230 relations: Abstract expressionism, Académie Julian, Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture, Aesthetics, Albert Gleizes, Aleatoric music, Alexander Archipenko, Alexander Calder, Alexina Duchamp, Alfred H. Barr Jr., Alte Pinakothek, André Breton, André Mare, Anemic Cinema, Anti-art, Anti-war movement, Aphorism, Archives of American Art, Armory Show, Art, Art manifesto, Art movement, Art of Europe, Arturo Schwarz, Assemblage (art), Avant-garde, Étant donnés, Beatrice Wood, Belle da Costa Greene, Berlin, Bicycle Wheel, Bird in Space, Birdcage, Blainville-Crevon, Bobby Fischer, Book, Bottle Rack, Bourgeoisie, Buenos Aires, Cabaret Voltaire (Zurich), Catherine Perret, Centre Georges Pompidou, Chess, Chess endgame, Chess Olympiad, Chess set, Chess title, Chessboard, Coffee roasting, Concentric objects, ..., Conceptual art, Constantin Brâncuși, Correspondence chess, Corresponding squares, Cubism, Cuttlebone, Dada, Downtown music, Draw (chess), Du "Cubisme", Emmy Hennings, Endgame (play), Enneagram (geometry), Entr'acte (film), Epitaph, Eros (concept), Eugenio Granell, Eve Babitz, Fauvism, Fernand Léger, Flashlight, Fluxus, Found object, Fountain (Duchamp), Fountain Archive, Fourth dimension in art, Francis Picabia, French Americans, Futurism, Galeries Dalmau, George Grosz, Graphic design, Greenwich Village, Guillaume Apollinaire, Hannah Höch, Hans Richter (artist), Henri Matisse, Henri Poincaré, Henri-Pierre Roché, Hudson River, Hugo Ball, Hypermodernism (chess), Impressionism, Irene Gammel, J. P. Morgan, Jacques Doucet (fashion designer), Jacques Villon, James Johnson Sweeney, Jasper Johns, Jean Arp, Jean Metzinger, Joan Bakewell, Johannes Baader, John Cage, John Heartfield, Juan Gris, Jura Mountains, Katherine Sophie Dreier, Kinetic art, Knight (chess), Kurt Schwitters, L.H.O.O.Q., La Maison Cubiste, Leonardo da Vinci, LTM Recordings, Lucas Cranach the Elder, Lycée Pierre-Corneille, Man Ray, Mannequin, Manuscript, Marble, Marc Allégret, Marcel Duchamp Prize, Marcel Janco, Maria Martins (artist), Max Ernst, Max Stirner, Maya Deren, Merchant, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Mind, Mobile (sculpture), Mona Lisa, Montparnasse Cemetery, Morgan Library & Museum, Musée National d'Art Moderne, Museum of Modern Art, Music of Changes, Neuilly-sur-Seine, New York City, Nimzo-Indian Defence, Normandy, Norton Simon Museum, Nouveau réalisme, Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2, Nymphaeaceae, Odilon Redon, Opposition (chess), Oulipo, Pablo Picasso, Painterliness, Parody, Paul Cézanne, Peggy Guggenheim, Philadelphia Museum of Art, Pierre Dumont (painter), Plastic arts, Poet, Pontus Hultén, Pop art, Post-Impressionism, Postmodernism, Prelude to a Broken Arm, Printing, Proto-Cubism, Pun, Puteaux, Rainy Taxi, Raoul Hausmann, Raymond Duchamp-Villon, Raymond Roussel, Readymades of Marcel Duchamp, RealPlayer, René Clair, Retina, Rhonda Roland Shearer, Richard Hamilton (artist), Richard Huelsenbeck, Ridgefield, New Jersey, Robert Antoine Pinchon, Robert Delaunay, Robert Desnos, Robert Rauschenberg, Roger de La Fresnaye, Romanian language, Rouen, Salon d'Automne, Salt, Salvador Dalí, Samuel Beckett, Sculpture, Section d'Or, Shock art, Snail, Société Anonyme (art), Société des Artistes Indépendants, Society of Independent Artists, Spoonerism, Staatliches Museum Schwerin, Stefan Banz, Stephen Jay Gould, Stereoscopy, Sugar, Surrealism, Suzanne Duchamp, Symbolism (arts), Tate, Tate Britain, Taxicab, The Art of This Century gallery, The Blind Man, The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even, The Ego and Its Own, The Witch's Cradle, Trade, Tristan Tzara, Typography, UbuWeb, View (magazine), Visual arts, Visual pun, Vitaly Halberstadt, VVV (magazine), Walter Conrad Arensberg, Walter Pach, Why Not Sneeze, Rose Sélavy?, Wolfgang Paalen, Wood carving, World War I, Zürich. Expand index (180 more) » « Shrink index
Abstract expressionism is a post–World War II art movement in American painting, developed in New York in the 1940s.
