473 relations: Achaea (Roman province), Adoption in ancient Rome, Adrian Goldsworthy, Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, Aerarium, Africa (Roman province), Agrippina the Younger, Alexander Helios, Alexander of Judaea, Alexander the Great, Alexandria, Alexandrium, All for Love (play), Altes Museum, Anarchy, Anatolia, Ancient Rome, Antigonus II Mattathias, Antikensammlung Berlin, Antioch, Antiochus I Theos of Commagene, Antipater the Idumaean, Antonia (daughter of Mark Antony), Antonia (gens), Antonia Minor, Antonia the Elder, Antonia Tryphaena, Antonius, Antony and Cleopatra, Antony's Parthian War, Appian, Archelaus (father of Archelaus of Cappadocia), Archelaus of Cappadocia, Ariarathes X of Cappadocia, Ariobarzanes III of Cappadocia, Aristobulus II, Armenia, Arsinoe IV of Egypt, Artavasdes II of Armenia, Artaxiad dynasty, Artaxias III, Arwad, Asia (Roman province), Aspacures II of Iberia, Assassination of Julius Caesar, Athens, Atropatene, Attilio Degrassi, Attrition warfare, ..., Augur, Augustus, Augustus (title), Aulus Gabinius, Aulus Hirtius, Autocracy, Balkans, Battle of Actium, Battle of Alesia, Battle of Amanus Pass, Battle of Carrhae, Battle of Dyrrhachium (48 BC), Battle of Mount Gindarus, Battle of Mutina, Battle of Pharsalus, Battle of Philippi, Battle of the Cilician Gates, Berenice IV of Egypt, Bithynia and Pontus, Black Sea, Bologna, Bosporan Kingdom, Brindisi, Britannicus, Buffer state, Caesar's Civil War, Caesarion, Caligula, Calpurnia (wife of Caesar), Capitoline Hill, Capitoline Wolf, Cappadocia, Cassius Dio, Cato the Younger, Caucasian Albania, Charlton Heston, Christopher Pelling, Cicero, Cicero Minor, Cilicia, Cilicia (Roman province), Cisalpine Gaul, Claudia Antonia, Claudia Augusta, Claudia Marcella, Claudia Octavia, Claudius, Claudius Drusus, Cleopatra, Cleopatra (1934 film), Cleopatra (1963 film), Cleopatra (miniseries), Cleopatra Selene II, Cleromancy, Client state, Clodia Pulchra (wife of Augustus), Colleen McCullough, Comana (Cappadocia), Commentarii de Bello Civili, Commentarii de Bello Gallico, Commentary (philology), Conn Iggulden, Constantine P. 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Achaea or Achaia (Ἀχαΐα Achaïa), was a province of the Roman Empire, consisting of the Peloponnese, eastern Central Greece, and parts of Thessaly.
In ancient Rome, adoption of boys was a fairly common procedure, particularly in the upper senatorial class.
Adrian Keith Goldsworthy (born 1969) is a British historian and author who specialises in ancient Roman history.
The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula.
The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.
Aerarium (from Latin "aes", in its derived sense of "money") was the name (in full, "aerarium stabulum" - treasure-house) given in Ancient Rome to the public treasury, and in a secondary sense to the public finances.
Africa Proconsularis was a Roman province on the north African coast that was established in 146 BC following the defeat of Carthage in the Third Punic War.
Agrippina the Younger (Latin: Julia Agrippina; 6 November AD 15 – 23 March AD 59), also referred to as Agrippina Minor (Minor, which is Latin for "the Younger") was a Roman empress and one of the more prominent women in the Julio-Claudian dynasty.
Alexander Helios (Ἀλέξανδρος Ἥλιος; late 40 BC – unknown, but possibly between 29 and 25 BC) was a Ptolemaic prince and was the eldest son of the Macedonian queen Cleopatra VII of Ptolemaic Egypt by Roman triumvir Mark Antony.
Alexander (Gr. Ἀλέξανδρος, died 48 or 47 BC), or Alexander Maccabeus, was the eldest son of Aristobulus II, king of Judaea.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
Alexandreion (Greek), or Alexandrium (Latin), called Sartaba in the Mishna and Talmud and Qarn Sartabe in Arabic, was an ancient hilltop fortress constructed by the Hasmoneans between Scythopolis and Jerusalem on a pointy barren hill towering over the Jordan Valley from the west.
All for Love or, the World Well Lost, is a heroic drama by John Dryden written in 1677.
The Altes Museum (German for Old Museum) is a museum building on Museum Island in Berlin, Germany.
Anarchy is the condition of a society, entity, group of people, or a single person that rejects hierarchy.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Antigonus II Mattathias (מתתיהו אנטיגונוס השני, Matityahu), also known as Antigonus the Hasmonean (died 37 BCE) was the last Hasmonean king of Judea.
The Antikensammlung Berlin (Berlin antiquities collection) is one of the most important collections of classical art in the world, now held in the Altes Museum and Pergamon Museum in Berlin, Germany.
Antioch on the Orontes (Antiókheia je epi Oróntou; also Syrian Antioch)Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ, "Antioch on Daphne"; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη, "Antioch the Great"; Antiochia ad Orontem; Անտիոք Antiok; ܐܢܛܝܘܟܝܐ Anṭiokya; Hebrew: אנטיוכיה, Antiyokhya; Arabic: انطاكية, Anṭākiya; انطاکیه; Antakya.
