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Albert Venn Dicey, KC, FBA (4 February 1835 – 7 April 1922), usually cited as A. V. Dicey, was a British jurist and constitutional theorist.
Bishop Abel Tendekayi Muzorewa (14 April 1925 – 8 April 2010) served as Prime Minister of Zimbabwe Rhodesia from the Internal Settlement to the Lancaster House Agreement in 1979.
Acid rain is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, meaning that it has elevated levels of hydrogen ions (low pH).
The African National Congress (ANC) is the Republic of South Africa's governing political party.
The aftermath of the 1982 Falklands War (Guerra de Malvinas in Spanish) between the United Kingdom and Argentina saw an impact upon world geopolitics, the local political culture in Argentina and the UK, military thought, medical treatment, and the lives of those who were directly involved in the war.
Agusta was an Italian helicopter manufacturer.
Sir Alan Arthur Walters (17 June 1926 – 3 January 2009) was a British economist who was best known as the Chief Economic Adviser to Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher from 1981 to 1983 and (after his return from the United States) again for five months in 1989.
An alderman is a member of a municipal assembly or council in many jurisdictions founded upon English law.
Alexander Frederick Douglas-Home, Baron Home of the Hirsel, (2 July 1903 – 9 October 1995) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from October 1963 to October 1964.
Alexander Elliot Anderson Salmond (born 31 December 1954) is a Scottish politician who served as the First Minister of Scotland from 2007 to 2014.
Alfred Roberts (18 April 1892 – 10 February 1970), known as Alderman Roberts, was an English grocer, local preacher, and politician.
An allowance is an amount of money given or allotted usually at regular intervals for a specific purpose.
Altria Group, Inc. (renamed from Philip Morris Companies Inc. on January 27, 2003) is an American corporation and one of the world's largest producers and marketers of tobacco, cigarettes and related products.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
Andrea Louise Riseborough (born 20 November 1981) is an English stage and film actress.
Aneurin Bevan (15 November 1897 – 6 July 1960), often known as Nye Bevan, was a Welsh Labour Party politician who was the Minister for Health in the post-war Attlee ministry from 1945-51.
Angela Thorne (born 25 January 1939) is an English actress of stage, television and film who is best known for her roles in To the Manor Born, as Audrey fforbes-Hamilton's best friend Marjory Frobisher, and as Margaret Thatcher in Anyone for Denis?.
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.
The Anglo-Irish Agreement was a 1985 treaty between the United Kingdom and Ireland which aimed to help bring an end to the Troubles in Northern Ireland.
Charles Anthony Raven Crosland (29 August 1918 – 19 February 1977), sometimes known as Tony Crosland or C. A. R. Crosland, was a British Labour Party politician and author.
Anti-communism is opposition to communism.
Sir Antony Fisher (born Antony George Anson Fisher, also nicknamed AGAF; 28 June 1915 – 8 July 1988) was a British businessman and think tank founder.
Anyone for Denis? is a British video-taped television version of the stage play of the same name broadcast by the ITV network on 28 December 1982.
Apartheid started in 1948 in theUnion of South Africa |year_start.
The last stage of the Falklands War was the surrender of the Argentine Governor at Port Stanley.
Arthur Scargill (born 11 January 1938) is a British trade unionist.
Arthur Seldon (29 May 1916 – 11 October 2005) was joint founder president, with Ralph Harris, of the Institute of Economic Affairs, where he directed editorial affairs and publishing for more than thirty years.
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, (1 May 1769 – 14 September 1852) was an Anglo-Irish soldier and statesman who was one of the leading military and political figures of 19th-century Britain, serving twice as Prime Minister.
Aspen is the home rule municipality that is the county seat and the most populous municipality of Pitkin County, Colorado, United States.
Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte (25 November 1915 – 10 December 2006) was a Chilean general, politician and the dictator of Chile between 1973 and 1990 who remained the Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army until 1998 and was also President of the Government Junta of Chile between 1973 and 1981.
Ba'athist Iraq, formally the Iraqi Republic, covers the history of Iraq between 1968 and 2003, during the period of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party's rule.
A Bachelor of Science (Latin Baccalaureus Scientiae, B.S., BS, B.Sc., BSc, or B.Sc; or, less commonly, S.B., SB, or Sc.B., from the equivalent Latin Scientiae Baccalaureus) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded for completed courses that generally last three to five years, or a person holding such a degree.
In Westminster parliamentary systems, a backbencher is a Member of Parliament (MP) or a legislator who holds no governmental office and is not a frontbench spokesperson in the Opposition, being instead simply a member of the "rank and file".
A bar association is a professional association of lawyers.
A barrister (also known as barrister-at-law or bar-at-law) is a type of lawyer in common law jurisdictions.
BBC History Magazine is a British publication devoted to history articles on both British and world history and are aimed at all levels of knowledge and interest.
BBC Radio 4 is a radio station owned and operated by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) that broadcasts a wide variety of spoken-word programmes including news, drama, comedy, science and history.
Belgravia is an affluent district in West London, shared within the authorities of both the City of Westminster and the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea.
The Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer) was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989.
The Ground Launched Cruise Missile, or GLCM, (officially designated BGM-109G Gryphon) was a ground-launched cruise missile developed by the United States Air Force in the last decade of the Cold War and destroyed under the INF Treaty.
The phrase Big Bang, used in reference to the sudden deregulation of financial markets, was coined to describe measures, including abolition of fixed commission charges and of the distinction between stockjobbers and stockbrokers on the London Stock Exchange and change from open-outcry to electronic, screen-based trading, effected by Margaret Thatcher in 1986.
William Francis Deedes, Baron Deedes, (1 June 1913 – 17 August 2007) was a British Conservative Party politician, army officer and journalist; he was the first person in Britain to have been both a member of the Cabinet and the editor of a major daily newspaper, The Daily Telegraph.
Stephen William "Billy" Bragg (born 20 December 1957) is an English singer-songwriter and left-wing political activist.
William Franklin Graham Jr. (November 7, 1918 – February 21, 2018) was an American evangelist, a prominent evangelical Christian figure, and an ordained Southern Baptist minister who became well known internationally in the late 1940s.
Birching is a corporal punishment with a birch rod, typically applied to the recipient's bare buttocks, although occasionally to the back and/or shoulders.
Sir Leslie Townes Hope, KBE, KC*SG, KSS (May 29, 1903 – July 27, 2003) known professionally as Bob Hope, was an English-American stand-up comedian, vaudevillian, actor, singer, dancer, athlete, and author.
Robert Gerard Sands (Roibeárd Gearóid Ó Seachnasaigh; 9 March 19545 May 1981) was a member of the Provisional Irish Republican Army who died on hunger strike while imprisoned at HM Prison Maze after being sentenced for firearms possession.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
The Bosnian War was an international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1992 and 1995.
Brexit is the impending withdrawal of the United Kingdom (UK) from the European Union (EU).
The Brighton hotel bombing was a Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) assassination attempt against the top tier of the British government that occurred on 12 October 1984 at the Grand Brighton Hotel in Brighton, England.
The British Film Institute (BFI) is a film and charitable organisation which promotes and preserves filmmaking and television in the United Kingdom.
British Gas plc was an energy and home services provider in the United Kingdom.
British Journal of Political Science is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering all aspects of political science.
The British Nationality Act 1981 (c.61) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom concerning British nationality since 1 January 1983.
This is a list of the naval forces from the United Kingdom that took part in the Falklands War.
British Railways (BR), which from 1965 traded as British Rail, was the state-owned company that operated most of the rail transport in Great Britain between 1948 and 1997.
British Steel plc was a major British steel producer.
In the United Kingdom there were direct sales to both sides in the Iran–Iraq War.
The British undergraduate degree classification system is a grading structure for undergraduate degrees (bachelor's degrees and integrated master's degrees) in the United Kingdom.
Bruges (Brugge; Bruges; Brügge) is the capital and largest city of the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium, in the northwest of the country.
BX Plastics was a plastics engineering and production company.
The Cabinet of the United Kingdom is the collective decision-making body of Her Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom, composed of the Prime Minister and 21 cabinet ministers, the most senior of the government ministers.
The Cabinet Room is the meeting room for the cabinet secretaries and advisors serving the President of the United States.
Cadby Hall was a major office and factory complex in Hammersmith, London which was the headquarters of pioneering catering company Joseph Lyons and Co. for almost a century.
Caesarean section, also known as C-section or caesarean delivery, is the use of surgery to deliver one or more babies.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
The Cambodian–Vietnamese War, otherwise known in Vietnam as the "Counter-offensive on the Southwestern border" ("Chiến dịch Phản công Biên giới Tây-Nam) was an armed conflict between the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and Democratic Kampuchea.
The Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND) is an organisation that advocates unilateral nuclear disarmament by the United Kingdom, international nuclear disarmament and tighter international arms regulation through agreements such as the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.
Carcinoma is a type of cancer that develops from epithelial cells.
The Carlton Club is a gentlemen's club in London which describes itself as the "oldest, and most important of all Conservative clubs in Britain." Membership of the club is by nomination and election only.
Carol Jane Thatcher (born 15 August 1953) is an English journalist, author and media personality.
A chancellor is a leader of a college or university, usually either the executive or ceremonial head of the university or of a university campus within a university system.
Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter sets out the UN Security Council's powers to maintain peace.
A chemical weapon (CW) is a specialized munition that uses chemicals formulated to inflict death or harm on humans.
A chemist (from Greek chēm (ía) alchemy; replacing chymist from Medieval Latin alchimista) is a scientist trained in the study of chemistry.
Chester Square is a small residential garden square located in London's Belgravia district.
