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Marine mammal

Index Marine mammal

Marine mammals are aquatic mammals that rely on the ocean and other marine ecosystems for their existence. [1]

372 relations: Aboriginal whaling, ACCOBAMS, Acoustic harassment device, Africa, African manatee, Afrotheria, Agreement on the Conservation of Polar Bears, Alaska, Aleutian Islands, Algae, Amazonian manatee, Americas, Amniote, Anaerobic glycolysis, Anatomy, Animal echolocation, Animal locomotion, Antarctic, Antarctic fur seal, Antarctica, Anthropomorphism, Anti-whaling, Aquaculture, Aquarium, Aquarium of Genoa, Aquatic animal, Aquatic feeding mechanisms, Aquatic mammal, Arctic fox, Arctoidea, ASCOBANS, Asia, Atmosphere, Australia, Bait ball, Baja California Peninsula, Balaenidae, Baleen, Baleen whale, Bat, Beaked whale, Bear, Bearded seal, Beaufort Sea, Beluga whale, Benthic zone, Berlin, Big Sur, Biological pump, Bivalvia, ..., Black Sea, Blood, Blood vessel, Blubber, Blue whale, Bottlenose dolphin, Bowhead whale, Bradenton, Florida, Bradycardia, Breeding in the wild, Brown bear, Buoy, Bycatch, California sea lion, Camouflage, Canidae, Caniformia, Canton System, Captivity (animal), Carbon dioxide, Caribbean, Caribbean monk seal, Carnivora, Carnivore, Cascade effect (ecology), Cephalopod, Cetacea, Cetotheriidae, Chemotroph, Chukchi Sea, Circumpolar peoples, Clade, Cladogenesis, Clam, Cold seep, Columbia River, Common descent, Common minke whale, Competition, Container ship, Contamination, Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals, Convergent evolution, Cook Inlet, Cooperative hunting, Coral reef, Countercurrent exchange, Critically endangered, Crustacean, Culling, Disneyfication, Dolphin drive hunting, Dolphinarium, Dorsal fin, Dredging, Drift ice, Dugong, Dugongidae, Dwarf sperm whale, Eared seal, Earless seal, Early Miocene, Ecosystem, Effects of global warming, Effluent, El Niño, Elephantidae, Endocrine system, Eocene, Epidermis, Eschrichtiidae, Estuary, Even-toed ungulate, Evolution, Evolutionary pressure, Facial expression, Faroe Islands, Feliformia, Ferae, Fin whale, Fish, Fish oil, Fish stock, Fishery, Freight transport, Fur, Fur seal, Gastrointestinal tract, Generalist and specialist species, Geophysics, Gillnetting, Glaucous gull, Global warming, Glycogen, Gray whale, Great white shark, Greenland, Greenpeace, Guadalupe Island, Guangzhou, Gulf Breeze, Florida, Gulf of Maine, Gulf War, Gut flora, Habitat destruction, Hagfish, Harbor seal, Harp seal, Harpoon, Harvest, Hauling-out, Heavy metals, Hibernation, Hippopotamidae, Hippopotamus, Hokkaido, Hudson Bay, Human impact on the environment, Humane Society of the United States, Hydroelectricity, Hydrogen sulfide, Hydrothermal vent, Hypoxia in fish, Hyrax, Icebreaker, Indian Ocean, International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling, International environmental agreement, International law, International Union for Conservation of Nature, International Whaling Commission, Inuit, IUCN Red List, James Bay, Jetty, Kamchatka Peninsula, Kelp, Kelp forest, Killer whale, Kogiidae, Kyakhta, Laurasiatheria, Lead, Limpet, List of semiaquatic tetrapods, Local extinction, Long-finned pilot whale, Mammal, Manatee, Marine conservation activism, Marine debris, Marine ecosystem, Marine Mammal Protection Act, Marine otter, Marine outfall, Maritime fur trade, Mating, Mercury (element), Mercury poisoning, Methylmercury, Military, Minke whale, Mitochondrial DNA, Monk seal, Monodontidae, Mooring (oceanography), Moratorium (law), Mortality rate, Moulting, Mudflat, Muktuk, Muscle, Mussel, Mustelidae, Muzzle (device), Myotis vivesi, Narwhal, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Neritic zone, Neuropsychology, Noise pollution, Non-governmental organization, North Atlantic right whale, North Pacific right whale, Northern elephant seal, Norway, Nunavut, Nuremberg Zoo, Oceanic dolphin, Oceanography, Odd-toed ungulate, Odobenidae, Oil platform, Old World, Omega-3 fatty acid, Organochloride, Oxygen, Ozone depletion, Pangolin, PBS, Pebble, Petroleum, Pezosiren, Physeteroidea, Physiology, Phytoplankton, Pier, Pinniped, Placentalia, Plankton, Pleasure craft, Pleistocene, Polar bear, Polychaete, Polychlorinated biphenyl, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, Polyphyly, Population bottleneck, Porpoise, Port, Predation, Prenatal development, Primary production, Prins Karls Forland, Proboscidea, Prorastomidae, Prorastomus, Protosirenidae, Puijila, Pygmy sperm whale, Research, Richard Nixon, Right whale, Ringed seal, River dolphin, River Safari, Rocky shore, Rorqual, Ruminantia, Russian America, Salmon, Sea cave, Sea mink, Sea of Okhotsk, Sea otter, Sea Shepherd Conservation Society, Sea snail, Sea urchin, Seabird, Seagrass, Seal meat, Seattle Aquarium, SeaWorld, Seine fishing, Sewage, Sexual maturity, Shark, Shoal, Siberia, Singapore, Sirenia, Snail, Snooty, Sonar, South American sea lion, South Florida Museum, Southern Hemisphere, Species problem, Sperm whale, Spleen, Starvation, Steering, Steller sea lion, Steller's sea cow, Stress (biology), Svalbard, Taiji, Wakayama, Tampa Bay Times, Tethytheria, Thermoregulation, Threatened species, Tide pool, Tierpark Berlin, Tool use by sea otters, Toothed whale, Tourism, Treaty, Treaty of Kyakhta (1727), Trophy hunting, Tuna, Ultraviolet, Underwater explosion, Ungulate, United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, United States Fish and Wildlife Service, United States Secretary of Commerce, Urchin barren, Vancouver Aquarium, Vasoconstriction, Vesper bat, Vestigiality, Vietnam War, Vikings, Wadden Sea, Wadden Sea Agreement, Walrus, West Indian manatee, Whale, Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society, Whale feces, Whale meat, Whale watching, Whaling, Whaling in Iceland, Whaling in Japan, Whippomorpha, World Animal Protection, World Health Organization, YouTube, Zoo, ZooParc de Beauval, Zooplankton. Expand index (322 more) »

Aboriginal whaling

Aboriginal whaling is the hunting of whales by aboriginal groups.

