226 relations: Administrative centre, Agriculture, Albanians, Alexander Sakharoff, Ammonia, Anatolia, Anchor, Andrei Zhdanov, Anna Zatonskih, ArcelorMittal Kryvyi Rih, Argent, Arkhip Kuindzhi, Armenian language, Armenians, Association football, Azov Governorate, Azov ship-repair factory, Azovstal iron and steel works, Azure (heraldry), Bakhchysarai, Banque de l'Union Parisienne, Barrage (artillery), Bazaar, BC Azovmash, Belarusian language, Belarusians, Berdiansk, Black Sea Lowland, Boiler, Bryansk, Bulgarian language, Bulgarians, Canoeing, Caucasus Greeks, Central Election Commission (Ukraine), Chain store, Chemical plant, Cherkasy Oblast, Chernozem, City of regional significance (Ukraine), Coat of arms, Coke (fuel), Collective farming, Communist International, Communist Party of Ukraine, Cossacks, Cretan Greek, Crimea, Crimean Khanate, Crimean Tatars, ..., Crimean–Nogai raids into East Slavic lands, Cypriot Greek, De facto, Decommunization in Ukraine, Dialectology, Diana Hajiyeva, Dnieper, Dnieper Rapids, Dnipro, Don Cossacks, Donbass, Donets, Donetsk, Donetsk Oblast, Donetsk People's Republic, Donetsk Regional Drama Theatre, Elizabeth of Russia, Empire of Trebizond, Eurovision Song Contest 2017, Factory, FC Mariupol, February Revolution, Ferrous metallurgy, Formaldehyde, Geographical distribution of Russian speakers, Germans, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Grand Duchy of Moscow, Greek language, Greeks in Ukraine, Grigory Potemkin, Gulag, History of the Russo-Turkish wars, Hodegetria, Humid continental climate, Hydrogen sulfide, Ihor Radivilov, Illich Steel and Iron Works, Ivan Franko, January 2015 Mariupol rocket attack, Jews, John McCain, Joseph Stalin, Kalmius, Karl Liebknecht, Karl Marx, Köppen climate classification, Kharkiv, Kiev, Komsomol, Krasnodar, Left-wing politics, Lingua franca, List of cities in Ukraine, List of sovereign states, Luhansk, Lviv, Magnitogorsk, Maria Feodorovna (Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg), Mariupol Greek, Mariupol International Airport, Mariupol State University, Mayor, Mechanical engineering, Metallurgy, Metalurhiv (Dnipro Metro), Middle Ages, Minsk, Minsk Protocol, Mius River, Modern architecture, Modern Greek, Moscow, Muravsky Trail, Nazi Germany, Nikki Benz, Nogai Horde, Nomad, Novoazovsk, Novokuznetsk, Novorossiya Governorate, Oblasts of Ukraine, October Revolution, Odessa, Offensive on Mariupol (September 2014), Oleksandr Sydorenko, Opposition Bloc, Ore, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, Ottoman Empire, Party of Regions, Pastoral farming, People's Opposition Bloc of Natalia Vitrenko, Peter the Great, Petro Poroshenko, Phenol, Pig iron, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Poltava, Pontic Greek, Pontic Greeks, Pontus (region), Port, Port of Mariupol, Postal code, Proletariat, Pryazovia, Rainbow, Raions of Ukraine, RBK Group, Red Army, Rosa Luxemburg, Rostov-on-Don, Russia, Russian Civil War, Russian Empire, Russian Empire Census, Russian language, Russian military intervention in Ukraine (2014–present), Russians, Russo-Turkish War (1735–1739), Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774), Saint Petersburg, SCM Holdings, Sea of Azov, Sergo Ordzhonikidze, Serhiy Taruta, Slavyansk-na-Kubani, Socialist Party of Ukraine, Soviet Union, Sprint kayak, Steppe, Surzhyk, Taganrog, Tank car, Taras Shevchenko, TASS, Tatars, Theotokos, Treaty of Belgrade, Treaty of Constantinople (1700), Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca, Treaty of Niš (1739), Ukraine, Ukrainian hryvnia, Ukrainian language, Ukrainian parliamentary election, 2006, Ukrainian parliamentary election, 2014, Ukrainian presidential election, 2004, Ukrainians, Ukrayinska Pravda, Urum language, Urums, Uyezd, Verkhovna Rada, Viacheslav Voron, Viktor Yanukovych, Viktor Yushchenko, Vladimir Vysotsky, Volodymyr Boiko Stadium, Voronezh, Vyacheslav Polozov, War in Donbass, Wild Fields, World War II, Yad Vashem, Yalta, Yekaterinoslav Governorate, Zaporizhia, Zaporizhia Oblast, Zaporizhian Sich, Zaporozhian Cossacks, ZiU-10, 2012 Summer Olympics, 2014 pro-Russian unrest in Ukraine, 2014 Ukrainian revolution. Expand index (176 more) » « Shrink index
An administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government, or a county town, or the place where the central administration of a commune is located.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
The Albanians (Shqiptarët) are a European ethnic group that is predominantly native to Albania, Kosovo, western Macedonia, southern Serbia, southeastern Montenegro and northwestern Greece, who share a common ancestry, culture and language.
