212 relations: Abyssal zone, Acoustic ecology, Acoustic tag, Age of Discovery, Albatross, Algae, Ammophila (plant), Annelid, Aphotic zone, Aquaculture, Aristotle, Arthropod, Artificial reef, Ascidiacea, Auk, Baleen whale, Bathyal zone, Bathymetry, Bathyscaphe, Bathyscaphe Trieste, Binomial nomenclature, Bioerosion, Biological life cycle, Biology, Bioluminescence, Biome, Biomolecule, Bionics, Biotechnology, Bryozoa, Calcium, Carbon, Carbon cycle, Carbon dioxide, Carl Linnaeus, Cetacea, Chaetognatha, Charles Darwin, Chelicerata, Chlorophyta, Chondrichthyes, Climate, Cnidaria, Coast, Coccolithophore, Cold seep, Continental shelf, Coral, Coral reef, Crustacean, ..., Cryptomonad, Ctenophora, Cyanobacteria, Data logger, Demersal zone, Detritus, Diatom, Dictyochales, Dinoflagellate, Diversity of fish, Echinoderm, Echiura, Ecological niche, Ecology, Ecosystem, Ecosystem engineer, Edward Forbes, El Niño, Environment (biophysical), Environmental studies, Estuary, Euglenid, Evolution, Extinction, Fauna, Fisheries science, Flatfish, Flatworm, Foraminifera, Freshwater biology, Fungus, Gannet, General circulation model, Genus, Global Positioning System, Global warming, Glossary of ecology, Golden algae, Gull, Hadal zone, HMS Challenger (1858), Hydrophiinae, Hydrothermal vent, Ichthyology, Ichthyoplankton, Ichthyosaur, Index of biology articles, Intertidal zone, Invertebrate, Invertebrate zoology, Jellyfish, Kelp, Kelp forest, Large marine ecosystem, Lesbos, Life, List of ecologists, List of marine biologists, List of marine ecoregions, Manatee, Mangrove, Mariana Trench, Marine conservation, Marine ecosystem, Marine iguana, Marine life, Marine protected area, Mesopelagic zone, Metabolite, Microorganism, Mid-ocean ridge, Modular Ocean Model, Mollusca, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Nemertea, Neontology, Nitrogen, Nutrient, Oasis, Ocean, Ocean current, Oceanic basin, Oceanic climate, Oceanic trench, Oceanography, Octopus, Osteichthyes, Outline of biology, Outline of ecology, Oviparity, Oxygen cycle, Pacific Ocean, Pelagic zone, Penguin, Philippines, Phoronid, Phosphorus, Photic zone, Photosynthesis, Phycology, Phylum, Phytoplankton, Pinniped, Polar bear, Polychaete, Pop-up satellite archival tag, Prasinophyceae, Pressure, Primary production, Protein, Protozoa, Radiolaria, Recreation, Reef, Reptile, Saltwater crocodile, Samuel Gottlieb Gmelin, Saprotrophic nutrition, Sargassum, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Sea, Sea anemone, Sea foam, Sea otter, Sea turtle, Sea worm, Seabird, Seagrass, Seamount, Seawater, Seaweed, Shark, Shellfish, Shore, Sipuncula, Sirenia, Spartina, Species diversity, Sperm whale, Sponge, Squid, Starfish, Station biologique de Roscoff, Surface tension, Taxonomy (biology), Terrapin, Tide, Tide pool, Toothed whale, Tourism, Tropics, Tunicate, Virus, Viviparity, Walrus, Water column, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, World Ocean Atlas, Zooflagellate, Zooplankton, Zooxanthellae, Zostera. Expand index (162 more) » « Shrink index
The abyssal zone or abyssopelagic zone is a layer of the pelagic zone of the ocean.
Acoustic ecology, sometimes called ecoacoustics or soundscape studies, is a discipline studying the relationship, mediated through sound, between human beings and their environment.
Acoustic tags are small sound-emitting devices that allow the detection and/or remote tracking of fish in three dimensions for fisheries research.
The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (approximately from the beginning of the 15th century until the end of the 18th century) is an informal and loosely defined term for the period in European history in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture and was the beginning of globalization.
Albatrosses, of the biological family Diomedeidae, are large seabirds related to the procellariids, storm petrels and diving petrels in the order Procellariiformes (the tubenoses).
Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
Ammophila (synonymous with Psamma P. Beauv.) is a genus of flowering plants consisting of two or three very similar species of grasses.