The Académie Julian was a private art school for painting and sculpture founded in Paris, France, in 1867 by French painter and teacher Rodolphe Julian (1839–1907) that was active from 1868 through 1968.
The Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture (Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture), Paris, was the premier art institution in France in the eighteenth century.
Aesthetics (also spelled esthetics) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.
Albert Gleizes (8 December 1881 – 23 June 1953) was a French artist, theoretician, philosopher, a self-proclaimed founder of Cubism and an influence on the School of Paris.
Aleatoric music (also aleatory music or chance music; from the Latin word alea, meaning "dice") is music in which some element of the composition is left to chance, and/or some primary element of a composed work's realization is left to the determination of its performer(s).
Alexander Porfyrovych Archipenko (also referred to as Olexandr, Oleksandr, or Aleksandr; Олександр Порфирович Архипенко, Romanized: Olexandr Porfyrovych Arkhypenko; May 30, 1887February 25, 1964) was a Ukrainian-born American avant-garde artist, sculptor, and graphic artist.
Alexander Calder (July 22, 1898 – November 11, 1976) is widely considered to be one of the most important American sculptors of the 20th century.
Alexina "Teeny" Duchamp (January 6, 1906 – December 20, 1995) was the wife of Pierre Matisse, daughter-in-law of artist Henri Matisse, and second wife of artist and chess player Marcel Duchamp.
Alfred Hamilton Barr Jr. (January 28, 1902 – August 15, 1981) was an American art historian and the first director of the Museum of Modern Art in New York City.
The Alte Pinakothek (Old Pinakothek) is an art museum located in the Kunstareal area in Munich, Germany.
André Breton (18 February 1896 – 28 September 1966) was a French writer, poet, and anti-fascist.
Charles André Mare (1885–1932), or André-Charles Mare, was a French painter and designer, and founder of the Company of French Art (la Compagnie des Arts Français) in 1919.
Anemic Cinema or Anémic Cinéma (1926) is a Dadaist, surrealist, or experimental film made by Marcel Duchamp.
Anti-art is a loosely used term applied to an array of concepts and attitudes that reject prior definitions of art and question art in general.
An anti-war movement (also antiwar) is a social movement, usually in opposition to a particular nation's decision to start or carry on an armed conflict, unconditional of a maybe-existing just cause.
An aphorism (from Greek ἀφορισμός: aphorismos, denoting "delimitation", "distinction", and "definition") is a concise, terse, laconic, and/or memorable expression of a general truth or principle.
The Archives of American Art is the largest collection of primary resources documenting the history of the visual arts in the United States.
The Armory Show, also known as the International Exhibition of Modern Art, was a show organized by the Association of American Painters and Sculptors in 1913.
Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts (artworks), expressing the author's imaginative, conceptual idea, or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power.
An art manifesto is a public declaration of the intentions, motives, or views of an artist or artistic movement.
An art movement is a tendency or style in art with a specific common philosophy or goal, followed by a group of artists during a restricted period of time, (usually a few months, years or decades) or, at least, with the heyday of the movement defined within a number of years.
The art of Europe, or Western art, encompasses the history of visual art in Europe.
Arturo Umberto Samuele Schwarz (born 2 February 1924) is an Italian scholar, art historian, poet, writer, lecturer, art consultant and curator of international art exhibitions.
Assemblage is an artistic form or medium usually created on a defined substrate that consists of three-dimensional elements projecting out of or from the substrate.
The avant-garde (from French, "advance guard" or "vanguard", literally "fore-guard") are people or works that are experimental, radical, or unorthodox with respect to art, culture, or society.
Étant donnés (Given: 1. The Waterfall, 2. The Illuminating Gas, French: Étant donnés: 1° la chute d'eau / 2° le gaz d'éclairage) is Marcel Duchamp's last major artwork, which surprised the art world because it believed he had given up art for competitive chess which he played for almost 25 years, following a prolific art career.
