460 relations: A&E (TV channel), Absolute monarchy, Adam Smith, Adolf Hitler, Agence France-Presse, Agnes Smedley, Agrarian society, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Analects, Anarchism, Andrew Jackson, Anti-imperialism, Anti-Rightist Campaign, Arranged marriage, Autonomy, Autumn Harvest Uprising, Baidu, Barack Obama, Basic Books, Beijing, Beiyang government, Biography (TV series), Black Dog Publishing, Bo Gu, Buddhism, Burning of books and burying of scholars, Cai Hesen, Cambodia, Cambodian genocide, Cambridge University Press, Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries, Capitalism, Capitalist roader, Central Military Commission (China), Central Party School of the Communist Party of China, Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China (1949–54), Chairman Mao badge, Chairman of the Central Military Commission, Chairman of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, Chairman of the Communist Party of China, Chamdo, Changchun, Changsha, Changsha (poem), Charles Darwin, Che Guevara in popular culture, Chen Duxiu, Chen Yun, Chengdu, Chiang Kai-shek, ..., China, China Daily, Chinese calligraphy, Chinese Civil War, Chinese classics, Chinese nationalism, Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, Chinese Red Army, Chinese Soviet Republic, Chongqing, Civil liberties, Clare Hollingworth, Class conflict, Class consciousness, Classical liberalism, Classified information, Collective leadership, Collectivism, Columbia University, Communism, Communist International, Communist Party of China, Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist Centre), Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Confucianism, Consequentialism, Cornell University Press, Counter-revolutionary, Courtesy name, Cult of personality, Cultural Revolution, Dadu River (Taiwan), Deng Fa, Deng Xiaoping, Deng Zhongxia, Dixie Mission, Dongfanghong program, Dream of the Red Chamber, Duan Qirui, Ecco Press, Economic inequality, Edgar Snow, Eighth Route Army, Elite, Emphasis (typography), Encirclement Campaigns, Enemy of the people, Facsimile, Famine, Farewell My Concubine (film), Father of the Nation, Feminism, Fifth Encirclement Campaign against Jiangxi Soviet, First Encirclement Campaign against Jiangxi Soviet, Five-year plans of China, Forbidden City, Formaldehyde, Four Books and Five Classics, Frank Dikötter, Friedrich Engels, Friedrich Paulsen, Fujian, Futian incident, Gang of Four, Gansu, Gelaohui, General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, Geography of Taiwan, George Washington, German Empire, Golden Triangle (Southeast Asia), Great Chinese Famine, Great Hall of the People, Great Leap Forward, Great power, Green Gang, Gu Yue, Guangzhou, Guizhou, Harvard University Press, He Long, He Shuheng, He Zizhen, Helen Wang, Henry Holt and Company, Herbert Spencer, Hiroshima, Historical membership of the Politburo Standing Committee, Hu Shih, Hu Yaobang, Hua Guofeng, Huang Yanpei (TV series), HuffPost, Hunan, Hunan First Normal University, Hundred Flowers Awards, Hundred Flowers Campaign, Hundred Regiments Offensive, Hungry Ghosts: Mao's Secret Famine, Imperialism, Industrial society, Internet Archive, Ion Mihai Pacepa, Jasper Becker, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Jeffrey Wasserstrom, Jiang Kanghu, Jiang Qing, Jiangxi, Jiangxi–Fujian Soviet, Jiaxing, Jinan, Jinggang Mountains, Jinggangshan City, Jinsha River, John Adams (composer), John K. 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Schram, Sun Tzu, Sun Yat-sen, Taiwan, Tan Yankai, Tang dynasty, Tang Guoqiang, Ten thousand years, Test No. 6, The Beatles, The Black Book of Communism, The Blue Kite, The China Quarterly, The Communist Manifesto, The Daily Telegraph, The Double Ninth, The Economist, The Founding of a Party, The Founding of a Republic, The Guardian, The Internationale, The New York Times, The New York Times International Edition, The Private Life of Chairman Mao, The Spectator, The Spirit of the Laws, The Wealth of Nations, Third World, Three-anti and Five-anti Campaigns, Tiananmen, Tiananmen Square, Tibet, To Live (1994 film), Tonggu County, Tongmenghui, Totalitarianism, Trail of Tears, Treaty of Versailles, Tsinghua University, Tuberculosis, Twenty-One Demands, United States Department of State, University of California, Irvine, Victory over Japan Day, Viking Press, Vladimir Lenin, Wang Fuzhi, Wang Jingwei, Water Margin, Wen Qimei, Wen Tianxiang, White Snow, Red Blood, Workers' council, World communism, World revolution, World War I, Wu River (Yuan River, north), Xi'an, Xi'an Incident, Xiang River, Xiangtan, Xiao Zisheng, Xie Fuzhi, Xinfeng County, Jiangxi, Xinhai Revolution, Xinhua News Agency, Yan'an, Yan'an Forum, Yan'an Rectification Movement, Yang Changji, Yang Jisheng (historian), Yang Kaihui, Yang Yuehua, Ye Jianying, Year Zero (political notion), Yi Peiji, Yuan Shikai, Zhang Guotao, Zhang Hanzhi, Zhang Jingyao, Zhang Wentian, Zhang Xueliang, Zhang Zuolin, Zhao Hengti, Zhao Ziyang, Zheng Guanying, Zhongnanhai, Zhou Enlai, Zhu De, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, Zunyi, Zunyi Conference, 10th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, 14th Dalai Lama, 28 Bolsheviks, 6th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, 7th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, 8th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, 9th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. 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A&E is an American digital cable and satellite television television channel.
Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.
Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France.
Agnes Smedley (February 23, 1892 – May 6, 1950) was an American journalist and writer, well known for her semi-autobiographical novel Daughter of Earth as well as for her sympathetic chronicling of the Communist forces in the Chinese Civil War.
An agrarian society (or agricultural society) is any society whose economy is based on producing and maintaining crops and farmland.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neurone disease (MND), and Lou Gehrig's disease, is a specific disease which causes the death of neurons controlling voluntary muscles.
The Analects (Old Chinese: *run ŋ(r)aʔ), also known as the Analects of Confucius, is a collection of sayings and ideas attributed to the Chinese philosopher Confucius and his contemporaries, traditionally believed to have been compiled and written by Confucius's followers.
Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions.
Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845) was an American soldier and statesman who served as the seventh President of the United States from 1829 to 1837.
Anti-imperialism in political science and international relations is a term used in a variety of contexts, usually by nationalist movements who want to secede from a larger polity (usually in the form of an empire, but also in a multi-ethnic sovereign state) or as a specific theory opposed to capitalism in Marxist–Leninist discourse, derived from Vladimir Lenin's work Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism.
The Anti-Rightist Campaign in the People's Republic of China, which lasted from roughly 1957 to 1959, was a campaign to purge alleged "rightists" within the Communist Party of China (CPC) and abroad.
Arranged marriage is a type of marital union where the bride and groom are selected by individuals other than the couple themselves, particularly family members, such as the parents.
In development or moral, political, and bioethical philosophy, autonomy is the capacity to make an informed, un-coerced decision.
The Autumn Harvest Uprising was an insurrection that took place in Hunan and Jiangxi provinces, China, on September 7, 1927, led by Mao Zedong, who established a short-lived Hunan Soviet.
Baidu, Inc. (anglicized), incorporated on 18 January 2000, is a Chinese multinational technology company specializing in Internet-related services and products, and artificial intelligence, headquartered at the Baidu Campus in Beijing's Haidian District.
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
Basic Books is a book publisher founded in 1952 and located in New York, now an imprint of Hachette Books.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
The Beiyang government (北洋政府), also sometimes spelled Peiyang Government, refers to the government of the Republic of China, which was in place in the capital city Beijing from 1912 to 1928.