Antiochus I Theos Dikaios Epiphanes Philorhomaios Philhellen (Անտիոքոս Երվանդունի, Ἀντίοχος ὁ Θεὸς Δίκαιος Ἐπιφανὴς Φιλορωμαῖος Φιλέλλην, meaning Antiochos, a just, eminent god, friend of Romans and friend of Greeks, c. 86 BC – 38 BC, ruled 70 BC – 38 BC) was an Armenian king from the Kingdom of Commagene and the most famous king of that kingdom.
Antipater I the Idumaean (died 43 BC) was the founder of the Herodian Dynasty and father of Herod the Great. According to Josephus, he was the son of Antipas and had formerly held that name. A native of Idumaea, southeast of Judea between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba, which during the time of the Hebrew Bible had been known as the land of Edom, Antipater became a powerful official under the later Hasmonean kings and subsequently became a client of the Roman general Pompey the Great when Pompey conquered Judea in the name of Roman Republic. When Julius Caesar defeated Pompey, Antipater rescued Caesar in Alexandria, and was made chief minister of Judea, with the right to collect taxes. Antipater eventually made his sons Phasaelus and Herod the Governors of Jerusalem and Galilee respectively. After the assassination of Caesar, Antipater was forced to side with Gaius Cassius Longinus against Mark Antony. The pro-Roman politics of Antipater led to his increasing unpopularity among the devout, non-Hellenized Jews. He died by poison. The diplomacy and artful politics of Antipater, as well as his insinuation into the Hasmonean court, paved the way for the rise of his son Herod the Great, who used this position to marry the Hasmonean princess Mariamne, endear himself to Rome and become king of Judea under Roman influence.
Not to be confused with Antonia Major and Antonia Minor, Antony's daughters by his marriage to Octavia the Younger. Antonia (50 BC – ?? ??) was a Roman noblewoman.
The gens Antonia was a Roman family of great antiquity, with both patrician and plebeian branches.
Antonia Minor (PIR2 A 885), also known as Julia Antonia Minor, Antonia the Younger or simply Antonia (31 January 36 BC - 1 May AD 37) was the younger of two daughters of Mark Antony and Octavia Minor.
Antonia Major also known as Julia Antonia Major (Latin: Antonia Maior, PIR2 A 884) (born August/September 39 BC), also known as Antonia the Elder, was a daughter of Triumvir Mark Antony and Octavia the Younger and a relative of the first Roman emperors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty.
Antonia Tryphaena also known as Tryphaena of Thrace or Tryphaena (her name in Greek: η Άντωνία Τρύφαινα or Τρυφαίνη, 10 BC – 55) was a Princess of the Bosporan, Pontus, Cilicia, Cappadocia and a Roman Client Queen of Thrace.
Antonius is the nomen of the gens Antonia, one of the most important families in ancient Rome, with both patrician and plebeian branches.
Antony and Cleopatra is a tragedy by William Shakespeare.
Antony's Parthian War or the Roman–Parthian War of 40–33 BC was a major conflict between the Roman Republic, represented in the East by the triumvir Mark Antony, and the Parthians.
Appian of Alexandria (Ἀππιανὸς Ἀλεξανδρεύς Appianòs Alexandreús; Appianus Alexandrinus) was a Greek historian with Roman citizenship who flourished during the reigns of Emperors of Rome Trajan, Hadrian, and Antoninus Pius.
Archelaus (Ἀρχέλαος; fl. 1st century BC) was a High priest of the temple-state of Comana, Cappadocia.
Archelaus (Ἀρχέλαος; fl. 1st century BC and 1st century, died 17 AD) was a Roman client prince and the last king of Cappadocia.
Ariarathes X, surnamed Eusebes Philadelphos, "Pious, brother-loving" (Ἀριαράθης Εὐσεβής Φιλάδελφος, Ariaráthēs Eusebḗs Philádelphos), was the king of Cappadocia from c. 42 BC to 36 BC.
Ariobarzanes III, surnamed Eusebes Philorhomaios, "Pious and Friend of the Romans" (Ἀριοβαρζάνης Εὐσεβής Φιλορώμαιος, Ariobarzánēs Eusebḗs Philorōmaíos), was the king of Cappadocia from ca.
Aristobulus II (אריסטובולוס; Ἀριστόβουλος Aristóboulos) was the Jewish High Priest and King of Judea, 66 BC to 63 BC, from the Hasmonean Dynasty.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Arsinoë IV (Ἀρσινόη; between 68 and 59 BC – 41 BC) was the fourth of six children and the youngest daughter of Ptolemy XII Auletes, and queen and co-ruler of Egypt with her brother Ptolemy XIII from 48 BC – 47 BC, making her one of the last members of the Ptolemaic dynasty of ancient Egypt.
Artavasdes II (ΒΑΣΙΛΕΟΣ ΑΡΤΑΥΑΖΔΟΥ Basileos Artavazdou, Արտավազդ Երկրորդ Artavazd Yerkrord) was a King of the Kingdom of Armenia from 54 BC until 34 BC and a member of the Artaxiad Dynasty.
The Artaxiad dynasty or Ardaxiad dynasty (Artashesian Dynasty, Armenian: Արտաշեսյան արքայատոհմ) ruled the Kingdom of Armenia from 189 BC until their overthrow by the Romans in AD 12.
Artaxias III, also known as Zeno-Artaxias, Artaxes or Artashes (Άρταξίας, Արտաշես Երրորդ, 13 BC–35) was a prince of the Bosporan, Pontus, Cilicia, Cappadocia and Roman Client King of Armenia.
Arwad (أرواد) – formerly known as Arados (Ἄραδος), Arvad, Arpad, Arphad, and Antiochia in Pieria (Greek: Ἀντιόχεια τῆς Πιερίας), also called Ruad Island – located in the Mediterranean Sea, is the only inhabited island in Syria.