Chivalry, or the chivalric code, is an informal, varying code of conduct developed between 1170 and 1220, never decided on or summarized in a single document, associated with the medieval institution of knighthood; knights' and gentlewomen's behaviours were governed by chivalrous social codes.
The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.
Circular 10/65 was a government circular issued in 1965 by the Department of Education and Science (DES) requesting Local Education Authorities (LEAs) in England and Wales to begin converting their secondary schools to the Comprehensive System.
Circular 10/70 was an attempt by Margaret Thatcher as Secretary for Education in 1970 to reverse the effects of Circular 10/65 (sometimes called the Crosland Circular since it was issued by Anthony Crosland as Secretary for Education under Wilson in 1965) and Circular 10/66.
The City Law School is one of the five schools of City, University of London.
The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough which also holds city status.
In England, a City Technology College (CTC) is a state-funded all-ability secondary school that charges no fees but is independent of local authority control, being overseen directly by the Department for Education.
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
Climate change mitigation consists of actions to limit the magnitude or rate of long-term climate change.
Vivian Leopold James, AO, CBE, FRSL (born 7 October 1939), known as Clive James, is an Australian author, critic, broadcaster, poet, translator and memoirist, best known for his autobiographical series Unreliable Memoirs, for his chat shows and documentaries on British television and for his prolific journalism.
The Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea (CGDK, រដ្ឋាភិបាលចំរុះកម្ពុជាប្រជាធិបតេយ្យ, Odthaphibeal Chamrouh Kampouchea Brachathibtey); renamed to the National Government of Cambodia (NGC, រដ្ឋាភិបាលជាតិនៃកម្ពុជា, Rodthaphibeal Cheate nei Kampouchea) from 1990, was a coalition government in exile composed of three Cambodian political factions: Prince Norodom Sihanouk's Funcinpec party, the Party of Democratic Kampuchea (often referred to as the Khmer Rouge) and the Khmer People's National Liberation Front (KPNLF) formed in 1982, broadening the de facto deposed Democratic Kampuchea regime.
Colchester is an historic market town and the largest settlement within the borough of Colchester in the county of Essex.
Cold War History is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering the history of the Cold War.
The College of Europe (Collège d'Europe) is an elite, independent university institute of postgraduate European studies with the main campus in Bruges, Belgium and a smaller campus in Warsaw, Poland.
The College of William & Mary (also known as William & Mary, or W&M) is a public research university in Williamsburg, Virginia. Founded in 1693 by letters patent issued by King William III and Queen Mary II, it is the second-oldest institution of higher education in the United States, after Harvard University. William & Mary educated American Presidents Thomas Jefferson (third), James Monroe (fifth), and John Tyler (tenth) as well as other key figures important to the development of the nation, including the fourth U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall of Virginia, Speaker of the House of Representatives Henry Clay of Kentucky, sixteen members of the Continental Congress, and four signers of the Declaration of Independence, earning it the nickname "the Alma Mater of the Nation." A young George Washington (1732–1799) also received his surveyor's license through the college. W&M students founded the Phi Beta Kappa academic honor society in 1776 and W&M was the first school of higher education in the United States to install an honor code of conduct for students. The establishment of graduate programs in law and medicine in 1779 makes it one of the earliest higher level universities in the United States. In addition to its undergraduate program (which includes an international joint degree program with the University of St Andrews in Scotland and a joint engineering program with Columbia University in New York City), W&M is home to several graduate programs (including computer science, public policy, physics, and colonial history) and four professional schools (law, business, education, and marine science). In his 1985 book Public Ivies: A Guide to America's Best Public Undergraduate Colleges and Universities, Richard Moll categorized William & Mary as one of eight "Public Ivies".
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
A comprehensive school is a secondary school that is a state school and does not select its intake on the basis of academic achievement or aptitude, in contrast to the selective school system, where admission is restricted on the basis of selection criteria.
Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is an American political scientist and diplomat.
CAIN (Conflict Archive on the Internet) is a database containing information about Conflict and Politics in Northern Ireland from 1968 to the present.
The Conservative Campaign Headquarters (CCHQ), formerly known as Conservative Central Office (CCO) is the headquarters of the British Conservative Party, housing its central staff and committee members, including campaign coordinators and managers.
The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom.
The 1975 Conservative Party leadership election was held in February 1975, in which the party's sitting MPs voted Margaret Thatcher as party leader on the second ballot.
The 1990 Conservative Party leadership election in the United Kingdom took place on 20 November 1990 following the decision of Michael Heseltine, former Defence and Environment Secretary, to challenge Margaret Thatcher, the incumbent Prime Minister, for leadership of the Conservative Party.
The 2001 Conservative Party leadership election was held after the British Conservative Party failed to make inroads into the Labour government's lead in the 2001 general election.
A council house is a form of public or social housing built by local municipalities in the United Kingdom and Ireland.
Croatian Radiotelevision (Hrvatska radiotelevizija or HRT) is a Croatian public broadcasting company.
The cultural impact of the Falklands War spanned several media in both Britain and Argentina.
A "curate's egg" describes something that is partly bad, but also partly good.
Dartford is the principal town in the Borough of Dartford, Kent, England.
Dartford is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2010 by Gareth Johnson of the Conservative Party.
David Lawrence Lipsey, Baron Lipsey (born 21 April 1948) is a British journalist and Labour Party politician.
David Martin Scott Steel, Baron Steel of Aikwood, (born 31 March 1938) is a British Liberal Democrat politician who served as the Leader of the Liberal Party from 1976 until its merger with the Social Democratic Party in 1988 to form the Liberal Democrats.
David Julian Winnick (born 26 June 1933) is a British Labour Party politician who was the Member of Parliament (MP) for Walsall North between 1979 and 2017.
Détente (meaning "relaxation") is the easing of strained relations, especially in a political situation.
The "Dear Bill" letters were a regular feature in the British satirical magazine Private Eye, purporting to be the private correspondence of Denis Thatcher, husband of the then-Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher.
Baroness Thatcher died of a stroke in London on 8 April 2013 at the age of 87.
On June 5, 2004, Ronald Reagan, the 40th President of the United States, died after having suffered from Alzheimer's disease for nearly a decade.
Debrett's is a professional coaching company, publisher and authority on etiquette and behaviour, founded in 1769 with the publication of the first edition of The New Peerage.
Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.
Deng Xiaoping (22 August 1904 – 19 February 1997), courtesy name Xixian (希贤), was a Chinese politician.
Denis Winston Healey, Baron Healey, (30 August 1917 – 3 October 2015) was a British Labour Party politician who served as Secretary of State for Defence from 1964 to 1970, Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1974 to 1979 and Deputy Leader of the Labour Party from 1980 to 1983.
Sir Denis Thatcher, 1st Baronet, (10 May 1915 – 26 June 2003) was a British businessman and the husband of Margaret Thatcher, who was the first female Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
The Deputy Leader of the Conservative Party is sometimes an official title of a senior Conservative politician of the United Kingdom.
The Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (DPM) is a senior member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom.
Deregulation is the process of removing or reducing state regulations, typically in the economic sphere.
Richard Bruce Cheney (born January 30, 1941) is an American politician and businessman who served as the 46th Vice President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
Dick Clement, OBE (born 5 September 1937) is an English writer known for his writing partnership with Ian La Frenais.
Disinvestment (or divestment) from South Africa was first advocated in the 1960s, in protest of South Africa's system of apartheid, but was not implemented on a significant scale until the mid-1980s.
Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is a retired American political figure and businessman.
Dorothy Mary Crowfoot Hodgkin (12 May 1910 – 29 July 1994) was a British chemist who developed protein crystallography, for which she won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1964.
The early 1980s recession was a severe global economic recession that affected much of the developed world in the late 1970s and early 1980s.
The Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) is an umbrella term for the group of policies aimed at converging the economies of member states of the European Union at three stages.
The economic history of the United Kingdom deals with the economic history of England and Great Britain from 1500 to the early 21st century.
The economy of the United Kingdom is highly developed and market-oriented.
The Education Act 1944 (7 and 8 Geo 6 c. 31) made numerous major changes in the provision and governance of secondary schools in England and Wales.
Sir Edward Richard George Heath (9 July 1916 – 17 July 2005), often known as Ted Heath, was a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1974 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1965 to 1975.
Edward Watson Short, Baron Glenamara, (17 December 1912 – 4 May 2012) was a British Labour politician.
Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.
The Embassy of the United States of America in London is the diplomatic mission of the United States in the United Kingdom.
An emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally immiscible (unmixable or unblendable).
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
John Enoch Powell (16 June 19128 February 1998) was a British politician, classical scholar, author, linguist, soldier, philologist and poet.
The Environmental Protection Act 1990 (initialism: EPA) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that defines, within England and Wales and Scotland, the fundamental structure and authority for waste management and control of emissions into the environment.
Essex man and Mondeo man are stereotypical figures which were popularised in 1990s England.
Ethnic cleansing is the systematic forced removal of ethnic or racial groups from a given territory by a more powerful ethnic group, often with the intent of making it ethnically homogeneous.
The European Currency Unit (₠ or ECU) was a basket of the currencies of the European Community member states, used as the unit of account of the European Community before being replaced by the euro on 1 January 1999, at parity.
The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.
The European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) was a system introduced by the European Economic Community on 13 March 1979, as part of the European Monetary System (EMS), to reduce exchange rate variability and achieve monetary stability in Europe, in preparation for Economic and Monetary Union and the introduction of a single currency, the euro, which took place on 1 January 1999.
European integration is the process of industrial, political, legal, economic, social and cultural integration of states wholly or partially in Europe.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
There were many events leading to the 1982 Falklands War (Guerra de Malvinas in Spanish) between the United Kingdom and Argentina over possession of the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) and South Georgia (Georgia del Sur).