Biography is a documentary television series with three separate original broadcast runs: two syndicated runs (1961–1964 & 1979), and the recent run on A&E (1987–2006), which was moved to A&E's Biography Channel/FYI (2006–2012). Each episode was accompanied by a narration, using stock footage, on-camera interviews, and photographs of the people's lives. Biography was expanded into a franchise (2017) by using the previous logo for mini-series and movies (Biography Movies series) across A&E Networks' channels. The original version (1961–1963) was a half-hour filmed series produced for syndication by David Wolper and hosted by Mike Wallace. It featured historical figures such as Helen Keller and Mark Twain. A 1979 revival of Biography aired briefly on CBS covering a more recent collection of influential figures such as Idi Amin and Walt Disney. The A&E series placed the emphasis on modern celebrities, such as Marilyn Monroe, Elvis Presley, and Queen Elizabeth II. It also included fictional characters like Superman, Betty Boop, and Santa Claus. With this large catalog of profiled figures, A&E created a spin-off network called The Biography Channel (1998). Initially, most of the episodes featured the life stories of historical figures (similar to the original version) or present political or social leaders. People such as William Shakespeare, Charles Dickens, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Enrico Caruso, and Eva Perón were profiled. After a few years, however, the show began producing episodes on figures from pop culture, including Britney Spears, Al Pacino, Johnny Depp, and Marilyn Manson. This move away from purely intellectual subject matter has been criticized by some. Figures covered from the business and technology world include Sam Walton, Sergey Brin and Larry Page, J. C. Penney, Dave Thomas, Colonel Sanders, Bernie Marcus, and Arthur Blank.
Black Dog Publishing (London UK) is a British publishing company specialising in illustrated non-fiction books on contemporary culture.
Qin Bangxian, better known as Bo Gu (May 14, 1907 – April 8, 1946) was a senior leader of the Chinese Communist Party and a member of the 28 Bolsheviks.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
The burning of books and burying of scholars refers to the supposed burning of texts in 213 BCE and live burial of 460 Confucian scholars in 212 BCE by the First Emperor of the Qin dynasty of ancient China.
Cai Hesen (March 30, 1895 – August 4, 1931) was an early leader of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), and a friend and comrade of Mao Zedong.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The Cambodian genocide (របបប្រល័យពូជសាសន៍) was carried out by the Khmer Rouge regime under the leadership of Pol Pot, killing approximately 1.5 to 3 million Cambodian people from 1975 to 1979.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
The Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries (or abbreviated as) was the first political campaign launched by the People's Republic of China designed to eradicate opposition elements, especially former Kuomintang (KMT) functionaries accused of trying undermine the new Communist government.
Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
In Maoist thought, a capitalist roader or is a person or group who demonstrates a marked tendency to bow to pressure from bourgeois forces and subsequently attempts to pull the Revolution in a capitalist direction.
The Central Military Commission (CMC) refers to the parallel national defense organizations of the Communist Party of China and the People's Republic of China: the Central Military Commission of the Communist Party of China, a Party organ under the CPC Central Committee, and the Central Military Commission of the People's Republic of China, a central state organ under the National People's Congress, being the military branch of the national government.
The Party School of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China in Beijing, also known as the Central Party School, is the higher education institution which specifically trains officials for the Communist Party of China.
In the first five years of the People's Republic of China (1949 to 1954), the Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China (the then official script—traditional Chinese: 中華人民共和國中央人民政府) was the supreme organ for exercising state power when the National People's Congress was not in session, according to Article 12 of the Common Program of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (the then "provisional constitution").
Chairman Mao badge is the name given to a type of pin badge displaying an image of Mao Zedong that was ubiquitous in the People's Republic of China during the active phase of the Cultural Revolution, from 1966 to 1971.
The Chairman of the Central Military Commission has overall responsibility for the Central Military Commission, serving as the commander-in-chief of the People's Liberation Army.
The Chairman of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference is the leader of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (National CPPCC), which is a political advisory body in the People's Republic of China.
The Chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China was the head of the Communist Party of China (CPC).
Chamdo, officially Qamdo, and known in Chinese as Changdu, is a prefecture-level city in the eastern part of the Tibet Autonomous Region, China.
Changchun is the capital and largest city of Jilin Province, and is also the core city of Northeast Asia.
Changsha is the capital and most populous city of Hunan province in the south central part of the People's Republic of China.
Changsha (Chinese: 沁园春·长沙) is a poem written by Mao Zedong in 1925.
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
Appearances of Argentine Marxist revolutionary Che Guevara (1928–1967) in popular culture are common throughout the world.
Chen Duxiu (October 8, 1879 – May 27, 1942) was a Chinese revolutionary socialist, educator, philosopher, and author, who co-founded the Chinese Communist Party (with Li Dazhao) in 1921, serving from 1921 to 1927 as its first General Secretary.
Chen Yun (pronounced; 13 June 1905 – 10 April 1995) was one of the most influential leaders of the People's Republic of China during the 1980s and 1990s.
Chengdu, formerly romanized as Chengtu, is a sub-provincial city which serves as the capital of China's Sichuan province.
Chiang Kai-shek (31 October 1887 – 5 April 1975), also romanized as Chiang Chieh-shih or Jiang Jieshi and known as Chiang Chungcheng, was a political and military leader who served as the leader of the Republic of China between 1928 and 1975, first in mainland China until 1949 and then in exile in Taiwan.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
China Daily is an English-language daily newspaper published in the People's Republic of China.
Chinese calligraphy is a form of aesthetically pleasing writing (calligraphy), or, the artistic expression of human language in a tangible form.
The Chinese Civil War was a war fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China and the Communist Party of China (CPC).
Chinese classic texts or canonical texts refers to the Chinese texts which originated before the imperial unification by the Qin dynasty in 221 BC, particularly the "Four Books and Five Classics" of the Neo-Confucian tradition, themselves a customary abridgment of the "Thirteen Classics".
Chinese nationalism is the form of nationalism in China which asserts that the Chinese people are a nation and promotes the cultural and national unity of the Chinese.
The Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), also known as the People's PCC (人民政协) or just the PCC (政协), is a political advisory body in the People's Republic of China.
The Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army, renamed Chinese People's Red Army in 1936, commonly known as the Chinese Red Army, or simply the Red Army, was the armed forces of the Communist Party of China from 1928 to 1937.
The Chinese Soviet Republic (CSR), also known as the Soviet Republic of China or the China Soviet Republic, is often referred to in historical sources as the Jiangxi Soviet (after its largest component territory, the Jiangxi-Fujian Soviet).
Chongqing, formerly romanized as Chungking, is a major city in southwest China.
Civil liberties or personal freedoms are personal guarantees and freedoms that the government cannot abridge, either by law or by judicial interpretation, without due process.
Clare Hollingworth, OBE (10 October 1911 – 10 January 2017) was an English journalist and author.
Class conflict, frequently referred to as class warfare or class struggle, is the tension or antagonism which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes.
In political theory and particularly Marxism, class consciousness is the set of beliefs that a person holds regarding their social class or economic rank in society, the structure of their class, and their class interests.
Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom.
Classified information is material that a government body deems to be sensitive information that must be protected.
Collective leadership is a distribution of power within an organisational structure.
Collectivism is a cultural value that is characterized by emphasis on cohesiveness among individuals and prioritization of the group over self.
Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
The Communist International (Comintern), known also as the Third International (1919–1943), was an international communist organization that advocated world communism.
The Communist Party of China (CPC), also referred to as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China.
The Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist Centre) (नेपाल कम्युनिष्ट पार्टी (माओवादी केन्द्र)) was a communist political party in Nepal.
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union.
Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.
Consequentialism is the class of normative ethical theories holding that the consequences of one's conduct are the ultimate basis for any judgment about the rightness or wrongness of that conduct.
The Cornell University Press is a division of Cornell University housed in Sage House, the former residence of Henry William Sage.
A counter-revolutionary is anyone who opposes a revolution, particularly those who act after a revolution to try to overturn or reverse it, in full or in part.
A courtesy name (zi), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name.
A cult of personality arises when a country's regime – or, more rarely, an individual politician – uses the techniques of mass media, propaganda, the big lie, spectacle, the arts, patriotism, and government-organized demonstrations and rallies to create an idealized, heroic, and worshipful image of a leader, often through unquestioning flattery and praise.
The Cultural Revolution, formally the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement in China from 1966 until 1976.
The Wu River, also known as the Dadu River is a river in Taiwan.
Deng Yuanzhao or Deng Fa (March 7, 1906 – April 8, 1946) was an early leader of the Chinese Communist Party.
Deng Xiaoping (22 August 1904 – 19 February 1997), courtesy name Xixian (希贤), was a Chinese politician.