Beatrice Wood (March 3, 1893 – March 12, 1998) was an American artist and studio potter involved in the Avant Garde movement in the United States; she founded The Blind Man magazine in New York City with French artist Marcel Duchamp and writer Henri-Pierre Roché in 1917.
Belle da Costa Greene (December 13, 1883 – May 10, 1950) was the librarian to J. P. Morgan.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
Bicycle Wheel is a readymade by Marcel Duchamp consisting of a bicycle fork with front wheel mounted upside-down on a wooden stool.
Bird in Space (L'Oiseau dans l'espace) is a series of sculptures by Romanian sculptor Constantin Brâncuși.
A birdcage (or bird cage) is a cage designed to house birds as pets.
Blainville-Crevon is a commune in the Seine-Maritime département of the Normandy region of northern France.
Robert James Fischer (March 9, 1943January 17, 2008) was an American chess grandmaster and the eleventh World Chess Champion.
A book is a series of pages assembled for easy portability and reading, as well as the composition contained in it.
The Bottle Rack (also called Bottle Dryer or Hedgehog) (Egouttoir or Porte-bouteilles or Hérisson) is an artwork created in 1914 by Dada artist Marcel Duchamp.
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.
Buenos Aires is the capital and most populous city of Argentina.
Cabaret Voltaire was the name of a artistic nightclub in Zürich, Switzerland.
Catherine Perret (born 9 July 1956 in Paris) is associate professor of modern and contemporary aesthetics and theory at Nanterre University (Paris X).
Centre Georges Pompidou, commonly shortened to Centre Pompidou and also known as the Pompidou Centre in English, is a complex building in the Beaubourg area of the 4th arrondissement of Paris, near Les Halles, rue Montorgueil, and the Marais.
Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid.
In chess and chess-like games, the endgame (or end game or ending) is the stage of the game when few pieces are left on the board.
The Chess Olympiad is a biennial chess tournament in which teams from all over the world compete.
A chess set has thirty-two chess pieces in two colours and a chessboard used to play chess.
A chess title is a title created by a chess governing body and bestowed upon players based on their performance and rank.
A chessboard is the type of checkerboard used in the board game chess, consisting of 64 squares (eight rows and eight columns).
Roasting coffee transforms the chemical and physical properties of green coffee beans into roasted coffee products.
In geometry, two or more objects are said to be concentric, coaxal, or coaxial when they share the same center or axis.
Conceptual art, sometimes simply called conceptualism, is art in which the concept(s) or idea(s) involved in the work take precedence over traditional aesthetic, technical, and material concerns.
Constantin Brâncuși (February 19, 1876 – March 16, 1957) was a Romanian sculptor, painter and photographer who made his career in France.
Correspondence chess is chess or variant chess played by various forms of long-distance correspondence, often through a correspondence chess server, a public internet chess forum, email, or the postal system.
Corresponding squares (also called relative squares, sister squares and coordinate squares) in chess occur in some chess endgames, usually ones that are mostly blocked.
Cubism is an early-20th-century art movement which brought European painting and sculpture historically forward toward 20th century Modern art.
Cuttlebone, also known as cuttlefish bone, is a hard, brittle internal structure (an internal shell) found in all members of the family Sepiidae, commonly known as cuttlefish, a family within the cephalopods.
Dada or Dadaism was an art movement of the European avant-garde in the early 20th century, with early centers in Zürich, Switzerland, at the Cabaret Voltaire (circa 1916); New York Dada began circa 1915, and after 1920 Dada flourished in Paris.
Downtown music is a subdivision of American music, closely related to experimental music.
In chess, a draw is the result of a game ending in a tie.
Du "Cubisme", also written Du Cubisme, or Du « Cubisme » (and in English, On Cubism or Cubism), is a book written in 1912 by Albert Gleizes and Jean Metzinger.
Emmy Hennings (born Emma Maria Cordsen, 17 January 1885 – 10 August 1948) was a performer and poet.
Endgame, by Samuel Beckett, is a one-act play with four characters.
In geometry, an enneagram is a nine-pointed plane figure.
Entr'acte is a 1924 French short film directed by René Clair, which premiered as an entr'acte for the Ballets Suédois production Relâche at the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées in Paris.
