176 relations: Aftermarket (automotive), Alfa Romeo, Alfa Romeo GTV and Spider, Australia, Auto racing, Automatic transmission, Automobile air conditioning, Automotive head unit, Autostick, Bearing (mechanical), Bench seat, BMW, Borg-Warner T-56 transmission, BorgWarner, Bowden cable, Brake fade, Brass, Brazil, Bronze, Bugatti Veyron, Car, Car controls, Car rental, Carbon, Centrifugal clutch, Chevrolet, Chevrolet C/K, Chevrolet Corvair, Chevrolet Corvette (C7), China, Chrysler minivans (S), Chrysler PowerFlite transmission, Citroën 2CV, Clutch, Coating, Commercial vehicle, Cone clutch, Continuously variable transmission, Denmark, Diesel engine, Diesel–electric transmission, Dodge Challenger, Dog clutch, Dog-leg gearbox, Dominican Republic, Double clutch (technique), Driving, Dual-clutch transmission, Electric park brake, Epicyclic gearing, ..., Europe, European Union, Fiat Ducato, Fiat Multipla, Flywheel, Ford MT75 transmission, Ford Toploader transmission, Forging, Freewheel, Friction, Front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout, Front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout, Fuel economy in automobiles, G56 manual transmission, Gear, Gear stick, Gear train, Georgia (country), Greece, Hill-holder, Hill-start assist, Honda, Honda Avancier, Honda Civic, Honda Element, Honda Wave series, India, Internal combustion engine, Iron, Israel, Jordan, Lamborghini, Layshaft, Learning curve, Left- and right-hand traffic, Linkage (mechanical), Malaysia, Manual transmission, Manumatic, Mazda, Mazda MX-5, Metal, Mini, Minibike, Minivan, Mitsubishi Delica, Molybdenum, Motor vehicle, Motorcycle, Muscle memory, New South Wales, New Venture Gear 3500 transmission, New Venture Gear 4500 transmission, New Venture Gear 5600 transmission, New Zealand, Nissan Cedric, Non-synchronous transmission, Norway, Overdrive (mechanics), Pakistan, Philippines, Pontiac Vibe, Porsche, Porsche 356, Porsche 911, Porsche 911 GT3, Porsche 991, Portugal, Power band, Powerglide, Preselector gearbox, Push start, Rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout, Renault 4, Renault 5, Ride height, Robert Bosch GmbH, Russia, Saab 900, Selespeed, Semi-automatic transmission, Sequential manual transmission, Serbia, Servomechanism, Sheet metal, Shift time, Singapore, Sintering, South Africa, South Korea, Spring (device), Sri Lanka, Stamping (metalworking), Steel, Subaru, Subaru Impreza, Suzuki, Suzuki MR Wagon, Switzerland, Taxicab, Taxicabs of Hong Kong, Tesla Roadster (2008), Three on the tree, Throttle, Thrust bearing, Torque, Torque converter, Torsion (mechanics), Toyota, Toyota 86, Toyota Crown, Toyota HiAce, Toyota Matrix, Transmission (mechanics), Truck, Turkey, Ukraine, Underbone, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Volkswagen, Volkswagen Beetle, Volkswagen Karmann Ghia, Wear, ZF Friedrichshafen. Expand index (126 more) » « Shrink index
The automotive aftermarket is the secondary market of the automotive industry, concerned with the manufacturing, remanufacturing, distribution, retailing, and installation of all vehicle parts, chemicals, equipment, and accessories, after the sale of the automobile by the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) to the consumer.
Alfa Romeo Automobiles S.p.A. is a car manufacturer, founded by Frenchman Alexandre Darracq as A.L.F.A. (" Anonima Lombarda Fabbrica Automobili", "Lombard Automobile Factory Company") on 24 June 1910, in Milan.
The Alfa Romeo GTV (Gran Turismo Veloce—Fast Grand Touring) and Alfa Romeo Spider were two sports cars produced by the Italian manufacturer Alfa Romeo from 1995 to 2006.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Auto racing (also known as car racing, motor racing, or automobile racing) is a motorsport involving the racing of automobiles for competition.
An automatic transmission, also called auto, self-shifting transmission, n-speed automatic (where n is its number of forward gear ratios), or AT, is a type of motor vehicle transmission that can automatically change gear ratios as the vehicle moves, freeing the driver from having to shift gears manually.
Automobile air conditioning (also called A/C) systems use air conditioning to cool the air in a vehicle.