Deng Zhongxia (or Teng Chung-hsia; October 5, 1894 – September 21, 1933) was an early member of the Communist Party of China and an important Marxist intellectual and labor movement leader.
The United States Army Observation Group, commonly known as the Dixie Mission, was the first U.S. effort to establish official relations with the Communist Party of China and the People's Liberation Army, then headquartered in the mountainous city of Yan'an.
Dongfanghong was a satellite program of the People's Republic of China.
Dream of the Red Chamber, also called The Story of the Stone, composed by Cao Xueqin, is one of China's Four Great Classical Novels.
Duan Qirui (6 March 1865 – 2 November 1936) was a Chinese warlord and politician, a commander of the Beiyang Army and the acting Chief Executive of the Republic of China (in Beijing) from 1924–26.
Ecco Press is a New York-based publishing imprint of HarperCollins.
Economic inequality is the difference found in various measures of economic well-being among individuals in a group, among groups in a population, or among countries.
Edgar Parks Snow (17 July 1905 – 15 February 1972) was an American journalist known for his books and articles on Communism in China and the Chinese Communist revolution.
The Eighth Route Army, officially known as the '''18th Army Group''' of the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China, was a group army under the command of the Chinese Communist Party, nominally within the structure of the Chinese military headed by the Chinese Nationalist Party during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
In political and sociological theory, the elite (French élite, from Latin eligere) are a small group of powerful people who hold a disproportionate amount of wealth, privilege, political power, or skill in a society.
In typography, emphasis is the strengthening of words in a text with a font in a different style from the rest of the text, to highlight them.
Encirclement Campaigns were the campaigns launched by forces of the Chinese Nationalist Government against forces of the Communist Party of China during the early stage of the Chinese Civil War.
The term enemy of the people is a designation for the political or class opponents of the subgroup in power within a larger group.
A facsimile (from Latin fac simile (to 'make alike')) is a copy or reproduction of an old book, manuscript, map, art print, or other item of historical value that is as true to the original source as possible.
A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including war, inflation, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies.
Farewell My Concubine is a 1993 Chinese drama film directed by Chen Kaige.
The Father of the Nation is an honorific title given to a man considered the driving force behind the establishment of his country, state, or nation.
Feminism is a range of political movements, ideologies, and social movements that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve political, economic, personal, and social equality of sexes.
The Fifth Encirclement Campaign against Jiangxi Soviet was a series of battles fought during the Chinese Civil War from 25 September 1933, to October 1934 between Chiang Kai-shek's Kuomintang (nationalist) and the Chinese communists.
The First Encirclement Campaign against Jiangxi Soviet was a series of battles launched by the Chinese Nationalist Government intended to annihilate the Chinese Red Army, and destroy the Chinese Soviet Republic.
China's Five-Year Plans are a series of social and economic development initiatives.
The Forbidden City is a palace complex in central Beijing, China.
The Four Books and Five Classics are the authoritative books of Confucianism in China written before 300 BC.
Frank Dikötter is a Dutch historian who specialises in modern China.
Friedrich Engels (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.;, sometimes anglicised Frederick Engels; 28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895) was a German philosopher, social scientist, journalist and businessman.
Friedrich Paulsen (July 16, 1846 – August 14, 1908) was a German Neo-Kantian philosopher and educator.
Fujian (pronounced), formerly romanised as Foken, Fouken, Fukien, and Hokkien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China.
The Futian incident is the common title for the December 1930 purge of a battalion of the Jiangxi-Fujian Soviet's "Red Army" at Futian (now in the Ji'an's Qingyuan District).
The Gang of Four was a political faction composed of four Chinese Communist Party officials.
Gansu (Tibetan: ཀན་སུའུ་ Kan su'u) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northwest of the country.
The Gelaohui (Pinyin: Gēlǎohuì; lit. Elders Brothers Society), also called Futaubang, or Hatchet Gang, as every member allegedly carried a small hatchet inside the sleeve, was a secret society and underground resistance movement against the Qing dynasty.
The General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China is head of the Communist Party of China and the highest-ranking official within the People's Republic of China.
Taiwan, formerly known as Formosa, is an island in East Asia; located some off the southeastern coast of mainland China across the Taiwan Strait.
George Washington (February 22, 1732 –, 1799), known as the "Father of His Country," was an American soldier and statesman who served from 1789 to 1797 as the first President of the United States.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
The Golden Triangle is the area where the borders of Thailand, Laos, and Myanmar meet at the confluence of the Ruak and Mekong Rivers.
The Great Chinese Famine was a period in the People's Republic of China between the years 1959 and 1961 characterized by widespread famine.
The Great Hall of the People is a state building located at the western edge of Tiananmen Square in Beijing.
The Great Leap Forward of the People's Republic of China (PRC) was an economic and social campaign by the Communist Party of China (CPC) from 1958 to 1962.
A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.
The Green Gang was a Chinese secret society and criminal organization, which was prominent in criminal, social and political activity in Shanghai during the early to mid 20th century.
Gu Yue (1937 – July 2, 2005), originally named Hu Shixue (胡诗学), was a Chinese actor.
Guangzhou, also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong.
Guizhou, formerly romanized as Kweichow, is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the southwestern part of the country.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
He Long (March 22, 1896 – June 9, 1969) was a Chinese Communist revolutionary and one of the ten marshals of the People's Liberation Army.
He Shuheng (1876–1935) was a Chinese Communist revolutionary, born in Ningxiang, Hunan province.
He Zizhen (Ho Tzu-chen, Ho Tzu-ch'en;; September 20, 1910 – April 19, 1984) was the third wife of Chairman Mao Zedong from May 1930 to 1937.
Helen Kay Wang (born 1965) is an English sinologist and translator.
Henry Holt and Company is an American book publishing company based in New York City.
Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher, biologist, anthropologist, sociologist, and prominent classical liberal political theorist of the Victorian era.
is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture and the largest city in the Chūgoku region of western Honshu - the largest island of Japan.
A List of Historical makeup of the Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China since 1927–present.
Hu Shih (17 December 1891 – 24 February 1962) was a Chinese philosopher, essayist and diplomat.
Hu Yaobang (20 November 1915 – 15 April 1989) was a high-ranking official of the People's Republic of China.
Hua Guofeng (born Su Zhu; 16 February 1921 – 20 August 2008) was a Chinese politician who served as Chairman of the Communist Party of China and Premier of the People's Republic of China.
Huang Yanpei is a Chinese historical television series based on the life of Huang Yanpei, a prominent educator, industrialist and politician who was also one of the founders of the China Democratic League.
HuffPost (formerly The Huffington Post and sometimes abbreviated HuffPo) is a liberal American news and opinion website and blog that has both localized and international editions.
Hunan is the 7th most populous province of China and the 10th most extensive by area.
Hunan First Normal University, founded in 1903, is a higher education institution located in Yuelu District, Changsha, Hunan Province, China.
The Hundred Flowers Awards, the equivalent of China's Golden Globes, are considered, together with the Golden Rooster Awards, the most prestigious film awards in China.
The Hundred Flowers Campaign, also termed the Hundred Flowers Movement, was a period in 1956 in the People's Republic of China during which the Communist Party of China (CPC) encouraged its citizens to openly express their opinions of the communist regime.
The Hundred Regiments Offensive (20 August – 5 December 1940) was a major campaign of the Communist Party of China's National Revolutionary Army divisions commanded by Peng Dehuai against the Imperial Japanese Army in Central China.
Hungry Ghosts: Mao's Secret Famine is a book written by Jasper Becker, the Beijing bureau chief for the South China Morning Post.
Imperialism is a policy that involves a nation extending its power by the acquisition of lands by purchase, diplomacy or military force.
In sociology, industrial society is a society driven by the use of technology to enable mass production, supporting a large population with a high capacity for division of labour.
The Internet Archive is a San Francisco–based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge." It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and nearly three million public-domain books.
Ion Mihai Pacepa (born 28 October 1928) is a former three-star general in Communist Romania, who defected to the United States in July 1978 following President Jimmy Carter's approval of his request for political asylum.
Jasper Becker (born 1956) is a British author, commentator and journalist who has spent two decades as a foreign correspondent mostly in China.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer.
Jeffrey N. Wasserstrom is an American historian of modern China.