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ACCOBAMS

ACCOBAMS, the Agreement on the Conservation of Cetaceans in the Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea and contiguous Atlantic area is ‘a cooperative tool for the conservation of marine biodiversity in the Mediterranean and Black Seas’.

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Acoustic harassment device

Acoustic harassment and acoustic deterrents are technologies used to keep animals page 442 and in some cases humans away from an area.

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Africa

Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).

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African manatee

The African manatee (Trichechus senegalensis), also known as the West African manatee or sea cow, is a species of manatee that is mostly herbivorous.

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Afrotheria

Afrotheria is a clade of mammals, the living members of which belong to groups that are either currently living in Africa or of African origin: golden moles, elephant shrews (also known as sengis), tenrecs, aardvarks, hyraxes, elephants, sea cows, and several extinct clades.

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Agreement on the Conservation of Polar Bears

The Agreement on the Conservation of Polar Bears is a multilateral treaty signed in Oslo, November 15, 1973, by the five nations with the largest polar bear populations: Canada, Denmark (Greenland), Norway (Svalbard), the United States, and the Soviet Union.

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Alaska

Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.

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Aleutian Islands

The Aleutian Islands (Tanam Unangaa, literally "Land of the Aleuts", possibly from Chukchi aliat, "island") are a chain of 14 large volcanic islands and 55 smaller ones belonging to both the U.S. state of Alaska and the Russian federal subject of Kamchatka Krai.

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Algae

Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.

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Amazonian manatee

The Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis) is a species of manatee that lives in the Amazon Basin in Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Colombia and Ecuador.

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Americas

The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.

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Amniote

Amniotes (from Greek ἀμνίον amnion, "membrane surrounding the fetus", earlier "bowl in which the blood of sacrificed animals was caught", from ἀμνός amnos, "lamb") are a clade of tetrapod vertebrates comprising the reptiles, birds, and mammals.

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Anaerobic glycolysis

Anaerobic glycolysis is the transformation of glucose to lactate when limited amounts of oxygen (O2) are available.

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Anatomy

Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.

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Animal echolocation

Echolocation, also called bio sonar, is the biological sonar used by several kinds of animals.

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Animal locomotion

Animal locomotion, in ethology, is any of a variety of movements or methods that animals use to move from one place to another.

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Antarctic

The Antarctic (US English, UK English or and or) is a polar region around the Earth's South Pole, opposite the Arctic region around the North Pole.

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Antarctic fur seal

The Antarctic fur seal, sometimes called the Kerguelen fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella), is one of eight seals in the genus Arctocephalus, and one of nine fur seals in the subfamily Arctocephalinae.

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Antarctica

Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.

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Anthropomorphism

Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human traits, emotions, or intentions to non-human entities.

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Anti-whaling

Anti-whaling refers to actions taken by those who seek to end whaling in various forms, whether locally or globally in the pursuit of marine conservation.

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Aquaculture

Aquaculture (less commonly spelled aquiculture), also known as aquafarming, is the farming of fish, crustaceans, molluscs, aquatic plants, algae, and other organisms.

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Aquarium

An aquarium (plural: aquariums or aquaria) is a vivarium of any size having at least one transparent side in which aquatic plants or animals are kept and displayed.

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Aquarium of Genoa

The Aquarium of Genoa (in Italian: Acquario di Genova) is the largest aquarium in Italy and in Europe.

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Aquatic animal

A aquatic animal is an animal, either vertebrate or invertebrate, which lives in the water for most or all of its lifetime.

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Aquatic feeding mechanisms

Aquatic feeding mechanisms face a special difficulty as compared to feeding on land, because the density of water is about the same as that of the prey, so the prey tends to be pushed away when the mouth is closed.

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Aquatic mammal

Aquatic and semiaquatic mammals are a diverse group of mammals that dwell partly or entirely in bodies of water.

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Arctic fox

The Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus), also known as the white fox, polar fox, or snow fox, is a small fox native to the Arctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere and common throughout the Arctic tundra biome.

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Arctoidea

Arctoidea is an infraorder of mostly carnivorous mammals which include the extinct Hemicyonidae (dog-bears), and the extant Musteloidea (weasels, raccoons, skunks, red pandas), Pinnipedia (seals, sea lions), and Ursidae (bears), found in all continents from the Eocene,, to the present.

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ASCOBANS

ASCOBANS is a regional agreement on the protection of small cetaceans that was concluded as the “Agreement on the Conservation of Small Cetaceans of the Baltic and North Seas” under the auspices of the UNEP Convention on Migratory Species, or Bonn Convention, in September 1991 and came into force in March 1994.

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Asia

Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.

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Atmosphere

An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.

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Australia

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Bait ball

A bait ball, or baitball, occurs when small fish swarm in a tightly packed spherical formation about a common centre.

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Baja California Peninsula

The Baja California Peninsula (Lower California Peninsula, Península de Baja California) is a peninsula in Northwestern Mexico.

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Balaenidae

Balaenidae is a family of whales of the parvorder Mysticeti that contains two living genera.

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Baleen

Baleen is a filter-feeder system inside the mouths of baleen whales.

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Baleen whale

Baleen whales (systematic name Mysticeti), known earlier as whalebone whales, form a parvorder of the infraorder Cetacea (whales, dolphins and porpoises).

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Bat

Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera; with their forelimbs adapted as wings, they are the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight.

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Beaked whale

Beaked whales are the members of the family Ziphiidae, which consists of 23 species.

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Bear

Bears are carnivoran mammals of the family Ursidae.

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Bearded seal

The bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus), also called the square flipper seal, is a medium-sized pinniped that is found in and near to the Arctic Ocean.

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Beaufort Sea

The Beaufort Sea (Mer de Beaufort) is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean, located north of the Northwest Territories, the Yukon, and Alaska, west of Canada's Arctic islands.

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Beluga whale

The beluga whale or white whale (Delphinapterus leucas) is an Arctic and sub-Arctic cetacean.

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Benthic zone

The benthic zone is the ecological region at the lowest level of a body of water such as an ocean or a lake, including the sediment surface and some sub-surface layers.

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Berlin

Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.

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Big Sur

Big Sur is a rugged section of California's Central Coast between Carmel Highlands and San Simeon, where the Santa Lucia Mountains rise abruptly from the Pacific Ocean, that is frequently praised for its dramatic views.

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Biological pump

The biological pump, in its simplest form, is the ocean's biologically driven sequestration of carbon from the atmosphere to deep sea water and sediment.

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Bivalvia

Bivalvia, in previous centuries referred to as the Lamellibranchiata and Pelecypoda, is a class of marine and freshwater molluscs that have laterally compressed bodies enclosed by a shell consisting of two hinged parts.

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Black Sea

The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.

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Blood

Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.

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Blood vessel

The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.

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Blubber

Blubber is a thick layer of vascularized adipose tissue under the skin of all cetaceans, pinnipeds and sirenians.

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Blue whale

The blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) is a marine mammal belonging to the baleen whale parvorder, Mysticeti.