The events preceding World War II in Europe are closely tied to the rise of fascism, especially in Nazi Germany.
Frederik Willem de Klerk (born 18 March 1936) is a South African politician who served as State President of South Africa from 1989 to 1994 and as Deputy President from 1994 to 1996.
The Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) is an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean on the Patagonian Shelf.
The Falklands War (Guerra de las Malvinas), also known as the Falklands Conflict, Falklands Crisis, Malvinas War, South Atlantic Conflict, and the Guerra del Atlántico Sur (Spanish for "South Atlantic War"), was a ten-week war between Argentina and the United Kingdom over two British dependent territories in the South Atlantic: the Falkland Islands, and its territorial dependency, the South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.
The Federation of American Scientists (FAS) is a 501(c)(3) organization with the stated intent of using science and scientific analysis to attempt to make the world more secure.
Fellowship of the Royal Society (FRS, ForMemRS and HonFRS) is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society judges to have made a "substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge, including mathematics, engineering science and medical science".
As in other countries, feminism in the United Kingdom seeks to establish political, social, and economic equality for women.
Field hockey is a team game of the hockey family.
The Financial Times (FT) is a Japanese-owned (since 2015), English-language international daily newspaper headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.
Finchley was a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Finkin Street Chapel is a Grade II listed building in Grantham, Lincolnshire.
The First Lord of the Treasury is the head of the commission exercising the ancient office of Lord High Treasurer in the United Kingdom, and is now always also the Prime Minister.
The First Shadow Cabinet of Edward Heath was created on 28 July 1965 after the Conservative Party elected Edward Heath as its leader, replacing Sir Alec Douglas-Home.
Fiscal conservatism (also economic conservatism or conservative economics) is a political-economic philosophy regarding fiscal policy and fiscal responsibility advocating low taxes, reduced government spending and minimal government debt.
François Maurice Adrien Marie Mitterrand (26 October 1916 – 8 January 1996) was a French statesman who was President of France from 1981 to 1995, the longest time in office of any French president.
Frank Robert Johnson (20 January 1943 – 15 December 2006) was an English journalist.
In economics, a free market is an idealized system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.
Friedrich August von Hayek (8 May 189923 March 1992), often referred to by his initials F. A. Hayek, was an Austrian-British economist and philosopher best known for his defense of classical liberalism.
In many parliaments and other similar assemblies, seating is typically arranged in banks or rows, with each political party or caucus grouped together.
FUNCINPEC (ហ្វ៊ុនស៊ិនប៉ិច; Front uni national pour un Cambodge indépendant, neutre, pacifique et coopératif), National United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful and Cooperative Cambodia in English, is a royalist political party in Cambodia.
Garret Desmond FitzGerald (9 February 192619 May 2011) was an Irish Fine Gael politician who served as Taoiseach from 1981 to 1982 and 1982 to 1987, Leader of Fine Gael from 1977 to 1987, Leader of the Opposition from 1977 to 1981 and March 1982 to December 1982 and Minister for Foreign Affairs from 1973 to 1977.
The General Dynamics F-111 Aardvark was a supersonic, medium-range interdictor and tactical attack aircraft that also filled the roles of strategic nuclear bomber, aerial reconnaissance, and electronic-warfare aircraft in its various versions.
Richard Edward Geoffrey Howe, Baron Howe of Aberavon, (20 December 1926 – 9 October 2015), known from 1970 to 1992 as Sir Geoffrey Howe, was a British Conservative politician.
George Foulkes, Baron Foulkes of Cumnock PC (born 21 January 1942 in Oswestry, Shropshire) is a British Labour Co-operative life peer.
George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 41st President of the United States from 1989 to 1993.
George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
The German reunification (Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic (GDR, colloquially East Germany; German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik/DDR) became part of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, colloquially West Germany; German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland/BRD) to form the reunited nation of Germany, and when Berlin reunited into a single city, as provided by its then Grundgesetz (constitution) Article 23.
Goražde (Горажде) is a city and the administrative center of Bosnian-Podrinje Canton Goražde of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Sir James Gordon Reece (28 September 1929 – 22 September 2001) was a British journalist and television producer who worked as a political strategist for Margaret Thatcher during the 1979 general election, which led to her victory over then prime minister James Callaghan.
The Government Statistical Service (GSS) is the community of all civil servants who work in the collection, production and communication of UK official statistics.
Gramicidin is a heterogeneous mixture of three antibiotic compounds, gramicidins A, B and C, making up 80%, 6%, and 14%, respectively, all of which are obtained from the soil bacterial species Bacillus brevis and called collectively gramicidin D. Gramicidin D contains linear pentadecapeptides, that is chains made up of 15 amino acids.
A grammar school is one of several different types of school in the history of education in the United Kingdom and other English-speaking countries, originally a school teaching Latin, but more recently an academically-oriented secondary school, differentiated in recent years from less academic Secondary Modern Schools.
Grantham is a town in the South Kesteven district of Lincolnshire, England.
The G8, reformatted as G7 from 2014 due to the suspension of Russia's participation, was an inter-governmental political forum from 1997 until 2014, with the participation of some major industrialized countries in the world, that viewed themselves as democracies.
The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
The Met Office Hadley Centre for Climate Change — named in honour of George Hadley — is one of the United Kingdom's leading centres for the study of scientific issues associated with climate change.
Hare coursing is the pursuit of hares with greyhounds and other sighthounds, which chase the hare by sight, not by scent.
Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963.
James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, (11 March 1916 – 24 May 1995) was a British Labour politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1964 to 1970 and from 1974 to 1976.
Vernon Edward Hartley Booth (born 17 July 1946) is a former British politician.
Head boy and head girl are roles of prominent representative student responsibility.
Health Affairs is a peer-reviewed healthcare journal established in 1981 by John K. Iglehart; since 2014, the editor-in-chief is Alan Weil.
Edward Heath of the Conservative Party formed the Heath ministry and was appointed Prime Minister of the United Kingdom by Queen Elizabeth II on 19 June 1970, following the 18 June general election.
Helmut Josef Michael Kohl (3 April 1930 – 16 June 2017) was a German statesman who served as Chancellor of Germany from 1982 to 1998 (of West Germany 1982–1990 and of the reunited Germany 1990–1998) and as the chairman of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) from 1973 to 1998.
Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger, May 27, 1923) is an American statesman, political scientist, diplomat and geopolitical consultant who served as the United States Secretary of State and National Security Advisor under the presidential administrations of Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford.
The High Court of Justice is, together with the Court of Appeal and the Crown Court, one of the Senior Courts of England and Wales.
HighBeam Research is a paid search engine and full text online archive owned by Gale, a subsidiary Cengage, for thousands of newspapers, magazines, academic journals, newswires, trade magazines, and encyclopedias in English.
The Times constructed a poll for the first time of all British prime ministers in the lead-up to the 2010 general election.
The decision of the Parliament of Scotland to ratify the Treaty of Union in 1707 was not unanimous and, from that time, individuals and organisations have advocated the reinstatement of a Scottish Parliament.
Her Majesty's Prison Maze (previously Long Kesh Detention Centre and known colloquially as the Maze Prison, The Maze, the H Blocks or Long Kesh) was a prison in Northern Ireland that was used to house paramilitary prisoners during the Troubles from mid-1971 to mid-2000.
Her Majesty's Treasury (HM Treasury), sometimes referred to as the Exchequer, or more informally the Treasury, is the British government department responsible for developing and executing the government's public finance policy and economic policy.
The House of Commons Library is the library and information resource of the lower house of the British Parliament.
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The House of Lords of the United Kingdom, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Hugh Todd Naylor Gaitskell (9 April 1906 – 18 January 1963) was a British politician and Leader of the Labour Party.
Hugo John Smelter Young (13 October 1938 – 22 September 2003) was a British journalist and columnist and senior political commentator at The Guardian.
Huntingtower Community Primary Academy (formerly Huntingtower Road Primary School) is a non-denominational, mixed primary academy located in Grantham, South Kesteven, Lincolnshire.
Hyde Park is a Grade I-listed major park in Central London.
Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.
George Iain Duncan Smith (born 9 April 1954), often referred to by his initials IDS, is a British Conservative Party politician.
Ian Bayley Curteis (born 1 May 1935) is a British dramatist and former television director.
Ian Montagu Fraser (14 October 1916 – 8 November 1987) was a British Conservative party politician.
Ian Reginald Edward Gow (11 February 1937 – 30 July 1990) was a British Conservative politician and solicitor.
Sir Ian Kinloch MacGregor, KBE (21 September 1912 – 13 April 1998) was a Scottish-American metallurgist and industrialist, most famous in the UK for his controversial tenure at British Steel Corporation and his conduct during the 1984–85 miners' strike while managing the National Coal Board.
Ian Richard Kyle Paisley, Baron Bannside, (6 April 1926 – 12 September 2014), was a loyalist politician and Protestant religious leader from Northern Ireland.
Ian Douglas Smith (8 April 1919 – 20 November 2007) was a politician, farmer and fighter pilot who served as Prime Minister of Rhodesia (or Southern Rhodesia; today Zimbabwe) from 1964 to 1979.
Ice cream (derived from earlier iced cream or cream ice) is a sweetened frozen food typically eaten as a snack or dessert.
Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) was a British chemical company and was, for much of its history, the largest manufacturer in Britain.
The independence of Croatia was a process started with the changes in the political system and the constitutional changes in 1990 that transformed the Socialist Republic of Croatia into the Republic of Croatia, which in turn proclaimed the Christmas Constitution, and held the Croatian independence referendum, 1991.