An automotive head unit, sometimes referred to as a deck, is a component of an information and entertainment system in an automobile which provides a unified hardware interface for the entire system.
The name Autostick has been used both for a Volkswagen semi-auto transmission and a system designed by Chrysler which allows for manual selection of gears with an automatic transmission.
A bearing is a machine element that constrains relative motion to only the desired motion, and reduces friction between moving parts.
The bench seat was the traditional seat installed in American and Australian automobiles.
BMW (Bayerische Motoren Werke in German, or Bavarian Motor Works in English) is a German multinational company which currently produces luxury automobiles and motorcycles, and also produced aircraft engines until 1945.
The T-56 six speed manual transmission has been used in a wide range of vehicles from General Motors, Dodge, and Ford Motor Company.
BorgWarner Inc. is an American worldwide automotive industry components and parts supplier.
A Bowden cable is a type of flexible cable used to transmit mechanical force or energy by the movement of an inner cable relative to a hollow outer cable housing.
Vehicle braking system fade, or brake fade, is the reduction in stopping power that can occur after repeated or sustained application of the brakes, especially in high load or high speed conditions.
Brass is a metallic alloy that is made of copper and zinc.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
The Bugatti Veyron EB 16.4 is a mid-engined sports car, designed and developed in Germany by the Volkswagen Group and manufactured in Molsheim, France, by Bugatti.
A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation.
Car controls are the components in automobiles and other powered road vehicles, such as trucks and buses, used for driving and parking.
A car rental, hire car, or car hire agency is a company that rents automobiles for short periods of time, generally ranging from a few hours to a few weeks.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
A centrifugal clutch is a clutch that uses centrifugal force to connect two concentric shafts, with the driving shaft nested inside the driven shaft.
Chevrolet, colloquially referred to as Chevy and formally the Chevrolet Division of General Motors Company, is an American automobile division of the American manufacturer General Motors (GM).
The C/K was Chevrolet and GMC's full-size pickup truck line from 1960 until 2000 in the United States and Canada, from 1964 to 2001 in Brazil, and from 1975 to 1982 in Chile.
The Chevrolet Corvair is a compact car manufactured by Chevrolet for model years 1960–1969.
The Chevrolet Corvette (C7) is a sports car produced by Chevrolet.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The first-generation Chrysler minivans are a series of minivans produced and marketed by the Chrysler Corporation in North American and Europe from 1984 to 1990.
PowerFlite is a two-speed automatic transmission engineered and produced by the Chrysler Corporation and used in their passenger cars from 1954 to 1961.
The Citroën 2CV ("deux chevaux" i.e. "deux chevaux-vapeur" (lit. "two steam horses", "two tax horsepower") is an air-cooled front-engine, front-wheel-drive economy car introduced at the 1948 Paris Mondial de l'Automobile and manufactured by Citroën for model years 1948–1990. Conceived by Citroën Vice-President Pierre Boulanger to help motorise the large number of farmers still using horses and carts in 1930s France, the 2CV has a combination of innovative engineering and utilitarian, straightforward metal bodywork — initially corrugated for added strength without added weight. The 2CV featured low cost; simplicity of overall maintenance; an easily serviced air-cooled engine (originally offering 9 hp); low fuel consumption; and an extremely long-travel suspension offering a soft ride and light off-road capability. Often called "an umbrella on wheels", the fixed-profile convertible bodywork featured a full-width, canvas, roll-back sunroof, which accommodated oversized loads and until 1955 reached almost to the car's rear bumper. Notably, Michelin introduced and first commercialized the radial tyre with the introduction of the 2CV. Manufactured in France between 1948 and 1988 (and in Portugal from 1988 to 1990), more than 3.8 million 2CVs were produced, along with over 1.2 million small 2CV-based delivery vans known as fourgonnettes. Citroën ultimately offered several mechanically identical variants including the Ami (over 1.8 million); the Dyane (over 1.4 million); the Acadiane (over 250,000); and the Mehari (over 140,000). In total, Citroën manufactured almost 9 million 2CVs and variants. The purchase price of the 2CV was low relative to its competition. In West Germany during the 1960s, for example, it cost about half as much as a Volkswagen Beetle. From the mid-1950s economy car competition had increased – internationally in the form of the 1957 Fiat 500 and 1955 Fiat 600, and 1959 Austin Mini. By 1952, Germany produced a price competitive car – the Messerschmitt KR175, followed in 1955 by the Isetta – these were microcars, not complete four-door cars like the 2CV. On the French home market, from 1961, the small Simca 1000 using licensed Fiat technology, and the larger Renault 4 hatchback had become available. The R4 was the biggest threat to the 2CV, eventually outselling it. A 1953 technical review in Autocar described "the extraordinary ingenuity of this design, which is undoubtedly the most original since the Model T Ford". In 2011, The Globe and Mail called it a "car like no other". The motoring writer L. J. K. Setright described the 2CV as "the most intelligent application of minimalism ever to succeed as a car", and a car of "remorseless rationality".