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Bottlenose dolphin

Bottlenose dolphins, the genus Tursiops, are the most common members of the family Delphinidae, the family of oceanic dolphin.

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Bowhead whale

The bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) is a species of the family Balaenidae, in suborder Mysticeti, and genus Balaena, which once included the right whale.

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Bradenton, Florida

Bradenton is a city in Manatee County, Florida, United States.

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Bradycardia

Bradycardia is a condition wherein an individual has a very slow heart rate, typically defined as a resting heart rate of under 60 beats per minute (BPM) in adults.

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Breeding in the wild

Breeding in the wild is the natural process of animal reproduction occurring in the natural habitat of a given species.

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Brown bear

The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is a bear that is found across much of northern Eurasia and North America.

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Buoy

A buoy is a floating device that can have many purposes.

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Bycatch

Bycatch, in the fishing industry, is a fish or other marine species that is caught unintentionally while catching certain target species and target sizes of fish, crabs etc.

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California sea lion

The California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) is a coastal eared seal native to western North America.

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Camouflage

Camouflage is the use of any combination of materials, coloration, or illumination for concealment, either by making animals or objects hard to see (crypsis), or by disguising them as something else (mimesis).

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Canidae

The biological family Canidae (from Latin, canis, “dog”) is a lineage of carnivorans that includes domestic dogs, wolves, coyotes, foxes, jackals, dingoes, and many other extant and extinct dog-like mammals.

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Caniformia

Caniformia, or Canoidea (literally "dog-like"), is a suborder within the order Carnivora.

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Canton System

The Canton System (1757–1842) served as a means for China to control trade with the west within its own country by focusing all trade on the southern port of Canton (now Guangzhou).

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Captivity (animal)

Animals that are held by humans and prevented from escaping are said to be in captivity.

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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Caribbean

The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.

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Caribbean monk seal

The Caribbean monk seal, West Indian seal or sea wolf (as early explorers referred to it), Neomonachus tropicalis, was a species of seal native to the Caribbean and is now believed to be extinct.

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Carnivora

Carnivora (from Latin carō (stem carn-) "flesh" and vorāre "to devour") is a diverse scrotiferan order that includes over 280 species of placental mammals.

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Carnivore

A carnivore, meaning "meat eater" (Latin, caro, genitive carnis, meaning "meat" or "flesh" and vorare meaning "to devour"), is an organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging.

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Cascade effect (ecology)

An ecological cascade effect is a series of secondary extinctions that is triggered by the primary extinction of a key species in an ecosystem.

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Cephalopod

A cephalopod is any member of the molluscan class Cephalopoda (Greek plural κεφαλόποδα, kephalópoda; "head-feet") such as a squid, octopus or nautilus.

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Cetacea

Cetacea are a widely distributed and diverse clade of aquatic mammals that today consists of the whales, dolphins, and porpoises.

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Cetotheriidae

Cetotheriidae is a family of baleen whales (suborder Mysticeti).

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Chemotroph

Chemotrophs are organisms that obtain energy by the oxidation of electron donors in their environments.

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Chukchi Sea

Chukchi Sea (p) is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean.

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Circumpolar peoples

Circumpolar peoples and Arctic peoples are umbrella terms for the various indigenous peoples of the Arctic.

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Clade

A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".

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Cladogenesis

Cladogenesis is an evolutionary splitting event where a parent species splits into two distinct species, forming a clade.

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Clam

Clam is a common name for several kinds of bivalve molluscs.

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Cold seep

A cold seep (sometimes called a cold vent) is an area of the ocean floor where hydrogen sulfide, methane and other hydrocarbon-rich fluid seepage occurs, often in the form of a brine pool.

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Columbia River

The Columbia River is the largest river in the Pacific Northwest region of North America.

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Common descent

Common descent describes how, in evolutionary biology, a group of organisms share a most recent common ancestor.

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Common minke whale

The common minke whale or northern minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) is a species of minke whale within the suborder of baleen whales.

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Competition

Competition is, in general, a contest or rivalry between two or more entities, organisms, animals, individuals, economic groups or social groups, etc., for territory, a niche, for scarce resources, goods, for mates, for prestige, recognition, for awards, for group or social status, or for leadership and profit.

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Container ship

Container ships (sometimes spelled containerships) are cargo ships that carry all of their load in truck-size intermodal containers, in a technique called containerization.

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Contamination

Contamination is the presence of an unwanted constituent, contaminant or impurity in a material, physical body, natural environment, workplace, etc.

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Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals

The Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals -- more commonly abbreviated to just the Convention on Migratory Species (CMS) or the Bonn Convention and CMS COP is known as Global Wildlife conference—aims to conserve terrestrial, marine and avian migratory species throughout their range.

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Convergent evolution

Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages.

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Cook Inlet

Cook Inlet (Dena'ina: Tikahtnu) stretches from the Gulf of Alaska to Anchorage in south-central Alaska.

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Cooperative hunting

Cooperative hunting is when meat-eating animals hunt together in groups that contain both division of labor and role specialization.

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Coral reef

Coral reefs are diverse underwater ecosystems held together by calcium carbonate structures secreted by corals.

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Countercurrent exchange

Countercurrent exchange is a mechanism occurring in nature and mimicked in industry and engineering, in which there is a crossover of some property, usually heat or some component, between two flowing bodies flowing in opposite directions to each other.

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Critically endangered

A critically endangered (CR) species is one which has been categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild.

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Crustacean

Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.

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Culling

In biology, culling is the process of segregating organisms from a group according to desired or undesired characteristics.

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Disneyfication

The term Disneyfication (also Disneyization) describes the transformation of a society to resemble the theme parks of The Walt Disney Company.

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Dolphin drive hunting

Dolphin drive hunting, also called dolphin drive fishing, is a method of hunting dolphins and occasionally other small cetaceans by driving them together with boats and then usually into a bay or onto a beach.

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Dolphinarium

A dolphinarium is an aquarium for dolphins.

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Dorsal fin

A dorsal fin is a fin located on the back of most marine and freshwater vertebrates such as fishes, cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises), and the (extinct) ichthyosaur.

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Dredging

Dredging is an excavation activity usually carried out underwater, in harbours, shallow seas or freshwater areas with the purpose of gathering up bottom sediments to deepen or widen the sea bottom / channel.

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Drift ice

Drift ice is any sea ice other than fast ice, the latter being attached ("fastened") to the shoreline or other fixed objects (shoals, grounded icebergs, etc.).Leppäranta, M. 2011.

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Dugong

The dugong (Dugong dugon) is a medium-sized marine mammal.

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Dugongidae

The Dugongidae are a family in the order of Sirenia.

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Dwarf sperm whale

The dwarf sperm whale (Kogia sima, formerly Kogia simus) is one of three extant species in the sperm whale family.

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Eared seal

An eared seal or otariid or otary is any member of the marine mammal family Otariidae, one of three groupings of pinnipeds.