Jiang Kanghu (Hepburn: Kō Kōko), who preferred to be known in English as Kiang Kang-hu, (July 18, 1883 – December 7, 1954), was a politician and activist in the Republic of China.
Jiang Qing (March 19, 1914May 14, 1991), also known as Madame Mao, was a Chinese Communist Revolutionary, Chinese actress, and major political figure during the Cultural Revolution (1966–76).
Jiangxi, formerly spelled as Kiangsi Gan: Kongsi) is a province in the People's Republic of China, located in the southeast of the country. Spanning from the banks of the Yangtze river in the north into hillier areas in the south and east, it shares a border with Anhui to the north, Zhejiang to the northeast, Fujian to the east, Guangdong to the south, Hunan to the west, and Hubei to the northwest. The name "Jiangxi" derives from the circuit administrated under the Tang dynasty in 733, Jiangnanxidao (道, Circuit of Western Jiangnan; Gan: Kongnomsitau). The short name for Jiangxi is 赣 (pinyin: Gàn; Gan: Gōm), for the Gan River which runs across from the south to the north and flows into the Yangtze River. Jiangxi is also alternately called Ganpo Dadi (贛鄱大地) which literally means the "Great Land of Gan and Po".
The Jiangxi–Fujian Soviet (commonly called the Jiangxi Soviet) was the largest component territory of the Chinese Soviet Republic, an unrecognized state established in November 1931 by Mao Zedong and Zhu De during the Chinese civil war.
Jiaxing is a prefecture-level city in northern Zhejiang province, China.
Jinan, formerly romanized as Tsinan, is the capital of Shandong province in Eastern China.
The Jinggang Mountains are a mountain range of the Luoxiao Mountains System (罗霄山), in the remote border region of Jiangxi and Hunan Provinces.
Jinggangshan is a county-level city in the southwest of Jiangxi province, People's Republic of China, bordering Hunan province to the west.
The Jinsha River (Chinese: 金沙江, p Jīnshājiāng, "Gold Dust River") is the Chinese name for the upper stretches of the Yangtze River.
John Coolidge Adams (born February 15, 1947) is an American composer of classical music and opera, with strong roots in minimalism.
John King Fairbank (May 24, 1907 – September 14, 1991), was a prominent American historian of China.
John Winston Ono Lennon (9 October 19408 December 1980) was an English singer, songwriter, and peace activist who co-founded the Beatles, the most commercially successful band in the history of popular music.
John Sidney McCain III (born August 29, 1936) is an American politician serving as the senior United States Senator from Arizona, a seat he was first elected to in 1986.
John Stuart Mill, also known as J.S. Mill, (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant.
The Joint Publications Research Service (JPRS) was a United States government defense-funded organization that was absorbed into the Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS) but its funding and personnel did not transfer.
Jon Halliday is an Irish historian specialising in modern Asia.
Jonathan Cape is a London publishing firm founded in 1921 by Herbert Jonathan Cape, who was head of the firm until his death in 1960.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Journey to the West is a Chinese novel published in the 16th century during the Ming dynasty and attributed to Wu Cheng'en.
Jung Chang (born 25 March 1952) is a Chinese-born British writer now living in London, best known for her family autobiography Wild Swans, selling over 10 million copies worldwide but banned in the People's Republic of China.
Kang Sheng (c. 1898 – December 16, 1975) was a Communist Party of China (CPC) official best known for having overseen the work of the CPC's internal security and intelligence apparatus during the early 1940s and again at the height of the Cultural Revolution in the late 1960s and early 1970s.
Karl Johann Kautsky (16 October 1854 – 17 October 1938) was a Czech-Austrian philosopher, journalist, and Marxist theoretician.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
The KGB, an initialism for Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti (p), translated in English as Committee for State Security, was the main security agency for the Soviet Union from 1954 until its break-up in 1991.
Kham is a historical region of Tibet covering a land area largely divided between present-day Tibet Autonomous Region and Sichuan, with smaller portions located within Qinghai, Gansu and Yunnan provinces of China.
The Khmer Rouge ("Red Khmers"; ខ្មែរក្រហម Khmer Kror-Horm) was the name popularly given to the followers of the Communist Party of Kampuchea and by extension to the regime through which the CPK ruled Cambodia between 1975 and 1979.
Killed in action (KIA) is a casualty classification generally used by militaries to describe the deaths of their own combatants at the hands of hostile forces.
The Korean People's Army (KPA) is an institution of the Workers' Party of Korea, and constitutes the de facto military force of North Korea.
The Korean War (in South Korean, "Korean War"; in North Korean, "Fatherland: Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States).
The kulaks (a, plural кулаки́, p, "fist", by extension "tight-fisted"; kurkuli in Ukraine, but also used in Russian texts in Ukrainian contexts) were a category of affluent peasants in the later Russian Empire, Soviet Russia and the early Soviet Union.
The Kuomintang of China (KMT; often translated as the Nationalist Party of China) is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei and is currently the opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.
The Kwantung Army was an army group of the Imperial Japanese Army in the first half of the 20th century.
Land reform (also agrarian reform, though that can have a broader meaning) involves the changing of laws, regulations or customs regarding land ownership.
Laogai (勞改/劳改), the abbreviation for Láodòng Gǎizào (勞動改造/劳动改造), which means "reform through labor", is a slogan of the Chinese criminal justice system and has been used to refer to the use of penal labour and prison farms in the People's Republic of China (PRC).
The leader, now officially the General Secretary of the Central Committee (CC) of the Communist Party of China (CPC), is by right of office the Chairman of the Central Military Commission and the President of the People's Republic of China.
Lee Feigon is an American historian who specialized in the study of 20th-century Chinese history.
Lhasa is a prefecture-level city, formerly a prefecture until 7 January 1960, one of the main administrative divisions of the Tibet Autonomous Region of China.
Li Bai (701–762), also known as Li Bo, Li Po and Li Taibai, was a Chinese poet acclaimed from his own day to the present as a genius and a romantic figure who took traditional poetic forms to new heights.
Li Dazhao (October 29, 1888 – April 28, 1927) was a Chinese intellectual who co-founded the Communist Party of China with Chen Duxiu and other early communists in 1921.
Li He (–) was a Chinese poet of the mid-Tang dynasty.
Li Jingquan (November 1, 1909 – April 24, 1989) was a Chinese politician and the first Party Committee Secretary of Sichuan following the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949.
Lǐ Lìsān (November 18, 1899 – June 22, 1967) was an early leader of the Chinese communists, and the top leader of the Chinese Communist Party from 1928 to 1930, member of the Politburo, and later a member of the Central Committee.
Li Min (born 1936), original name Mao Jiaojiao, is the daughter of Mao Zedong and his third wife, He Zizhen.
Li Na (or Li Ne, born August 1940), is the daughter of Mao Zedong and his fourth wife Jiang Qing, and their only child together.
Li Rui (born April 13, 1917) is a retired politician of the People's Republic of China from the ruling Communist Party and latterly a writer and vocal advocate of democratic reform in China.
Li Zhisui (1919 – February 13, 1995) was Mao Zedong's personal physician and confidante.
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
Lin Biao (December 5, 1907 – September 13, 1971) was a Marshal of the People's Republic of China who was pivotal in the Communist victory in the Chinese Civil War, especially in Northeast China.
The following list of national founding figures is a record, by country, of people who were credited with establishing their nation.
Literary Review is a British literary magazine founded in 1979 by Anne Smith, then head of the Department of English at the University of Edinburgh.
Liu Binyan (Chinese:刘宾雁 pinyin: Liú Bīnyàn; February 7, 1925 – December 5, 2005) was a Chinese author and journalist, as well as a political dissident.
Liu Shaoqi (24 November 189812 November 1969) was a Chinese revolutionary, politician, and theorist.
Liu Ye (born 23 March 1978) is a Chinese actor.
The Long March (October 1934 – October 1935) was a military retreat undertaken by the Red Army of the Communist Party of China, the forerunner of the People's Liberation Army, to evade the pursuit of the Kuomintang (KMT or Chinese Nationalist Party) army.
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.
Loushan Pass (忆秦娥·娄山关) is a ci poem written by Mao Zedong in February, 1935, during the Long March.
Luding Bridge is a bridge over the Dadu River in Luding County, Garzê Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan, China, located about 80 kilometers west of the city of Ya'an.