An independent or nonpartisan politician is an individual politician not affiliated with any political party.
General Augusto Pinochet was indicted for human rights violations committed in his native Chile by Spanish magistrate Baltasar Garzón on 10 October 1998.
Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the moral worth of the individual.
The Institute of Economic Affairs (IEA) is a privately funded non-profit conservative think tank based in Westminster, London, United Kingdom.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is a scientific and intergovernmental body under the auspices of the United Nations, set up at the request of member governments, dedicated to the task of providing the world with an objective, scientific view of climate change and its political and economic impacts.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
International Relations is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal that covers the field of international relations.
The International Visitor Leadership Program (IVLP) is a professional exchange program funded by the U.S. Department of State's Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs.
The Invasion of Kuwait on 2 August 1990 was a 2-day operation conducted by Iraq against the neighboring state of Kuwait, which resulted in the seven-month-long Iraqi occupation of the country.
Ipsos MORI is a market research organisation in the United Kingdom.
The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.
The Iraqi Army, officially the Iraqi Ground Forces, is the ground force component of the Iraqi Armed Forces, having been active in various incarnations throughout the 20th and 21st centuries.
The Irish National Liberation Army (INLA, Arm Saoirse Náisiúnta na hÉireann) is an Irish republican socialist paramilitary group formed on 10 December 1974, during "the Troubles".
Iron, when used metaphorically, refers to certain traits of the metal iron.
John Whitaker Straw (born 3 August 1946) is an English politician who served as the Member of Parliament (MP) for Blackburn from 1979 to 2015.
Jacques Lucien Jean Delors (born 20 July 1925) is a French politician who served as the 8th President of the European Commission from 1985 to 1995.
Leonard James Callaghan, Baron Callaghan of Cardiff, (27 March 1912 – 26 March 2005), often known as Jim Callaghan, served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1976 to 1979 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1976 to 1980.
Janet McLuckie Brown (14 December 192327 May 2011) was a Scottish actress, comedian and impressionist who gained considerable fame in the 1970s and 1980s for her impersonations of Margaret Thatcher.
After Adolf Hitler came into power in 1933, Jews began to escape Nazi Europe and Britain was one of the destinations.
James Michael Leathes Prior, Baron Prior, PC (11 October 1927 – 12 December 2016), usually known as Jim Prior, was a British Conservative politician.
James Earl Carter Jr. (born October 1, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 39th President of the United States from 1977 to 1981.
John Campbell (born 1947) is a British political writer and biographer.
Sir John Frederick Ellenborough Crowder (10 November 1891 — 9 July 1961) was a Conservative Party politician in the United Kingdom.
John Hardress Wilfred Lloyd (born 30 September 1951) is an English television producer and writer best known for his work on such comedy television programmes as Not the Nine O'Clock News, Spitting Image, The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, Blackadder and QI.
Sir John Major (born 29 March 1943) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1990 to 1997.
John Wakeham, Baron Wakeham, PC, DL (born 22 June 1932) is a British businessman and Conservative Party politician.
John Campbell Wells (17 November 1936 – 11 January 1998) was an English actor, writer and satirist.
Joshua Mqabuko Nyongolo Nkomo (19 June 1917Jessup, John E. An Encyclopedic Dictionary of Conflict and Conflict Resolution, 1945–1996. p. 533. – 1 July 1999) was a Zimbabwean politician who served as Vice President of Zimbabwe from 1987 to 1999.
Josiah Magama Tongogara (4 February 1938 – 26 December 1979) was a commander of the ZANLA guerrilla army in Rhodesia.
The Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies is an academic journal published by Routledge.
Judicial corporal punishment (JCP) is the infliction of corporal punishment as a result of a sentence by a court of law.
June Purvis is emeritus professor of women's and gender history at the University of Portsmouth.
Keith Sinjohn Joseph, Baron Joseph, (17 January 1918 – 10 December 1994), known as Sir Keith Joseph, 2nd Baronet, for most of his political life, was a British barrister and politician.
Kenneth Harry Clarke (born 2 July 1940) is a British Conservative politician who has been the Member of Parliament for Rushcliffe since 1970.
Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties.
The Parts of Kesteven are a traditional subdivision of Lincolnshire, England.
Kesteven and Grantham Girls' School (KGGS) is a grammar school with academy status for girls in Grantham, Lincolnshire, established in 1910.
Keynesian economics (sometimes called Keynesianism) are the various macroeconomic theories about how in the short run – and especially during recessions – economic output is strongly influenced by aggregate demand (total demand in the economy).
The Khmer People's National Liberation Front (KPNLF) was a political front organized in 1979 in opposition to the Vietnamese-installed People's Republic of Kampuchea (PRK) regime in Cambodia.
The Khmer Rouge ("Red Khmers"; ខ្មែរក្រហម Khmer Kror-Horm) was the name popularly given to the followers of the Communist Party of Kampuchea and by extension to the regime through which the CPK ruled Cambodia between 1975 and 1979.
Krasnaya Zvezda (Кра́сная звезда́, literally "Red Star") is an official newspaper of Soviet and later Russian Ministry of Defence.
Kuwait (الكويت, or), officially the State of Kuwait (دولة الكويت), is a country in Western Asia.
Harold Wilson was appointed Prime Minister of the United Kingdom by Queen Elizabeth II on 16 October 1964 and formed the first Wilson ministry, a Labour Party government, which held office with a thin majority between 1964 and 1966.
The Labour Party governed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from 1974–1979.
"Labour Isn't Working" was an advertising campaign in the United Kingdom.
The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.
The 1994 Labour Party leadership election was held on 21 July 1994 after the sudden death of the incumbent leader, John Smith, on 12 May.
The Lancaster House Agreement, signed on the 21st December 1979, allowed for the creation and recognition of the Republic of Zimbabwe, replacing the unrecognised state of Rhodesia created by Ian Smith's Unilateral Declaration of Independence in 1965.
Land for peace is a legalistic interpretation of UN Security Council Resolution 242 which has been used as the basis of subsequent Arab-Israeli peace making.
Laurence Kerr Olivier, Baron Olivier, (22 May 1907 – 11 July 1989) was an English actor and director who, along with his contemporaries Ralph Richardson and John Gielgud, dominated the British stage of the mid-20th century.
The Leader of the Conservative Party in the United Kingdom is the most senior politician of the Conservative Party.
The Leader of the Labour Party is the most senior political figure within the Labour Party in the United Kingdom.
The Leader of Her Majesty's Most Loyal Opposition (more commonly known as the Leader of the Opposition) is the politician who leads the official opposition in the United Kingdom.
Leopold Abse (22 April 1917 – 19 August 2008) was a Welsh lawyer and politician.
The Liberal Party was one of the two major parties in the United Kingdom – with the opposing Conservative Party – in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
In the United Kingdom, life peers are appointed members of the peerage whose titles cannot be inherited, in contrast to hereditary peers.
Lincolnshire (abbreviated Lincs) is a county in east central England.
Lindsay Vere Duncan, CBE (born 7 November 1950) is a Scottish actress.
Most Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom have enjoyed the right to display coats of arms and to this day, prime ministers can have their ancestral arms approved, or new armorial bearings granted, either by the College of Arms or the Lyon Court.
This is a list of the British Conservative Party general election manifestos since 1900.
This is a list of women who have been elected or appointed head of state or government of their respective countries since the mid-20th century.
This is a list of Fellows and Foreign Members of the Royal Society elected in 1983.
These representative diagrams show the composition of the parties at the 1959 general election.
Since succeeding her father on 6 February 1952, Queen Elizabeth II has been head of state of 32 different independent states; currently, there are 16 states, called Commonwealth realms.
This is a list of Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom by age.
This article lists each Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in order of term length.
This is a list of parliamentary by-elections in the United Kingdom held between the 1979 and 2010 general elections, with the names of the incumbent and victor and their respective parties.
This is a chronological list of all the living persons who have served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom at each moment in British history.
Llandudno is a seaside resort, town and community in Conwy County Borough, Wales, located on the Creuddyn peninsula, which protrudes into the Irish Sea.
The London Review of Books (LRB) is a British journal of literary essays.
The London School of Economics (officially The London School of Economics and Political Science, often referred to as LSE) is a public research university located in London, England and a constituent college of the federal University of London.
The London Stock Exchange (LSE) is a stock exchange located in the City of London, England.
In the Parliament of the United Kingdom, the Lords Temporal are secular members of the House of Lords.
Lieutenant-Commander Stephen Lynch Conway Maydon (15 December 1913 – 2 March 1971) was a British Navy officer and politician who had a brief career in government.
The Treaty on European Union (TEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Maastricht is one of two treaties forming the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU), the other being the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Rome). The TEU was originally signed on 7 February 1992 by the members of the European Community in Maastricht, Netherlands to further European integration. On 9–10 December 1991, the same city hosted the European Council which drafted the treaty. Upon its entry into force on 1 November 1993 during the Delors Commission, it created the three pillars structure of the European Union and led to the creation of the single European currency, the euro. TEU comprised two novel titles respectively on Common Foreign and Security Policy and Cooperation in the Fields of Justice and Home Affairs, which replaced the former informal intergovernmental cooperation bodies named TREVI and European Political Cooperation on EU Foreign policy coordination. In addition TEU also comprised three titles which amended the three pre-existing community treaties: Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community, Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community, and the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community which had its abbreviation renamed from TEEC to TEC (being known as TFEU since 2007). The Maastricht Treaty (TEU) and all pre-existing treaties, has subsequently been further amended by the treaties of Amsterdam (1997), Nice (2001) and Lisbon (2009).
"Maggie Out" was a chant popular during the Miners' Strike, student grant protests, Poll Tax protests and other public demonstrations that fell within the time when Margaret Thatcher was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
A maiden speech is the first speech given by a newly elected or appointed member of a legislature or parliament.