The annelids (Annelida, from Latin anellus, "little ring"), also known as the ringed worms or segmented worms, are a large phylum, with over 22,000 extant species including ragworms, earthworms, and leeches.
The aphotic zone (aphotic from Greek prefix ἀ- + φῶς "without light") is the portion of a lake or ocean where there is little or no sunlight.
Aquaculture (less commonly spelled aquiculture), also known as aquafarming, is the farming of fish, crustaceans, molluscs, aquatic plants, algae, and other organisms.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages.
An artificial reef is a man-made underwater structure, typically built to promote marine life in areas with a generally featureless bottom, to control erosion, block ship passage, or improve surfing.
Ascidiacea (commonly known as the ascidians or sea squirts) is a paraphyletic class in the subphylum Tunicata of sac-like marine invertebrate filter feeders.
An auk or alcid is a bird of the family Alcidae in the order Charadriiformes.
Baleen whales (systematic name Mysticeti), known earlier as whalebone whales, form a parvorder of the infraorder Cetacea (whales, dolphins and porpoises).
The bathyal zone or bathypelagic – from Greek βαθύς (bathýs), deep – (also known as midnight zone) is the part of the pelagic zone that extends from a depth of below the ocean surface.
Bathymetry is the study of underwater depth of lake or ocean floors.
A bathyscaphe is a free-diving self-propelled deep-sea submersible, consisting of a crew cabin similar to a bathysphere, but suspended below a float rather than from a surface cable, as in the classic bathysphere design.
Trieste is a Swiss-designed, Italian-built deep-diving research bathyscaphe, which with its crew of two reached a record maximum depth of about, in the deepest known part of the Earth's oceans, the Challenger Deep, in the Mariana Trench near Guam in the Pacific.
Binomial nomenclature ("two-term naming system") also called nomenclature ("two-name naming system") or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages.
Bioerosion describes the breakdown of hard ocean substrates – and less often terrestrial substrates – by living organisms.
In biology, a biological life cycle (or just life cycle when the biological context is clear) is a series of changes in form that an organism undergoes, returning to the starting state.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
Bioluminescence is the production and emission of light by a living organism.
A biome is a community of plants and animals that have common characteristics for the environment they exist in.
A biomolecule or biological molecule is a loosely used term for molecules and ions that are present in organisms, essential to some typically biological process such as cell division, morphogenesis, or development.
Bionics or Biologically inspired engineering is the application of biological methods and systems found in nature to the study and design of engineering systems and modern technology.
Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).
Bryozoa (also known as the Polyzoa, Ectoprocta or commonly as moss animals) are a phylum of aquatic invertebrate animals.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.
Cetacea are a widely distributed and diverse clade of aquatic mammals that today consists of the whales, dolphins, and porpoises.
Chaetognatha, meaning bristle-jaws, and commonly known as arrow worms, is a phylum of predatory marine worms which are a major component of plankton worldwide.
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
The subphylum Chelicerata (New Latin, from French chélicère, from Greek khēlē "claw, chela" and kéras "horn") constitutes one of the major subdivisions of the phylum Arthropoda.
Chlorophyta is a division of green algae, informally called chlorophytes.
Chondrichthyes (from Greek χονδρ- chondr- 'cartilage', ἰχθύς ichthys 'fish') is a class that contains the cartilaginous fishes: they are jawed vertebrates with paired fins, paired nares, scales, a heart with its chambers in series, and skeletons made of cartilage rather than bone.
Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.
Cnidaria is a phylum containing over 10,000 species of animals found exclusively in aquatic (freshwater and marine) environments: they are predominantly marine species.
A coastline or a seashore is the area where land meets the sea or ocean, or a line that forms the boundary between the land and the ocean or a lake.
A coccolithophore (or coccolithophorid, from the adjective) is a unicellular, eukaryotic phytoplankton (alga).
A cold seep (sometimes called a cold vent) is an area of the ocean floor where hydrogen sulfide, methane and other hydrocarbon-rich fluid seepage occurs, often in the form of a brine pool.
The continental shelf is an underwater landmass which extends from a continent, resulting in an area of relatively shallow water known as a shelf sea.
Corals are marine invertebrates in the class Anthozoa of phylum Cnidaria.
Coral reefs are diverse underwater ecosystems held together by calcium carbonate structures secreted by corals.
Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.
The cryptomonads (or cryptophytes) are a group of algae, most of which have plastids.