Luding County, also known via its Tibetan name as Chagsam or Jagsam) is a part of the Garzê Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in the Chinese Province of Sichuan. Luding County covers an area of and has a population of approximately 80,000 (at the end of 2004). The census in the year 2000 recorded a population of 77,855.
Lumpenproletariat is a term used primarily by Marxist theorists to describe the underclass devoid of class consciousness.
Luo Yixiu (20 October 1889 – 11 February 1910), a Han Chinese woman, was the first wife of the later Chinese communist revolutionary and political leader Mao Zedong, to whom she was married from 1908 until her death.
The Lushan Conference was a meeting of the top leaders of the Communist Party of China held between July and August 1959.
Ma'anshan, also colloquially written as Maanshan, is a prefecture-level city in the eastern part of Anhui province in Eastern China.
Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, is the geopolitical as well as geographical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
The Manchu are an ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.
Mangoes are juicy stone fruit (drupe) from numerous species of tropical trees belonging to the flowering plant genus Mangifera, cultivated mostly for their edible fruit.
Mao is the romanization of several Chinese family names, including common names 毛 Máo, 茅 Māo and some rare names wikt:茆 Máo, wikt:卯 Máo, wikt:貌 Mào etc.
Mao Anlong was born as the third son of Mao Zedong in 1927 and died in 1931 at the age of 3 or 4.
Mao Anqing (23 November 1923 – 23 March 2007) was the last known surviving son of Mao Zedong.
Mao Anying (24 October 1922 – 25 November 1950) was the eldest son of Mao Zedong and Yang Kaihui.
The Yat-Sen Suit, also called the Mao suit, Chinese tunic suit or Zhongshan suit, is a style of Chinese menswear associated in China with Sun Yat-sen (better known to mainland Chinese as "Sun Zhongshan"), although it is more commonly associated in the West with Mao Zedong.
Mao Tse-tung: Ruler of Red China is a book written by Robert Payne and published by Henry Schuman, New York in 1950, shortly after Mao Zedong (here his name is transliterated as Mao Tse-tung) came to power.
Mao Xinyu (born 17 January 1970) is a grandson of Mao Zedong and a Major General in the People's Liberation Army.
Mao Yichang (15 October 1870 – 23 January 1920) was a Chinese farmer and grain merchant who achieved notability as the father of revolutionary political theorist Mao Zedong.
Mao Yuanxin (born 14 February 1941), also known as Li Shi, is a former Chinese politician.
Mao Zejian (5 October 1905 – 20 August 1929) was a cousin of Mao Zedong.
Mao Zemin (毛泽民; April 3, 1896 – September 27, 1943), also using Zhou Bin (周彬) as his alias, was born in Xiangtan, Hunan province.
Máo Zétán (毛泽覃, also named Máo Zélín 毛泽淋, courtesy name first Yǒngjú 咏菊, then Rùnjú 润菊; 25 September 1905 – 25 April 1935) was the younger one of Mao Zedong's two brothers.
Mao's Great Famine: The History of China's Most Devastating Catastrophe, 1958–62, is a 2010 book by professor and historian Frank Dikötter about the Great Chinese Famine of 1958–1962 in the People's Republic of China under Mao Zedong (1893–1976).
Mao: The Unknown Story is a 2005 biography of Chinese Communist leader Mao Zedong (1893–1976) written by the wife and husband team of writer Jung Chang and historian Jon Halliday, who depict Mao as being responsible for more deaths in peacetime than Adolf Hitler or Joseph Stalin.
Maoism, known in China as Mao Zedong Thought, is a political theory derived from the teachings of the Chinese political leader Mao Zedong, whose followers are known as Maoists.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
Marxists Internet Archive (also known as MIA or Marxists.org) is a non-profit website that hosts a multilingual library (created in 1990) of the works of Marxist, communist, socialist, and anarchist writers, such as Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Vladimir Lenin, Leon Trotsky, Rosa Luxemburg, Che Guevara, Mikhail Bakunin, and Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, as well as that of writers of related ideologies, and even unrelated ones (for instance, Sun Tzu and Adam Smith).
Part of Mao Zedong's land reform during the late phase of the Chinese Civil War and the early People's Republic of China was a campaign of mass killings of landlordsJames Palmer,, Faber & Faber, 2012, ch.
Maurice Jerome Meisner (November 17, 1931 – January 23, 2012) was an historian of 20th century China and professor at the University of Wisconsin–Madison.
The Chairman Mao Memorial Hall, commonly known as the Mausoleum of Mao Zedong, is the final resting place of Mao Zedong, Chairman of the Politburo of the Communist Party of China from 1943 and the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from 1945 until his death in 1976.
The May Fourth Movement was an anti-imperialist, cultural, and political movement growing out of student participants in Beijing on 4 May 1919, protesting against the Chinese government's weak response to the Treaty of Versailles, especially allowing Japan to receive territories in Shandong which had been surrendered by Germany after the Siege of Tsingtao.
Min Mountains or Minshan are a mountain range in central China.
The following is the list of all the previous foreign ministers of Pakistan to date.
Mobile Warfare is the correct English phrase for Mao Zedong's main military methods.
Modern history, the modern period or the modern era, is the linear, global, historiographical approach to the time frame after post-classical history.
The Mongolian-Manchurian grassland ecoregion, also known as the Mongolian-Manchurian steppe, in the temperate grassland Biome, is found in Mongolia, the Chinese Autonomous region of Inner Mongolia and northeastern China.
Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu (18 January 1689 – 10 February 1755), generally referred to as simply Montesquieu, was a French judge, man of letters, and political philosopher.
The Mukden Incident, or Manchurian Incident, was a staged event engineered by Japanese military personnel as a pretext for the Japanese invasion in 1931 of northeastern China, known as Manchuria.
Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution is a 1902 essay collection by Russian naturalist and anarchist philosopher Peter Kropotkin.
Nanchang is the capital of Jiangxi Province in southeastern China.
The Nanchang Uprising was the first major Kuomintang–Communist engagement of the Chinese Civil War, begun by the Communists to counter the anti-communist purges by the Nationalist Party of China.
Nanjing, formerly romanized as Nanking and Nankin, is the capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China and the second largest city in the East China region, with an administrative area of and a total population of 8,270,500.
The Nanking Massacre was an episode of mass murder and mass rape committed by Japanese troops against the residents of Nanjing (Nanking), then the capital of the Republic of China, during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The National Congress of the Communist Party of China (NCCPC;; literally: Chinese Communist Party National Representatives Congress) is a party congress that is held every five years.
The National People's Congress (usually abbreviated NPC) is the national legislature of the People's Republic of China. With 2,980 members in 2018, it is the largest parliamentary body in the world. Under China's Constitution, the NPC is structured as a unicameral legislature, with the power to legislate, the power to oversee the operations of the government, and the power to elect the major officers of state. However, the NPC has been described as a "rubber stamp," having "never rejected a government proposal" in its history. The NPC is elected for a term of five years. It holds annual sessions every spring, usually lasting from 10 to 14 days, in the Great Hall of the People on the west side of Tiananmen Square in Beijing. The NPC's sessions are usually timed to occur with the meetings of the National Committee of the People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), a consultative body whose members represent various social groups. As the NPC and the CPPCC are the main deliberative bodies of China, they are often referred to as the Lianghui (Two Assemblies). According to the NPC, its annual meetings provide an opportunity for the officers of state to review past policies and present future plans to the nation.
The National Revolutionary Army (NRA), sometimes shortened to Revolutionary Army (革命軍) before 1928, and as National Army (國軍) after 1928, was the military arm of the Kuomintang (KMT, or the Chinese Nationalist Party) from 1925 until 1947 in the Republic of China.
The Nationalist government, officially the National Government of the Republic of China, refers to the government of the Republic of China between 1 July 1925 to 20 May 1948, led by the Kuomintang (KMT, Chinese Nationalist Party).
A natural disaster is a major adverse event resulting from natural processes of the Earth; examples include floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, and other geologic processes.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The New Culture Movement of the mid 1910s and 1920s sprang from the disillusionment with traditional Chinese culture following the failure of the Chinese Republic, founded in 1912 to address China’s problems.