Mandarin Oriental Hyde Park, London is a five-star hotel, located in the Knightsbridge district of London, owned and managed by Mandarin Oriental Hotel Group.
Manningtree is a town and civil parish in the Tendring district of Essex, England, which lies on the River Stour.
Margaret is a 2009 television film produced by Great Meadow Productions for the BBC.
Sir Mark Thatcher, 2nd Baronet (born 15 August 1953) is a British businessman.
Marmite is a British food spread currently produced by Unilever.
Martin Neil Lewis (born 24 July 1952) is a US-based English humorist, writer, radio/TV host, producer, and marketing strategist.
Sir Max Hugh Macdonald Hastings (born 28 December 1945) is a British journalist, who has worked as a foreign correspondent for the BBC, editor-in-chief of The Daily Telegraph, and editor of the Evening Standard.
Media coverage of global warming has had effects on public opinion on climate change, as it mediates the scientific opinion on climate change that the global instrumental temperature record shows increase in recent decades and that the trend is caused mainly by human-induced emissions of greenhouse gases.
A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament.
This is a list of members of the House of Lords, the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Members' Lobby is a hallway in the Palace of Westminster used by members of the House of Commons, the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Irene Mervyn Parnicott Pike, Baroness Pike, DBE (16 September 1918 – 11 January 2004) was a British Conservative politician.
Mary Louise "Meryl" Streep (born June 22, 1949) is an American actress.
A Methodist local preacher is a lay person or deacon who has been accredited by a Methodist church to lead worship and preach on a regular basis.
Michael Keith Billington OBE (born 16 November 1939) is a British author and arts critic.
Michael Ray Dibdin Heseltine, Baron Heseltine, (born 21 March 1933) is a British Conservative politician and businessman.
Michael Sinclair MacAuslan Shea, CVO (10 May 1938 in Carluke, Lanarkshire, Scotland – 17 October 2009) was press secretary to Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom from 1978 to 1987.
Michael White (born 21 October 1945) is a British journalist who was until 2016 an associate editor of The Guardian.
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, GCL (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician.
Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American economist who received the 1976 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his research on consumption analysis, monetary history and theory, and the complexity of stabilization policy.
In the Government of the United Kingdom, the Minister for the Civil Service is responsible for regulations regarding Her Majesty's Civil Service, the role of which is to assist the governments of the United Kingdom in formulating and implementing policies.
The post of Minister of Defence was responsible for co-ordination of defence and security from its creation in 1940 until its abolition in 1964.
Minister of State is a title borne by politicians or officials in certain countries governed under a parliamentary system.
Since 1945, immigration to the United Kingdom under British nationality law has been significant, in particular from the Republic of Ireland and from the former British Empire especially India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, the Caribbean, South Africa, Nigeria, Ghana, Kenya and Hong Kong.
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (Mohammad Reza Pahlavi,; 26 October 1919 – 27 July 1980), also known as Mohammad Reza Shah (Mohammad Rezā Šāh), was the last Shah of Iran from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow by the Iranian Revolution on 11 February 1979.
Monetarism is a school of thought in monetary economics that emphasizes the role of governments in controlling the amount of money in circulation.
Moral absolutism is an ethical view that particular actions are intrinsically right or wrong.
Mortlake Crematorium is a crematorium in Kew, near its boundary with Mortlake, in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames.
The National Coal Board (NCB) was the statutory corporation created to run the nationalised coal mining industry in the United Kingdom.
The National Front (NF) is a racist far-right and fascist political party in the United Kingdom.
The National Health Service (NHS) is the name used for each of the public health services in the United Kingdom – the National Health Service in England, NHS Scotland, NHS Wales, and Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland – as well as a term to describe them collectively.
The National Press Club is a professional organization and business center for journalists and communications professionals.
The National Reorganization Process (Proceso de Reorganización Nacional, often simply el Proceso, "the Process") was the name used by its leaders for the military dictatorship that ruled Argentina from 1976 to 1983.
National Review (NR) is an American semi-monthly conservative editorial magazine focusing on news and commentary pieces on political, social, and cultural affairs.
The National Rivers Authority (NRA) was one of the forerunners of the Environment Agency of England and Wales, existing between 1989 and 1996.
The National Union of Mineworkers (NUM) is a trade union for coal miners in Great Britain, formed in 1945 from the Miners' Federation of Great Britain (MFGB).
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
A natural monopoly is a monopoly in an industry in which high infrastructural costs and other barriers to entry relative to the size of the market give the largest supplier in an industry, often the first supplier in a market, an overwhelming advantage over potential competitors.
Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (18 July 1918 – 5 December 2013) was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, political leader, and philanthropist, who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999.
Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (July 8, 1908 – January 26, 1979) was an American businessman and politician who served as the 41st Vice President of the United States from 1974 to 1977, and previously as the 49th Governor of New York (1959–1973).
Neoliberalism or neo-liberalism refers primarily to the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with laissez-faire economic liberalism.
New Labour refers to a period in the history of the British Labour Party from the late-1990s until 2010 under the leadership of Tony Blair and Gordon Brown.
New racism is a term coined in 1981 by Marxist professor of film Martin Barker, in the context of the ideologies supporting Margaret Thatcher's rise in the UK, to refer to what he believed was racist public discourse depicting immigrants as a threat.
New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.
The New Statesman is a British political and cultural magazine published in London.
Nicholas Ridley, Baron Ridley of Liddesdale, PC (17 February 1929 – 4 March 1993) was a British Conservative politician and government minister.
Nigel Lawson, Baron Lawson of Blaby, (born 11 March 1932) is a British Conservative politician and journalist.
Nikolai Ivanovich Ryzhkov (Ukrainian: Рижков Микола Іванович, Russian: Николай Иванович Рыжков, Nikolaj Ivanovič Ryžkov; born 28 September 1929) is a former Soviet official who became a Russian politician following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
Norman Noel Dodds (25 December 1903 – 22 August 1965) was a British co-operator and Labour Co-operative politician.
Norman Pentland (9 September 1912 – 28 October 1972) was a British Labour Member of Parliament for Chester-le-Street.
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA; Spanish: Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte, TLCAN; French: Accord de libre-échange nord-américain, ALÉNA) is an agreement signed by Canada, Mexico, and the United States, creating a trilateral trade bloc in North America.
Notes and Records: the Royal Society Journal of the History of Science is an international, quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal which publishes original research in the history of science, technology, and medicine.
The occupation of the Falkland Islands and of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (Gobernación Militar de las Islas Malvinas, Georgias del Sur y Sandwich del Sur "Military Administration of the Malvinas, South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands") was the short-lived Argentine administration of a group of islands in the South Atlantic whose sovereignty has long been disputed.
The Office of Gas and Electricity Markets (Ofgem), supporting the Gas and Electricity Markets Authority (GEMA), is the government regulator for the electricity and downstream natural gas markets in Great Britain.
The Official Opposition Shadow Cabinet (usually known simply as the Shadow Cabinet) is, in British parliamentary practice, senior members of Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition who scrutinise their corresponding Government ministers, develop alternative policies, and hold the Government to account for its actions and responses.
The Office of Telecommunications (Oftel) (the telecommunications regulator) was a department in the United Kingdom government, under civil service control, charged with promoting competition and maintaining the interests of consumers in the UK telecommunications market.
One-nation conservatism (also known as one-nationism, or Tory democracy) is a form of British political conservatism advocating preservation of established institutions and traditional principles combined with political democracy, and a social and economic programme designed to benefit the common man.
An op-ed (originally short for "opposite the editorial page" although often taken to stand for "opinion editorial") is a written prose piece typically published by a newspaper or magazine which expresses the opinion of a named author usually not affiliated with the publication's editorial board.
The Order of Good Hope or Order of the Cape of Good Hope has been a knighthood order of the Republic of South Africa.
The Order of Merit (Ordre du Mérite) is an order of merit recognising distinguished service in the armed forces, science, art, literature, or for the promotion of culture.
The Order of St John, formally the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem (l'ordre très vénérable de l'Hôpital de Saint-Jean de Jérusalem) and also known as St John International, is a British royal order of chivalry first constituted in 1888 by royal charter from Queen Victoria.
The Order of the Garter (formally the Most Noble Order of the Garter) is an order of chivalry founded by Edward III in 1348 and regarded as the most prestigious British order of chivalry (though in precedence inferior to the military Victoria Cross and George Cross) in England and the United Kingdom.
The Order of precedence in the United Kingdom is the sequential hierarchy for Peers of the Realm, officers of state, senior members of the clergy, holders of the various Orders of Chivalry and other persons in the three legal jurisdictions within the United Kingdom.
The Orpington by-election, 1955 was a parliamentary by-election held on 20 January 1955 for the British House of Commons constituency of Orpington in Kent, England.
Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg (1 April 1815 – 30 July 1898), known as Otto von Bismarck, was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890 and was the first Chancellor of the German Empire between 1871 and 1890.
The Oval Office is the working office space of the President of the United States located in the West Wing of the White House, Washington, DC.
Oxbridge is a portmanteau of "Oxford" and "Cambridge"; the two oldest, most prestigious, and consistently most highly-ranked universities in the United Kingdom.
The Oxford University Conservative Association (OUCA) is a student Conservative association founded in 1924, whose members are drawn from the University of Oxford.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
OxfordDictionaries.com, originally titled Oxford Dictionaries Online (ODO) and rebranded Oxford Living Dictionaries in 2017, is an online dictionary produced by the Oxford University Press (OUP) publishing house, a department of the University of Oxford, which also publishes a number of print dictionaries, among other works.