Ctenophora (singular ctenophore, or; from the Greek κτείς kteis 'comb' and φέρω pherō 'to carry'; commonly known as comb jellies) is a phylum of invertebrate animals that live in marine waters worldwide.
Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.
A data logger (also datalogger or data recorder) is an electronic device that records data over time or in relation to location either with a built in instrument or sensor or via external instruments and sensors.
The demersal zone is the part of the sea or ocean (or deep lake) consisting of the part of the water column near to (and significantly affected by) the seabed and the benthos.
In biology, detritus is dead particulate organic material (as opposed to dissolved organic material).
Diatoms (diá-tom-os "cut in half", from diá, "through" or "apart"; and the root of tém-n-ō, "I cut".) are a major group of microorganisms found in the oceans, waterways and soils of the world.
Dictyochales (Silicoflagellates, or Dictyochophyceae sensu stricto) are a small group of unicellular heterokont algae, found in marine environments.
The dinoflagellates (Greek δῖνος dinos "whirling" and Latin flagellum "whip, scourge") are a large group of flagellate eukaryotes that constitute the phylum Dinoflagellata.
Fish are very diverse animals and can be categorised in many ways.
Echinoderm is the common name given to any member of the phylum Echinodermata (from Ancient Greek, ἐχῖνος, echinos – "hedgehog" and δέρμα, derma – "skin") of marine animals.
The Echiura, or spoon worms, are a small group of marine animals.
In ecology, a niche (CanE, or) is the fit of a species living under specific environmental conditions.
Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
An ecosystem engineer is any organism that creates, significantly modifies, maintains or destroys a habitat.
Professor Edward Forbes FRS, FGS (12 February 1815 – 18 November 1854) was a Manx naturalist.
El Niño is the warm phase of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (commonly called ENSO) and is associated with a band of warm ocean water that develops in the central and east-central equatorial Pacific (between approximately the International Date Line and 120°W), including off the Pacific coast of South America.
A biophysical environment is a biotic and abiotic surrounding of an organism or population, and consequently includes the factors that have an influence in their survival, development, and evolution.
Environmental studies is a multidisciplinary academic field which systematically studies human interaction with the environment in the interests of solving complex problems.
An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.
Euglenids (euglenoids, or euglenophytes, formally Euglenida/Euglenoida, ICZN, or Euglenophyceae, ICBN) are one of the best-known groups of flagellates, which are excavate eukaryotes of the phylum Euglenophyta and their cell structure is typical of that group.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.
Fauna is all of the animal life of any particular region or time.
Fisheries science is the academic discipline of managing and understanding fisheries.
A flatfish is a member of the order Pleuronectiformes of ray-finned demersal fishes, also called the Heterosomata, sometimes classified as a suborder of Perciformes.
The flatworms, flat worms, Platyhelminthes, Plathelminthes, or platyhelminths (from the Greek πλατύ, platy, meaning "flat" and ἕλμινς (root: ἑλμινθ-), helminth-, meaning "worm") are a phylum of relatively simple bilaterian, unsegmented, soft-bodied invertebrates.
Foraminifera (Latin for "hole bearers"; informally called "forams") are members of a phylum or class of amoeboid protists characterized by streaming granular ectoplasm for catching food and other uses; and commonly an external shell (called a "test") of diverse forms and materials.
Freshwater biology is the scientific biological study of freshwater ecosystems and is a branch of limnology.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Gannets are seabirds comprising the genus Morus, in the family Sulidae, closely related to boobies.
A general circulation model (GCM) is a type of climate model.
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Air Force.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
This glossary of ecology is a list of definitions of terms and topics in ecology and related fields.
The Chrysophyceae, usually called chrysophytes, chrysomonads, golden-brown algae or golden algae are a large group of algae, found mostly in freshwater.
Gulls or seagulls are seabirds of the family Laridae in the suborder Lari.
The hadal zone (named after the realm of Hades, the underworld in Greek mythology), also known as the hadopelagic zone, is the deepest region of the ocean lying within oceanic trenches.
HMS Challenger was a steam-assisted Royal Navy ''Pearl''-class corvette launched on 13 February 1858 at the Woolwich Dockyard.
The Hydrophiinae, commonly known as sea snakes or coral reef snakes, are a subfamily of venomous elapid snakes that inhabit marine environments for most or all of their lives.
A hydrothermal vent is a fissure in a planet's surface from which geothermally heated water issues.