New Democracy or the New Democratic Revolution is a concept based on Mao Zedong's "Bloc of Four Social Classes" theory in post-revolutionary China which argued originally that democracy in China would take a decisively distinct path, much different from that of the liberal capitalist and parliamentary democratic systems in the Western world as well as Soviet-style socialism in Eastern Europe.
The New Fourth Army was a unit of the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China established in 1937.
La Jeunesse (or New Youth) was a Chinese magazine in the 1910s and 1920s that played an important role in initiating the New Culture Movement and spreading the influence of the May Fourth Movement.
Ngapoi Ngawang Jigme (February 1, 1910 – December 23, 2009) was a Tibetan senior official who assumed various military and political responsibilities both before and after 1951.
Nicolae Ceaușescu (26 January 1918 – 25 December 1989) was a Romanian Communist politician.
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.
Nixon in China is an opera in three acts by John Adams, with a libretto by Alice Goodman.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
North Vietnam, officially the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) (Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa), was a country in Southeast Asia from 1945 to 1976, although it did not achieve widespread recognition until 1954.
The Northern Expedition was a military campaign launched by the National Revolutionary Army of the Kuomintang (KMT), also known as the Nationalists, against the Beiyang government and other regional warlords in 1926.
Nuclear warfare (sometimes atomic warfare or thermonuclear warfare) is a military conflict or political strategy in which nuclear weaponry is used to inflict damage on the enemy.
The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
On Contradiction is a 1937 essay by the Chinese Communist revolutionary Mao Zedong.
On Guerrilla Warfare is Mao Zedong’s case for the extensive use of an irregular form of warfare in which small groups of combatants use mobile military tactics in the forms of ambushes and raids to combat a larger and less mobile formal army.
On Practice is one of Mao Zedong's most important philosophical works.
On Protracted War is a work comprising a series of speeches by Mao Zedong given from May 26 to June 3, 1938 at the Yenan Association for the Study of the War of Resistance Against Japan.
"On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences" («О культе личности и его последствиях», «O kul'te lichnosti i yego posledstviyakh») was a report by Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev made to the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union on 25 February 1956.
A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.
Opium (poppy tears, with the scientific name: Lachryma papaveris) is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy (scientific name: Papaver somniferum).
Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company.
In modern Chinese politics, the paramount leader of the Communist Party of China and the State is an informal term that refers to the most prominent political leader in the People's Republic of China.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
The Peasant Movement Training Institute or Peasant Training School was a school in Guangzhou (then romanized as "Canton"), China, operated from 1923 to 1926 during the First United Front between the Nationalists and Communists.
Peking University (abbreviated PKU or Beida; Chinese: 北京大学, pinyin: běi jīng dà xué) is a major Chinese research university located in Beijing and a member of the C9 League.
Peng Dehuai (October 24, 1898November 29, 1974) was a prominent Chinese Communist military leader, who served as China's Defense Minister from 1954 to 1959.
The people's commune was the highest of three administrative levels in rural areas of the People's Republic of China during the period from 1958 to 1983 when they were replaced by townships.
The People's Daily or Renmin Ribao is the biggest newspaper group in China.
The Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the armed forces of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and Communist Party of China (CPC).
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia, Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the People's Socialist Republic of Albania (Republika Popullore Socialiste e Shqipërisë), was a Marxist-Leninist government that ruled Albania from 1946 to 1992.
The (Chinese) People's Volunteer Army (PVA or CPVA) was the armed forces deployed by the People's Republic of China during the Korean War.
People's war, also called protracted people's war, is a military-political strategy first developed by the Chinese Communist revolutionary and political leader Mao Zedong (1893–1976).
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
Pyotr Alexeevich Kropotkin (Пётр Алексе́евич Кропо́ткин; December 9, 1842 – February 8, 1921) was a Russian activist, revolutionary, scientist and philosopher who advocated anarcho-communism.
Philip Short (born 17 April 1945) is a British journalist and author.
Pol Pot (ប៉ុល ពត; 19 May 1925 – 15 April 1998) was a Cambodian revolutionary and politician who served as the Prime Minister of Democratic Kampuchea from 1976 to 1979.
The Central Politburo of the Communist Party of China, formally known as the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and known as Central Bureau (中央局) before 1927, is a group of 25 people who oversee the Communist Party of China.
The President of the People's Republic of China is the head of state of the People's Republic of China.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
A private is a soldier of the lowest military rank (equivalent to NATO Rank Grades OR-1 to OR-3 depending on the force served in).
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
Puyi or Pu Yi (7 February 190617 October 1967), of the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan, was the last Emperor of China and the twelfth and final ruler of the Qing dynasty.
Qian Xuantong (1887—January 17, 1939) was a Chinese linguist and professor of literature at National Peking University, and along with Gu Jiegang, one of the leaders of the Doubting Antiquity School.
Qiao Guanhua (March 28, 1913 – September 22, 1983"." Shanghai Daily. January 28, 2008. Retrieved on October 22, 2010.) was a politician and diplomat in the People's Republic of China and played an important role in the talks with United States on the opening of China and the drafting of the Shanghai Communiqué.
Qin Shi Huang (18 February 25910 September 210) was the founder of the Qin dynasty and was the first emperor of a unified China.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
The queue or cue is a Qing dynasty hairstyle most often worn by Chinese men.
Qufu is a city in southwestern Shandong Province, China.
Quotations from Chairman Mao Tse-tung is a book of statements from speeches and writings by Mao Zedong (formerly romanized as Mao Tse-tung), the former Chairman of the Communist Party of China, published from 1964 to about 1976 and widely distributed during the Cultural Revolution.
Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition.
Red Guards were a student mass paramilitary social movement mobilized by Mao Zedong in 1966 and 1967, during the Cultural Revolution.
Red Star Over China, a 1937 book by Edgar Snow, is an account of the Communist Party of China that was written when it was a guerrilla army and still obscure to Westerners.
The renminbi (Ab.: RMB;; sign: 元; code: CNY) is the official currency of the People's Republic of China.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
The Republic of China was a sovereign state in East Asia, that occupied the territories of modern China, and for part of its history Mongolia and Taiwan.
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party.
Republicanism is an ideology centered on citizenship in a state organized as a republic under which the people hold popular sovereignty.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
"Revolution" is a song by the Beatles, written by John Lennon and credited to Lennon–McCartney.
A revolutionary is a person who either participates in, or advocates revolution.
The Revolutionary Communist Party, USA (or the RCP) is a communist party in the United States founded in 1975 and led by its chairman Bob Avakian.
The Revolutionary Internationalist Movement (RIM) was an international Communist organization founded in France in March 1984 by 17 various Maoist organisations around the world.
Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974, when he resigned from office, the only U.S. president to do so.
U.S. President Richard Nixon's 1972 visit to China (officially the People's Republic of China or PRC) was an important strategic and diplomatic overture that marked the culmination of the Nixon administration's resumption of harmonious relations between the United States and China.
Right-wing politics hold that certain social orders and hierarchies are inevitable, natural, normal or desirable, typically supporting this position on the basis of natural law, economics or tradition.
Robert John Service (born 29 October 1947) is a British historian, academic, and author who has written extensively on the history of the Soviet Union, particularly the era from the October Revolution to Stalin's death.
Roderick Lemonde MacFarquhar (born 2 December 1930) is a Harvard University professor and China specialist, British politician, newspaper and television journalist and academic orientalist.
Romance of the Three Kingdoms is a 14th-century historical novel attributed to Luo Guanzhong.
Ross Terrill (born 1938 in Melbourne) is an Australian historian residing in the United States.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group is an independent publishing house founded in 1949.
The Second Encirclement Campaign against Jiangxi Soviet was a series of battles launched by the Chinese Nationalist Government in the hope of encircling and destroying the Jiangxi Soviet after the previous campaign had failed.
The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 2, 1945.
The Second United Front was the alliance between the Chinese Nationalist Party (Kuomintang, or KMT) and Communist Party of China (CPC) to resist the Japanese invasion during the Second Sino-Japanese War, which suspended the Chinese Civil War from 1937 to 1941.
The Central Secretariat of the Communist Party of China is a body serving the Politburo of the Communist Party of China and its Standing Committee.
"Serve the People" or "Service for the People" is a political slogan which first appeared in Mao-era China.
