot rock within the Earth's mantle, first proposed by J. Tuzo Wilson in 1963.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.
Melting, or fusion, is a physical process that results in the phase transition of a substance from a solid to a liquid.
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
Mercury is the smallest and innermost planet in the Solar System.
In geology, the mesosphere refers to the part of the Earth's mantle below the lithosphere and the asthenosphere, but above the outer core.
The Mohorovičić discontinuity, usually referred to as the Moho, is the boundary between the Earth's crust and the mantle.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
MSNBC is an American news cable and satellite television network that provides news coverage and political commentary from NBC News on current events.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
A natural satellite or moon is, in the most common usage, an astronomical body that orbits a planet or minor planet (or sometimes another small Solar System body).
Newfoundland and Labrador (Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador; Akamassiss; Newfoundland Irish: Talamh an Éisc agus Labradar) is the most easterly province of Canada.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Nova Science Publishers is an academic publisher of books, encyclopedias, handbooks, e-books and journals, based in Hauppauge, New York.
In geology, numerical modeling is a widely applied technique to tackle complex geological problems by computational simulation of geological scenarios.
Oceanic crust is the uppermost layer of the oceanic portion of a tectonic plate.
The mineral olivine is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg2+, Fe2+)2SiO4.
An ophiolite is a section of the Earth's oceanic crust and the underlying upper mantle that has been uplifted and exposed above sea level and often emplaced onto continental crustal rocks.
The outer core of the Earth is a fluid layer about thick and composed of mostly iron and nickel that lies above Earth's solid inner core and below its mantle.
Overburden pressure, also called lithostatic pressure, confining pressure or vertical stress, is the pressure or stress imposed on a layer of soil or rock by the weight of overlying material.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength.
Peridotite is a dense, coarse-grained igneous rock consisting mostly of the minerals olivine and pyroxene.
A perovskite is any material with the same type of crystal structure as calcium titanium oxide (CaTiO3), known as the perovskite structure, or XIIA2+VIB4+X2−3 with the oxygen in the edge centers.
Phys.org is a science, research and technology news aggregator where much of the content is republished directly from press releases and news agencies-in a practice known as churnalism.
A planetary body or planetary object is any secondary body in the Solar System that is geologically differentiated or in hydrostatic equilibrium and thus has a planet-like geology: a planet, dwarf planet, or the larger moons and asteroids.
The planetary core consists of the innermost layer(s) of a planet; which may be composed of solid and liquid layers.
In planetary science, planetary differentiation is the process of separating out different constituents of a planetary body as a consequence of their physical or chemical behaviour, where the body develops into compositionally distinct layers; the denser materials of a planet sink to the center, while less dense materials rise to the surface, generally in a magma ocean.
In physics and materials science, plasticity describes the deformation of a (solid) material undergoing non-reversible changes of shape in response to applied forces.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
In materials science, polymorphism is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one form or crystal structure.
Post-perovskite (pPv) is a high-pressure phase of magnesium silicate (MgSiO3).
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Potassium oxide (2O) is an ionic compound of potassium and oxygen.
The primitive mantle is, in geochemistry, a hypothetical reservoir with the composition of the Earth's crust and mantle taken together.
Project Mohole was an ambitious attempt in the early 1960s to drill through the Earth's crust into the Mohorovičić discontinuity, and to provide an Earth science complement to the high-profile Space Race.
The provinces and territories of Canada are the sub-national governments within the geographical areas of Canada under the authority of the Canadian Constitution.
The pyroxenes (commonly abbreviated to Px) are a group of important rock-forming inosilicate minerals found in many igneous and metamorphic rocks.
Rheology (from Greek ῥέω rhéō, "flow" and -λoγία, -logia, "study of") is the study of the flow of matter, primarily in a liquid state, but also as "soft solids" or solids under conditions in which they respond with plastic flow rather than deforming elastically in response to an applied force.
Ringwoodite is a high-pressure phase of Mg2SiO4 formed at high temperatures and pressures of the Earth's mantle between depth.
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.
The RRS James Cook is a British Royal Research Ship operated by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC).
In seismology, S-waves, secondary waves, or shear waves (sometimes called an elastic S-wave) are a type of elastic wave, and are one of the two main types of elastic body waves, so named because they move through the body of an object, unlike surface waves.
The Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago (Arquipélago de São Pedro e São Paulo) is a group of 15 small islets and rocks in the central equatorial Atlantic Ocean.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Science Daily is an American website that aggregates press releases and publishes lightly edited press releases (a practice called churnalism) about science, similar to Phys.org and EurekAlert!.
Science News is an American bi-weekly magazine devoted to short articles about new scientific and technical developments, typically gleaned from recent scientific and technical journals.
Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.
Seismology (from Ancient Greek σεισμός (seismós) meaning "earthquake" and -λογία (-logía) meaning "study of") is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth or through other planet-like bodies.
The Semail Ophiolite of the Hajar Mountains of Oman and the United Arab Emirates is a large slab of oceanic crust, made of volcanic rocks and ultramafic rocks from the Earth's upper mantle, that was overthrust onto continental crust as an ophiolite.
In chemistry, a silicate is any member of a family of anions consisting of silicon and oxygen, usually with the general formula, where 0 ≤ x Silicate anions are often large polymeric molecules with an extense variety of structures, including chains and rings (as in polymeric metasilicate), double chains (as in, and sheets (as in. In geology and astronomy, the term silicate is used to mean silicate minerals, ionic solids with silicate anions; as well as rock types that consist predominantly of such minerals. In that context, the term also includes the non-ionic compound silicon dioxide (silica, quartz), which would correspond to x.
Silicate perovskite (or bridgmanite) is (Mg,Fe)SiO3 and CaSiO3 (calcium silicate) when arranged in a perovskite structure.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
In geology, a slab is the portion of a tectonic plate that is being subducted.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Sodium oxide is a chemical compound with the formula Na2O.
In chemistry, materials science, and physics, the solidus is the locus of temperatures (a curve on a phase diagram) below which a given substance is completely solid (crystallized).
Spinel is the magnesium aluminium member of the larger spinel group of minerals.
The interior structure of the Earth is layered in spherical shells: an outer silicate solid crust, a highly viscous asthenosphere and mantle, a liquid outer core that is much less viscous than the mantle, and a solid inner core.
Subduction is a geological process that takes place at convergent boundaries of tectonic plates where one plate moves under another and is forced or sinks due to gravity into the mantle.
A supercomputer is a computer with a high level of performance compared to a general-purpose computer.
A terrestrial planet, telluric planet, or rocky planet is a planet that is composed primarily of silicate rocks or metals.
Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.
The Tibetan Plateau, also known in China as the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau or the Qing–Zang Plateau or Himalayan Plateau, is a vast elevated plateau in Central Asia and East Asia, covering most of the Tibet Autonomous Region and Qinghai in western China, as well as part of Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir, India.
Titan is the largest moon of Saturn.
The transition zone is part of the Earth’s mantle, and is located between the lower mantle and the upper mantle, between a depth of 410 and 660 km (250 to 400 mi).
Triton is the largest natural satellite of the planet Neptune, and the first Neptunian moon to be discovered.
The Troodos Ophiolite on the island of Cyprus represents a Late Cretaceous spreading axis (mid-ocean ridge) that has since been uplifted due to its positioning on the overriding Anatolian plate at the Cyprus arc and subduction to the south of the Eratosthenes Seamount.
Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.
The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
Volcanism is the phenomenon of eruption of molten rock (magma) onto the surface of the Earth or a solid-surface planet or moon, where lava, pyroclastics and volcanic gases erupt through a break in the surface called a vent.
Wadsleyite is a high-pressure phase of polymorphous Mg2SiO4.
Wüstite (FeO) is a mineral form of iron(II) oxide found with meteorites and native iron.
The World Ocean or Global Ocean (colloquially the sea or the ocean) is the interconnected system of Earth's oceanic waters, and comprises the bulk of the hydrosphere, covering (70.8%) of Earth's surface, with a total volume of.
A xenolith ("foreign rock") is a rock fragment that becomes enveloped in a larger rock during the latter's development and solidification.
Zabargad Island (جزيرة الزبرجد, also known as St. John's Island in English) is the largest of a group of islands in Foul Bay, Egypt.
Vesta, minor-planet designation 4 Vesta, is one of the largest objects in the asteroid belt, with a mean diameter of.