106 relations: Abessive case, Accusative case, Adverbial, Affricate consonant, Agglutinative language, Alveolar consonant, Approximant consonant, Autonomous republic, Back vowel, Bashkortostan, Central vowel, Clitic, Close vowel, Comitative case, Comparative, Comparative case, Comparison (grammar), Cyrillic script, Dative case, Declension, Dental consonant, Desiderative mood, Estonian language, Finnish grammar, Finnish language, Finno-Ugrian Society, Fricative consonant, Front vowel, Genitive case, Gerund, Glasnost, Grammatical conjugation, Grammatical mood, Grammatical tense, Gustaf John Ramstedt, Hill Mari language, Illative case, Imperative mood, Imperfect, Indo-Aryan languages, Inessive case, Infinitive, Kama River, Kirov Oblast, Kozmodemyansk, Labial consonant, Lateral consonant, Lative case, Locative case, Mari El, ..., Mari people, Meadow Mari language, Mid vowel, Morpheme, Nadezhda Krupskaya, Nasal consonant, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Nominative case, Novgorod Oblast, Oblast, October Revolution, Open vowel, Orenburg Oblast, Palatal consonant, Palatalization (phonetics), Participle, Perestroika, Perfect (grammar), Periphrasis, Perm, Perm Krai, Plural, Possessive affix, Postalveolar consonant, Present tense, Preterite, Productivity (linguistics), Proto-Indo-European language, Realis mood, Rhotic consonant, Roundedness, Russia, Russian Empire, Russian language, Russian Orthodox Church, Russian Revolution, Russification, Soft sign, Soviet Union, Stop consonant, Subject–object–verb, Sverdlovsk Oblast, Tatarstan, Udmurtia, Ufa River, Ural Mountains, Uralic languages, Uralic Phonetic Alphabet, Velar consonant, Vetluga River, Vocative case, Voice (phonetics), Voicelessness, Vowel harmony, Vyatka River, Yoshkar-Ola. Expand index (56 more) » « Shrink index
In linguistics, abessive (abbreviated or), caritive and privative (abbreviated) is the grammatical case expressing the lack or absence of the marked noun.
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The accusative case (abbreviated) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.
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In grammar, an adverbial (abbreviated) is a word (an adverb) or a group of words (an adverbial phrase or an adverbial clause) that modifies or more closely defines the sentence or the verb.
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An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
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An agglutinative language is a type of synthetic language with morphology that primarily uses agglutination.
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Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
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Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
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An autonomous republic is a type of administrative division similar to a province or state.
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A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.
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The Republic of Bashkortostan (Башҡортостан Республикаһы, p), also historically known as Bashkiria (p), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic (state)).
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A central vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
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A clitic (from Greek κλιτικός klitikos, "inflexional") is a morpheme in morphology and syntax that has syntactic characteristics of a word, but depends phonologically on another word or phrase.
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A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
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The comitative case (abbreviated) is a grammatical case that denotes accompaniment.
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In linguistics, the comparative is a syntactic construction that serves to express a comparison between two (or more) entities or groups of entities in quality, or degree.
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The comparative case (abbreviated) is a grammatical case used in languages such as Mari and Chechen to mark a likeness to something.
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Comparison is a feature in the morphology or syntax of some languages, whereby adjectives and adverbs are inflected or modified to indicate the relative degree of the property defined by the adjective or adverb.
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The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
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The dative case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used in some languages to indicate, among other uses, the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria Jacobī potum dedit", Latin for "Maria gave Jacob a drink".
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In linguistics, declension is the changing of the form of a word to express it with a non-standard meaning, by way of some inflection, that is by marking the word with some change in pronunciation or by other information.
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A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.
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In linguistics, a desiderative (abbreviated or) form is one that has the meaning of "wanting to X".
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Estonian (eesti keel) is the official language of Estonia, spoken natively by about 1.1 million people: 922,000 people in Estonia and 160,000 outside Estonia.
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This article deals with the grammar of the Finnish language (the article Finnish language discusses the language in general and contains a quick overview of the grammar).