Ichthyology (from Greek: ἰχθύς, ikhthys, "fish"; and λόγος, logos, "study"), also known as fish science, is the branch of zoology devoted to the study of fish.
Ichthyoplankton (from Greek: ἰχθύς, ikhthus, "fish"; and πλαγκτός, planktos, "drifter") are the eggs and larvae of fish.
Ichthyosaurs (Greek for "fish lizard" – ιχθυς or ichthys meaning "fish" and σαυρος or sauros meaning "lizard") are large marine reptiles.
Biology is the study of life and its processes.
The intertidal zone, also known as the foreshore and seashore and sometimes referred to as the littoral zone, is the area that is above water at low tide and under water at high tide (in other words, the area between tide marks).
Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.
Invertebrate zoology is the subsystem of zoology that consists of the study of invertebrates, animals without a backbone (a structure which is found only in fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals.) Invertebrates are a vast and very diverse group of animals that includes sponges, echinoderms, tunicates, numerous different phyla of worms, molluscs, arthropods and many additional phyla.
Jellyfish or sea jelly is the informal common name given to the medusa-phase of certain gelatinous members of the subphylum Medusozoa, a major part of the phylum Cnidaria.
Kelps are large brown algae seaweeds that make up the order Laminariales.
Kelp forests are underwater areas with a high density of kelp.
Large marine ecosystems (LMEs) are regions of the world's oceans, encompassing coastal areas from river basins and estuaries to the seaward boundaries of continental shelves and the outer margins of the major ocean current systems.
Lesbos (Λέσβος), or Lezbolar in Turkish sometimes referred to as Mytilene after its capital, is a Greek island located in the northeastern Aegean Sea.
Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.
This is a list of ecologists who have pages on Wikipedia, in alphabetical order by surname.
This is a list of marine biologists.
The following is a list of marine ecoregions, as defined by the WWF and The Nature Conservancy The WWF/Nature Conservancy scheme groups the individual ecoregions into 12 marine realms, which represent the broad latitudinal divisions of polar, temperate, and tropical seas, with subdivisions based on ocean basins.
Manatees (family Trichechidae, genus Trichechus) are large, fully aquatic, mostly herbivorous marine mammals sometimes known as sea cows. There are three accepted living species of Trichechidae, representing three of the four living species in the order Sirenia: the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis), the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus), and the West African manatee (Trichechus senegalensis).
A mangrove is a shrub or small tree that grows in coastal saline or brackish water.
The Mariana Trench or Marianas Trench is the deepest part of the world's oceans.
Marine conservation refers to the study of conserving physical and biological marine resources and ecosystem functions.
Marine ecosystems are among the largest of Earth's aquatic ecosystems.
The marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus), also known as the Galápagos marine iguana, is a species of iguana found only on the Galápagos Islands (Ecuador) that has the ability, unique among modern lizards, to forage in the sea, making it a marine reptile.
Marine life, or sea life or ocean life, is the plants, animals and other organisms that live in the salt water of the sea or ocean, or the brackish water of coastal estuaries.
Marine protected areas (MPA) are protected areas of seas, oceans, estuaries or large lakes.
The mesopelagic (Greek μέσον, middle) (also known as the middle pelagic or twilight zone) is that part of the pelagic zone that extends from a depth of 200 to 1000 meters (~660 to 3300 feet) below the ocean surface.
A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
A mid-ocean ridge (MOR) is an underwater mountain system formed by plate tectonics.
The Modular Ocean Model (MOM) is a three-dimensional ocean circulation model designed primarily for studying the ocean climate system.
Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; pronounced, like "Noah") is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.
Nemertea is a phylum of invertebrate animals also known as "ribbon worms" or "proboscis worms".
Neontology is a part of biology that, in contrast to paleontology, deals with living (or, more generally, recent) organisms.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.
In geography, an oasis (plural: oases) is an isolated area in a desert, typically surrounding a spring or similar water source, such as a pond or small lake.
An ocean (the sea of classical antiquity) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.
An ocean current is a seasonal directed movement of sea water generated by forces acting upon this mean flow, such as wind, the Coriolis effect, breaking waves, cabbing, temperature and salinity differences, while tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the Sun and Moon.
In hydrology, an oceanic basin may be anywhere on Earth that is covered by seawater but geologically ocean basins are large geologic basins that are below sea level.
An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.
Oceanic trenches are topographic depressions of the sea floor, relatively narrow in width, but very long.