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Earless seal

The earless seals, phocids or true seals are one of the three main groups of mammals within the seal lineage, Pinnipedia.

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Early Miocene

The Early Miocene (also known as Lower Miocene) is a sub-epoch of the Miocene Epoch made up of two stages: the Aquitanian and Burdigalian stages.

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Ecosystem

An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.

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Effects of global warming

The effects of global warming are the environmental and social changes caused (directly or indirectly) by human emissions of greenhouse gases.

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Effluent

Effluent is an outflowing of water or gas to natural body of water, or from a manmade structure.

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El Niño

El Niño is the warm phase of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (commonly called ENSO) and is associated with a band of warm ocean water that develops in the central and east-central equatorial Pacific (between approximately the International Date Line and 120°W), including off the Pacific coast of South America.

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Elephantidae

Elephantidae is a family of large, herbivorous mammals collectively called elephants and mammoths.

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Endocrine system

The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system consisting of hormones, the group of glands of an organism that carry those hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs, and the feedback loops of homeostasis that the hormones drive.

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Eocene

The Eocene Epoch, lasting from, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic Era.

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Epidermis

The epidermis is the outer layer of the three layers that make up the skin, the inner layers being the dermis and hypodermis.

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Eschrichtiidae

Eschrichtiidae or the gray whales is a family of baleen whale (suborder Mysticeti) with a single extant species, the gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus).

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Estuary

An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.

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Even-toed ungulate

The even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla) are ungulates (hoofed animals) whose weight is borne equally by the third and fourth toes.

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Evolution

Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.

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Evolutionary pressure

Any cause that reduces reproductive success in a portion of a population potentially exerts evolutionary pressure, selective pressure or selection pressure.

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Facial expression

A facial expression is one or more motions or positions of the muscles beneath the skin of the face.

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Faroe Islands

The Faroe Islands (Føroyar; Færøerne), sometimes called the Faeroe Islands, is an archipelago between the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic, about halfway between Norway and Iceland, north-northwest of Scotland.

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Feliformia

Feliformia (also Feloidea) is a suborder within the order Carnivora consisting of "cat-like" carnivorans, including cats (large and small), hyenas, mongooses, civets, and related taxa.

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Ferae

The Ferae are a clade of mammals, consisting of the orders Carnivora (over 260 species, around the globe) and Pholidota (eight species of pangolins in tropical Africa and Asia).

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Fin whale

The fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), also known as finback whale or common rorqual and formerly known as herring whale or razorback whale, is a marine mammal belonging to the parvorder of baleen whales.

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Fish

Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.

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Fish oil

Fish oil is oil derived from the tissues of oily fish.

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Fish stock

Fish stocks are subpopulations of a particular species of fish, for which intrinsic parameters (growth, recruitment, mortality and fishing mortality) are traditionally regarded as the significant factors determining the stock's population dynamics, while extrinsic factors (immigration and emigration) are traditionally ignored.

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Fishery

Generally, a fishery is an entity engaged in raising or harvesting fish which is determined by some authority to be a fishery.

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Freight transport

Freight transport is the physical process of transporting commodities and merchandise goods and cargo.

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Fur

Fur is the hair covering of non-human mammals, particularly those mammals with extensive body hair that is soft and thick.

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Fur seal

Fur seals are any of nine species of pinnipeds belonging to the subfamily Arctocephalinae in the family Otariidae.

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Gastrointestinal tract

The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.

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Generalist and specialist species

A generalist species is able to thrive in a wide variety of environmental conditions and can make use of a variety of different resources (for example, a heterotroph with a varied diet).

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Geophysics

Geophysics is a subject of natural science concerned with the physical processes and physical properties of the Earth and its surrounding space environment, and the use of quantitative methods for their analysis.

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Gillnetting

Gillnetting is a common fishing method used by commercial and artisanal fishermen of all the oceans and in some freshwater and estuary areas.

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Glaucous gull

The glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) is a large gull, the second largest gull in the world which breeds in Arctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere and winters south to shores of the Holarctic.

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Global warming

Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.

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Glycogen

Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in humans, animals, fungi, and bacteria.

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Gray whale

The gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus), also known as the grey whale,Britannica Micro.: v. IV, p. 693.

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Great white shark

The great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias), commonly known as the great white or the white shark, is a species of large mackerel shark which can be found in the coastal surface waters of all the major oceans.

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Greenland

Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

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Greenpeace

Greenpeace is a non-governmental environmental organization with offices in over 39 countries and with an international coordinating body in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

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Guadalupe Island

Guadalupe Island or Isla Guadalupe is a volcanic island located off the west coast of Mexico's Baja California Peninsula and some southwest of the city of Ensenada in the state of Baja California, in the Pacific Ocean.

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Guangzhou

Guangzhou, also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong.

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Gulf Breeze, Florida

Gulf Breeze is a city on the Fairpoint Peninsula in Santa Rosa County, Florida, United States and is a suburb of Pensacola which lies to the north, across Pensacola Bay.

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Gulf of Maine

The Gulf of Maine (Golfe du Maine) is a large gulf of the Atlantic Ocean on the east coast of North America.

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Gulf War

The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.

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Gut flora

Gut flora, or gut microbiota, or gastrointestinal microbiota, is the complex community of microorganisms that live in the digestive tracts of humans and other animals, including insects.

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Habitat destruction

Habitat destruction is the process in which natural habitat is rendered unable to support the species present.

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Hagfish

Hagfish, the class '''Myxini''' (also known as Hyperotreti), are eel-shaped, slime-producing marine fish (occasionally called slime eels).

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Harbor seal

The harbor (or harbour) seal (Phoca vitulina), also known as the common seal, is a true seal found along temperate and Arctic marine coastlines of the Northern Hemisphere.

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Harp seal

The harp seal or saddleback seal, Pagophilus groenlandicus is a species of earless seal, or true seal, native to the northernmost Atlantic Ocean and Arctic Ocean.

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Harpoon

A harpoon is a long spear-like instrument used in fishing, whaling, sealing, and other marine hunting to catch large fish or marine mammals such as whales.

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Harvest

Harvesting is the process of gathering a ripe crop from the fields.

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Hauling-out

Hauling-out is a behaviour associated with pinnipeds (true seals, sea lions, fur seals and walruses) temporarily leaving the water.

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Heavy metals

Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers.

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Hibernation

Hibernation is a state of inactivity and metabolic depression in endotherms.

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Hippopotamidae

Hippopotamuses are stout, naked-skinned, and amphibious artiodactyl mammals, possessing three-chambered stomachs and walking on four toes on each foot.

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Hippopotamus

The common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), or hippo, is a large, mostly herbivorous, semiaquatic mammal native to sub-Saharan Africa, and one of only two extant species in the family Hippopotamidae, the other being the pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis or Hexaprotodon liberiensis).

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Hokkaido

(), formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is the second largest island of Japan, and the largest and northernmost prefecture.