The Roman province of Asia or Asiana (Ἀσία or Ἀσιανή), in Byzantine times called Phrygia, was an administrative unit added to the late Republic.
Aspacures II (or Varaz-Bakur I, ვარაზ-ბაკურ I), of the Chosroid Dynasty, was the king of Iberia (Kartli, eastern Georgia) from c. 363 to 365.
The assassination of Julius Caesar was the result of a conspiracy by many Roman senators led by Gaius Cassius Longinus, Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus, and Marcus Junius Brutus.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
Atropatene (in Ἀτροπατηνή; in Middle Iranian: Atropatkan and Atorpatkan) was an ancient kingdom established and ruled under local ethnic Iranian dynasties, first with Darius III of Persia and later Alexander the Great of Macedonia starting in the 4th century BC and includes the territory of modern-day Iranian Azerbaijan, Iranian Kurdistan, and a small part of the contemporary Azerbaijan Republic.
Attilio Degrassi (Trieste, 21 June 1887 – Rome, 1 June 1969) was an archeologist and pioneering Italian scholar of Latin epigraphy.
Attrition warfare is a military strategy consisting of belligerent attempts to win a war by wearing down the enemy to the point of collapse through continuous losses in personnel and materiel.
An augur was a priest and official in the classical Roman world.
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
Augustus (plural augusti;;, Latin for "majestic", "the increaser" or "venerable"), was an ancient Roman title given as both name and title to Gaius Octavius (often referred to simply as Augustus), Rome's first Emperor.
Aulus Gabinius (?-48 or 47 BC) was a Roman statesman, general and supporter of Pompey.
Aulus Hirtius (c. 90 – 43 BC) was one of the consuls of the Roman Republic and a writer on military subjects.
An autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power (social and political) is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (except perhaps for the implicit threat of a coup d'état or mass insurrection).
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
The Battle of Actium was the decisive confrontation of the Final War of the Roman Republic, a naval engagement between Octavian and the combined forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra on 2 September 31 BC, on the Ionian Sea near the promontory of Actium, in the Roman province of Epirus Vetus in Greece.
The Battle of Alesia or Siege of Alesia was a military engagement in the Gallic Wars that took place in September, 52 BC, around the Gallic oppidum (fortified settlement) of Alesia, a major centre of the Mandubii tribe.
The Battle of Amanus Pass took place in 39 BC at Belen Pass in the Nur Mountains, after the Parthian defeat in the battle of the Cilician Gates.
The Battle of Carrhae was fought in 53 BC between the Roman Republic and the Parthian Empire near the town of Carrhae.
The Battle of Dyrrachium (or Dyrrhachium) on 10 July 48 BC was a battle during Caesar's Civil War that took place near the city of Dyrrachium (in what is now Albania).
The Battle of Mount Gindarus or battle of Cyrrhestica in 38 BC was a decisive victory for the Roman general Publius Ventidius Bassus over the Parthian army of Pacorus, son of King Orodes, in the Greater Syria district of Cyrrhestica.
The Battle of Mutina took place on 21 April 43 BC between the forces loyal to the Senate under consuls Gaius Vibius Pansa and Aulus Hirtius, supported by the legions of Caesar Octavian, and the Caesarian legions of Mark Antony who were besieging the troops of Decimus Brutus.
The Battle of Pharsalus was a decisive battle of Caesar's Civil War.
The Battle of Philippi was the final battle in the Wars of the Second Triumvirate between the forces of Mark Antony and Octavian (of the Second Triumvirate) and the leaders of Julius Caesar's assassination, Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus in 42 BC, at Philippi in Macedonia.
Berenice IV Epiphaneia (Βερενίκη; 77–55 BC, born and died in Alexandria, Egypt) was a Greek Princess and Queen of the Ptolemaic dynasty.
Bithynia and Pontus (Provincia Bithynia et Pontus) was the name of a province of the Roman Empire on the Black Sea coast of Anatolia (Turkey).
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Bologna (Bulåggna; Bononia) is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna Region in Northern Italy.
The Bosporan Kingdom, also known as the Kingdom of the Cimmerian Bosporus (Basileion tou Kimmerikou Bosporou), was an ancient state located in eastern Crimea and the Taman Peninsula on the shores of the Cimmerian Bosporus, the present-day Strait of Kerch (it was not named after the more famous Bosphorus beside Istanbul at the other end of the Black Sea).
Brindisi (Brindisino: Brìnnisi; Brundisium; translit; Brunda) is a city in the region of Apulia in southern Italy, the capital of the province of Brindisi, on the coast of the Adriatic Sea.
Tiberius Claudius Caesar Britannicus (c. 12 February AD 41 – 11 February AD 55), usually called Britannicus, was the son of Roman emperor Claudius and his third wife Valeria Messalina.
A buffer state is a country lying between two rival or potentially hostile greater powers.
The Great Roman Civil War (49–45 BC), also known as Caesar's Civil War, was one of the last politico-military conflicts in the Roman Republic before the establishment of the Roman Empire.
Ptolemy XV Philopator Philometor Caesar (Πτολεμαῖος Φιλοπάτωρ Φιλομήτωρ Καῖσαρ, Ptolemaĩos Philopátōr Philomḗtōr Kaĩsar "Ptolemy, Beloved of his Father, Beloved of his Mother, Caesar"; June 23, 47 BC – August 23, 30 BC), better known by the nicknames Caesarion (Καισαρίων, Kaisaríōn ≈ Little Caesar; Caesariō) and Ptolemy Caesar (Πτολεμαῖος Καῖσαρ, Ptolemaios Kaisar; Ptolemaeus Caesar), was the last Pharaoh of Egypt.