Pieter Willem Botha, (12 January 1916 – 31 October 2006), commonly known as "P.
Pancreatic cancer arises when cells in the pancreas, a glandular organ behind the stomach, begin to multiply out of control and form a mass.
Pandering is the act of expressing one's views in accordance with the likes of a group to which one is attempting to appeal.
The Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister for Pensions was a junior Ministerial office at Parliamentary Secretary rank in the British Government, supporting the Minister for Pensions.
Patricia Ann Hodge, OBE (born 29 September 1946) is an English actor.
Margaret Patricia Hornsby-Smith, Baroness Hornsby-Smith, DBE, PC (17 March 1914 – 3 July 1985) was a Conservative Party politician in the United Kingdom.
Patrick Chrestien Gordon Walker, Baron Gordon-Walker, (7 April 1907 – 2 December 1980) was a British Labour Party politician.
In the United States, Patriot Day, observed as the National Day of Service and Remembrance, occurs on September 11 of each year in memory of the people killed in the September 11 attacks of 2001.
Paul Anthony Samuelson (15 May 1915 – 13 December 2009) was an American economist and the first American to win the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences.
John William "Paul" Weller, Jr. (born 25 May 1958) is an English singer-songwriter and musician.
The People's Republic of Kampuchea (PRK; សាធារណរដ្ឋប្រជាមានិតកម្ពុជា, Sathéaranakrâth Pracheameanit Kâmpŭchéa; République populaire du Kampuchéa) was founded in Cambodia by the Salvation Front, a group of Cambodian communists dissatisfied with the Khmer Rouge after the overthrow of Democratic Kampuchea, Pol Pot's government.
The Pershing II Weapon System was a solid-fueled two-stage ballistic missile designed and built by Martin Marietta to replace the Pershing 1a Field Artillery Missile System as the United States Army's primary nuclear-capable theater-level weapon.
Peter Alexander Rupert Carington, 6th Baron Carrington, (born 6 June 1919) is a British Conservative politician and hereditary peer who served as Defence Secretary between 1970 and 1974, Foreign Secretary between 1979 and 1982, chairman of General Electric between 1983 and 1984, and Secretary General of NATO from 1984 to 1988.
Peter Pace (born November 5, 1945) is a United States Marine Corps general who served as the 16th Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
Pierre-Paul Schweitzer (29 May 1912 – 2 January 1994) was the International Monetary Fund (IMF)'s fourth managing director and chairman of the executive board, serving from 1963 to 1973.
When Britain emerged victorious from the Second World War, the Labour Party under Clement Attlee came to power and created a comprehensive welfare state, with the establishment of the National Health Service giving free healthcare to all British citizens, and other reforms to benefits.
The complex politics of global warming results from numerous cofactors arising from the global economy's interdependence on carbon dioxide emitting hydrocarbon energy sources and because is directly implicated in global warming—making global warming a non-traditional environmental challenge.
The Community Charge, commonly known as the poll tax, was a system of taxation introduced in replacement of domestic rates in Scotland from 1989, prior to its introduction in England and Wales from 1990.
The poll tax riots were a series of riots in British towns and cities during protests against the Community Charge (colloquially known as the "poll tax"), introduced by the Conservative government of Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher.
Popular Science (also known as PopSci) is an American quarterly magazine carrying popular science content, which refers to articles for the general reader on science and technology subjects.
In politics, populism refers to a range of approaches which emphasise the role of "the people" and often juxtapose this group against "the elite".
The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire of the Renaissance.
The post-war consensus is a historian's model of political co-operation in post-war British political history, from the end of World War II in 1945 to the late-1970s, and its repudiation by Conservative Party leader Margaret Thatcher.
The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.
The Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism (also known as the Prague Declaration), which was signed on 3 June 2008, was a declaration initiated by the Czech government and signed by prominent European politicians, former political prisoners and historians, among them former Czech President Václav Havel and future German President Joachim Gauck, which called for "Europe-wide condemnation of, and education about, the crimes of communism." To date, the most visible proposal set forth by the declaration was the adoption of the European Day of Remembrance for Victims of Stalinism and Nazism (known as the International Black Ribbon Day in some countries), adopted by the European Union and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, as the official international remembrance day for victims of totalitarian regimes.
The anonymous text that is usually called the Prayer of Saint Francis (or Peace Prayer, or Simple Prayer for Peace, or Make Me an Instrument of Your Peace) is a widely known Christian prayer for peace.
The presidency of Jimmy Carter began at noon EST on January 20, 1977, when Jimmy Carter was inaugurated as 39th President of the United States, and ended on January 20, 1981.
The presidency of Ronald Reagan began at noon EST on January 20, 1981, when Ronald Reagan was inaugurated as 40th President of the United States, and ended on January 20, 1989.
The Presidential Medal of Freedom is an award bestowed by the President of the United States and is—along with the comparable Congressional Gold Medal—the highest civilian award of the United States.
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (born Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark, 10 June 1921) is the husband and consort of Queen Elizabeth II.
Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy, (Alexandra Helen Elizabeth Olga Christabel; born 25 December 1936) is a member of the British royal family.
Private Eye is a British fortnightly satirical and current affairs news magazine, founded in 1961.
A private member's bill in a parliamentary system of government is a bill (proposed law) introduced into a legislature by a legislator who is not acting on behalf of the executive branch.
The Private Secretary to the Sovereign is the senior operational member of the Royal Household of the Sovereign of the United Kingdom (as distinct from the Great Officers of the Household).
The Privatisation of British Rail was the process by which ownership and operation of the railways of Great Britain passed from government control into private hands.
Privatization (also spelled privatisation) is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors, or the sale of a state-owned enterprise to private investors.
Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, usually known simply as the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom.
A protest song is a song that is associated with a movement for social change and hence part of the broader category of topical songs (or songs connected to current events).
The Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA or Provisional IRA) was an Irish republican revolutionary organisation that sought to end British rule in Northern Ireland, facilitate the reunification of Ireland and bring about an independent socialist republic encompassing all of Ireland.
The Public Bodies (Admission to Meetings) Act 1960 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which allowed members of the public and press to attend meetings of certain public bodies.
Public expenditure is spending made by the government of a country on collective needs and wants such as pension, provision, infrastructure, etc.
Elizabeth Angela Marguerite Bowes-Lyon (4 August 1900 – 30 March 2002) was the wife of King George VI and the mother of Queen Elizabeth II and Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon.
A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories generally viewed as distinct by society.
The Race Relations Act 1968 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom making it illegal to refuse housing, employment, or public services to a person on the grounds of colour, race, ethnic or national origins.
Raphael F. J. McGrath (born 5 November 1947), usually known as Rae McGrath, is a British campaigner and specialist in humanitarian response to conflict and natural disaster.
Royal Air Force Greenham Common or RAF Greenham Common is a former Royal Air Force station in Berkshire, England.
Ralph Harris, Baron Harris of High Cross (10 December 1924 – 19 October 2006) was a British economist.
Rates are a type of property tax system in the United Kingdom, and in places with systems deriving from the British one, the proceeds of which are used to fund local government.
The Reagan Doctrine was a strategy orchestrated and implemented by the United States under the Reagan Administration to overwhelm the global influence of the Soviet Union in an attempt to end the Cold War.
In economics, a real value of a good or other entity has been adjusted for inflation, enabling comparison of quantities as if prices had not changed.
Red Wedge was a collective of musicians formed in the UK in 1985, who attempted to engage young people with politics in general, and the policies of the Labour Party in particular, during the period leading up to the 1987 general election, in the hope of ousting the Conservative government of Margaret Thatcher.
Reginald Ernest Prentice, Baron Prentice, PC (16 July 1923 – 18 January 2001) was a British politician who held ministerial office in both Labour and Conservative Party governments.
Reginald Maudling (7 March 1917 – 14 February 1979) was a British politician who held several Cabinet posts, including Chancellor of the Exchequer.
Rhodesia was an unrecognised state in southern Africa from 1965 to 1979, equivalent in territory to modern Zimbabwe.
The Rhodesian Bush War—also known as the Second Chimurenga or the Zimbabwe War of Liberation—was a civil war that took place from July 1964 to December 1979 in the unrecognised country of Rhodesia (later Zimbabwe-Rhodesia).
Hywel Rhodri Morgan (29 September 1939 – 17 May 2017) was a Welsh Labour politician who was the First Minister of Wales and the Leader of Welsh Labour from 2000 to 2009.
Richard Howard Stafford Crossman (15 December 1907 – 5 April 1974), sometimes known as Dick Crossman, was a British Labour Party Member of Parliament, as well as a key figure among the party's Zionists and anti-communists.
Richard Reid Ingrams (born 19 August 1937 in Chelsea, London) is an English journalist, a co-founder and second editor of the British satirical magazine Private Eye, and founding editor of The Oldie magazine.
Sir Richard Christopher Sharples (6 August 1916 – 10 March 1973) was a British politician and Governor of Bermuda who was shot dead by assassins linked to a small militant Bermudian Black Power group called the Black Beret Cadre.
Richard Stone (born 5 June 1951) is a British painter, specialising in portraits.
On 20 April 1968, British Member of Parliament Enoch Powell addressed a meeting of the Conservative Political Centre in Birmingham, United Kingdom.
Robert Temple Armstrong, Baron Armstrong of Ilminster, (born 30 March 1927), son of the musician Sir Thomas Armstrong, is a British Lord Temporal and former civil servant.
Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, (3 February 183022 August 1903), styled Lord Robert Cecil before 1865 and Viscount Cranborne from June 1865 until April 1868, was a British statesman of the Conservative Party, serving as Prime Minister three times for a total of over thirteen years.