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Hudson Bay

Hudson Bay (Inuktitut: Kangiqsualuk ilua, baie d'Hudson) (sometimes called Hudson's Bay, usually historically) is a large body of saltwater in northeastern Canada with a surface area of.

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Human impact on the environment

Human impact on the environment or anthropogenic impact on the environment includes changes to biophysical environments and ecosystems, biodiversity, and natural resources caused directly or indirectly by humans, including global warming, environmental degradation (such as ocean acidification), mass extinction and biodiversity loss, ecological crises, and ecological collapse.

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Humane Society of the United States

The Humane Society of the United States (HSUS), based in Washington, D.C., is an American nonprofit organization founded by journalist Fred Myers and Helen Jones, Larry Andrews, and Marcia Glaser in 1954, to address what they saw as animal-related cruelties of national scope, and to resolve animal welfare problems by applying strategies beyond the resources or abilities of local organizations.

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Hydroelectricity

Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower.

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Hydrogen sulfide

Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.

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Hydrothermal vent

A hydrothermal vent is a fissure in a planet's surface from which geothermally heated water issues.

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Hypoxia in fish

Fish are exposed to large oxygen fluctuations in their aquatic environment since the inherent properties of water can result in marked spatial and temporal differences in the concentration of oxygen (see oxygenation and underwater).

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Hyrax

Hyraxes (from the Greek ὕραξ, hýrax, "shrewmouse"), also called dassies, are small, thickset, herbivorous mammals in the order Hyracoidea.

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Icebreaker

An icebreaker is a special-purpose ship or boat designed to move and navigate through ice-covered waters, and provide safe waterways for other boats and ships.

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Indian Ocean

The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).

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International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling

The International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling is an international environmental agreement signed in 1946 in order to "provide for the proper conservation of whale stocks and thus make possible the orderly development of the whaling industry".

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International environmental agreement

An international environmental agreement or sometimes environmental protocol, is a type of treaty binding in international law, allowing them to reach an environmental goal.

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International law

International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.

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International Union for Conservation of Nature

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.

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International Whaling Commission

The International Whaling Commission (IWC) is an international body set up by the terms of the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW), which was signed in Washington, D.C., United States, on December 2, 1946 to "provide for the proper conservation of whale stocks and thus make possible the orderly development of the whaling industry".

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Inuit

The Inuit (ᐃᓄᐃᑦ, "the people") are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada and Alaska.

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IUCN Red List

The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List or Red Data List), founded in 1964, has evolved to become the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of biological species.

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James Bay

James Bay (Baie James, Wînipekw) is a large body of water on the southern end of Hudson Bay in Canada.

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Jetty

A jetty is a structure that projects from the land out into water.

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Kamchatka Peninsula

The Kamchatka Peninsula (полуо́стров Камча́тка, Poluostrov Kamchatka) is a 1,250-kilometre-long (780 mi) peninsula in the Russian Far East, with an area of about 270,000 km2 (100,000 sq mi).

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Kelp

Kelps are large brown algae seaweeds that make up the order Laminariales.

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Kelp forest

Kelp forests are underwater areas with a high density of kelp.

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Killer whale

| status.

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Kogiidae

Kogiidae is a family comprising at least two extant species of Cetacea, the pygmy and dwarf sperm whales.

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Kyakhta

Kyakhta (Кя́хта,; Xyaagta) is a town and the administrative center of Kyakhtinsky District in the Republic of Buryatia, Russia, located on the Kyakhta River near the Mongolia–Russia border.

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Laurasiatheria

Laurasiatheria is a clade of placental mammals that originated on the northern supercontinent of Laurasia 99 million years ago.

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Lead

Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.

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Limpet

Limpets are aquatic snails with a shell that is broadly conical in shape and a strong, muscular foot.

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List of semiaquatic tetrapods

This is a list of tetrapods that are semiaquatic; that is, while being at least partly terrestrial, they spend part of their life cycle or a significant fraction of their time in water as part of their normal behavior, and/or obtain a significant fraction of their food from an aquatic habitat.

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Local extinction

Local extinction or extirpation is the condition of a species (or other taxon) that ceases to exist in the chosen geographic area of study, though it still exists elsewhere.

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Long-finned pilot whale

The long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas) is a large species of oceanic dolphin.

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Mammal

Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.

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Manatee

Manatees (family Trichechidae, genus Trichechus) are large, fully aquatic, mostly herbivorous marine mammals sometimes known as sea cows. There are three accepted living species of Trichechidae, representing three of the four living species in the order Sirenia: the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis), the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus), and the West African manatee (Trichechus senegalensis).

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Marine conservation activism

Marine Conservation Activism refers to the efforts of non-governmental organizations and individuals to bring about social and political change in the area of marine conservation.

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Marine debris

Marine debris, also known as marine litter, is human-created waste that has deliberately or accidentally been released in a lake, sea, ocean or waterway.

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Marine ecosystem

Marine ecosystems are among the largest of Earth's aquatic ecosystems.

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Marine Mammal Protection Act

The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) was the first act of the United States Congress to call specifically for an ecosystem approach to wildlife management.

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Marine otter

The marine otter (Lontra felina) is a rare and poorly known South American mammal of the weasel family (Mustelidae).

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Marine outfall

A marine outfall is a pipeline or tunnel that discharges municipal or industrial wastewater, stormwater, combined sewer overflows, cooling water, or brine effluents from water desalination plants to the sea.

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Maritime fur trade

The maritime fur trade was a ship-based fur trade system that focused on acquiring furs of sea otters and other animals from the indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast and natives of Alaska.

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Mating

In biology, mating (or mateing in British English) is the pairing of either opposite-sex or hermaphroditic organisms, usually for the purposes of sexual reproduction.

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Mercury (element)

Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.

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Mercury poisoning

Mercury poisoning is a type of metal poisoning due to mercury exposure.

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Methylmercury

Methylmercury (sometimes methyl mercury) is an organometallic cation with the formula.

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Military

A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.

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Minke whale

The minke whale, or lesser rorqual, is a type of baleen whale.

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Mitochondrial DNA

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

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Monk seal

Monk seals are earless seals of the tribe Monachini.

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Monodontidae

The cetacean family Monodontidae comprises two unusual whale species, the narwhal, in which the male has a long tusk, and the dorsal fin-lacking, pure white beluga whale.

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Mooring (oceanography)

A mooring in oceanography is a collection of devices, connected to a wire and anchored on the sea floor.

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Moratorium (law)

A moratorium is a delay or suspension of an activity or a law.

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Mortality rate

Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.

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Moulting

In biology, moulting (British English), or molting (American English), also known as sloughing, shedding, or in many invertebrates, ecdysis, is the manner in which an animal routinely casts off a part of its body (often, but not always, an outer layer or covering), either at specific times of the year, or at specific points in its life cycle.

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Mudflat

Mudflats or mud flats, also known as tidal flats, are coastal wetlands that form when mud is deposited by tides or rivers.