Caligula (Latin: Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 31 August 12 – 24 January 41 AD) was Roman emperor from AD 37 to AD 41.
Calpurnia was the third and last wife of Julius Caesar.
The Capitoline Hill (Mōns Capitōlīnus; Campidoglio), between the Forum and the Campus Martius, is one of the Seven Hills of Rome.
The Capitoline Wolf (Italian: Lupa Capitolina) is a bronze sculpture of the mythical she-wolf suckling the twins, Romulus and Remus, from the legend of the founding of Rome.
Cappadocia (also Capadocia; Καππαδοκία, Kappadokía, from Katpatuka, Kapadokya) is a historical region in Central Anatolia, largely in the Nevşehir, Kayseri, Kırşehir, Aksaray, and Niğde Provinces in Turkey.
Cassius Dio or Dio Cassius (c. 155 – c. 235) was a Roman statesman and historian of Greek origin.
Marcus Porcius Cato Uticensis (95 BC – April 46 BC), commonly known as Cato the Younger (Cato Minor) to distinguish him from his great-grandfather (Cato the Elder), was a statesman in the late Roman Republic, and a follower of the Stoic philosophy.
Albania, usually referred to as Caucasian Albania for disambiguation with the modern state of Albania (the endonym is unknownRobert H. Hewsen. "Ethno-History and the Armenian Influence upon the Caucasian Albanians", in: Samuelian, Thomas J. (Ed.), Classical Armenian Culture. Influences and Creativity. Chicago: 1982, pp. 27-40.Bosworth, Clifford E.. Encyclopædia Iranica.), is a name for the historical region of the eastern Caucasus, that existed on the territory of present-day republic of Azerbaijan (where both of its capitals were located) and partially southern Dagestan.
Charlton Heston (born John Charles Carter or Charlton John Carter; October 4, 1923 – April 5, 2008) was an American actor and political activist.
Christopher Brendan Reginald Pelling was the Regius Professor of Greek, at Christ Church, Oxford, from 2003 to 2015.
Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.
Marcus Tullius Cicero Minor (Minor Latin for ‘the younger’), or Cicero the Younger, was born in 65 BC.
In antiquity, Cilicia(Armenian: Կիլիկիա) was the south coastal region of Asia Minor and existed as a political entity from Hittite times into the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia during the late Byzantine Empire.
Cilicia was an early Roman province, located on what is today the southern (Mediterranean) coast of Turkey.
Cisalpine Gaul (Gallia Cisalpina), also called Gallia Citerior or Gallia Togata, was the part of Italy inhabited by Celts (Gauls) during the 4th and 3rd centuries BC.
Claudia Antonia (Classical Latin: ANTONIA•CLAUDII•CAESARIS•FILIA) (c. AD 30–AD 66) was the daughter and oldest surviving child of the Roman Emperor Claudius and the only child of his second wife Aelia Paetina.
Claudia Augusta (January 63 – April 63) was the only daughter of the Roman Emperor Nero by his second wife Roman Empress Poppaea Sabina.
Claudia Marcella was the name of the two daughters of Octavia Minor, the sister of Roman emperor Augustus, by her first husband, the consul Gaius Claudius Marcellus.
Claudia Octavia (Classical Latin: CLAVDIA•OCTAVIA) (late AD 39 or early AD 40 – 8 June AD 62) was an Empress of Rome.
Claudius (Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 1 August 10 BC – 13 October 54 AD) was Roman emperor from 41 to 54.
Tiberius Claudius Drusus (Classical Latin: CLAVDIVS•DRVSVS or CLAVDIVS•DRVSVS•CLAVDII•FILIVS; c. AD 16 AD 20) was the eldest son of the future Roman Emperor Claudius with his first wife Plautia Urgulanilla.
Cleopatra VII Philopator (Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ Cleopatra Philopator; 69 – August 10 or 12, 30 BC)Theodore Cressy Skeat, in, uses historical data to calculate the death of Cleopatra as having occurred on 12 August 30 BC.
Cleopatra is a 1934 epic film directed by Cecil B. DeMille and distributed by Paramount Pictures, which retells the story of Cleopatra VII of Egypt.
Cleopatra is a 1963 American epic historical drama film chronicling the struggles of Cleopatra, the young Queen of Egypt, to resist the imperial ambitions of Rome.
Cleopatra is a 1999 miniseries adaptation of Margaret George's 1997 historical fiction novel The Memoirs of Cleopatra.
Cleopatra Selene II (Greek: Κλεοπάτρα Σελήνη; late 40 BC – c. 6 BC; the numeration is modern), also known as Cleopatra VIII of Egypt or Cleopatra VIII, was a Ptolemaic Princess and was the only daughter to Greek Ptolemaic queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt and Roman triumvir Mark Antony.
Cleromancy is a form of sortition, casting of lots, in which an outcome is determined by means that normally would be considered random, such as the rolling of dice, but are sometimes believed to reveal the will of God, or other supernatural entities.
A client state is a state that is economically, politically, or militarily subordinate to another more powerful state in international affairs.
Clodia Pulchra,also known as Claudia (born 57 BC/56 BC) was the daughter of Fulvia by her first husband Publius Clodius Pulcher.
Colleen Margaretta McCullough (married name Robinson, previously Ion-Robinson;. Retrieved 2 February 2015 1 June 193729 January 2015) was an Australian author known for her novels, her most well-known being The Thorn Birds and The Ladies of Missalonghi, the latter of which was involved in a plagiarism controversy.
Comana was a city of Cappadocia (τὰ Κόμανα τῆς Καππαδοκίας) and later Cataonia (Comana Cataoniae; frequently called Comana Chryse or Aurea, i.e. "the golden", to distinguish it from Comana in Pontus).