Alexander Sakharoff (also spelled Sakharov and Sacharoff, 13 May 1886 – 25 September 1963) was a Russian dancer, teacher, and choreographer.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
An anchor is a device, normally made of metal, used to connect a vessel to the bed of a body of water to prevent the craft from drifting due to wind or current.
Andrei Alexandrovich Zhdanov (p; – 31 August 1948) was a Soviet Communist Party leader and cultural ideologist.
Anna Zatonskih (Ганна Затонських; born Mariupol, July 17, 1978) is a Ukrainian (until 2004) and American (since 2004) chess player who holds the titles of International Master (IM) and Woman Grandmaster (WGM).
Kryvorizhstal (Криворіжсталь, officially ArcelorMittal Kryvyi Rih) is Ukraine's largest integrated steel company located in the Ukrainian city of Kryvyi Rih.
In heraldry, argent is the tincture of silver, and belongs to the class of light tinctures called "metals." It is very frequently depicted as white and usually considered interchangeable with it.
Arkhip Ivanovich Kuindzhi (or Kuinji; Архи́п Ива́нович Куи́нджи; 27 January 1842(?) – 24 July 1910) was a Russian landscape painter of Greek descent.
The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by the Armenians.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Azov Governorate (Азовская губерния, Azovskaya guberniya) was an administrative division (a guberniya) of the Russian Empire, which existed from 1775 until 1783.
Azov Shipyard (SRZ, LLC) is the largest ship repair enterprise in the Sea of Azov (Ukraine) specializing in ship repair, shipbuilding, mechanical engineering and cargo transshipment.
Metallurgical Combine Azovstal (Mеталургійний Kомбінат Азовсталь) (PFTS) is one of the biggest steel rolling companies in Ukraine.
In heraldry, azure is the tincture with the colour blue, and belongs to the class of tinctures called "colours".
Bakhchysarai (Бахчисарáй; Bağçasaray; Бахчисарáй; Bahçesaray; باغچه سرای Bāghche Sarāy) is a city in central Crimea, a territory recognized by a majority of countries as part of Ukraine and annexed by Russia as the Republic of Crimea.
The Banque de l'Union Parisienne (BUP) was a French investment bank.
A barrage is massed artillery fire aimed at points, typically apart, along one or more lines that can be from a few hundred to several thousand yards long.
A bazaar is a permanently enclosed marketplace or street where goods and services are exchanged or sold.
BC Azovmash (БК "Азовмаш") was a Ukrainian professional basketball club.
Belarusian (беларуская мова) is an official language of Belarus, along with Russian, and is spoken abroad, mainly in Ukraine and Russia.
Belarusians (беларусы, biełarusy, or Byelorussians (from the Byelorussian SSR), are an East Slavic ethnic group who are native to modern-day Belarus and the immediate region. There are over 9.5 million people who proclaim Belarusian ethnicity worldwide, with the overwhelming majority residing either in Belarus or the adjacent countries where they are an autochthonous minority.
Berdyansk, or Berdiansk, (Бердя́нськ, Бердя́нск) is a port city in the Zaporizhia Oblast (province) of south-east Ukraine.
Black Sea Lowland is a major geographic feature of the Northern Pontic region and the East European Plain.
A boiler is a closed vessel in which fluid (generally water) is heated.
Bryansk (p) is a city and the administrative center of Bryansk Oblast, Russia, located southwest of Moscow.
Bulgarians (българи, Bǎlgari) are a South Slavic ethnic group who are native to Bulgaria and its neighboring regions.
Canoeing is an activity which involves paddling a canoe with a single-bladed paddle.
Greek communities had settled in parts of the north Caucasus, Transcaucasia since well before the Christian and into the Byzantine era, especially as traders, Christian Orthodox scholars/clerics, refugees, or mercenaries who had backed the wrong side in the many civil wars and periods of political in-fighting in the Classical/Hellenistic and Late Roman/Byzantine periods.
The Central Election Commission of Ukraine (Центральна виборча комісія України, commonly abbreviated in Ukrainian as ЦВК (Tse-Ve-Ka); sometimes referred to as the Central Electoral Commission of Ukraine) is a permanent and independent collegiate body of the Ukrainian government.