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Muktuk

Muktuk is the traditional Inuit and Chukchi meal of frozen whale skin and blubber.

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Muscle

Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.

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Mussel

Mussel is the common name used for members of several families of bivalve molluscs, from saltwater and freshwater habitats.

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Mustelidae

The Mustelidae (from Latin mustela, weasel) are a family of carnivorous mammals, including weasels, badgers, otters, martens, mink, and wolverines, among others.

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Muzzle (device)

A muzzle is a device that is placed over the snout of an animal to keep it from biting or otherwise opening its mouth.

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Myotis vivesi

Myotis vivesi, the fish-eating bat or fish-eating myotis, is a species of bat that lives around the Gulf of California, and feeds on fish and crustaceans.

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Narwhal

The narwhal (Monodon monoceros), or narwhale, is a medium-sized toothed whale that possesses a large "tusk" from a protruding canine tooth.

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National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; pronounced, like "Noah") is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.

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Neritic zone

The neritic zone is the relatively shallow part of the ocean above the drop-off of the continental shelf, approximately in depth.

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Neuropsychology

Neuropsychology is the study of the structure and function of the brain as they relate to specific psychological processes and behaviours.

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Noise pollution

Sound pollution, also known as environmental noise or noise pollution, is the propagation of noise with harmful impact on the activity of human or animal life.

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Non-governmental organization

Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations, commonly referred to as NGOs, are usually non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations (though often funded by governments) that are active in humanitarian, educational, health care, public policy, social, human rights, environmental, and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives.

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North Atlantic right whale

The North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis, which means "good, or true, whale of the ice") is a baleen whale, one of three right whale species belonging to the genus Eubalaena, all of which were formerly classified as a single species.

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North Pacific right whale

The North Pacific right whale (Eubalaena japonica) is a very large, thickset baleen whale species that is extremely rare and endangered.

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Northern elephant seal

The northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) is one of two species of elephant seal (the other is the southern elephant seal).

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Norway

Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.

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Nunavut

Nunavut (Inuktitut syllabics ᓄᓇᕗᑦ) is the newest, largest, and northernmost territory of Canada.

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Nuremberg Zoo

Nuremberg Zoo (Tiergarten Nürnberg) is a zoo located in the Nuremberg Reichswald ("imperial forest"), southeast of Nuremberg, Germany.

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Oceanic dolphin

Oceanic dolphins or Delphinidae are a widely distributed family of dolphins that live in the sea.

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Oceanography

Oceanography (compound of the Greek words ὠκεανός meaning "ocean" and γράφω meaning "write"), also known as oceanology, is the study of the physical and biological aspects of the ocean.

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Odd-toed ungulate

Members of the order Perissodactyla, also known as odd-toed ungulates, are mammals characterized by an odd number of toes and by hindgut fermentation with somewhat simple stomachs.

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Odobenidae

Odobenidae is a family of pinnipeds.

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Oil platform

An oil platform, offshore platform, or offshore drilling rig is a large structure with facilities for well drilling to explore, extract, store, process petroleum and natural gas which lies in rock formations beneath the seabed.

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Old World

The term "Old World" is used in the West to refer to Africa, Asia and Europe (Afro-Eurasia or the World Island), regarded collectively as the part of the world known to its population before contact with the Americas and Oceania (the "New World").

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Omega-3 fatty acid

Omega−3 fatty acids, also called ω−3 fatty acids or n−3 fatty acids, are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs).

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Organochloride

An organochloride, organochlorine compound, chlorocarbon, or chlorinated hydrocarbon is an organic compound containing at least one covalently bonded atom of chlorine that has an effect on the chemical behavior of the molecule.

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Oxygen

Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Ozone depletion

Ozone depletion describes two related events observed since the late 1970s: a steady lowering of about four percent in the total amount of ozone in Earth's atmosphere(the ozone layer), and a much larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozone around Earth's polar regions.

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Pangolin

Pangolins or scaly anteaters are mammals of the order Pholidota (from the Greek word φολῐ́ς, "horny scale").

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PBS

The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.

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Pebble

A pebble is a clast of rock with a particle size of 2 to 64 millimetres based on the Krumbein phi scale of sedimentology.

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Petroleum

Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.

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Pezosiren

Pezosiren portelli is a basal sirenian from the early Eocene of Jamaica, 50 million years ago.

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Physeteroidea

Physeteroidea is a superfamily that, today, includes three extant species of whales: the sperm whale, in the genus Physeter, and the pygmy sperm whale and dwarf sperm whale, in the genus Kogia.

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Physiology

Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.

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Phytoplankton

Phytoplankton are the autotrophic (self-feeding) components of the plankton community and a key part of oceans, seas and freshwater basin ecosystems.

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Pier

Seaside pleasure pier in Brighton, England. The first seaside piers were built in England in the early 19th century. A pier is a raised structure in a body of water, typically supported by well-spaced piles or pillars.

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Pinniped

Pinnipeds, commonly known as seals, are a widely distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, semiaquatic marine mammals.

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Placentalia

Placentalia ("Placentals") is one of the three extant subdivisions of the class of animals Mammalia; the other two are Monotremata and Marsupialia.

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Plankton

Plankton (singular plankter) are the diverse collection of organisms that live in large bodies of water and are unable to swim against a current.

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Pleasure craft

A pleasure craft (or pleasure boat) is a boat used for personal, family, and sometimes sportsmanlike recreation.

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Pleistocene

The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations.

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Polar bear

The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) is a hypercarnivorous bear whose native range lies largely within the Arctic Circle, encompassing the Arctic Ocean, its surrounding seas and surrounding land masses.

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Polychaete

The Polychaeta, also known as the bristle worms or polychaetes, are a paraphyletic class of annelid worms, generally marine.

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Polychlorinated biphenyl

A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is an organic chlorine compound with the formula C12H10−xClx.

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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, also polyaromatic hydrocarbons or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons) are hydrocarbons—organic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen—that are composed of multiple aromatic rings (organic rings in which the electrons are delocalized).

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Polyphyly

A polyphyletic group is a set of organisms, or other evolving elements, that have been grouped together but do not share an immediate common ancestor.

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Population bottleneck

A population bottleneck or genetic bottleneck is a sharp reduction in the size of a population due to environmental events (such as earthquakes, floods, fires, disease, or droughts) or human activities (such as genocide).

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Porpoise

Porpoises are a group of fully aquatic marine mammals that are sometimes referred to as mereswine, all of which are classified under the family Phocoenidae, parvorder Odontoceti (toothed whales).

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Port

A port is a maritime commercial facility which may comprise one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo.

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Predation

Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).

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Prenatal development

Prenatal development is the process in which an embryo and later fetus develops during gestation.

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Primary production

Global oceanic and terrestrial photoautotroph abundance, from September 1997 to August 2000. As an estimate of autotroph biomass, it is only a rough indicator of primary-production potential, and not an actual estimate of it. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and ORBIMAGE. In ecology, primary production is the synthesis of organic compounds from atmospheric or aqueous carbon dioxide.