An epitaph (from Greek ἐπιτάφιος epitaphios "a funeral oration" from ἐπί epi "at, over" and τάφος taphos "tomb") is a short text honoring a deceased person.
Eros (or; ἔρως érōs "love" or "desire") is one of the four ancient Greco-Christian terms which can be rendered into English as "love".
Eugenio Fernández Granell (28 November 1912 – 24 October 2001) was an artist often described as the last Spanish Surrealist painter.
Eve Babitz (born May 13, 1943) is an American artist and author best known for her fictive memoirs and her relationship to the cultural milieu of Los Angeles.
Fauvism is the style of les Fauves (French for "the wild beasts"), a group of early twentieth-century modern artists whose works emphasized painterly qualities and strong color over the representational or realistic values retained by Impressionism.
Joseph Fernand Henri Léger (February 4, 1881 – August 17, 1955) was a French painter, sculptor, and filmmaker.
A flashlight (more often called a torch outside North America) is a portable hand-held electric light.
Fluxus is an international and interdisciplinary group of artists, composers, designers and poets that took shape in the 1960s and 1970s.
Found object originates from the French objet trouvé, describing art created from undisguised, but often modified, objects or products that are not normally considered materials from which art is made, often because they already have a non-art function.
Fountain is a 1917 work produced by Marcel Duchamp.
The Fountain Archive (also called The Fountain Archives or Fountain Archive Project) is a processual art project of the French conceptual artist Saâdane Afif which started in 2008/ 2009.
New possibilities opened up by the concept of four-dimensional space (and difficulties involved in trying to visualize it) helped inspire many modern artists in the first half of the twentieth century.
Francis Picabia (born Francis-Marie Martinez de Picabia, 22January 1879 – 30November 1953) was a French avant-garde painter, poet and typographist.
French Americans (French: Franco-Américains) are citizens or nationals of the United States who identify themselves with having full or partial French or French Canadian heritage, ethnicity, and/or ancestral ties.
Futurism (Futurismo) was an artistic and social movement that originated in Italy in the early 20th century.
Galeries Dalmau was an art gallery in Barcelona, Spain, from 1906 to 1930 (also known as Sala Dalmau, Les Galeries Dalmau, Galería Dalmau, and Galeries J. Dalmau).
George Grosz (born Georg Ehrenfried Groß; July 26, 1893 – July 6, 1959) was a German artist known especially for his caricatural drawings and paintings of Berlin life in the 1920s.
Graphic design is the process of visual communication and problem-solving through the use of typography, photography and illustration.
Greenwich Village often referred to by locals as simply "the Village", is a neighborhood on the west side of Lower Manhattan, New York City.
Guillaume Apollinaire (26 August 1880 – 9 November 1918) was a French poet, playwright, short story writer, novelist, and art critic of Polish descent.
Hannah Höch (November 1, 1889 – May 31, 1978) was a German Dada artist.
Hans Richter (6 April 1888 – 1 February 1976) was a German painter, graphic artist, avant-gardist, film-experimenter and producer.
Henri Émile Benoît Matisse (31 December 1869 – 3 November 1954) was a French artist, known for both his use of colour and his fluid and original draughtsmanship.
Jules Henri Poincaré (29 April 1854 – 17 July 1912) was a French mathematician, theoretical physicist, engineer, and philosopher of science.
Henri-Pierre Roché (28 May 1879 – 9 April 1959) was a French author who was deeply involved with the artistic avant-garde in Paris and the Dada movement.
The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York in the United States.
Hugo Ball (22 February 1886 – 14 September 1927) was a German author, poet, and essentially the founder of the Dada movement in European art in Zürich in 1916.
Hypermodernism is a school of chess that emerged after World War I. It featured challenges to the chess ideas of central European masters, including Wilhelm Steinitz's approach to the centre and the rules established by Siegbert Tarrasch.
Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement characterised by relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), ordinary subject matter, inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, and unusual visual angles.
Irene Gammel is a Canadian literary historian, biographer, and curator.
John Pierpont Morgan Sr. (April 17, 1837 – March 31, 1913) was an American financier and banker who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation in the United States of America in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Jacques Doucet (1853–1929) was a French fashion designer and art collector.
Jacques Villon (July 31, 1875 – June 9, 1963), also known as Gaston Duchamp, was a French Cubist and abstract painter and printmaker.