Chain store(s) or retail chain(s) are retail outlets that share a brand and central management, and usually have standardized business methods and practices.
A chemical plant is an industrial process plant that manufactures (or otherwise processes) chemicals, usually on a large scale.
Cherkasy Oblast (Черкаська область, translit. Cherkas’ka oblast’,; also referred to as Черкащина, Cherkashchyna) is an oblast (province) of central Ukraine located along the Dnieper River.
Chernozem (r; "black soil") is a black-colored soil containing a high percentage of humus (4% to 16%), and high percentages of phosphoric acids, phosphorus and ammonia.
City of regional significance is a city municipality that is designated as a separate district within its region (i.e. oblast, Crimea).
A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard.
Coke is a fuel with a high carbon content and few impurities, usually made from coal.
Collective farming and communal farming are various types of "agricultural production in which multiple farmers run their holdings as a joint enterprise." That type of collective is often an agricultural cooperative in which member-owners jointly engage in farming activities.
The Communist International (Comintern), known also as the Third International (1919–1943), was an international communist organization that advocated world communism.
The Communist Party of Ukraine (Комуністична партія України, Komunistychna Partiya Ukrayiny, KPU) is a political party founded in 1993 as the successor to the Soviet-era Communist Party of Ukraine, which was banned in 1991 and again in 2015.
Cossacks (козаки́, translit, kozaky, казакi, kozacy, Czecho-Slovak: kozáci, kozákok Pronunciations.
Cretan Greek, or the Cretan dialect (κρητική διάλεκτος), is a variety of Modern Greek spoken in Crete and by the Cretan diaspora.
Crimea (Крым, Крим, Krym; Krym; translit;; translit) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast.
The Crimean Khanate (Mongolian: Крымын ханлиг; Crimean Tatar / Ottoman Turkish: Къырым Ханлыгъы, Qırım Hanlığı, rtl or Къырым Юрту, Qırım Yurtu, rtl; Крымское ханство, Krymskoje hanstvo; Кримське ханство, Krymśke chanstvo; Chanat Krymski) was a Turkic vassal state of the Ottoman Empire from 1478 to 1774, the longest-lived of the Turkic khanates that succeeded the empire of the Golden Horde.
Crimean Tatars or Crimeans (Crimean Tatar: Qırımtatarlar, qırımlar, Kırım Tatarları, Крымские Татары, крымцы, Кримськi Татари, кримцi) are a Turkic ethnic group that formed in the Crimean Peninsula during the 13th–17th centuries, primarily from the Turkic tribes that moved to the land now known as Crimea in Eastern Europe from the Asian steppes beginning in the 10th century, with contributions from the pre-Cuman population of Crimea.
The Crimean-Nogai raids were slave raids carried out by the Khanate of Crimea and by the Nogai Horde into the region of Rus' then controlled by the Grand Duchy of Moscow (until 1547), by the Tsardom of Russia (1547-1721), by the Russian Empire (1721 onwards) and by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1569).
Cypriot Greek (Κυπριακά) is the variety of Modern Greek that is spoken by the majority of the Cypriot populace and Greek Cypriot diaspora.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
In April 2015, a formal decommunization process started in Ukraine after laws were approved which, among other acts, outlawed communist symbols.
Dialectology (from Greek διάλεκτος, dialektos, "talk, dialect"; and -λογία, -logia) is the scientific study of linguistic dialect, a sub-field of sociolinguistics.
Diana Hajiyeva (Diana Hacıyeva,, Диана Гаджиева; born 13 June 1989) is an Azerbaijani singer and songwriter.
The Dnieper River, known in Russian as: Dnepr, and in Ukrainian as Dnipro is one of the major rivers of Europe, rising near Smolensk, Russia and flowing through Russia, Belarus and Ukraine to the Black Sea.
The Dnieper Rapids (Дніпрові пороги, Dniprovi porohy) are the historic rapids on the Dnieper river composed of outcrops of granites, gneisses and other basement rocks of the Ukrainian Shield.
Dnipro (Дніпро), until May 2016 Dnipropetrovsk (Дніпропетро́вськ) also known as Dnepropetrovsk (Днепропетро́вск), is Ukraine's fourth largest city, with about one million inhabitants.
Don Cossacks (Донские казаки) are Cossacks who settled along the middle and lower Don.
The Donbass (Донба́сс) or Donbas (Донба́с) is a historical, cultural, and economic region in eastern Ukraine and southwestern Russia.
The Siverskyi Donets (Siverśkyj Doneć) or Seversky Donets (Severskij Donec), usually simply called the Donets, is a river on the south of the East European Plain.