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Prins Karls Forland

Prins Karls Forland or Forlandet, occasionally anglicized as Prince Charles Foreland, is an island off the west coast of Oscar II Land on Spitsbergen in the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard, Norway.

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Proboscidea

The Proboscidea (from the Greek προβοσκίς and the Latin proboscis) are a taxonomic order of afrotherian mammals containing one living family, Elephantidae, and several extinct families.

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Prorastomidae

Prorastomidae is a family of extinct sirenians from Jamaica, related to the extant manatees and dugong.

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Prorastomus

Prorastomus sirenoides is an extinct species of primitive sirenian that lived during the Eocene Epoch 40 million years ago in Jamaica.

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Protosirenidae

Protosirenidae is an extinct primitive family of the order Sirenia.

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Puijila

Puijila darwini is an extinct species of seal which lived during the Miocene epoch about 21 to 24 million years ago.

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Pygmy sperm whale

The pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps) is one of three species in the family Kogiidae in the sperm whale family.

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Research

Research comprises "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.

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Richard Nixon

Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974, when he resigned from office, the only U.S. president to do so.

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Right whale

Right whales or black whales are three species of large baleen whales of the genus Eubalaena: the North Atlantic right whale (E. glacialis), the North Pacific right whale (E. japonica) and the Southern right whale (E. australis).

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Ringed seal

The ringed seal (Pusa hispida or Phoca hispida), also known as the jar seal and as netsik or nattiq by the Inuit, is an earless seal (family: Phocidae) inhabiting the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions.

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River dolphin

River dolphins are a group of fully aquatic mammals that reside exclusively in freshwater or brackish water.

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River Safari

The River Safari is a river-themed zoo and aquarium located in Singapore.

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Rocky shore

A rocky shore is an intertidal area of seacoasts where solid rock predominates.

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Rorqual

Rorquals (Balaenopteridae) are the largest group of baleen whales, a family with nine extant species in two genera.

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Ruminantia

Ruminantia is a taxon within the order Artiodactyla that includes many of the well-known large grazing or browsing mammals: among them cattle, goats, sheep, deer, and antelope.

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Russian America

Russian America (Русская Америка, Russkaya Amerika) was the name of the Russian colonial possessions in North America from 1733 to 1867.

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Salmon

Salmon is the common name for several species of ray-finned fish in the family Salmonidae.

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Sea cave

A sea cave, also known as a littoral cave, is a type of cave formed primarily by the wave action of the sea.

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Sea mink

The sea mink (Neovison macrodon) is a recently extinct species of mink that lived on the eastern coast of North America in the family Mustelidae, the largest family in the order Carnivora.

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Sea of Okhotsk

The Sea of Okhotsk (Ohōtsuku-kai) is a marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean, between the Kamchatka Peninsula on the east, the Kuril Islands on the southeast, the island of Hokkaido to the south, the island of Sakhalin along the west, and a long stretch of eastern Siberian coast along the west and north.

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Sea otter

The sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a marine mammal native to the coasts of the northern and eastern North Pacific Ocean.

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Sea Shepherd Conservation Society

The Sea Shepherd Conservation Society (SSCS) is a non-profit, marine conservation organization based in Friday Harbor on San Juan Island, Washington, in the United States.

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Sea snail

Sea snail is a common name for snails that normally live in saltwater, in other words marine gastropods.

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Sea urchin

Sea urchins or urchins are typically spiny, globular animals, echinoderms in the class Echinoidea.

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Seabird

Seabirds (also known as marine birds) are birds that are adapted to life within the marine environment.

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Seagrass

Seagrasses are flowering plants (angiosperms) belonging to four families (Posidoniaceae, Zosteraceae, Hydrocharitaceae and Cymodoceaceae), all in the order Alismatales (in the class of monocotyledons), which grow in marine, fully saline environments.

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Seal meat

Seal meat is the flesh, including the blubber and organs, of seals used as food for humans or other animals.

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Seattle Aquarium

The Seattle Aquarium is a public aquarium opened in 1977 and located on Pier 59 on the Elliott Bay waterfront in Seattle, Washington, USA.

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SeaWorld

SeaWorld is a United States chain of marine mammal parks, oceanariums, animal theme parks, and rehabilitation centers owned by SeaWorld Entertainment (one park will be owned and operated by Miral under a license).

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Seine fishing

Seine fishing (or seine-haul fishing) is a method of fishing that employs a fishing net called a seine, that hangs vertically in the water with its bottom edge held down by weights and its top edge buoyed by floats.

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Sewage

Sewage (or domestic wastewater or municipal wastewater) is a type of wastewater that is produced from a community of people.

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Sexual maturity

Sexual maturity is the capability of an organism to reproduce.

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Shark

Sharks are a group of elasmobranch fish characterized by a cartilaginous skeleton, five to seven gill slits on the sides of the head, and pectoral fins that are not fused to the head.

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Shoal

In oceanography, geomorphology, and earth sciences, a shoal is a natural submerged ridge, bank, or bar that consists of, or is covered by, sand or other unconsolidated material, and rises from the bed of a body of water to near the surface.

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Siberia

Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.

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Singapore

Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.

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Sirenia

The Sirenia, commonly referred to as sea cows or sirenians, are an order of fully aquatic, herbivorous mammals that inhabit swamps, rivers, estuaries, marine wetlands, and coastal marine waters.

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Snail

Snail is a common name loosely applied to shelled gastropods.

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Snooty

Snooty (July 21, 1948 – July 23, 2017) was a male Florida manatee that resided at the South Florida Museum's Parker Manatee Aquarium in Bradenton, Florida.

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Sonar

Sonar (originally an acronym for SOund Navigation And Ranging) is a technique that uses sound propagation (usually underwater, as in submarine navigation) to navigate, communicate with or detect objects on or under the surface of the water, such as other vessels.

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South American sea lion

The South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens, formerly Otaria byronia), also called the southern sea lion and the Patagonian sea lion, is a sea lion found on the Ecuadorian, Peruvian, Chilean, Falkland Islands, Argentinean, Uruguayan, and Southern Brazilian coasts.

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South Florida Museum

The South Florida Museum, located in Bradenton, Florida, is a natural and cultural history museum specializing in the history of Florida's gulf coast.

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Southern Hemisphere

The Southern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is south of the Equator.

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Species problem

The species problem is the set of questions that arises when biologists attempt to define what a species is.

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Sperm whale

The sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) or cachalot is the largest of the toothed whales and the largest toothed predator.

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Spleen

The spleen is an organ found in virtually all vertebrates.

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Starvation

Starvation is a severe deficiency in caloric energy intake, below the level needed to maintain an organism's life.

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Steering

Steering is the collection of components, linkages, etc.

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Steller sea lion

The Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus), also known as the northern sea lion and Steller's sea lion, is a near-threatened species of sea lions in the northern Pacific.