A clutch is a mechanical device which engages and disengages power transmission especially from driving shaft to driven shaft.
A coating is a covering that is applied to the surface of an object, usually referred to as the substrate.
A commercial vehicle is any type of motor vehicle used for transporting goods or paying passengers.
A cone clutch serves the same purpose as a disk or plate clutch.
A continuously variable transmission (CVT), also known as a single-speed transmission, stepless transmission, pulley transmission, or, in case of motorcycles, a twist-and-go, is an automatic transmission that can change seamlessly through a continuous range of effective gear ratios.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
The diesel engine (also known as a compression-ignition or CI engine), named after Rudolf Diesel, is an internal combustion engine in which ignition of the fuel which is injected into the combustion chamber is caused by the elevated temperature of the air in the cylinder due to mechanical compression (adiabatic compression).
A diesel–electric transmission, or diesel–electric powertrain, is used by a number of vehicle and ship types for providing locomotion.
The Dodge Challenger is the name of three different generations of automobiles (two of those being pony cars) produced by Dodge. However, the first use of the Challenger name by Dodge was in 1959 for marketing a "value version" of the full-sized Coronet Silver Challenger. From model years 1970 to 1974, the first generation Dodge Challenger pony car was built using the Chrysler E platform in hardtop and convertible body styles sharing major components with the Plymouth Barracuda. The second generation, from 1978 to 1983, was an imported from Japan badge engineered Mitsubishi Galant Lambda, a coupe version of an economical compact car. The third and current generation is a pony car that was introduced in early 2008 as a rival to the evolved fifth generation Ford Mustang and the fifth generation Chevrolet Camaro.
A dog clutch is a type of clutch that couples two rotating shafts or other rotating components not by friction but by interference.
A dog-leg gearbox is a manual transmission shift pattern distinguished by an up-over-up shift between first and second gear.
The Dominican Republic (República Dominicana) is a sovereign state located in the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region.
Double clutching (also called double de-clutching, or double shuffle in Australia) is a method of shifting gears used primarily for vehicles with an unsynchronized manual transmission, such as commercial trucks and specialty vehicles.
Driving is the controlled operation and movement of a motor vehicle, including cars, motorcycles, trucks, and buses.
A dual-clutch transmission (DCT) (sometimes referred to as a twin-clutch transmission or double-clutch transmission) is a type of automatic transmission or automated automotive transmission.
Electric park brakes (EPB) are used on passenger vehicles to hold the vehicle stationary on grades and flat roads.
An epicyclic gear train (also known as planetary gear) consists of two gears mounted so that the center of one gear revolves around the center of the other.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The Fiat Ducato is a light commercial vehicle developed by the Sevel joint venture between Fiat and PSA Peugeot Citroën, produced since 1981.
The Fiat Multipla (Type 186) is a compact MPV produced by Italian automaker Fiat from 1998 to 2010.
A flywheel is a mechanical device specifically designed to efficiently store rotational energy.
The MT75 is a rear wheel drive or four wheel drive gearbox, depending on variant, made by the Ford Motor Company.
A Toploader transmission is a manually shifted three and four speed gearbox introduced in 1963 by the Ford Motor Company to replace the BorgWarner T-10.
Forging is a manufacturing process involving the shaping of metal using localized compressive forces.
Freewheel mechanism In mechanical or automotive engineering, a freewheel or overrunning clutch is a device in a transmission that disengages the driveshaft from the driven shaft when the driven shaft rotates faster than the driveshaft.
Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other.
In automotive design, an FF, or front-engine, front-wheel-drive (FWD) layout places both the internal combustion engine and driven roadwheels at the front of the vehicle.
In automotive design, an FR, or front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is one where the engine is located at the front of the vehicle and driven wheels are located at the rear.
The fuel economy of an automobile is the relationship between the distance traveled and the amount of fuel consumed by the vehicle.