Donetsk (Донецьк; Доне́цк; former names: Aleksandrovka, Hughesovka, Yuzovka, Stalino (see also: cities' alternative names)) is an industrial city in Ukraine on the Kalmius River.
Donetsk Oblast (Доне́цька о́бласть, Donets'ka oblast', also referred to as Donechchyna, Донеччина Donechchyna, Доне́цкая о́бласть, Donetskaya oblast) is an oblast (province) of eastern Ukraine.
The Donetsk People's Republic (DPR or DNR, dɐˈnʲɛtskəjə nɐˈrodnəjə rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə, Донецька Народна Республіка) is a proto-state in the Donetsk Oblast of Ukraine recognized only by the partially recognized South Ossetia.
Donetsk Regional Theatre of Drama (Донецький обласний драматичний театр, Донецкий областной драматический театр) is a theatre in Mariupol in southern Ukraine.
Elizabeth Petrovna (Елизаве́та (Елисаве́та) Петро́вна) (–), also known as Yelisaveta or Elizaveta, was the Empress of Russia from 1741 until her death.
The Empire of Trebizond or the Trapezuntine Empire was a monarchy that flourished during the 13th through 15th centuries, consisting of the far northeastern corner of Anatolia and the southern Crimea.
The Eurovision Song Contest 2017 was the 62nd edition of the annual Eurovision Song Contest.
A factory or manufacturing plant is an industrial site, usually consisting of buildings and machinery, or more commonly a complex having several buildings, where workers manufacture goods or operate machines processing one product into another.
Football Club Mariupol (Футбо́льний клуб «Маріу́поль», Футбо́льный клуб «Мариу́поль») is a Ukrainian professional football club based in Mariupol.
The February Revolution (p), known in Soviet historiography as the February Bourgeois Democratic Revolution, was the first of two revolutions which took place in Russia in 1917.
Ferrous metallurgy is the metallurgy of iron and its alloys.
This article details the geographical distribution of Russian speakers.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century up to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and Austria.
The Grand Duchy or Grand Principality of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское, Velikoye Knyazhestvo Moskovskoye), also known in English simply as Muscovy from the Moscovia, was a late medieval Russian principality centered on Moscow and the predecessor state of the early modern Tsardom of Russia.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Greeks in Ukraine or Crimean Greeks are a Hellenic minority that reside in or used to live on the territory of modern Ukraine.
Prince Grigory Aleksandrovich Potemkin-Tavricheski (Григо́рий Алекса́ндрович Потёмкин-Таври́ческий; r Grigoriy Aleksandrovich Potyomkin-Tavricheskiy; A number of dates as late as 1742 have been found on record; the veracity of any one is unlikely to be proved. This is his "official" birth-date as given on his tombstone. –) was a Russian military leader, statesman, nobleman and favourite of Catherine the Great.
The Gulag (ГУЛАГ, acronym of Главное управление лагерей и мест заключения, "Main Camps' Administration" or "Chief Administration of Camps") was the government agency in charge of the Soviet forced labor camp system that was created under Vladimir Lenin and reached its peak during Joseph Stalin's rule from the 1930s to the 1950s.
The Russo–Turkish wars (or Ottoman–Russian wars) were a series of wars fought between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire between the 16th and 20th centuries.
A Hodegetria (Ὁδηγήτρια, literally: "She who shows the Way"; Russian: Одигитрия), or Virgin Hodegetria, is an iconographic depiction of the Theotokos (Virgin Mary) holding the Child Jesus at her side while pointing to Him as the source of salvation for humankind.
A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold in the northern areas) winters.
Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.
Ihor (Igor) Vitaliyovych Radivilov (Ігор Віталійович Радівілов; born 19 October 1992) is a Ukrainian gymnast.
Illich Iron & Steel Works (Ukrainian: Маріу́польський металургі́йний комбіна́т і́мені Ілліча́ - literally "Mariupol Metallurgical Plant named after Illich") is the second largest metallurgical enterprise in Ukraine, after Kryvorizhstal.
Ivan Yakovych Franko (Іван Якович Франко) (&ndash) was a Ukrainian poet, writer, social and literary critic, journalist, interpreter, economist, political activist, doctor of philosophy, ethnographer, and the author of the first detective novels and modern poetry in the Ukrainian language.
An attack on Mariupol was launched on 24 January 2015 by pro-Russian forces associated with the Donetsk People's Republic against the strategic maritime city of Mariupol, defended by the Ukrainian government forces.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
John Sidney McCain III (born August 29, 1936) is an American politician serving as the senior United States Senator from Arizona, a seat he was first elected to in 1986.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
The Kalmius (Кальмиус) is one of two rivers flowing through the Ukrainian city of Mariupol.