Robert Banks Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool, (7 June 1770 – 4 December 1828) was a British statesman and Prime Minister (1812–27).
Robert Gabriel Mugabe (born 21 February 1924) is a former Zimbabwean politician and revolutionary who served as Prime Minister of Zimbabwe from 1980 to 1987 and then as President from 1987 to 2017.
The Rockford Institute is an American conservative think-tank associated with paleoconservatism, based in Rockford, Illinois.
Sir Ronald Graeme Millar (12 November 1919 – 16 April 1998) was an English actor, scriptwriter, and dramatist.
Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
The Ronald Reagan Freedom Award is the highest civilian honor bestowed by the private Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation.
The Ronald Reagan Presidential Library and Center for Public Affairs is the presidential library and final resting place of Ronald Wilson Reagan, the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989), and his wife Nancy Reagan.
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
The royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom, or the Royal Arms for short, is the official coat of arms of the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II.
The Royal Hospital Chelsea, often called simply Chelsea Hospital, is a retirement home and nursing home for some 300 veterans of the British Army.
The Royal Institute of Chemistry was a British scientific organisation.
The Royal National Theatre in London, commonly known as the National Theatre (NT) is one of the United Kingdom's three most prominent publicly funded performing arts venues, alongside the Royal Shakespeare Company and the Royal Opera House.
The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.
Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي; 28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was President of Iraq from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003.
A safe seat is an electoral district (constituency) in a legislative body (e.g. Congress, Parliament, City Council) which is regarded as fully secure, for either a certain political party, or the incumbent representative personally or a combination of both.
Samuel Smiles (23 December 1812 – 16 April 1904), was a Scottish author and government reformer who campaigned on a Chartist platform.
Sarajevo (see names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with a population of 275,524 in its current administrative limits.
Scotland Tonight is a Scottish news and current affairs programme, covering the two STV franchise areas of Northern and Central Scotland, produced by STV News.
The Scottish Assembly was a proposed legislature for Scotland that would have devolved a set list of powers from the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Scottish referendum of 1979 was a post-legislative referendum to decide whether there was sufficient support for a Scottish Assembly proposed in the Scotland Act 1978 among the Scottish electorate.
Scottish independence (Scots unthirldom; Neo-eisimeileachd na h-Alba) is a political aim of various political parties, advocacy groups, and individuals in Scotland (which is a country of the United Kingdom) for the country to become an independent sovereign state.
Scottish Journal of Political Economy is a scholarly political economy journal published by the Scottish Economic Society.
Scottish Widows is a life insurance and pensions company located in Edinburgh, Scotland, and is a subsidiary of Lloyds Banking Group.
A secondary modern school is a type of secondary school that existed throughout England, Wales and Northern Ireland, from 1944 until the 1970s under the Tripartite System and still persist in Northern Ireland, where they are usually referred to simply as Secondary schools, and in areas of England, such as Buckinghamshire (where they are referred to as community schools), Lincolnshire, Wirral Medway and Kent where they are called high schools.
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Education (frequently shortened to the Education Secretary) is the chief minister of the Department for Education in the United Kingdom government.
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, normally referred to as the Foreign Secretary, is a senior, high-ranking official within the Government of the United Kingdom and head of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office.
The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
Michael Foot was Leader of the Opposition from 4 November 1980, following his victory in the 1980 leadership election, to 2 October 1983, when he was replaced by Neil Kinnock at the 1983 leadership election.
The Shadow Secretary of State for Education, also called the Shadow Education Secretary, is an office in the Official Opposition Shadow Cabinet responsible for Opposition policy on Education and for holding the Secretary of State for Education, junior Education ministers, and the Department for Education to account.
Shadow Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs is a position with the UK Opposition's Shadow Cabinet that deals with issues surrounding the environment and food and rural affairs; if elected, the designated person is a likely choice to become the new Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs.
The Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation is an American aircraft manufacturer based in Stratford, Connecticut.
Sir Simon David Jenkins (born 10 June 1943) is a British author and newspaper columnist and editor.
The Sino–British Joint Declaration, formally known as the Joint Declaration of the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of the People's Republic of China on the Question of Hong Kong, was signed by Premier Zhao Ziyang of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher of the United Kingdom (UK) on behalf of their respective governments on 19 December 1984 in Beijing.
Sir Anthony John Charles Meyer, 3rd Baronet (27 October 1920 – 24 December 2004) was a British soldier, diplomat, and Conservative and later Liberal Democrat politician, best known for standing against Margaret Thatcher for the party leadership in 1989.
In the education systems of England, Northern Ireland, Wales and some other Commonwealth countries, sixth form (sometimes referred to as Key Stage 5) represents the final 1-3 years of secondary education (high school), where students (typically between 16 and 18 years of age) prepare for their A-level (or equivalent) examinations.
The social history of the United Kingdom from 1945 began with the aftermath of the Second World War.
Somerville College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England.
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (SGSSI) is a British Overseas Territory in the southern Atlantic Ocean.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Soviet–Afghan War lasted over nine years, from December 1979 to February 1989.
The Special Air Service (SAS) is a special forces unit of the British Army.
Spitting Image is a British satirical puppet show, created by Peter Fluck, Roger Law and Martin Lambie-Nairn.
St Paul's Cathedral, London, is an Anglican cathedral, the seat of the Bishop of London and the mother church of the Diocese of London.
St Thomas' Hospital is a large NHS teaching hospital in Central London, England.
In the United Kingdom, a state funeral is usually reserved for a monarch and the Earl Marshal is in charge.
State socialism is a classification for any socialist political and economic perspective advocating state ownership of the means of production either as a temporary measure in the transition from capitalism to socialism, or as characteristic of socialism itself.
A state-owned enterprise (SOE) is a business enterprise where the state has significant control through full, majority, or significant minority ownership.
Statecraft: Strategies for a Changing World is a book on politics and international relations written by Margaret Thatcher in 2003 and was published by Harper Perennial.
The statue of Margaret Thatcher inside the Houses of Parliament, London, is a bronze sculpture of Margaret Thatcher, the first female Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
The statue of Winston Churchill is a standing bronze statue of statesman and writer Winston Churchill, situated in the Members' Lobby of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, part of the Palace of Westminster complex in Westminster, Central London.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
A style of office or honorific is an official or legally recognized title.
Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder.
Susan Strange (9 June 1923 – 25 October 1998) was a British scholar of international relations who was "almost single-handedly responsible for creating international political economy".
Tam Dalyell (born Thomas Dalyell Loch;; 9 August 1932 – 26 January 2017) was a Scottish Labour Party politician who was a member of the House of Commons from 1962 to 2005.
A tax cut is a reduction in the rate of tax charged by a government.
The Telecommunications Act 1984 (c 12) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Ten-Day War (desetdnevna vojna) or the Slovenian Independence War (slovenska osamosvojitvena vojna), was a brief war of independence that followed the Slovenian declaration of independence on 25 June 1991.
The Thatcher baronetcy, of Scotney in the County of Kent, is a baronetcy created for the husband of Margaret Thatcher, Denis Thatcher, on 7 December 1990 following the resignation of his wife on 28 November.
Thatcherism describes the conviction, economic, social and political style of the British Conservative Party politician Margaret Thatcher, who was leader of her party from 1975 to 1990.
The Downing Street Years is a memoir by Margaret Thatcher, former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, covering her premiership of 1979 to 1990.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Falklands Play is a dramatic account of the political events leading up to, and including, the 1982 Falklands War.
The Heritage Foundation (abbreviated to Heritage) is an American conservative public policy think tank based in Washington, D.C. The foundation took a leading role in the conservative movement during the presidency of Ronald Reagan, whose policies were taken from Heritage's policy study Mandate for Leadership.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The Iron Lady is a 1979 British comedy album spoofing the life of Margaret Thatcher (1925–2013), the long-serving (1979–1990) Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
The Iron Lady is a 2011 British-French biographical drama film based on the life and career of Margaret Thatcher (1925–2013), a British stateswoman and politician who was the first ever female and longest-serving Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of the 20th century.
"The lady's not for turning" was a phrase used by Margaret Thatcher, then Prime Minister, in her speech to the Conservative Party Conference on 10 October 1980.
Margaret Thatcher: The Long Walk to Finchley, subtitled in the initial credits How Maggie Might Have Done It, is a 2008 BBC Four television drama based on the early political career of the young Margaret Thatcher (née Roberts), from her attempts to gain a seat in Dartford in 1949 via invasion to her first successful campaign to win a parliamentary seat, Finchley, in 1959.
The Observer is a British newspaper published on Sundays.
The Path to Power is a memoir by former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Margaret Thatcher covering her life from her birth in 1925 until she became Prime Minister in 1979.
The Pentagon is the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense, located in Arlington County, Virginia, across the Potomac River from Washington, D.C. As a symbol of the U.S. military, The Pentagon is often used metonymically to refer to the U.S. Department of Defense.
The Philadelphia Inquirer is a morning daily newspaper that serves the Philadelphia metropolitan area of the United States.
The Right Honourable (The Rt Hon. or Rt Hon.) is an honorific style traditionally applied to certain persons and to certain collective bodies in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Fiji, India, some other Commonwealth realms, the Anglophone Caribbean, Mauritius, and occasionally elsewhere.
The Ritz London is a Grade II listed 5-star hotel located in Piccadilly in London, England.
The Road to Serfdom (German: Der Weg zur Knechtschaft) is a book written between 1940 and 1943 by Austrian British economist and philosopher Friedrich Hayek, in which the author " of the danger of tyranny that inevitably results from government control of economic decision-making through central planning." He further argues that the abandonment of individualism and classical liberalism inevitably leads to a loss of freedom, the creation of an oppressive society, the tyranny of a dictator, and the serfdom of the individual.