The G56 manual transmission is the only manual transmission currently available in a full-size pickup truck.
A gear or cogwheel is a rotating machine part having cut like teeth, or cogs, which mesh with another toothed part to transmit torque.
A gear stick (rarely spelled gearstick), gear lever (both, UK English), gearshift or shifter (US English) is a metal lever attached to the shift assembly in a manual transmission-equipped automobile and is used to change gears.
A gear train is a mechanical system formed by mounting gears on a frame so the teeth of the gears engage.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Hill-Holder is a name for the mechanism invented by Wagner Electric and manufactured by Bendix Brake Company in South Bend, Indiana.
The hill-start assist is a variant of hill-holder used by some semi-automatic, clutchless transmissions as well as newer manual transmissions.
is a Japanese public multinational conglomerate corporation primarily known as a manufacturer of automobiles, aircraft, motorcycles, and power equipment.
The Honda Avancier is a mid-size crossover SUV (previously a mid-size car) produced by Japanese manufacturer Honda.
The is a line of cars manufactured by Honda.
The Honda Element is a compact crossover SUV manufactured and marketed by Honda and based on a modified CR-V platform.
The Honda Wave – also marketed as the Honda NF series (codename), Honda Innova in Europe, and Honda Supra in Indonesia – are a series of motorcycles manufactured by Honda that debuted in 1995 with an underbone design, having separate cosmetic plastic body panels over a structural steel tube chassis.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
Automobili Lamborghini S.p.A. is an Italian brand and manufacturer of luxury sports cars and SUVs based in Sant'Agata Bolognese and tractors Lamborghini Trattori in Pieve di Cento, Italy.
A layshaft is an intermediate shaft within a gearbox that carries gears, but does not transfer the primary drive of the gearbox either in or out of the gearbox.
A learning curve is a graphical representation of how an increase in learning (measured on the vertical axis) comes from greater experience (the horizontal axis); or how the more someone (or thing) does something, the better they get at it.
The terms right-hand traffic (RHT) and left-hand traffic (LHT) refer to the practice, in bidirectional traffic situations, to keep to the right side or to the left side of the road, respectively.
A mechanical linkage is an assembly of bodies connected to manage forces and movement.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
A manual transmission, also known as a manual gearbox, a standard transmission or colloquially in some countries (e.g. the United States) as a stick shift is a type of transmission used in motor vehicle applications.
Manumatic, a portmanteau of the words manual and automatic, is a term referring to a class of automotive transmission.
, commonly referred to as simply Mazda, is a Japanese multinational automaker based in Fuchū, Aki District, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.
The Mazda MX-5, released as the Mazda MX-5 Miata in North America and as the Eunos Roadster or Mazda Roadster in Japan, is a lightweight two-seater roadster with a front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
The Mini is a small economy car produced by the English-based British Motor Corporation (BMC) and its successors from 1959 until 2000.
A minibike, sometimes called a minimoto or pocketbike, is a miniature motorcycle.
A minivan (American English), people carrier (British English),, MPV (multi-purpose vehicle) or MUV (multi-utility vehicle) is a vehicle size classification describing a high-roof vehicle with a flexible interior layout.
The Mitsubishi Delica is a range of cabover vans and pickup trucks designed and built by the Japanese automaker Mitsubishi since 1968.
Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42.
A motor vehicle is a self-propelled vehicle, commonly wheeled, that does not operate on rails, such as trains or trams and used for the transportation of passengers, or passengers and property.
A motorcycle, often called a bike, motorbike, or cycle, is a two-> or three-wheeled motor vehicle.
Muscle memory has been used synonymously with motor learning, which is a form of procedural memory that involves consolidating a specific motor task into memory through repetition.
New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state on the east coast of:Australia.
The New Venture Gear 3500, commonly called NV3500, is a 5-speed overdrive manual transmission manufactured by New Venture Gear and used by GM and Dodge in compact and full-size light trucks.
The New Venture Gear 4500, commonly called NV4500, is a 5-speed manual transmission manufactured by New Venture Gear and used in General Motors and Chrysler products from 1991–2007.
The NV5600 is a Heavy Duty close ratio 6-speed manual transmission that was used in 1998-2005 Dodge RAM 2500 and 3500 Series ¾ ton and 1 ton Trucks with the 5.9L Cummins Engines.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
The Nissan Cedric is a large automobile produced by Nissan since 1960.