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Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
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Finno-Ugrian Society (Société Finno-Ougrienne, Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura) is a Finnish learned society, dedicated to the study of Uralic and Altaic languages.
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Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
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A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
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In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.
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A gerund (abbreviated) is any of various nonfinite verb forms in various languages, most often, but not exclusively, one that functions as a noun.
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In the Russian language the word glasnost (гла́сность) has several general and specific meanings.
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In linguistics, conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (alteration of form according to rules of grammar).
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In linguistics, grammatical mood (also mode) is a grammatical feature of verbs, used for signaling modality.
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In grammar, tense is a category that expresses time reference with reference to the moment of speaking.
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Gustaf John Ramstedt
Gustaf John Ramstedt (October 22, 1873 – November 25, 1950) was a Finland Swedish diplomat and linguist.
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Hill Mari language
Hill Mari or Western Mari (Мары йӹлмӹ) is a Uralic language closely related to Meadow Mari.
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Illative (abbreviated; from Latin illatus "brought in") is, in the Finnish language, the Estonian language, the Lithuanian language, and the Hungarian language, the third of the locative cases with the basic meaning of "into (the inside of)".
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The imperative mood is a grammatical mood that forms a command or request.
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The imperfect (abbreviated) is a verb form, found in various languages, which combines past tense (reference to a past time) and imperfective aspect (reference to a continuing or repeated event or state).
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The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages are the dominant language family of the Indian subcontinent.
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Inessive case (abbreviated; from Latin inesse "to be in or at") is a locative grammatical case.
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Infinitive (abbreviated) is a grammatical term referring to certain verb forms existing in many languages, most often used as non-finite verbs.
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The Kama (река́ Ка́ма,; Чулман; Кам) is a major river in Russia, the longest left tributary of the Volga and the largest one in discharge; it is larger than the Volga before their junction.
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Kirov Oblast (Ки́ровская о́бласть, Kirovskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).
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Kozmodemyansk (Козьмодемьянск) is the name of several inhabited localities in Russia.
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Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
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A lateral is an l-like consonant in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.
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Lative (abbreviated) is a case which indicates motion to a location.
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Locative (abbreviated) is a grammatical case which indicates a location.
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The Mari El Republic (Респу́блика Мари́й Эл, Respublika Mariy El; Meadow Mari: Марий Эл Республик; Hill Mari: Мары Эл Республик) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic).
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The Mari (мари, марийцы) are a Finno-Ugric ethnic group, who have traditionally lived along the Volga and Kama rivers in Russia.
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Meadow Mari language
Meadow Mari or Eastern Mari is a standardized dialect of the Mari language used by about half a million people mostly in the European part of the Russian Federation.
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A mid vowel (or a true-mid vowel) is any in a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages.
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A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.
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Nadezhda Konstantinovna Krupskaya was a Russian Bolshevik revolutionary, politician, and the wife of Vladimir Lenin from 1898 until his death in 1924.
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In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
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Nizhny Novgorod Oblast
Nizhny Novgorod Oblast (Нижегоро́дская о́бласть, Nizhegorodskaya oblast), also known as Nizhegorod Oblast, is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).
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The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.
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Novgorod Oblast (Новгоро́дская о́бласть, Novgorodskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).
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An oblast is a type of administrative division of Belarus, Bulgaria, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Ukraine, and the former Soviet Union and Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
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The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
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An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.
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Orenburg Oblast (Оренбу́ргская о́бласть, Orenburgskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).
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Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
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In phonetics, palatalization (also) or palatization refers to a way of pronouncing a consonant in which part of the tongue is moved close to the hard palate.
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A participle is a form of a verb that is used in a sentence to modify a noun, noun phrase, verb, or verb phrase, and plays a role similar to an adjective or adverb.
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Perestroika (a) was a political movement for reformation within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the 1980s until 1991 and is widely associated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and his glasnost (meaning "openness") policy reform.
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The perfect tense or aspect (abbreviated or) is a verb form that indicates that an action or circumstance occurred earlier than the time under consideration, often focusing attention on the resulting state rather than on the occurrence itself.