Karl Liebknecht (13 August 1871 – 15 January 1919) was a German socialist and a co-founder with Rosa Luxemburg of the Spartacist League and the Communist Party of Germany.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
Kharkiv (Ха́рків), also known as Kharkov (Ха́рьков) from Russian, is the second-largest city in Ukraine.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
The All-Union Leninist Young Communist League (Всесою́зный ле́нинский коммунисти́ческий сою́з молодёжи (ВЛКСМ)), usually known as Komsomol (Комсомо́л, a syllabic abbreviation of the Russian kommunisticheskiy soyuz molodyozhi), was a political youth organization in the Soviet Union.
Krasnodar (p) is a city and the administrative center of Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the Kuban River, approximately northeast of the Black Sea port of Novorossiysk.
Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
This is a complete list of cities in Ukraine.
This list of sovereign states provides an overview of sovereign states around the world, with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty.
Luhansk (Luhans'k) or Lugansk (Луганск), formerly known as Voroshilovgrad (1935–1958 and 1970–1990) is a city near the eastern border of Ukraine and western Russia.
Lviv (Львів; Львов; Lwów; Lemberg; Leopolis; see also other names) is the largest city in western Ukraine and the seventh-largest city in the country overall, with a population of around 728,350 as of 2016.
Magnitogorsk (p, lit. city near the magnetic mountain) is an industrial city in Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia, located on the eastern side of the extreme southern extent of the Ural Mountains by the Ural River.
Maria Feodorovna (Мария Фёдоровна; née Duchess Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg; 25 October 1759 – 5 November 1828) was Empress consort of Russia as the second wife of Tsar Paul I. Born Duchess Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg, she was a daughter of Friedrich II Eugen, Duke of Württemberg and his wife, Friederike Dorothea of Brandenburg-Schwedt.
Mariupolitan Greek, also known as Rumeíka (Rumaiica, from Ρωμαίικα, "Romaic"; Румейский язык; Румейська мова), is the Greek dialect spoken by the ethnic Greeks living along the northern coast of the Sea of Azov, in southeastern Ukraine.
Mariupol International Airport (Міжнародний аеропорт Маріуполь, Международный аэропорт Мариуполь), previously known as Zhdanov Airport, is the main airport of the large, industrial city and port of Mariupol and is located 5km from the city.
The Mariupol State University is a Ukrainian university in Mariupol.
In many countries, a mayor (from the Latin maior, meaning "bigger") is the highest-ranking official in a municipal government such as that of a city or a town.
Mechanical engineering is the discipline that applies engineering, physics, engineering mathematics, and materials science principles to design, analyze, manufacture, and maintain mechanical systems.
Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.
Metalurhiv (Металургів) is a station on Dnipro Metro's Tsentralno–Zavodska Line.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Minsk (Мінск,; Минск) is the capital and largest city of Belarus, situated on the Svislach and the Nyamiha Rivers.
Representatives of Ukraine, the Russian Federation, the Donetsk People's Republic (DPR), and the Luhansk People's Republic (LPR) signed the Minsk Protocol, an agreement to halt the war in the Donbass region of Ukraine, on 5 September 2014.
Mius is a river in Eastern Europe that flows through Ukraine and Russia.
Modern architecture or modernist architecture is a term applied to a group of styles of architecture which emerged in the first half of the 20th century and became dominant after World War II.
Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική Γλώσσα "Neo-Hellenic", historically and colloquially also known as Ρωμαίικα "Romaic" or "Roman", and Γραικικά "Greek") refers to the dialects and varieties of the Greek language spoken in the modern era.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
Muravsky Trail or Murava Route (Муравский шлях, Муравський шлях) was an important trade route and according to the Russian historiography a favourite invasion route of the Crimean Tatars during the Russo-Crimean Wars of the 16th and early 17th centuries.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Nikki Benz (born December 11, 1981), is a Canadian pornographic actress.
Nogay Horde, Nohai Horde or Nogay Yortu was a confederation of about eighteen Turkic and Mongol tribes that occupied the Pontic-Caspian steppe from about 1500 until they were pushed west by the Kalmyks and south by the Russians in the 17th century.
A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.
Novoazovsk (Новоазовск) is a border town on the south-eastern tip of Ukraine (bordering Russia),, Interfax-Ukraine (17 March 2014) it is the administrative center of the Novoazovsk Raion (district), in Donetsk Oblast (province).
Novokuznetsk (p; literally: "new smith's") is a city in Kemerovo Oblast in south-western Siberia, Russia.
New Russia Governorate, or Novorossiya Governorate (Новоросси́йская губе́рния; translit.: Novorossiyskaya guberniya), was a governorate of the Russian Empire in the previously Ottoman and Cossack territories, that existed from 1764 until the 1783 administrative reform.