The Agreement of the Central People's Government and the Local Government of Tibet on Measures for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet, or the Seventeen Point Agreement for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet for short, is the document by which the delegates of the 14th Dalai Lama, sovereign of the de facto state of Tibet, reached an agreement in 1951 with the Central People's Government of the newly established People's Republic of China on affirming Chinese sovereignty over Tibet.
Shaanxi is a province of the People's Republic of China.
The Shandong Problem refers to the dispute over Article 156 of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, which dealt with the concession of the Shandong Peninsula.
Shanghai (Wu Chinese) is one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China and the most populous city proper in the world, with a population of more than 24 million.
The Shanghai French Concession (Concession française de Changhaï) was a foreign concession in Shanghai, China from 1849 until 1943, which progressively expanded in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
The Shanghai massacre of April 12, 1927, known commonly as the April 12 Incident, was the violent suppression of Communist Party of China (CPC) organizations in Shanghai by the military forces of Chiang Kai-shek and conservative factions in the Kuomintang (Nationalist Party, or KMT).
Shantou, formerly romanized as Swatow and sometimes known as Santow, is a prefecture-level city on the eastern coast of Guangdong, China, with a total population of 5,391,028 as of 2010 and an administrative area of.
Shao Hua (30 October 1938 – 24 June 2008), formerly known as Zhang Shao Hua (张少华), born Chen Anyun (陈安云), was a Chinese photographer and a major general in the People's Liberation Army.
Shaoshan is a county-level city in Hunan Province, China.
Syed Sharifuddin Pirzada NI (12 June 1923 – 2 June 2017) was a noted Pakistani lawyer, served as a senior advocate at the Supreme Court of Pakistan.
The Communist Party of Peru - Shining Path (Partido Comunista del Perú - Sendero Luminoso), more commonly known as the Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso), is a Maoist guerrilla group in Peru.
Sidney Rittenberg (born August 14, 1921) is an American journalist, scholar, and Chinese linguist who lived in China from 1944 to 1980.
The Siege of Changchun was a military blockade undertaken by the People's Liberation Army against Changchun between May and October 1948, the largest city in Manchuria at the time, and one of the headquarters of the Republic of China Army in Northeast China.
Sikkim is a state in Northeast India.
Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China.
The Sino-Soviet split (1956–1966) was the breaking of political relations between the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), caused by doctrinal divergences arising from each of the two powers' different interpretation of Marxism–Leninism as influenced by the national interests of each country during the Cold War.
Smelting is a process of applying heat to ore in order to melt out a base metal.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
The State Council, constitutionally synonymous with the Central People's Government since 1954 (particularly in relation to local governments), is the chief administrative authority of the People's Republic of China.
Stéphane Courtois (born 25 November 1947) is a French historian and university professor, a Director of research at the French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), Professor at the Catholic Institute of Higher Studies (ICES) in La Roche-sur-Yon, and Director of a collection specialized in the history of communist movements and regimes.
The Strategic Studies Institute (SSI) is the U.S. Army's institute for strategic and national security research and analysis.
A struggle session was a form of public humiliation and torture used by the Communist Party of China in the Mao Zedong era, particularly during the Cultural Revolution, to shape public opinion and to humiliate, persecute, or execute political rivals and class enemies.
Stuart Reynolds Schram (February 27, 1924 – July 8, 2012) was an American physicist, political scientist and sinologist who specialised in the study of modern Chinese politics.
Sun Tzu (also rendered as Sun Zi; 孫子) was a Chinese general, military strategist, writer, and philosopher who lived in the Eastern Zhou period of ancient China.
Sun Yat-sen (12 November 1866 – 12 March 1925)Singtao daily.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Tan Yankai (January 25, 1880 – September 22, 1930) was a Chinese politician.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Tang Guoqiang (born 4 May 1952) is a Chinese actor best known for portraying historical figures in several films and television series.
In various East Asian languages, the phrase "ten thousand years" is used to wish long life, and is typically translated as "Live long!" in English.
The Beatles were an English rock band formed in Liverpool in 1960.
The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression is a 1997 book by Stéphane Courtois, Nicolas Werth, Andrzej Paczkowski and several other European academics documenting a history of political repressions by Communist states, including genocides, extrajudicial executions, deportations, killing population in labor camps and artificially created famines.
The Blue Kite is a 1993 drama film directed by Tian Zhuangzhuang.
The China Quarterly (CQ) is a British double-blind peer-reviewed (the highest international standard) academic journal which was established in 1960 and focuses on all aspects of contemporary China and Taiwan.
The Communist Manifesto (originally Manifesto of the Communist Party) is an 1848 political pamphlet by German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
"The Double Nine" (采桑子·重阳) is a poem written by Mao Zedong in 1929.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Founding of a Party, alternatively titled in English Beginning of the Great Revival for its international release,9 June 2011,, Global TimesPatrick Frater, 21 May 2011,, Film Business Asia is a Chinese film released in 2011 to mark the 90th anniversary of the Communist Party of China.
The Founding of a Republic is a 2009 Chinese historical film commissioned by China's film regulator and made by the state-owned China Film Group (CFG) to mark the 60th anniversary of the People's Republic of China.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
"The Internationale" (L'Internationale) is a left-wing anthem.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The New York Times International Edition is an English-language newspaper printed at 38 sites throughout the world and sold in more than 160 countries and territories.
The Private Life of Chairman Mao: The Memoirs of Mao's Personal Physician is a memoir by Li Zhisui, one of the physicians to Mao Zedong, former Chairman of the Communist Party of China, which was first published in 1994.
The Spectator is a weekly British magazine on politics, culture, and current affairs.
The Spirit of the Laws (French: De l'esprit des lois, originally spelled De l'esprit des loix; also sometimes translated The Spirit of Laws) is a treatise on political theory, as well as a pioneering work in comparative law, published in 1748 by Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu.
An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, generally referred to by its shortened title The Wealth of Nations, is the magnum opus of the Scottish economist and moral philosopher Adam Smith.
The term "Third World" arose during the Cold War to define countries that remained non-aligned with either NATO or the Communist Bloc.
The Three-anti Campaign (1951) and Five-anti Campaign (1952) were reform movements originally issued by Mao Zedong a few years after the founding of the People's Republic of China in an effort to rid Chinese cities of corruption and enemies of the state.
The Tiananmen, or the Gate of Heavenly Peace, is a monumental gate in the centre of Beijing, widely used as a national symbol of China.
Tiananmen Square is a city square in the centre of Beijing, China, named after the Tiananmen ("Gate of Heavenly Peace") located to its north, separating it from the Forbidden City.
Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.
To Live, also titled Lifetimes in some English versions,Yu, Hua.
Tonggu County is a county of Jiangxi province, People's Republic of China.
The Tongmenghui (or T'ung-meng Hui, variously translated Chinese United League, United League, Chinese Revolutionary Alliance, Chinese Alliance, United Allegiance Society) was a secret society and underground resistance movement founded by Sun Yat-sen, Song Jiaoren, and others in Tokyo, Japan, on 20 August 1905.
Benito Mussolini Totalitarianism is a political concept where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to control every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.
The Trail of Tears was a series of forced relocations of Native American peoples from their ancestral homelands in the Southeastern United States, to areas to the west (usually west of the Mississippi River) that had been designated as Indian Territory.
The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end.
Tsinghua University (abbreviated THU;; also romanized as Qinghua) is a major research university in Beijing, China and a member of the elite C9 League of Chinese universities.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
The Twenty-One Demands (対華21ヶ条要求, Taika Nijūikkajō Yōkyū) were a set of demands made during the First World War by the Empire of Japan under Prime Minister Ōkuma Shigenobu sent to the government of the Republic of China on January 8, 1915.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The University of California, Irvine (UCI, UC Irvine, or Irvine), is a public research university located in Irvine, Orange County, California, United States, and one of the 10 campuses in the University of California (UC) system.
Victory over Japan Day (also known as V-J Day, Victory in the Pacific Day, or V-P Day) is the day on which Imperial Japan surrendered in World War II, in effect ending the war.
Viking Press is an American publishing company now owned by Penguin Random House.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Wang Fuzhi, 1619–1692) courtesy name Ernong (而農), pseudonym Chuanshan (船山), was a Chinese philosopher of the late Ming, early Qing dynasties.