James Johnson Sweeney (1900–1986) was an American curator, and writer about modern art.
Jasper Johns (born May 15, 1930) is an American painter, sculptor and printmaker whose work is associated with abstract expressionism, Neo-Dada, and pop art.
Jean Arp or Hans Arp (16 September 1886 – 7 June 1966) was a German-French sculptor, painter, poet, and abstract artist in other media such as torn and pasted paper.
Jean Dominique Antony Metzinger (24 June 1883 – 3 November 1956) was a major 20th-century French painter, theorist, writer, critic and poet, who along with Albert Gleizes wrote the first theoretical work on Cubism.
Joan Dawson Bakewell, Baroness Bakewell, DBE (née Rowlands; born 16 April 1933) is an English journalist, television presenter and Labour Party Peer.
Johannes Baader (June 22, 1875 – January 15, 1955), originally trained as an architect, was a writer and artist associated with Dada in Berlin.
John Milton Cage Jr. (September 5, 1912 – August 12, 1992) was an American composer and music theorist.
John Heartfield (born Helmut Herzfeld; 19 June 1891 – 26 April 1968) was a visual artist who pioneered the use of art as a political weapon.
José Victoriano (Carmelo Carlos) González-Pérez (March 23, 1887 – May 11, 1927), better known as Juan Gris, was a Spanish painter and sculptor born in Madrid who lived and worked in France most of his life.
The Jura Mountains (locally; Massif du Jura; Juragebirge; Massiccio del Giura) are a sub-alpine mountain range located north of the Western Alps, mainly following the course of the France–Switzerland border.
Katherine Sophie Dreier (September 10, 1877 – March 29, 1952) was an American artist, lecturer, patron of the arts and social reformer.
Kinetic art is art from any medium that contains movement perceivable by the viewer or depends on motion for its effect.
The knight (♘ ♞) is a piece in the game of chess, representing a knight (armored cavalry).
Kurt Hermann Eduard Karl Julius Schwitters (20 June 1887 – 8 January 1948) was a German artist who was born in Hanover, Germany.
L.H.O.O.Q. is a work of art by Marcel Duchamp.
La Maison Cubiste (The Cubist House), also called Projet d'hôtel, was an architectural installation in the Art Décoratif section of the 1912 Paris Salon d'Automne which presented a Cubist vision of architecture and design.
Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519), more commonly Leonardo da Vinci or simply Leonardo, was an Italian polymath of the Renaissance, whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography.
LTM Recordings (originally les temps modernes) is a British independent record label founded in 1983, and best known for reissues of artists and music from 1978 to the present day, as well as modern classical and avant-garde composition.
Lucas Cranach the Elder (Lucas Cranach der Ältere, c. 1472 – 16 October 1553) was a German Renaissance painter and printmaker in woodcut and engraving.
The Lycée Pierre-Corneille (also known as the Lycée Corneille) is a state-owned public school located in the city of Rouen, France.
Man Ray (born Emmanuel Radnitzky; August 27, 1890 – November 18, 1976) was an American visual artist who spent most of his career in France.
A mannequin (also called a manikin, dummy, lay figure or dress form) is an often articulated doll used by artists, tailors, dressmakers, windowdressers and others especially to display or fit clothing.
A manuscript (abbreviated MS for singular and MSS for plural) was, traditionally, any document written by hand -- or, once practical typewriters became available, typewritten -- as opposed to being mechanically printed or reproduced in some indirect or automated way.
Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite.
Marc Allégret (22 December 1900 – 3 November 1973) was a French screenwriter, photographer and film director.
The Marcel Duchamp Prize (in French: Prix Marcel Duchamp) is an annual award given to a young artist by the Association pour la Diffusion Internationale de l'Art Français (ADIAF).
Marcel Janco (common rendition of the Romanian name Marcel Hermann Iancu, last name also Ianco, Janko or Jancu; May 24, 1895 – April 21, 1984) was a Romanian and Israeli visual artist, architect and art theorist.
Maria Martins (1894 – 1973) was a Brazilian visual artist who was particularly well known for her modern sculptures.
Max Ernst (2 April 1891 – 1 April 1976) was a German painter, sculptor, graphic artist, and poet.
Johann Kaspar Schmidt (October 25, 1806 – June 26, 1856), better known as Max Stirner, was a German philosopher who is often seen as one of the forerunners of nihilism, existentialism, psychoanalytic theory, postmodernism and individualist anarchism.