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In linguistics, periphrasis is the usage of multiple separate words to carry the meaning of prefixes, suffixes or verbs, among other things, where either would be possible.
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Perm (p;Gramota.ru.) is a city and the administrative center of Perm Krai, Russia, located on the banks of the Kama River in the European part of Russia near the Ural Mountains.
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Perm Krai (p) is a federal subject of Russia (a krai) that came into existence on December 1, 2005 as a result of the 2004 referendum on the merger of Perm Oblast and Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug.
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The plural (sometimes abbreviated), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical category of number.
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In linguistics, a possessive affix is a suffix or prefix attached to a noun to indicate it is possessor, much in the manner of possessive adjectives.
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Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.
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The present tense (abbreviated or) is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to locate a situation or event in present time.
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The preterite (abbreviated or) is a grammatical tense or verb form serving to denote events that took place or were completed in the past.
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In linguistics, productivity is the degree to which native speakers use a particular grammatical process, especially in word formation.
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Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
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A realis mood (abbreviated) is a grammatical mood which is used principally to indicate that something is a statement of fact; in other words, to express what the speaker considers to be a known state of affairs, as in declarative sentences.
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In phonetics, rhotic consonants, or "R-like" sounds, are liquid consonants that are traditionally represented orthographically by symbols derived from the Greek letter rho, including r in the Latin script and p in the Cyrillic script.
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In phonetics, vowel roundedness refers to the amount of rounding in the lips during the articulation of a vowel.
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Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
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The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
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Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
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Russian Orthodox Church
The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC; Rússkaya pravoslávnaya tsérkov), alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate (Moskóvskiy patriarkhát), is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox patriarchates.
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The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
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Russification (Русификация), or Russianization, is a form of cultural assimilation process during which non-Russian communities, voluntarily or not, give up their culture and language in favor of the Russian one.
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The soft sign (Ь, ь, italics Ь, ь; Russian: мягкий знак) also known as the front yer or front er, is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
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The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
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In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
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In linguistic typology, a subject–object–verb (SOV) language is one in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence always or usually appear in that order.
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Sverdlovsk Oblast (Свердло́вская о́бласть, Sverdlovskaya oblast) is a federal subject (an oblast) of Russia located in the Ural Federal District.
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The Republic of Tatarstan (p; Татарстан Республикасы), or simply Tatarstan, is a federal subject (a republic) of the Russian Federation, located in the Volga Federal District.
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Udmurtia (p; Удмуртия), or the Udmurt Republic, is a federal subject of Russia (a republic) within the Volga Federal District.
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Ufa River (Qaridhel, Qaraidel, literally The Black Idel) is a river in the Urals, Chelyabinsk Oblast, Sverdlovsk Oblast, and the Republic of Bashkortostan; a tributary of the Belaya River.
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The Ural Mountains (p), or simply the Urals, are a mountain range that runs approximately from north to south through western Russia, from the coast of the Arctic Ocean to the Ural River and northwestern Kazakhstan.
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The Uralic languages (sometimes called Uralian languages) form a language family of 38 languages spoken by approximately 25million people, predominantly in Northern Eurasia.
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Uralic Phonetic Alphabet
The Uralic Phonetic Alphabet (UPA) or Finno-Ugric transcription system is a phonetic transcription or notational system used predominantly for the transcription and reconstruction of Uralic languages.
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Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
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Vetluga (Vütla) is a river in the Kirov Oblast, Kostroma Oblast, Mari El Republic and Nizhny Novgorod Oblast of Russia.
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The vocative case (abbreviated) is the case used for a noun that identifies a person (animal, object etc.) being addressed or occasionally the determiners of that noun.
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Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
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In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
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Vowel harmony is a type of long-distance assimilatory phonological process involving vowels that occurs in some languages.
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The Vyatka River (p; Noqrat; Виче, Viče, Ватка, Vatka) is a river in Kirov Oblast and the Republic of Tatarstan in Russia, a right tributary of the Kama River.
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Yoshkar-Ola (Йошка́р-Ола́; Йошкар-Ола) is the capital city of the Mari El Republic, Russia.
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Cheremis language, ISO 639:chm, Mari language (Russia), Mari languages.