Commentarii de Bello Civili (Commentaries on the Civil War), or Bellum Civile, is an account written by Julius Caesar of his war against Gnaeus Pompeius and the Senate.
Commentāriī dē Bellō Gallicō (italic), also Bellum Gallicum (italic), is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative.
In philology, a commentary is a line-by-line or even word-by-word explication usually attached to an edition of a text in the same or an accompanying volume.
Conn Iggulden (born) is a British author who writes historical fiction, most notably the ''Emperor'' series and ''Conqueror'' series.
Constantine Peter Cavafy (also known as Konstantin or Konstantinos Petrou Kavafis; Κωνσταντίνος Π. Καβάφης; April 29 (April 17, OS), 1863 – April 29, 1933) was an Egyptian Greek poet, journalist and civil servant.
The constitutional reforms of Julius Caesar were a series of laws pertaining to the Constitution of the Roman Republic enacted between 49 and 44 BC, during Caesar's dictatorship.
Cotys IX or Kotys IX (name in Greek: ο Κότυς, flourished 1st century) was a Thracian prince and the Roman Client King of Lesser Armenia.
Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.
Crete and Cyrenaica (Provincia Creta et Cyrenaica) was a senatorial province of the Roman Empire, established in 67 BC.
Julius Caesar's crossing the Rubicon river was an event in 49 BC that precipitated the Roman Civil War, which ultimately led to Caesar's becoming dictator for life and the rise of the imperial era of Rome.
The Curia Hostilia was one of the original senate houses or "curia" of the Roman Republic.
The cursus honorum (Latin: "course of offices") was the sequential order of public offices held by aspiring politicians in both the Roman Republic and the early Roman Empire.
Cyrenaica (Cyrenaica (Provincia), Κυρηναία (ἐπαρχία) Kyrēnaíā (eparkhíā), after the city of Cyrene; برقة) is the eastern coastal region of Libya.
Cyrrhestica (Κυρρηστική) is a district of Greater Syria which appears to have owed its name to the Macedonian occupation of the country.
Damnatio memoriae is a modern Latin phrase literally meaning "condemnation of memory", meaning that a person must not be remembered.
Debt relief or debt cancellation is the partial or total forgiveness of debt, or the slowing or stopping of debt growth, owed by individuals, corporations, or nations.
Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus (born April 27, ca. 85–81 BC, died 43 BC) was a Roman politician and general of the 1st century BC and one of the leading instigators of Julius Caesar's assassination.
Deiotarus of Galatia (in Galatian and Greek Deiotaros, surnamed Philoromaios; 42 BC, 41 BC or 40 BC) was a Chief Tetrarch of the Tolistobogii in western Galatia, Asia Minor, and a King of Galatia ("Gallo-Graecia").
A demagogue (from Greek δημαγωγός, a popular leader, a leader of a mob, from δῆμος, people, populace, the commons + ἀγωγός leading, leader) or rabble-rouser is a leader in a democracy who gains popularity by exploiting prejudice and ignorance among the common people, whipping up the passions of the crowd and shutting down reasoned deliberation.
In ancient Greek religion and mythology, Demeter (Attic: Δημήτηρ Dēmḗtēr,; Doric: Δαμάτηρ Dāmā́tēr) is the goddess of the grain, agriculture, harvest, growth, and nourishment, who presided over grains and the fertility of the earth.
A diadem is a type of crown, specifically an ornamental headband worn by monarchs and others as a badge of royalty.
The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology (1849, originally published 1844 under a slightly different title) is an encyclopedia/biographical dictionary.
Dionysus (Διόνυσος Dionysos) is the god of the grape harvest, winemaking and wine, of ritual madness, fertility, theatre and religious ecstasy in ancient Greek religion and myth.
Disinformation is false information spread deliberately to deceive.
A docudrama (or documentary drama) is a genre of radio and television programming, feature film, and staged theatre, which features dramatized re-enactments of actual events.
Domitia (PIR² D 171), more commonly referred to as Domitia the Elder -- in fact no ancient source ever calls her Lepida - (ca. 8 BC-June 59) was the oldest child of Antonia Major and Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus (consul 16 BC), and the oldest granddaughter to Triumvir Mark Antony by Octavia Minor, a great-niece of the Roman Emperor Augustus, second cousin and sister-in-law to the Emperor Caligula, first cousin to the Emperor Claudius, maternal aunt to the Empress Valeria Messalina, and paternal aunt to Emperor Nero.
Domitia Lepida, also known as Domitia Lepida the Younger, or Domitia Lepida Minor, (c. 5 BC - 54 AD); was the younger daughter of consul, Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus and Antonia Major.
The Donations of Alexandria (Autumn 34 BC) were a political act by Cleopatra VII and Mark Antony in which they distributed lands held by Rome and Parthia amongst Cleopatra's children, and granted them many titles, especially for Caesarion, son of Julius Caesar.
Drusilla of Mauretania (Greek: Δρουσίλλη) may be the Drusilla mentioned by Tacitus as a granddaughter of Antonius and Cleopatra.
Drusilla of Mauretania (Δρουσίλλη., 38-79) was a Princess of Mauretania, North Africa and was the great grandchild of Ptolemaic Greek Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt and Roman Triumvir Mark Antony.
Drusus Caesar (Drusus Iulius Caesar Germanicus, AD 8 – AD 33) was the adopted son and heir of Tiberius, alongside his brother Nero.