Oceanography (compound of the Greek words ὠκεανός meaning "ocean" and γράφω meaning "write"), also known as oceanology, is the study of the physical and biological aspects of the ocean.
The octopus (or ~) is a soft-bodied, eight-armed mollusc of the order Octopoda.
Osteichthyes, popularly referred to as the bony fish, is a diverse taxonomic group of fish that have skeletons primarily composed of bone tissue, as opposed to cartilage.
Biology – The natural science that involves the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to ecology: Ecology – scientific study of the distribution and abundance of living organisms and how the distribution and abundance are affected by interactions between the organisms and their environment.
Oviparous animals are animals that lay eggs, with little or no other embryonic development within the mother.
The oxygen cycle is the biogeochemical cycle of oxygen within its four main reservoirs: the atmosphere (air), the total content of biological matter within the biosphere (the global sum of all ecosystems), the hydrosphere (the combined mass of water found on, under, and over the surface of planet Earth), and the lithosphere/Earth's crust.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
The pelagic zone consists of the water column of the open ocean, and can be further divided into regions by depth.
Penguins (order Sphenisciformes, family Spheniscidae) are a group of aquatic, flightless birds.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Phoronids (scientific name Phoronida, sometimes called horseshoe worms) are a small phylum of marine animals that filter-feed with a lophophore (a "crown" of tentacles), and build upright tubes of chitin to support and protect their soft bodies.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
The photic zone, euphotic zone (Greek for "well lit": εὖ "well" + φῶς "light"), or sunlight or (sunlit) zone is the uppermost layer of water in a lake or ocean that is exposed to intense sunlight.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
Phycology (from Greek φῦκος, phykos, "seaweed"; and -λογία, -logia) is the scientific study of algae.
In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class.
Phytoplankton are the autotrophic (self-feeding) components of the plankton community and a key part of oceans, seas and freshwater basin ecosystems.
Pinnipeds, commonly known as seals, are a widely distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, semiaquatic marine mammals.
The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) is a hypercarnivorous bear whose native range lies largely within the Arctic Circle, encompassing the Arctic Ocean, its surrounding seas and surrounding land masses.
The Polychaeta, also known as the bristle worms or polychaetes, are a paraphyletic class of annelid worms, generally marine.
Pop-up satellite archival tags (PSATs) that use the Argos system which is managed by CLS in Toulouse, France or CLS America in Lanham, Maryland (US) are used to track movements of (usually large, migratory) marine animals.
The Prasinophytes are a paraphyletic class of unicellular green algae.
Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
Global oceanic and terrestrial photoautotroph abundance, from September 1997 to August 2000. As an estimate of autotroph biomass, it is only a rough indicator of primary-production potential, and not an actual estimate of it. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and ORBIMAGE. In ecology, primary production is the synthesis of organic compounds from atmospheric or aqueous carbon dioxide.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Protozoa (also protozoan, plural protozoans) is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.
The Radiolaria, also called Radiozoa, are protozoa of diameter 0.1–0.2 mm that produce intricate mineral skeletons, typically with a central capsule dividing the cell into the inner and outer portions of endoplasm and ectoplasm.The elaborate mineral skeleton is usually made of silica.
Recreation is an activity of leisure, leisure being discretionary time.
A reef is a bar of rock, sand, coral or similar material, lying beneath the surface of water.
Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.
The saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus), also known as the estuarine crocodile, Indo-Pacific crocodile, marine crocodile, sea crocodile or informally as saltie, is the largest of all living reptiles, as well as the largest riparian predator in the world.
Samuel George Gottlieb Gmelin (4 July 1744 – 27 July 1774) was a German physician, botanist and explorer.
Saprotrophic nutrition or lysotrophic nutrition is a process of chemoheterotrophic extracellular digestion involved in the processing of decayed (dead or waste) organic matter.
Sargassum is a genus of brown (class Phaeophyceae) macroalgae (seaweed) in the order Fucales.
The Scripps Institution of Oceanography (sometimes referred to as SIO, Scripps Oceanography, or Scripps) in La Jolla, California, founded in 1903, is one of the oldest and largest centers for ocean and Earth science research, public service, undergraduate and graduate training in the world.
A sea is a large body of salt water that is surrounded in whole or in part by land.
Sea anemones are a group of marine, predatory animals of the order Actiniaria.