A non-synchronous transmission is a form of transmission based on gears that do not use synchronizing mechanisms.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
Overdrive is a term used to describe the operation of an automobile cruising at sustained speed with reduced engine revolutions per minute (RPM), leading to better fuel consumption, lower noise, and lower wear.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
The Pontiac Vibe was a compact automobile that was sold by Pontiac from 2002 to 2010.
The Porsche 356 is a sports car which was first produced by Austrian company Porsche Konstruktionen GesmbH (1948–1949), and then by German company Dr. Ing. h. c. F. Porsche GmbH (1950–1965).
The Porsche 911 (pronounced Nine Eleven or in Neunelfer) is a two-door, 2+2 high performance rear-engined classic German sports car made since 1963 by Porsche AG of Stuttgart, Germany.
The Porsche 911 GT3 is a high performance version of the Porsche 911 sports car primarily intended for racing.
The Porsche 991 is the internal designation for the seventh generation Porsche 911 sports car, which was unveiled at the 2011 Frankfurt Motor Show on 15 September as the replacement for the 997.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
The power band of an internal combustion engine or electric motor is the range of operating speeds under which the engine or motor is able to operate most efficiently.
The Powerglide is a two-speed automatic transmission designed by General Motors.
A preselector or self-changing gearbox is a type of manual gearbox (US: transmission) used on a variety of vehicles, most commonly in the 1930s.
Push starting, also known as bump starting, clutch starting, popping the clutch or crash starting, is a method of starting a motor vehicle with an internal combustion engine by engaging the manual transmission while the vehicle is in motion.
In automotive design, an RR, or Rear-engine, Rear-wheel-drive layout places both the engine and drive wheels at the rear of the vehicle.
The Renault 4, also known as the 4L (pronounced "Quatrelle"), is a hatchback economy car produced by the French automaker Renault between 1961 and 1994.
The Renault 5 is a supermini produced by French automaker Renault.
Ride height (also called ground clearance or simply clearance) is the amount of space between the base of an automobile tire and the lowest point (typically the axle); or, more properly, to the shortest distance between a flat, level surface, and the lowest part of a vehicle other than those parts designed to contact the ground (such as tires, tracks, skis, etc.). Ground clearance is measured with standard vehicle equipment, and for cars, is usually given with no cargo or passengers.
Robert Bosch GmbH, or Bosch, is a German multinational engineering and electronics company headquartered in Gerlingen, near Stuttgart, Germany.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Saab 900 is a compact luxury automobile which was produced by Saab from 1978 until 1998 in two generations.
Selespeed is the name of an electrohydraulic manual transmission used in Alfa Romeo cars, developed by Italian company Magneti Marelli.
A semi-automatic transmission (also known as a clutch-less manual transmission, auto-manual, automated manual transmission, trigger shift, flappy-paddle gear shift, Manumatic, Tiptronic, Touchshift, Geartronic, Sportronic or paddle-shift gearbox) is an automobile transmission that combines manual transmission and automatic transmission.
A sequential manual transmission (or sequential manual gearbox) is a non-traditional type of manual transmission used on motorcycles and high-performance cars for auto racing, where gears are selected in order, and direct access to specific gears is not possible.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
In control engineering a servomechanism, sometimes shortened to servo, is an automatic device that uses error-sensing negative feedback to correct the action of a mechanism.
Sheet metal is metal formed by an industrial process into thin, flat pieces.
Shift time refers to the time interval between gear changes in a transmission during which power delivery is interrupted.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
Clinker nodules produced by sintering Sintering is the process of compacting and forming a solid mass of material by heat or pressure without melting it to the point of liquefaction.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
A spring is an elastic object that stores mechanical energy.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
Stamping (also known as pressing) is the process of placing flat sheet metal in either blank or coil form into a stamping press where a tool and die surface forms the metal into a net shape.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
(or) is the automobile manufacturing division of Japanese transportation conglomerate Subaru Corporation (formerly known as Fuji Heavy Industries), the twenty-second largest automaker by production worldwide in 2012.
The is a compact family car that has been manufactured since 1992 by Subaru, introduced as a replacement for the Leone, with the predecessor's EA series engines replaced by the new EJ series.
is a Japanese multinational corporation headquartered in Minami-ku, Hamamatsu, that manufactures automobiles, four-wheel drive vehicles, motorcycles, all-terrain vehicles (ATVs), outboard marine engines, wheelchairs and a variety of other small internal combustion engines.