Durrës (Durazzo,, historically known as Epidamnos and Dyrrachium, is the second most populous city of the Republic of Albania. The city is the capital of the surrounding Durrës County, one of 12 constituent counties of the country. By air, it is northwest of Sarandë, west of Tirana, south of Shkodër and east of Rome. Located on the Adriatic Sea, it is the country's most ancient and economic and historic center. Founded by Greek colonists from Corinth and Corfu under the name of Epidamnos (Επίδαμνος) around the 7th century BC, the city essentially developed to become significant as it became an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor the Byzantine Empire. The Via Egnatia, the continuation of the Via Appia, started in the city and led across the interior of the Balkan Peninsula to Constantinople in the east. In the Middle Ages, it was contested between Bulgarian, Venetian and Ottoman dominions. Following the declaration of independence of Albania, the city served as the capital of the Principality of Albania for a short period of time. Subsequently, it was annexed by the Kingdom of Italy and Nazi Germany in the interwar period. Moreover, the city experienced a strong expansion in its demography and economic activity during the Communism in Albania. Durrës is served by the Port of Durrës, one of the largest on the Adriatic Sea, which connects the city to Italy and other neighbouring countries. Its most considerable attraction is the Amphitheatre of Durrës that is included on the tentative list of Albania for designation as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Once having a capacity for 20,000 people, it is the largest amphitheatre in the Balkan Peninsula.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
The Eastern Mediterranean denotes the countries geographically to the east of the Mediterranean Sea (Levantine Seabasin).
Ecbatana (𐏃𐎥𐎶𐎫𐎠𐎴 Hagmatāna or Haŋmatāna, literally "the place of gathering", אַחְמְתָא, Ἀγβάτανα in Aeschylus and Herodotus,Ἐκβάτανα, Akkadian: kura-gam-ta-nu in the Nabonidus Chronicle) was an ancient city in Media in western Iran.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
In English literature, an elegy is a poem of serious reflection, typically a lament for the dead.
The Eleusinian Mysteries (Ἐλευσίνια Μυστήρια) were initiations held every year for the cult of Demeter and Persephone based at Eleusis in ancient Greece.
Emperor is an internationally acclaimed historical five-novel series by British author Conn Iggulden about the life of Roman statesman and general Gaius Julius Caesar.
Empire is an American historical television series for ABC.
Ephesus (Ἔφεσος Ephesos; Efes; may ultimately derive from Hittite Apasa) was an ancient Greek city on the coast of Ionia, three kilometres southwest of present-day Selçuk in İzmir Province, Turkey.
The Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranuna; 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu; الفرات al-Furāt; ̇ܦܪܬ Pǝrāt; Եփրատ: Yeprat; פרת Perat; Fırat; Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.
Flavius Eutropius was an Ancient Roman historian who flourished in the latter half of the 4th century AD.
An extrajudicial killing (also known as extrajudicial execution) is the killing of a person by governmental authorities without the sanction of any judicial proceeding or legal process.
Farsala (Φάρσαλα), known in Antiquity as Pharsalos (Φάρσαλος, Pharsalus), is a city in southern Thessaly, in Greece.
Faustus Cornelius Sulla Felix (22–62 AD) was one of the lesser known figures of the Julio-Claudian dynasty of ancient Rome.
The Final War of the Roman Republic, also known as Antony's Civil War or The War between Antony and Octavian, was the last of the Roman civil wars of the Roman Republic, fought between Mark Antony (assisted by Cleopatra) and Octavian.
The First Triumvirate is a term historians use for an informal political alliance of three prominent men between 59 and 53 BC, during the late Roman Republic: Gaius Julius Caesar, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great), and Marcus Licinius Crassus.
In Roman Imperial cult, the flamen Divi Julii or flamen Divi Iulii, was the priest of the divinised Julius Caesar, and the fourth of the so-called flamines maiores (the archpriests of the Roman flaminates) to be created.
A freedman or freedwoman is a former slave who has been released from slavery, usually by legal means.
Fulvia (c. 83 BC – 40 BC) was an aristocratic Roman woman who lived during the Late Roman Republic.
The Gabiniani (in English Gabinians) were 2000 legionaries and 500 cavalry auxilia left in the Ptolemaic Kingdom by the general Aulus Gabinius after his military restoration of Pharaoh Ptolemy XII Auletes on the Egyptian throne in 55 BCE.
Gaius Antonius (died 42 BC) was the second son of Marcus Antonius Creticus and Julia Antonia, and thus, younger brother of Mark Antony, who was one of the members of the second triumvirate.
Gaius Antonius Hybrida (flourished 1st century BC) was a politician of the Roman Republic.
Gaius Cassius Longinus (October 3, before 85 BC – October 3, 42 BC) was a Roman senator, a leading instigator of the plot to kill Julius Caesar, and the brother in-law of Marcus Junius Brutus.
Gaius Claudius Marcellus (Maior) (before 91 BCE – c. 48 BCE) was a Consul of the Roman Republic in 49 BCE.
Gaius Julius Alexio also known as Alexio II (Γάϊος Ἰούλιος Άλεξιὣνος., flourished 1st century) was a Syrian Prince and Roman Client Priest King of Emesa.
Gaius Julius Caesar was the name of several members of the gens Julia in ancient Rome.
Gaius Julius Sampsiceramus III Silas (flourished second half of the 1st century & first half of the 2nd century, died 120) was a Syrian Prince and Roman Client Priest King of Emesa.
Gaius Scribonius Curio was the name of a father and son who lived in the late Roman Republic.
Gaius Sosius was a Roman general and politician.
Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus (died 22 April 43 BC) was consul of the Roman Republic in 43 BC.
Ancient Galatia (Γαλατία, Galatía) was an area in the highlands of central Anatolia (Ankara, Çorum, Yozgat Province) in modern Turkey.