Maya Deren (April 29, 1917 – October 13, 1961), born Eleonora Derenkowska (Елеоно́ра Деренко́вська), was a Ukrainian-born American filmmaker and one of the most important American experimental filmmakers and entrepreneurial promoters of the avant-garde in the 1940s and 1950s.
A merchant is a person who trades in commodities produced by other people.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art of New York, colloquially "the Met", is the largest art museum in the United States.
The mind is a set of cognitive faculties including consciousness, perception, thinking, judgement, language and memory.
A mobile is a type of kinetic sculpture constructed to take advantage of the principle of equilibrium.
The Mona Lisa (Monna Lisa or La Gioconda, La Joconde) is a half-length portrait painting by the Italian Renaissance artist Leonardo da Vinci that has been described as "the best known, the most visited, the most written about, the most sung about, the most parodied work of art in the world".
Montparnasse Cemetery (Cimetière du Montparnasse) is a cemetery in the Montparnasse quarter of Paris, part of the city's 14th arrondissement.
The Morgan Library & Museum – formerly the Pierpont Morgan Library – is a museum and research library located at 225 Madison Avenue at East 36th Street in the Murray Hill neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City.
The Musée National d'Art Moderne (National Museum of Modern Art) is the national museum for modern art of France.
The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) is an art museum located in Midtown Manhattan in New York City, on 53rd Street between Fifth and Sixth Avenues.
Music of Changes is a piece for solo piano by John Cage.
Neuilly-sur-Seine is a French commune just west of Paris, in the department of Hauts-de-Seine.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
The Nimzo-Indian Defence is a chess opening characterised by the moves: Other move orders, such as 1.c4 e6 2.Nc3 Nf6 3.d4 Bb4, are also feasible.
Normandy (Normandie,, Norman: Normaundie, from Old French Normanz, plural of Normant, originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is one of the 18 regions of France, roughly referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy.
The Norton Simon Museum is an art museum located in Pasadena, California, United States.
Nouveau réalisme (new realism) refers to an artistic movement founded in 1960 by the art critic Pierre Restany and the painter Yves Klein during the first collective exposition in the Apollinaire gallery in Milan.
Nude Descending a Staircase, No.
Nymphaeaceae is a family of flowering plants, commonly called water lilies.
Odilon Redon (born Bertrand-Jean Redon;; April 20, 1840July 6, 1916) was a French symbolist painter, printmaker, draughtsman and pastellist.
In chess, opposition (or direct opposition) is the situation occurring when two kings face each other on a rank or file, with only one square in-between them.
Oulipo (short for Ouvroir de littérature potentielle; roughly translated: "workshop of potential literature") is a loose gathering of (mainly) French-speaking writers and mathematicians who seek to create works using constrained writing techniques.
Pablo Ruiz Picasso (25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, poet and playwright who spent most of his adult life in France.
Painterliness is a concept based on the German term malerisch (painterly), a word popularized by Swiss art historian Heinrich Wölfflin (1864–1945) to help focus, enrich and standardize the terms being used by art historians of his time to characterize works of art.
A parody (also called a spoof, send-up, take-off, lampoon, play on something, caricature, or joke) is a work created to imitate, make fun of, or comment on an original work—its subject, author, style, or some other target—by means of satiric or ironic imitation.
Paul Cézanne (or;; 19 January 1839 – 22 October 1906) was a French artist and Post-Impressionist painter whose work laid the foundations of the transition from the 19th-century conception of artistic endeavor to a new and radically different world of art in the 20th century.
Marguerite "Peggy" Guggenheim (August 26, 1898 – December 23, 1979) was an American art collector, bohemian and socialite.
The Philadelphia Museum of Art is an art museum originally chartered in 1876 for the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia.
Pierre Jean Baptiste Louis Dumont (29 March 1884, 5th arrondissement, Paris – 8 April 1936, Paris) more commonly known as Pierre Dumont, was a French painter of the Rouen School.
Plastic arts are art forms which involve physical manipulation of a plastic medium by moulding or modeling such as sculpture or ceramics.
A poet is a person who creates poetry.
Karl Gunnar Vougt Pontus Hultén (21 June 1924 – 25 October 2006) was a Swedish art collector and museum director.