Sea foam, ocean foam, beach foam, or spume is a type of foam created by the agitation of seawater, particularly when it contains higher concentrations of dissolved organic matter (including proteins, lignins, and lipids)James G. Acker, CoastalBC.com.
The sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a marine mammal native to the coasts of the northern and eastern North Pacific Ocean.
Sea turtles (superfamily Chelonioidea), sometimes called marine turtles, are reptiles of the order Testudines.
Sea worm may refer to one or several of the following phyla.
Seabirds (also known as marine birds) are birds that are adapted to life within the marine environment.
Seagrasses are flowering plants (angiosperms) belonging to four families (Posidoniaceae, Zosteraceae, Hydrocharitaceae and Cymodoceaceae), all in the order Alismatales (in the class of monocotyledons), which grow in marine, fully saline environments.
A seamount is a mountain rising from the ocean seafloor that does not reach to the water's surface (sea level), and thus is not an island, islet or cliff-rock.
Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean.
Seaweed or macroalgae refers to several species of macroscopic, multicellular, marine algae.
Sharks are a group of elasmobranch fish characterized by a cartilaginous skeleton, five to seven gill slits on the sides of the head, and pectoral fins that are not fused to the head.
Shellfish is a food source and fisheries term for exoskeleton-bearing aquatic invertebrates used as food, including various species of molluscs, crustaceans, and echinoderms.
A shore or a shoreline is the fringe of land at the edge of a large body of water, such as an ocean, sea, or lake.
The Sipuncula or Sipunculida (common names sipunculid worms or peanut worms) is a group containing 144–320 species (estimates vary) of bilaterally symmetrical, unsegmented marine worms.
The Sirenia, commonly referred to as sea cows or sirenians, are an order of fully aquatic, herbivorous mammals that inhabit swamps, rivers, estuaries, marine wetlands, and coastal marine waters.
Spartina, commonly known as cordgrass or cord-grass, is a genus of plants in the grass family, frequently found in coastal salt marshes.
Species diversity is the number of different species that are represented in a given community (a dataset).
The sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) or cachalot is the largest of the toothed whales and the largest toothed predator.
Sponges, the members of the phylum Porifera (meaning "pore bearer"), are a basal Metazoa clade as sister of the Diploblasts.
Squid are cephalopods of the two orders Myopsida and Oegopsida, which were formerly regarded as two suborders of the order Teuthida, however recent research shows Teuthida to be paraphyletic.
Starfish or sea stars are star-shaped echinoderms belonging to the class Asteroidea.
The Station biologique de Roscoff (SBR) is a French marine biology and oceanography research and teaching center.
Surface tension is the elastic tendency of a fluid surface which makes it acquire the least surface area possible.
Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.
A terrapin is one of several small species of testudines living in fresh or brackish water.
Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the Moon and the Sun and the rotation of Earth.
Tide pools or rock pools are shallow pools of seawater that form on the rocky intertidal shore.
The toothed whales (systematic name Odontoceti) are a parvorder of cetaceans that includes dolphins, porpoises, and all other whales possessing teeth, such as the beaked whales and sperm whales.
Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours.
The tropics are a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator.
A tunicate is a marine invertebrate animal, a member of the subphylum Tunicata, which is part of the Chordata, a phylum which includes all animals with dorsal nerve cords and notochords.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
Among animals, viviparity is development of the embryo inside the body of the parent, eventually leading to live birth, as opposed to reproduction by laying eggs that complete their incubation outside the parental body.
The walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) is a large flippered marine mammal with a discontinuous distribution about the North Pole in the Arctic Ocean and subarctic seas of the Northern Hemisphere.
A water column is a conceptual column of water from the surface of a sea, river or lake to the bottom sediment.
The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI, acronym pronounced) is a private, nonprofit research and higher education facility dedicated to the study of all aspects of marine science and engineering and to the education of marine researchers.
The World Ocean Atlas (WOA) is a data product of the Ocean Climate Laboratory of the National Oceanographic Data Center (U.S.). The WOA consists of a climatology of fields of in situ ocean properties for the World Ocean.
In some older systems of classification, Zoomastigophora is a phylum (more commonly known as zooflagellates) within the kingdom Protista.
Zooplankton are heterotrophic (sometimes detritivorous) plankton.
Zooxanthellae are single-celled dinoflagellates that are able to live in symbiosis with marine invertebrates such as corals, jellyfish, and sea anemones.
Zostera is a small genus of widely distributed seagrasses, commonly called marine eelgrass or simply eelgrass.
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