Gallia Narbonensis (Latin for "Gaul of Narbonne", from its chief settlement) was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France.
The Gallic Wars were a series of military campaigns waged by the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar against several Gallic tribes.
A gang is a group of associates, friends or members of a family with a defined leadership and internal organization that identifies with or claims control over territory in a community and engages, either individually or collectively, in illegal, and possibly violent, behavior.
Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
Gepaepyris (Γηπαιπυρις, flourished 1st century) was a Thracian princess, and a Roman Client Queen of the Bosporan Kingdom, the longest known surviving Roman Client Kingdom.
Germanicus (Latin: Germanicus Julius Caesar; 24 May 15 BC – 10 October AD 19) was a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty and a prominent general of the Roman Empire, who was known for his campaigns in Germania.
Glaphyra (Γλαφύρα.) was a hetaera, a form of courtesan, who lived in the 1st century BC.
The vocabulary of ancient Roman religion was highly specialized.
Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus (died 31 BC) was a general and politician of ancient Rome in the 1st century BC.
Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus (11 December (? ca. 2 BC) – January 41 AD) was a close relative of the five Roman Emperors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty.
A god is a male deity, in contrast with a goddess, a female deity.
Greece in the Roman era describes the period of Greek history when it was dominated by the Roman republic, the Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire (collectively, the Roman era).
Greek mythology is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices.
The Hasmonean dynasty (חַשְׁמוֹנַּאִים, Ḥašmōna'īm) was a ruling dynasty of Judea and surrounding regions during classical antiquity.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
Herod (Greek:, Hērōdēs; 74/73 BCE – c. 4 BCE/1 CE), also known as Herod the Great and Herod I, was a Roman client king of Judea, referred to as the Herodian kingdom.
The Herodian Dynasty was a royal dynasty of Idumaean (Edomite) descent, ruling the Herodian Kingdom and later the Herodian Tetrarchy, as vassals of the Roman Empire.
The Herodian kingdom of Judea was a client state of the Roman Republic from 37 BCE, when Herod the Great was appointed "King of the Jews" by the Roman Senate.
High priest (כהן גדול kohen gadol; with definite article ha'kohen ha'gadol, the high priest; Aramaic kahana rabba) was the title of the chief religious official of Judaism from the early post-Exilic times until the destruction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem in 70 CE.
Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula.
Hispania Citerior (English: "Hither Iberia", or "Nearer Iberia") was a Roman Province in Hispania during the Roman Republic.
Horrible Histories is a British sketch comedy children's television series, the second live-action iteration of the book series Horrible Histories written by Terry Deary.
John Hyrcanus II (Yohanan Hurqanos), a member of the Hasmonean dynasty, was for a long time the Jewish High Priest in the 1st century BCE.
The Ides of March (Idus Martiae, Late Latin: Idus Martii) is a day on the Roman calendar that corresponds to 15 March.
Illyricum was a Roman province that existed from 27 BC to sometime during the reign of Vespasian (69–79 AD).
The Imperial cult of ancient Rome identified emperors and some members of their families with the divinely sanctioned authority (auctoritas) of the Roman State.
Inferno (Italian for "Hell") is the first part of Dante Alighieri's 14th-century epic poem Divine Comedy.
Iulla Antonia or Julia Antonia, is thought to be a daughter of Roman consul of 10 BCE Iullus Antonius and Claudia Marcella Major.
Iullus Antonius (45 BC – 2 BC), also known as Iulus, Julus or Jullus, was a personage in Ancient Rome.
James Brian Mark Purefoy (born 3 June 1964) is an English actor, producer and director.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Jerzy Linderski (born 21 August 1934) is a Polish contemporary scholar of ancient history and Roman religion and law.
Jindires (جنديرس, Cindirês., also spelled, Jandairis, Jandires, Jendires, Jendeires, or Jandarus) is a town in northern Syria in the Afrin District of the Aleppo Governorate.
John Dryden (–) was an English poet, literary critic, translator, and playwright who was made England's first Poet Laureate in 1668.
Titus Flavius Josephus (Φλάβιος Ἰώσηπος; 37 – 100), born Yosef ben Matityahu (יוסף בן מתתיהו, Yosef ben Matityahu; Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς), was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry.
Juba II (Berber: Yuba, ⵢⵓⴱⴰ; Latin: IVBA, Juba; Ἰóβας, Ἰóβα or Ἰούβας)Roller, Duane W. (2003) The World of Juba II and Kleopatra Selene "Routledge (UK)".
Judea or Judæa (from יהודה, Standard Yəhuda, Tiberian Yəhûḏāh, Ἰουδαία,; Iūdaea, يهودا, Yahudia) is the ancient Hebrew and Israelite biblical, the exonymic Roman/English, and the modern-day name of the mountainous southern part of Canaan-Israel.
Julia Caesaris Filia (Classical Latin: IVLIA•CAESARIS•FILIA), c. 76 BC–54 BC, was the daughter of Roman dictator Julius Caesar by his first wife Cornelia, and his only child from his three marriages.
The gens Julia or Iulia was one of the most ancient patrician families at Ancient Rome.
Julia (104 BC-after 39 BC) or Julia Antonia (known from the sources to distinguish her from other Juliae) was a daughter of Lucius Julius Caesar, the consul of 90 BC, and mother of the future triumvir and deputy of Caesar, Mark Antony.
Julia Drusilla (Classical Latin: IVLIA•DRVSILLA) (16 September 16 AD – 10 June 38 AD) was a member of the Roman imperial family, the second daughter and fifth child of Germanicus and Agrippina the Elder to survive infancy.