An oblast (область), in English referred to as a region, refers to one of Ukraine's 24 primary administrative units.
The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
Odessa (Оде́са; Оде́сса; אַדעס) is the third most populous city of Ukraine and a major tourism center, seaport and transportation hub located on the northwestern shore of the Black Sea.
In late August and early September 2014, rebels supporting the Donetsk People's Republic advanced on the government-controlled city of Mariupol in southern Donetsk Oblast, Ukraine.
Oleksandr Sydorenko (born 27 May 1960 in Mariupol; also known as Aleksandr Sidorenko) is a former individual medley swimmer from the USSR.
Opposition Bloc (Опозиційний блок) is a Ukrainian political party that was founded in 2014 as six parties that did not endorse Euromaidan merged.
An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.
The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Party of Regions (Партія регіонів, pronounced; Партия регионов) is a pro-Russia political party of Ukraine created in late 1997 that then grew to be the biggest party of Ukraine between 2006 and 2014.
Pastoral farming (also known in some regions as ranching, livestock farming or grazing) is a form of agriculture aimed at producing livestock, rather than growing crops.
The People's Opposition Bloc of Natalia Vitrenko, was a political alliance in Ukraine led by Natalia Vitrenko.
Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.
Petro Oleksiyovych Poroshenko (Петро́ Олексі́йович Пороше́нко,; born 26 September 1965) is the fifth and current President of Ukraine (excluding acting president Oleksandr Turchynov), in office since 2014.
Phenol, also known as phenolic acid, is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH.
Pig iron is an intermediate product of the iron industry.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
Poltava (Полтава; Полтава) is a city located on the Vorskla River in central Ukraine.
Pontic Greek (ποντιακά, pontiaká) is a Greek language originally spoken in the Pontus area on the southern shores of the Black Sea, northeastern Anatolia, the Eastern Turkish/Caucasus province of Kars, southern Georgia and today mainly in northern Greece.
The Pontic Greeks, also known as Pontian Greeks (Πόντιοι, Ελληνοπόντιοι, Póntioi, Ellinopóntioi; Pontus Rumları, Karadeniz Rumları, პონტოელი ბერძნები, P’ont’oeli Berdznebi), are an ethnically Greek group who traditionally lived in the region of Pontus, on the shores of the Black Sea and in the Pontic Mountains of northeastern Anatolia.
Pontus (translit, "Sea") is a historical Greek designation for a region on the southern coast of the Black Sea, located in modern-day eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey.
A port is a maritime commercial facility which may comprise one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo.
The Port of Mariupol or Mariupol Sea Port (Маріупольський морський порт) is located in Mariupol, Ukraine on the north-western coast of the Taganrog Bay of the Azov sea (Mariupol, Donetsk region).
A postal code (also known locally in various English-speaking countries throughout the world as a postcode, post code, Eircode, PIN Code or ZIP Code) is a series of letters or digits or both, sometimes including spaces or punctuation, included in a postal address for the purpose of sorting mail.
The proletariat (from Latin proletarius "producing offspring") is the class of wage-earners in a capitalist society whose only possession of significant material value is their labour-power (their ability to work).
Pryazovia (Приазов'я, Приазовье, Priazovye) or literally Cis-Azov region is usually referred to the geographic area of north coast of the Sea of Azov.
A rainbow is a meteorological phenomenon that is caused by reflection, refraction and dispersion of light in water droplets resulting in a spectrum of light appearing in the sky.
Raions of Ukraine (Райони України) are second level of administrative division of Ukraine and are primary the most common division of regions of Ukraine.
The RBK Group or RosBiznesKonsalting (Группа компаний «РБК» РБК, РосБизнесКонсалтинг) is a large Russian media group headquartered in Moscow.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Rosa Luxemburg (Róża Luksemburg; also Rozalia Luxenburg; 5 March 1871 – 15 January 1919) was a Polish Marxist theorist, philosopher, economist, anti-war activist, and revolutionary socialist who became a naturalized German citizen at the age of 28.
Rostov-on-Don (p) is a port city and the administrative center of Rostov Oblast and the Southern Federal District of Russia.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Civil War (Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiyi; November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russian Imperial Census of 1897 was first and only census carried out in the Russian Empire (Finland was excluded).
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
In February 2014, Russia made several military incursions into Ukrainian territory.
Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.
The Russo-Turkish War of 1735–1739 between Russia and the Ottoman Empire was caused by the Ottoman Empire's war with Persia and continuing raids by the Crimean Tatars.
The Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774 was an armed conflict that brought Kabardia, the part of the Yedisan between the rivers Bug and Dnieper, and Crimea into the Russian sphere of influence.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
System Capital Management or SCM (Систем Кепітал Менеджмент) is a major Ukrainian financial and industrial holding company with headquarters in Donetsk in the east of the country.