The Round Table: The Commonwealth Journal of International Affairs is a policy matters journal established in 1910 relating to the Commonwealth of Nations.
The Scotsman is a Scottish compact newspaper and daily news website headquartered in Edinburgh.
The Spectator is a weekly British magazine on politics, culture, and current affairs.
The Sunday Times is the largest-selling British national newspaper in the "quality press" market category.
A think tank, think factory or policy institute is a research institute/center and organisation that performs research and advocacy concerning topics such as social policy, political strategy, economics, military, technology, and culture.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Time 100: The Most Important People of the Century is a compilation of the 20th century's 100 most influential people, published in Time magazine in 1999.
Sir Timothy Hugh Francis Raison (3 November 1929 – 3 November 2011) was a British Conservative politician.
Today was a national newspaper in the United Kingdom that was published between 1986 and 1995.
Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007.
Trade unions in the United Kingdom were first decriminalised under the recommendation of a Royal Commission in 1867, which agreed that the establishment of the organisations was to the advantage of both employers and employees.
Trafalgar Square is a public square in the City of Westminster, Central London, built around the area formerly known as Charing Cross.
The transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong from the United Kingdom to China, referred to as "the Handover" internationally or "the Return" in Mainland China, took place on 1 July 1997.
A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a brief episode of neurological dysfunction caused by loss of blood flow (ischemia) in the brain, spinal cord, or retina, without tissue death (infarction).
Trident, also known as the Trident nuclear programme or Trident nuclear deterrent, covers the development, procurement and operation of nuclear weapons in the United Kingdom and their means of delivery.
The miners' strike of 1984–85 was a major industrial action to shut down the British coal industry in an attempt to prevent colliery closures.
Ulster Says No was the name and slogan of a unionist mass protest campaign against the provisions of the 1985 Anglo-Irish Agreement which gave the government of the Republic of Ireland an advisory role in the governance of Northern Ireland.
The United Kingdom European Communities membership referendum, also known as the Referendum on the European Community (Common Market), the Common Market referendum and EEC membership referendum took place on 5 June 1975 in the United Kingdom to gauge support for the country's continued membership of the European Communities (EC)—often known at the time as the "European Community” and the "Common Market" which it had entered on 1 January 1973 under the Conservative government of Edward Heath under the provisions of the Referendum Act 1975.
The 1950 United Kingdom general election was the first ever general election to be held after a full term of Labour government.
The 1951 United Kingdom general election was held twenty months after the 1950 general election, which the Labour Party had won with a slim majority of just five seats.
The 1955 United Kingdom general election was held on 26 May 1955, four years after the previous general election.
The 1959 United Kingdom general election was held on 8 October 1959.
The 1964 United Kingdom general election was held on 15 October 1964, five years after the previous election, and thirteen years after the Conservative Party, first led by Winston Churchill, had entered power.
The 1966 United Kingdom general election on 31 March 1966 was won by incumbent Labour Prime Minister Harold Wilson and was regarded as an easy victory.
The 1970 United Kingdom general election was held on Thursday 18 June 1970.
The 1979 United Kingdom general election was held on 3 May 1979 to elect 635 members to the British House of Commons.
The 1983 United Kingdom general election was held on Thursday 9 June 1983.
The 1987 United Kingdom general election was held on Thursday 11 June 1987, to elect 650 members to the House of Commons of the United Kingdom.
The 1992 United Kingdom general election was held on Thursday 9 April 1992, to elect 651 members to the House of Commons of the United Kingdom.
The 2001 United Kingdom general election was held on Thursday 7 June 2001, four years after the previous election on 1 May 1997, to elect 659 members to the British House of Commons.
The February 1974 United Kingdom general election was held on the 28th day of that month.
The October 1974 United Kingdom general election took place on Thursday 10 October 1974 to elect 635 members of the British House of Commons.
Local elections were held in the United Kingdom in 1977.
Local elections were held in the United Kingdom in 1987.
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The United States invasion of Grenada was a 1983 invasion led by the United States of the Caribbean island nation of Grenada, which has a population of about 91,000 and is located north of Venezuela, that resulted in a U.S. victory within a matter of weeks.
The University of Buckingham (UB) is a non-profit, private university in the UK and the oldest of the country's five private universities.
The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
Vanity Fair is a magazine of popular culture, fashion, and current affairs published by Condé Nast in the United States.
The Vermin Club was an organisation of grassroots Conservative Party supporters in Britain in the late 1940s.
The Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation is a non-profit educational organization in the United States, authorized by a unanimous Act of Congress in 1993 for the purpose of educating Americans about the ideology, history and legacy of communism.
Nathaniel Mayer Victor Rothschild, 3rd Baron Rothschild, (31 October 1910 – 20 March 1990), was a senior executive with Royal Dutch Shell and N M Rothschild & Sons, an advisor to the Edward Heath and Margaret Thatcher governments of the UK, as well as a member of the prominent Rothschild family.
Victorian morality is a distillation of the moral views of people living during the time of Queen Victoria's reign (1837–1901), the Victorian era, and of the moral climate of Great Britain in the mid-19th century in general.
Vietnamese boat people (Thuyền nhân Việt Nam), also known simply as boat people, were refugees who fled Vietnam by boat and ship following the end of the Vietnam War in 1975.
Visions Before Midnight is a selection of the television criticism written by Clive James during his first four years (1972–1976) as The Observers weekly television critic.
Walt Whitman Rostow (also known as Walt Rostow or W.W. Rostow) (October 7, 1916 – February 13, 2003) was an American economist and political theorist who served as Special Assistant for National Security Affairs to US President Lyndon B. Johnson from 1966 to 1969.
The Water Act 1989 (1989 c.15) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that reorganised the bodies responsible for all aspects of water within England and Wales.
The provision of water and wastewater services in England and Wales was transferred from the state to the private sector in 1989 by the sale of the 10 Regional Water Authorities (RWA).
The welfare state of the United Kingdom comprises expenditures by the government of the United Kingdom intended to improve health, education, employment and social security.
The Wesleyan Methodist Church was the name used by the majority Methodist movement in Great Britain following its split from the Church of England after the death of John Wesley and the appearance of parallel Methodist movements.
The Westland affair in 1985–86 was an episode in which Margaret Thatcher, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, and her Secretary of State for Defence, Michael Heseltine, went public over a cabinet dispute with questions raised about whether the conventions of cabinet government were being observed and about the integrity of senior politicians.
Westland Helicopters was a British aerospace company.
During the 1980s, members of the Conservative Party in Britain who opposed some of the more hard-line policies of Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher were often referred to by their opponents as "wets".
The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States.
Sir William Frederick Payne Heseltine, (born 17 July 1930) was Private Secretary to Queen Elizabeth II from 1986 to 1990.
William Stephen Ian Whitelaw, 1st Viscount Whitelaw, (28 June 1918 – 1 July 1999), often known as Willie Whitelaw, was a British Conservative Party politician who served in a wide number of Cabinet positions, most notably as Home Secretary and de facto Deputy Prime Minister.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
The Winter of Discontent was the winter of 1978–79 in the United Kingdom, during which there were widespread strikes by public sector trade unions demanding larger pay rises, following the ongoing pay caps of the Labour Party government led by James Callaghan against Trades Union Congress opposition to control inflation, during the coldest winter for 16 years.
Woman's Hour is a radio magazine programme broadcast on BBC Radio 4 in the United Kingdom.
Woman's Own is a British lifestyle magazine aimed at women.
Women's colleges in higher education are undergraduate, bachelor's degree-granting institutions, often liberal arts colleges, whose student populations are composed exclusively or almost exclusively of women.
Women's History Review is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal of women's history published by Routledge.
Women's rights are the rights and entitlements claimed for women and girls worldwide, and formed the basis for the women's rights movement in the nineteenth century and feminist movement during the 20th century.
Workforce productivity is the amount of goods and services that a worker produces in a given amount of time.
World (often written in all-caps as WORLD) is a biweekly Christian news magazine, published in the United States by God's World Publications, a non-profit 501(c)(3) organization based in Asheville, North Carolina.
World in Action is a British investigative current affairs programme, made by Granada Television for ITV from 7 January 1963 until 7 December 1998.
X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.
The Yugoslav People's Army (Jugoslovenska narodna armija / Југословенска народна армија / Jugoslavenska narodna armija; also Yugoslav National Army), often referred-to simply by the initialism JNA, was the military of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
The Yugoslav Wars were a series of ethnic conflicts, wars of independence and insurgencies fought from 1991 to 1999/2001 in the former Yugoslavia.
The 100 Greatest Britons was a television series broadcast by the BBC in 2002.
The Conservative Private Members' Committee (colloquially known as the 1922 Committee) is the parliamentary group of the Conservative Party in the UK House of Commons.
The 1973 oil crisis began in October 1973 when the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries proclaimed an oil embargo.
A vote of no confidence in the British Labour government of James Callaghan occurred on 28 March 1979.
The 1980 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXII Olympiad (r), was an international multi-sport event held in Moscow, Soviet Union, in present-day Russia.
In 1981, England suffered serious riots across many major cities.
The 1981 Irish hunger strike was the culmination of a five-year protest during The Troubles by Irish republican prisoners in Northern Ireland.
The 1986 United States bombing of Libya, code-named Operation El Dorado Canyon, comprised air strikes by the United States against Libya on Tuesday, 15 April 1986.
On 5 April 1986, three people were killed and 229 injured when La Belle discothèque was bombed in the Friedenau district of West Berlin.
The 2003 invasion of Iraq was the first stage of the Iraq War (also called Operation Iraqi Freedom).
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