Wang Jingwei (Wang Ching-wei; 4 May 1883 – 10 November 1944); born as Wang Zhaoming (Wang Chao-ming), but widely known by his pen name "Jingwei", was a Chinese politician.
Water Margin, also translated as Outlaws of the Marsh, Tale of the Marshes, All Men Are Brothers, Men of the Marshes or The Marshes of Mount Liang, is a Chinese novel attributed to Shi Nai'an.
Qimei was born in 1867 in the town of Jincheng on the Kinmen islands.
Wen Tianxiang (June 6, 1236 – January 9, 1283 AD), Duke of Xinguo （信國公）, was a scholar-general in the last years of the Southern Song Dynasty.
White Snow, Red Blood is a book by Zhāng Zhènglóng (張正隆), a colonel in the People's Liberation Army, that was published in August, 1989 by the People's Liberation Army Publishing House.
A workers' council is a form of political and economic organization in which a single local administrative division, such as a municipality or a county, is governed by a council made up of temporary and instantly revocable delegates elected in the region's workplaces.
World communism (also international communism and global communism) is a form of communism of international scope.
World revolution is the far-left Marxist concept of overthrowing capitalism in all countries through the conscious revolutionary action of the organized working class.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
The Wu River is a left tributary of the Yuan River in south China.
Xi'an is the capital of Shaanxi Province, China.
The Xi'an Incident of 1936 was a political crisis that took place in Xi'an, China prior to the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The Xiang River is the chief river of the Lake Dongting drainage system of the middle Yangtze, the largest river in Hunan Province, China.
Xiangtan is a prefecture-level city in Hunan province, China.
Xiao Zisheng (22 August 1894 - 21 November 1976) was a Chinese educator and scholar.
Xie Fuzhi (26 September 1909 – 26 March 1972) was a Communist Party of China military commander, political commissar, and national security specialist.
Xinfeng County is a county under the jurisdiction of Ganzhou Municipality, in southern Jiangxi province.
The Xinhai Revolution, also known as the Chinese Revolution or the Revolution of 1911, was a revolution that overthrew China's last imperial dynasty (the Qing dynasty) and established the Republic of China (ROC).
Xinhua News Agency (English pronunciation: J. C. Wells: Longman Pronunciation Dictionary, 3rd ed., for both British and American English) or New China News Agency is the official state-run press agency of the People's Republic of China.
Yan'an is a prefecture-level city in the Shanbei region of Shaanxi province, China, bordering Shanxi to the east and Gansu to the west.
The Yan'an Forum on Literature and Art was a May 1942 forum held at the city of Yan'an in Communist-controlled China and significant event in the Yan'an Rectification Movement.
The Yan'an Rectification Movement, also known as Zhengfeng or Cheng Feng, was the first ideological mass movement initiated by the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), going from 1942 to 1944.
Yang Changji (21 April 1871 – 17 January 1920) was a Chinese educator, philosopher, and writer.
Yang Jisheng (born November 1940, chinaelections.org, 7 July 2008 by Verna Yu, International Herald Tribune, 18 December 2008) is a Chinese journalist and author of Tombstone (墓碑; Mubei), a comprehensive account of the Great Chinese Famine during the Great Leap Forward.
Yáng Kāihuì (courtesy name: Yúnjǐn; November 6, 1901 – November 14, 1930) was the second wife of Mao Zedong, whom he married in 1920.
Yang Yuehua (楊月花; born March 1929), original name Mao Jinhua, was born in Longyan, Fujian, China with family roots in Xiangtan, Hunan, China.
Ye Jianying (28 April 1897 – 22 October 1986) was a Chinese communist general, Marshal of the People's Liberation Army.
The term Year Zero (ឆ្នាំសូន្យ chhnam saun), applied to the takeover of Cambodia in April 1975, by the Khmer Rouge, is an analogy to the Year One of the French Revolutionary Calendar.
Yi Peiji (28 February 1880-September 1937) was a Chinese politician, scholar, and educator.
Yuan Shikai (16 September 1859 – 6 June 1916) was a Chinese warlord, famous for his influence during the late Qing dynasty, his role in the events leading up to the abdication of the last Qing Emperor, his autocratic rule as the first formal President of the Republic of China, and his short-lived attempt to restore monarchy in China, with himself as the Hongxian Emperor.
Zhang Guotao (November 26, 1897 – December 3, 1979) was a founding member and important leader of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and bitter rival to Mao Zedong.
Zhang Hanzhi (1935 – 26 January 2008) was a Chinese diplomat who was Mao Zedong's English teacher and U.S. President Richard Nixon's interpreter during his historic 1972 trip to China.
Zhang Jingyao, (1881–1933), was a Chinese general, the military governor of Chahar and later Hunan Province.
Zhang Wentian (30 August 1900 – 1 July 1976), also known as Luo Fu, was a high-ranking leader of the Communist Party of China.
Zhang Xueliang or Chang Hsueh-liang or Chang Hsiao-liang (3 June 1901 – 15 October 2001), occasionally called Peter Hsueh Liang Chang and nicknamed the "Young Marshal" (少帥), was the effective ruler of northeast China and much of northern China after the assassination of his father, Zhang Zuolin, by the Japanese on 4 June 1928.
Zhang Zuolin (19 March 1875Xiao, Lin, and Li 1184 June 1928) was the warlord of Manchuria from 1916–28, during the Warlord Era in China.
Zhao Hengti (12 January 1880 – 23 November 1971), was a general and warlord in Hunan during the Warlord Era of early Republic of China.
Zhao Ziyang (pronounced; 17 October 1919 – 17 January 2005) was a high-ranking statesman in China.
Zheng Guanying or Cheng Kuan-ying (1842-1922 or 1923) was a Chinese reformist active in the late Qing Dynasty.
Zhongnanhai is a former imperial garden in the Imperial City, Beijing, adjacent to the Forbidden City; it serves as the central headquarters for the Communist Party of China and the State Council (Central government) of China.
Zhou Enlai (5 March 1898 – 8 January 1976) was the first Premier of the People's Republic of China, serving from October 1949 until his death in January 1976.
Zhu De ((also Chu Teh; 1 December 1886 – 6 July 1976) was a Chinese general, warlord, politician, revolutionary and one of the pioneers of the Communist Party of China. Born poor in 1886 in Sichuan, he was adopted by a wealthy uncle at age nine; this prosperity provided him a superior early education that led to his admission into a military academy. After his time at the academy, he joined a rebel army and soon became a warlord. It was after this period that he adopted communism. He ascended through the ranks of the Chinese Red Army as it closed in on securing the nation. By the time China was under Mao's control, Zhu was a high-ranking official within the Communist Party of China. He served as Commander-in-Chief of the Eighth Route Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War. In 1955 he became one of the Ten Marshals of the People's Liberation Army, of which he is regarded as the principal founder. Zhu remained a prominent political figure until his death in 1976. As the chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress from 1975-76, Zhu was the head of state of the People's Republic of China.
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (5 January 1928 – 4 April 1979) was a Pakistani politician who served as the 9th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and prior to that as the 4th President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973.
Zunyi is a prefecture-level city in northern Guizhou province, People's Republic of China, situated between the provincial capital Guiyang to the south and Chongqing to the north, also bordering Sichuan to the northwest.
The Zunyi Conference was a meeting of the Communist Party of China (CPC) in January 1935 during the Long March.
The 10th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China was in session from 1973 to 1977.
The 14th Dalai Lama (religious name: Tenzin Gyatso, shortened from Jetsun Jamphel Ngawang Lobsang Yeshe Tenzin Gyatso; born Lhamo Thondup, 6 July 1935) is the current Dalai Lama.
The 28 Bolsheviks (二十八个半布尔什维克） were a group of Chinese students who studied at the Moscow Sun Yat-sen University from the late 1920s until early 1935, also known as the "Returned Students". The university was founded in 1925 as a result of Kuomintang's founder Sun Yat-Sen's policy of alliance with the Soviet Union, and was named after him. The university had an important influence on modern Chinese history by educating many prominent Chinese political figures. The most famous of these were collectively called the 28 Bolsheviks.
The 6th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China was in session from 1928 to 1945.
The 7th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China was in session from 1945 to 1956.
The 8th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China was in session from 1956 to 1969.
The 9th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China was in session from 1969 to 1973.
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