The Sea of Azov (Азо́вское мо́ре, Azóvskoje móre; Азо́вське мо́ре, Azóvśke móre; Azaq deñizi, Азакъ денъизи, ازاق دﻩﯕىزى) is a sea in Eastern Europe.
Grigory Konstantinovich Ordzhonikidze (გრიგოლ კონსტანტინეს ძე ორჯონიკიძე Grigol Konstantines dze Orjonikidze; Григо́рий Константи́нович Орджоники́дзе Grigori Konstantinovich Ordzhonikidze), generally known as Sergo Ordzhonikidze (სერგო ორჯონიკიძე; Серго́ Орджоники́дзе);, Kutais Governorate – 18 February 1937, Moscow) was a Georgian Bolshevik, later member of the CPSU Politburo and close associate of Joseph Stalin. Ordzhonikidze, Stalin and Anastas Mikoyan comprised what was jokingly referred to as the "Caucasian Clique.".
Serhiy Taruta (Сергій Олексійович Тарута, r, born 22 July 1955 in Vynohradne, Donetsk Oblast, Ukrainian SSR) is a Ukrainian politician and current member of the Ukrainian parliament, Ukrainian businessman, sometimes called an oligarch, founder of Industrial Union of Donbas, former President of FC Metalurh Donetsk, and the former governor of Donetsk Oblast.
Slavyansk-na-Kubani (Славянск-на-Куба́ни) is a town in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located in the Kuban River delta.
The Socialist Party of Ukraine (Соціалістична Партія України, Sotsialistychna Partiya Ukrainy, SPU) is a social democratic political party in Ukraine.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Sprint kayak is a sport held on calm water.
In physical geography, a steppe (p) is an ecoregion, in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands, savannas and shrublands biomes, characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes.
Surzhyk refers to a range of mixed (macaronic) sociolects of Ukrainian and Russian languages used in certain regions of Ukraine and adjacent lands.
Taganrog (p) is a port city in Rostov Oblast, Russia, located on the north shore of the Taganrog Bay in the Sea of Azov, several kilometers west of the mouth of the Don River.
A tank car (International Union of Railways (UIC): tank wagon) is a type of railroad car (UIC: railway car) or rolling stock designed to transport liquid and gaseous commodities.
Taras Hryhorovych Shevchenko (–) was a Ukrainian poet, writer, artist, public and political figure, as well as folklorist and ethnographer.
Russian News Agency TASS (Informatsionnoye agentstvo Rossii TASS), abbr.
The Tatars (татарлар, татары) are a Turkic-speaking peoples living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries.
Theotokos (Greek Θεοτόκος) is a title of Mary, mother of God, used especially in Eastern Christianity.
The Treaty of Belgrade, known as the Belgrade peace was the peace treaty signed on September 18, 1739 in Belgrade, Habsburg Kingdom of Serbia (today Serbia), by the Ottoman Empire on one side and the Habsburg Monarchy on the other, that ended the Austro–Turkish War (1737–39).
The Treaty of Constantinople or Istanbul was signed on 13 July 1700 between the Tsardom of Russia and the Ottoman Empire.
The Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca Küçük Kaynarca Antlaşması (also spelled Kuchuk Kainarji) was a peace treaty signed on 21 July 1774, in Küçük Kaynarca (today Kaynardzha, Bulgaria) between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire.
The Treaty of Niš was a peace treaty signed on 3 October 1739 in Niš (East Serbia), by the Ottoman Empire and Russian Empire, to end the Russo-Turkish War of 1735-1739.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The hryvnia, sometimes hryvnya (гривня,, abbr.: грн (hrn in the Latin alphabet)); sign: ₴, code: UAH), has been the national currency of Ukraine since 2 September 1996. The hryvnia is subdivided into 100 kopiyky. It is named after a measure of weight used in medieval Kievan Rus'.
The Ukrainian parliamentary election took place on 26 March 2006.
A snap election of the Verkhovna Rada took place on 26 October 2014.
The Ukrainian presidential election, 2004 was held on October 31, November 21 and December 26, 2004.
Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.
Ukrayinska Pravda (Українська правда, literally Ukrainian Truth) is a popular Ukrainian Internet newspaper, founded by Georgiy R. Gongadze in April, 2000 (the day of the Ukrainian constitutional referendum).
Urum is a Turkic language spoken by several thousand ethnic Greeks who inhabit a few villages in Georgia and Southeastern Ukraine.
The Urums, singular Urum (Ουρούμ, Urúm; Turkish and Crimean Tatar: Urum) are several groups of Turkic-speaking Greeks in the Crimea and Georgia.