The Suzuki MR Wagon is a 4-seater mini MPV manufactured by Suzuki for the Japanese market only, and also marketed in Japan by Nissan as the Nissan Moco under an OEM agreement.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
A taxicab, also known as a taxi or a cab, is a type of vehicle for hire with a driver, used by a single passenger or small group of passengers, often for a non-shared ride.
Taxis of Hong Kong provide a taxi system.
The Tesla Roadster is a battery electric vehicle (BEV) sports car that was produced by the electric car firm Tesla Motors (now Tesla, Inc.) in California from 2008 to 2012. The Roadster was the first highway legal serial production all-electric car to use lithium-ion battery cells and the first production all-electric car to travel more than per charge. It is also the first production car to be launched into orbit, carried by a Falcon Heavy rocket in a test flight on February 6, 2018. The car is also the first production all-electric car with the top speed of more than 200 km/h. Tesla sold about 2,450 Roadsters in over 30 countries, More than 2,350 units sold through June 2012. Sales during the 3Q 2012: 68 Roadsters and 253 Model S. and most of the last Roadsters were sold in Europe and Asia during the fourth quarter of 2012. Tesla produced right-hand-drive Roadsters from early 2010. The Roadster qualified for government incentives in several nations. The world distance record of for a production electric car on a single charge was set by a Roadster on October 27, 2009, during the Global Green Challenge in outback Australia, in which it averaged a speed of. In March 2010, a Tesla Roadster became the first electric vehicle to win the Monte Carlo Alternative Energy Rally and the first to win any Federation Internationale de l'Automobile-sanctioned championship when a Roadster driven by former Formula One driver Érik Comas beat 96 competitors for range, efficiency and performance in the three-day, nearly challenge. According to the U.S. EPA, the Roadster can travel on a single charge of its lithium-ion battery pack, and can accelerate from in 3.7 or 3.9 seconds depending on the model. It has a top speed of. The Roadster's efficiency,, was reported as 120 MPGe (2.0 L/100 km). It uses 135 Wh/km (21.7 kW·h/100 mi, 13.5 kW·h/100 km or 490 kJ/km) battery-to-wheel, and has an efficiency of 88% on average.
Three on the tree may refer to.
A throttle is the mechanism by which fluid flow is managed by the constriction or obstruction.
A thrust bearing is a particular type of rotary bearing.
Torque, moment, or moment of force is rotational force.
A torque converter is a type of fluid coupling which transfers rotating power from a prime mover, like an internal combustion engine, to a rotating driven load.
In the field of solid mechanics, torsion is the twisting of an object due to an applied torque.
, usually shortened to Toyota, is a Japanese multinational automotive manufacturer headquartered in Toyota, Aichi, Japan.
The Toyota 86 is a series of 2+2 seater sports cars that was jointly developed by Toyota and Subaru and solely manufactured by Subaru.
The Toyota Crown (Japanese: トヨタクラウン Toyota Kuraun) is an automobile which has been produced by Toyota in Japan since 1955.
The Toyota HiAce (pronounced as "High Ace") is a light commercial van produced by the Japanese automobile manufacturer Toyota.
The Toyota Matrix, officially referred to as the Toyota Corolla Matrix, is a compact hatchback manufactured by Toyota Motor Manufacturing Canada in Cambridge, Ontario and derived from the Toyota Corolla.
A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power.
A truck or lorry is a motor vehicle designed to transport cargo.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
An underbone is a motorcycle that uses structural tube framing with an overlay of plastic or non-structural body panels and contrasts with monocoque or unibody designs where pressed steel serves both as the vehicle's structure and bodywork.
The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Volkswagen, shortened to VW, is a German automaker founded on 28 May 1937 by the German Labour Front under Adolf Hitler and headquartered in Wolfsburg.
The Volkswagen Beetle – officially the Volkswagen Type 1, informally in German the Käfer (literally "beetle"), in parts of the English-speaking world the Bug, and known by many other nicknames in other languages – is a two-door, rear-engine economy car, intended for five passengers, that was manufactured and marketed by German automaker Volkswagen (VW) from 1938 until 2003.
The Volkswagen Karmann Ghia is a 2+2 developed for and sold by German automaker Volkswagen between 1955 and 1974.
Wear is the damaging, gradual removal or deformation of material at solid surfaces.
ZF Friedrichshafen AG, also known as ZF Group, and commonly abbreviated to ZF (ZF.
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