Pop art is an art movement that emerged in Britain and the United States during the mid- to late-1950s.
Post-Impressionism (also spelled Postimpressionism) is a predominantly French art movement that developed roughly between 1886 and 1905, from the last Impressionist exhibition to the birth of Fauvism.
Postmodernism is a broad movement that developed in the mid- to late-20th century across philosophy, the arts, architecture, and criticism and that marked a departure from modernism.
Prelude to a Broken Arm (En prévision du bras cassé in French) is a 1915 sculpture by Dada artist Marcel Duchamp that consisted of a regular snow shovel with the title and "from Marcel Duchamp 1915" painted on the handle.
Printing is a process for reproducing text and images using a master form or template.
Proto-Cubism (also referred to as Protocubism, Pre-Cubism or Early Cubism) is an intermediary transition phase in the history of art chronologically extending from 1906 to 1910.
The pun, also called paronomasia, is a form of word play that exploits multiple meanings of a term, or of similar-sounding words, for an intended humorous or rhetorical effect.
Puteaux is a commune in the western suburbs of Paris, France.
Rainy Taxi (1938), also known as Mannequin Rotting in a Taxi-Cab, is a three-dimensional artwork created by Salvador Dalí, consisting of an actual automobile with two mannequin occupants.
Raoul Hausmann (July 12, 1886 – February 1, 1971) was an Austrian artist and writer.
Raymond Duchamp-Villon (5 November 1876 – 9 October 1918) was a French sculptor.
Raymond Roussel (January 20, 1877 – July 14, 1933) was a French poet, novelist, playwright, musician, and chess enthusiast.
The readymades of Marcel Duchamp are ordinary manufactured objects that the artist selected and modified, as an antidote to what he called "retinal art".
RealPlayer, formerly RealAudio Player, RealOne Player and RealPlayer G2, is a cross-platform media player app, developed by RealNetworks.
René Clair (11 November 1898 – 15 March 1981) born René-Lucien Chomette, was a French filmmaker and writer.
The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.
Rhonda Roland Shearer is an American sculptor, scholar and journalist, who founded the nonprofit organization Art Science Research Laboratory with her late husband Stephen Jay Gould.
Richard William Hamilton CH (24 February 1922 – 13 September 2011) was an English painter and collage artist.
Carl Wilhelm Richard Hülsenbeck (23 April 189220 April 1974) was a German writer, poet, and psychoanalyst born in Frankenau, Hessen-Nassau.
Ridgefield is a borough in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States.
Robert Antoine Pinchon (July 1, 1886 in Rouen – January 9, 1943 in Bois-Guillaume) was a French Post-Impressionist landscape painter of the Rouen School (l'École de Rouen) who was born and spent most of his life in France.
Robert Delaunay (12 April 1885 – 25 October 1941) was a French artist who, with his wife Sonia Delaunay and others, co-founded the Orphism art movement, noted for its use of strong colours and geometric shapes.
Robert Desnos (4 July 1900 – 8 June 1945) was a French surrealist poet who played a key role in the Surrealist movement of his day.
Milton Ernest "Robert" Rauschenberg (October 22, 1925 – May 12, 2008) was an American painter and graphic artist whose early works anticipated the pop art movement.
Roger de La Fresnaye (11 July 1885 – 27 November 1925) was a French Cubist painter.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
Rouen (Frankish: Rodomo; Rotomagus, Rothomagus) is a city on the River Seine in the north of France.
The Salon d'Automne (Autumn Salon), or Société du Salon d'automne, is an annual art exhibition held in Paris, France since 1903; it is currently held on the Champs-Élysées, between the Grand Palais and the Petit Palais, in mid October.
Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.
Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, 1st Marquess of Dalí de Púbol (11 May 190423 January 1989), known professionally as Salvador Dalí, was a prominent Spanish surrealist born in Figueres, Catalonia, Spain.
Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989) was an Irish avant-garde novelist, playwright, theatre director, poet, and literary translator who lived in Paris for most of his adult life.
Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions.
The Section d'Or ("Golden Section"), also known as Groupe de Puteaux (or Puteaux Group), was a collective of painters, sculptors, poets and critics associated with Cubism and Orphism.
Shock art is contemporary art that incorporates disturbing imagery, sound or scents to create a shocking experience.
Snail is a common name loosely applied to shelled gastropods.