An uyezd (p) was an administrative subdivision of the Grand Duchy of Moscow, the Russian Empire, and the early Russian SFSR, which was in use from the 13th century.
The Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine (Верхо́вна Ра́да Украї́ни, Ukrainian abbreviation ВРУ; literally Supreme Council of Ukraine), often simply Verkhovna Rada or just Rada, is the unicameral parliament of Ukraine.
Viacheslav Voron (Вячеслав Ворон; real name: Viacheslav Borisovich Cherny (Вячеслав Бopисович Чёpный); born October 21, 1967 in Mariupol, Ukraine) is a singer-songwriter of the Russian and Ukrainian chanson, music producer.
Viktor Fedorovych Yanukovych (Ві́ктор Фе́дорович Януко́вич,; born 9 July 1950) is a Ukrainian politician who was elected as the fourth President of Ukraine on 7 February 2010.
Viktor Andriyovych Yushchenko (Віктор Андрійович Ющенко,; born February 23, 1954) is a Ukrainian politician who was the third President of Ukraine from January 23, 2005 to February 25, 2010.
Vladimir Semyonovich Vysotsky (p; 25 January 1938 – 25 July 1980) was a Russian singer-songwriter, poet, and actor whose career had an immense and enduring effect on Soviet and Russian culture.
Volodymyr Boiko Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Mariupol, Ukraine.
Voronezh (p) is a city and the administrative center of Voronezh Oblast, Russia, straddling the Voronezh River and located from where it flows into the Don.
Vyacheslav Michailovich Polozov (Вячеслав Михайлович Полозов; January 1, 1950) nicknamed "Slava", is a Soviet-born opera singer, professor of voice, entrepreneur.
The War in Donbass is an armed conflict in the Donbass region of Ukraine.
The Wild Fields (Дике Поле Dyke Pole, Дикое Поле, Dikoye Polye, Dzikie pola, Dykra, Loca deserta, sive campi deserti inhabitati, also translated as "the Wilderness") is a historical term used in the Polish–Lithuanian documents of the 16th to 18th centuries to refer to the Pontic steppe of Ukraine, located north of the Black Sea and Azov Sea.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yad Vashem (יָד וַשֵׁם; literally, "a monument and a name") is Israel's official memorial to the victims of the Holocaust.
Yalta (Yalta; Я́лта; Я́лта) is a resort city on the south coast of the Crimean Peninsula surrounded by the Black Sea.
The Yekaterinoslav Governorate (Екатеринославская губернія; translit.: Yekaterinoslavskaya guberniya; Катеринославська губернія) or Government of Yekaterinoslav was a governorate in the Russian Empire.
− Zaporizhia (Запорі́жжя) or Zaporozhye (Запоро́жье), formerly Alexandrovsk (Алекса́ндровск), (Олександрівськ), is a city in southeastern Ukraine, situated on the banks of the Dnieper River.
Zaporizhia Oblast (Запорізька область, translit. Zaporiz'ka oblast’; Запорожская область); also referred to as Zaporizhzhya (Запоріжжя), is an oblast (province) of southern Ukraine.
The Zaporozhian Sich or Zaporozhian Sich (Запорозька Січ, Запорізька Січ, Zaporoz'ka Sich, Zaporiz'ka Sich; Sicz Zaporoska; Запорожская Сечь) was a semi-autonomous polity of Cossacks in the 16th to 18th centuries, centred in the region around today's Kakhovka Reservoir spanning the lower Dnieper river in Ukraine.
The Zaporozhian Cossacks, Zaporozhian Cossack Army, Zaporozhian Host (Військо Запорізьке, Войско Запорожское) or simply Zaporozhians (translit) were Cossacks who lived beyond the rapids of the Dnieper River, the land also known under the historical term Wild Fields in today's Central Ukraine.
ZiU-10 (Zavod imeni Uritskogo, Russian for Uritsky Factory) or ZIU-10 (ЗиУ-10),Murray, Alan (2000).
The 2012 Summer Olympics, formally the Games of the XXX Olympiad and commonly known as London 2012, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 27 July to 12 August 2012 in London, United Kingdom.
From the end of February 2014, demonstrations by pro-Russian and anti-government groups took place in major cities across the eastern and southern regions of Ukraine, in the aftermath of the Euromaidan movement and the 2014 Ukrainian revolution.
The Ukrainian revolution of 2014 (also known as the Euromaidan Revolution or Revolution of Dignity; Революція гідності, Revoliutsiia hidnosti) took place in Ukraine in February 2014, when a series of violent events involving protesters, riot police, and unknown shooters in the capital, Kiev, culminated in the ousting of the democratically elected Ukrainian President, Viktor Yanukovych, and the overthrow of the Ukrainian Government.