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Steller's sea cow

Steller's sea cow (Hydrodamalis gigas) is an extinct sirenian discovered by Europeans in 1741.

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Stress (biology)

Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.

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Svalbard

Svalbard (prior to 1925 known by its Dutch name Spitsbergen, still the name of its largest island) is a Norwegian archipelago in the Arctic Ocean.

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Taiji, Wakayama

is a town located in Higashimuro District, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan.

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Tampa Bay Times

The Tampa Bay Times, previously named the St.

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Tethytheria

Tethytheria is a clade of mammals that includes the sirenians and proboscideans, as well as the extinct order Embrithopoda.

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Thermoregulation

Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different.

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Threatened species

Threatened species are any species (including animals, plants, fungi, etc.) which are vulnerable to endangerment in the near future.

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Tide pool

Tide pools or rock pools are shallow pools of seawater that form on the rocky intertidal shore.

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Tierpark Berlin

The Tierpark Berlin is one of two zoos located in Berlin, Germany.

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Tool use by sea otters

The sea otter, Enhydra lutris, is a member of the Mustelidae that is fully aquatic.

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Toothed whale

The toothed whales (systematic name Odontoceti) are a parvorder of cetaceans that includes dolphins, porpoises, and all other whales possessing teeth, such as the beaked whales and sperm whales.

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Tourism

Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours.

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Treaty

A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations.

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Treaty of Kyakhta (1727)

The Treaty of Kyakhta (or Kiakhta) (Кяхтинский договор, Kjahtinskij dogovor;, Wade-Giles: Pu4lien2ssŭ1ch‘i2 / Ch‘ia4k‘o4tu2 t‘iao2yüeh1, Xiao'erjing: بُلِيًاصِٿِ / ٿِاكْتُ تِيَوْيُؤ; Хиагтын гэрээ, Xiagtın gerê; Manchu:, Wylie: chuwan emu hatsin-i pitghe, Möllendorff: juwan emu hacin-i bithe), along with the Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689), regulated the relations between Imperial Russia and the Qing Empire of China until the mid-19th century.

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Trophy hunting

Trophy hunting is hunting of wild game for human recreation.

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Tuna

A tuna is a saltwater fish that belongs to the tribe Thunnini, a sub-grouping of the mackerel family (Scombridae).

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Ultraviolet

Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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Underwater explosion

An underwater explosion (also known as an UNDEX) is a chemical or nuclear explosion that occurs under the surface of a body of water.

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Ungulate

Ungulates (pronounced) are any members of a diverse group of primarily large mammals that includes odd-toed ungulates such as horses and rhinoceroses, and even-toed ungulates such as cattle, pigs, giraffes, camels, deer, and hippopotami.

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United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), also called the Law of the Sea Convention or the Law of the Sea treaty, is the international agreement that resulted from the third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III), which took place between 1973 and 1982.

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United States Fish and Wildlife Service

The United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS or FWS) is an agency of the federal government within the U.S. Department of the Interior dedicated to the management of fish, wildlife, and natural habitats.

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United States Secretary of Commerce

The United States Secretary of Commerce (SecCom) is the head of the United States Department of Commerce.

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Urchin barren

An urchin barren is an area of the subtidal where the population growth of sea urchins has gone unchecked, causing destructive grazing of kelp beds or kelp forests (specifically the giant brown bladder kelp, Macrocystis).

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Vancouver Aquarium

The Vancouver Aquarium (officially the Vancouver Aquarium Marine Science Centre) is a public aquarium located in Stanley Park in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

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Vasoconstriction

Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, in particular the large arteries and small arterioles.

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Vesper bat

Vesper bats (family Vespertilionidae), also known as evening bats or common bats, are the largest and most-studied family of bats.

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Vestigiality

Vestigiality is the retention during the process of evolution of genetically determined structures or attributes that have lost some or all of their ancestral function in a given species.

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Vietnam War

The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.

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Vikings

Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.

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Wadden Sea

The Wadden Sea (Waddenzee, Wattenmeer, Wattensee or Waddenzee, Vadehavet, longname, di Heef) is an intertidal zone in the southeastern part of the North Sea.

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Wadden Sea Agreement

The Agreement on the Conservation of Seals in the Wadden Sea is an agreement between Wadden Sea countries, aimed at protection of seals and concluded in the aegis of Convention on Migratory Species (CMS) in 1990.

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Walrus

The walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) is a large flippered marine mammal with a discontinuous distribution about the North Pole in the Arctic Ocean and subarctic seas of the Northern Hemisphere.

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West Indian manatee

The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) or "sea cow", also known as American manatee, is the largest surviving member of the aquatic mammal order Sirenia (which also includes the dugong and the extinct Steller's sea cow).

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Whale

Whales are a widely distributed and diverse group of fully aquatic placental marine mammals.

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Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society

Whale and Dolphin Conservation (WDC) is a wildlife charity that is dedicated solely to the worldwide conservation and welfare of all whales, dolphins and porpoises (cetaceans).

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Whale feces

Whale feces, the excrement of whales, has a significant role in the ecology of the oceans, and whales have been referred to as "marine ecosystem engineers".

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Whale meat

Whale meat, broadly speaking, may include all cetaceans (whales, dolphions, porpoises) and all parts of the animal: muscle (meat), organs (offal), and fat (blubber).

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Whale watching

Whale watching is the practice of observing whales and dolphins (cetaceans) in their natural habitat.

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Whaling

Whaling is the hunting of whales for scientific research and their usable products like meat, oil and blubber.

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Whaling in Iceland

Whaling in Iceland began with spear-drift hunting as early as the 12th century, and continued in a vestigial form until the late 19th century, when other countries introduced modern commercial practices.

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Whaling in Japan

Japanese whaling, in terms of active hunting of these large mammals, is estimated by the Japan Whaling Association to have begun around the 12th century.

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Whippomorpha

Whippomorpha is the clade containing the Cetacea (whales, dolphins, etc.) and their closest living relatives, the hippopotamuses, named by Waddell et al.

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World Animal Protection

World Animal Protection (formerly The World Society for the Protection of Animals) is an international non-profit animal welfare organization that has been in operation for over 30 years.

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.

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YouTube

YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California.

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Zoo

A zoo (short for zoological garden or zoological park and also called an animal park or menagerie) is a facility in which all animals are housed within enclosures, displayed to the public, and in which they may also breed.

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ZooParc de Beauval

The ZooParc de Beauval, more commonly called Beauval zoo or, more simply, Beauval, is a French zoological park located in Saint-Aignan, in the Loir-et-Cher department, in the Centre-Val de Loire region.

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Zooplankton

Zooplankton are heterotrophic (sometimes detritivorous) plankton.

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Conservation of marine mammals, Effects of pollution on marine mammals, Evolution of marine mammals, Marine Mammal, Marine mammals, Ocean mammal, Ocean mammals, Sea mammal, Sea mammals, Water dwelling mammals.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marine_mammal

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