Société Anonyme, Inc. was an art organization founded in 1920 by Katherine Dreier, Man Ray and Marcel Duchamp.
The Société des Artistes Indépendants (Society of Independent Artists), Salon des Indépendants was formed in Paris on 29 July 1884.
Society of Independent Artists was an association of American artists founded in 1916 and based in New York.
A spoonerism is an error in speech in which corresponding consonants, vowels, or morphemes are switched (see metathesis) between two words in a phrase.
The Staatliches Museum Schwerin (State Museum Schwerin) is an art gallery and museum in Schwerin in Germany.
Stefan Banz (born in 1961 in Sursee, Switzerland) is an artist and curator.
Stephen Jay Gould (September 10, 1941 – May 20, 2002) was an American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist, and historian of science.
Stereoscopy (also called stereoscopics, or stereo imaging) is a technique for creating or enhancing the illusion of depth in an image by means of stereopsis for binocular vision.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for its visual artworks and writings.
Suzanne Duchamp-Crotti (20 October 1889 – 11 September 1963) was a French Dadaist painter.
Symbolism was a late nineteenth-century art movement of French, Russian and Belgian origin in poetry and other arts.
Tate is an institution that houses the United Kingdom's national collection of British art, and international modern and contemporary art.
Tate Britain (known from 1897 to 1932 as the National Gallery of British Art and from 1932 to 2000 as the Tate Gallery) is an art museum on Millbank in the City of Westminster in London.
A taxicab, also known as a taxi or a cab, is a type of vehicle for hire with a driver, used by a single passenger or small group of passengers, often for a non-shared ride.
The Art of This Century gallery was opened by Peggy Guggenheim at 30 West 57th Street in Manhattan, New York City on October 20, 1942.
The Blind Man was an art and Dada journal published briefly by the New York Dadaists in 1917.
The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even, most often called The Large Glass, is an artwork by Marcel Duchamp over tall, and freestanding.
The Ego and Its Own (Der Einzige und sein Eigentum; meaningfully translated as The Individual and his Property, literally as The Unique and His Property) is an 1844 work by German philosopher Max Stirner.
The Witch's Cradle (1943), sometimes billed as Witches' Cradle, is an unfinished, silent, experimental short film written and directed by Maya Deren, featuring Marcel Duchamp, and filmed in Peggy Guggenheim's Art of This Century gallery.
Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money.
Tristan Tzara (born Samuel or Samy Rosenstock, also known as S. Samyro; – 25 December 1963) was a Romanian and French avant-garde poet, essayist and performance artist.
Typography is the art and technique of arranging type to make written language legible, readable, and appealing when displayed.
UbuWeb is a large web-based educational resource for avant-garde material available on the internet, founded in 1996 by poet Kenneth Goldsmith.
View was an American literary and art magazine published from 1940 to 1947 by artist and writer Charles Henri Ford, and writer and film critic Parker Tyler.
The visual arts are art forms such as ceramics, drawing, painting, sculpture, printmaking, design, crafts, photography, video, filmmaking, and architecture.
A visual pun is a pun involving an image or images (in addition to or instead of language), often based on a rebus.
Vitaly Halberstadt (20 March 1903, Odessa – 25 October 1967, Paris) was a French chess player, theorist, tactician, problemist, and, above all, a noted endgame study composer.
The cover of the final issue was designed by Roberto Matta and depicted a vagina dentata. VVV was a magazine devoted to the dissemination of Surrealism published in New York City from 1942 through 1944.
Walter Conrad Arensberg (April 4, 1878 – January 29, 1954) was an American art collector, critic and poet.
Walter Pach (July 1, 1883 – November 27, 1958) was an artist, critic, lecturer, art adviser, and art historian who wrote extensively about modern art and championed its cause.
Why not Sneeze, Rose Sélavy? is a 1921 "readymade" sculpture by Marcel Duchamp.
Wolfgang Robert Paalen (July 22, 1905 in Vienna, Austria – September 24, 1959 in Taxco, Mexico) was a German-Austrian-Mexican painter, sculptor and art philosopher.
Wood carving is a form of woodworking by means of a cutting tool (knife) in one hand or a chisel by two hands or with one hand on a chisel and one hand on a mallet, resulting in a wooden figure or figurine, or in the sculptural ornamentation of a wooden object.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Zürich or Zurich is the largest city in Switzerland and the capital of the canton of Zürich.