Julia Drusilla (Classical Latin: IVLIA•DRVSILLA; summer of AD 39 24 January 41), known as Drusilla the Younger (Classical Latin: DRVSILLA•MINOR; transcribed as Drusilla Minor) during her lifetime, was the only child and daughter of Roman Emperor Gaius (Caligula) and his fourth and last wife Milonia Caesonia.
Julia Livia (before AD 14–43), sometimes referred to as Julia Drusi Caesaris filia (Julia, daughter of Drusus Caesar), was the daughter of Drusus Julius Caesar and Livilla, and granddaughter of the Roman Emperor Tiberius.
Julia Livilla (Classical Latin: IVLIA•LIVILLA, also called IVLIA•GERMANICI•CAESARIS•FILIA or LIVILLA•GERMANICI•CAESARIS•FILIA) (early AD 18 - late AD 41 or early AD 42) was the youngest child of Germanicus and Agrippina the Elder and the youngest sister of the Emperor Caligula.
Julia the Elder (30 October 39 BC – AD 14), known to her contemporaries as Julia Caesaris filia or Julia Augusti filia (Classical Latin: IVLIA•CAESARIS•FILIA or IVLIA•AVGVSTI•FILIA), was the daughter and only biological child of Augustus, the first emperor of the Roman Empire.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.
The Julio-Claudian dynasty was the first Roman imperial dynasty, consisting of the first five emperors—Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero—or the family to which they belonged.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
The Tragedy of Julius Caesar is a history play and tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written in 1599.
The Kingdom of Armenia, also the Kingdom of Greater Armenia, or simply Greater Armenia (Մեծ Հայք; Armenia Maior), was a monarchy in the Ancient Near East which existed from 321 BC to 428 AD.
The Kingdom of Commagene (Βασίλειον τῆς Kομμαγηνῆς; Կոմմագենեի թագավորություն) was an ancient Armenian kingdom of the Hellenistic period, located in and around the ancient city of Samosata, which served as its capital.
In Greco-Roman geography, Iberia (Ancient Greek: Ἰβηρία; Hiberia) was an exonym (foreign name) for the Georgian kingdom of Kartli (ქართლი), known after its core province, which during Classical Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages was a significant monarchy in the Caucasus, either as an independent state or as a dependent of larger empires, notably the Sassanid and Roman empires.
Kirkus Reviews (or Kirkus Media) is an American book review magazine founded in 1933 by Virginia Kirkus (1893–1980).
A land grant is a gift of real estate – land or its use privileges – made by a government or other authority as an incentive, means of enabling works, or as a reward for services to an individual, especially in return for military service.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latin spelling, or Latin orthography, is the spelling of Latin words written in the scripts of all historical phases of Latin from Old Latin to the present.
A lawsuit (or suit in law) is "a vernacular term for a suit, action, or cause instituted or depending between two private persons in the courts of law." A lawsuit is any proceeding by a party or parties against another in a court of law.
A legatus (anglicized as legate) was a high ranking Roman military officer in the Roman Army, equivalent to a modern high ranking general officer.
Lex Antonia (Latin for Antonine law, sometimes presented plurally as the leges Antoniae, Antonine laws) was a law established in ancient Rome in April 44 BC.
The lex Titia was a Roman law passed on 27 November 43 BC, that legalised the Second Triumvirate of Octavian, Mark Antony, and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus for a period of five years.
The Liberators' civil war was started by the Second Triumvirate to avenge Julius Caesar's murder.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
This is a list of consuls known to have held office, from the beginning of the Roman Republic to the latest use of the title in Imperial times, together with those magistrates of the Republic who were appointed in place of consuls, or who superseded consular authority for a limited period.
The Roman deities most familiar today are those the Romans identified with Greek counterparts (see interpretatio graeca), integrating Greek myths, iconography, and sometimes religious practices into Roman culture, including Latin literature, Roman art, and religious life as it was experienced throughout the Empire.
Livia Drusilla (Classical Latin: Livia•Drvsilla, Livia•Avgvsta) (30 January 58 BC – 28 September 29 AD), also known as Julia Augusta after her formal adoption into the Julian family in AD 14, was the wife of the Roman emperor Augustus throughout his reign, as well as his adviser.
Claudia Livia Julia (Classical Latin: LIVIA•IVLIA; c. 13 BC – AD 31) was the only daughter of Nero Claudius Drusus and Antonia Minor and sister of the Roman Emperor Claudius and general Germanicus, and thus the paternal aunt of the emperor Caligula and maternal great-aunt of emperor Nero, as well as the niece and daughter-in-law of Tiberius.
Lucius Aemilius Lepidus Paullus also known as Paullus Aemilius Lepidus (c. 77 BC–after 11 BC) was a Roman Senator.
Lucius Antonius (1st century BC) was the younger brother and supporter of Mark Antony, a Roman politician.
Lucius Antonius (20 BC – AD 25) was the eldest son of Iullus Antonius and Claudia Marcella Major.
Lucius Cornelius Lentulus Crus (bef. 97 BC - 48 BC) was Consul of the Roman Republic in 49 BC, an opponent of Caesar and supporter of Pompeius in the Civil War during 49 – 48 BC.
Lucius Cornificius, a member of the plebeian gens Cornificia, was a Roman politician and consul in 35 BC.
Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus (c. 49 BC-25 AD) was the son and only child of consul Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus and Aemilia Lepida.
Lucius Marcius Censorinus was a consul of the Roman Republic in 39 BC, during the Second Triumvirate.
Lucius Munatius Plancus (in Tibur – in Gaeta) was a Roman senator, consul in 42 BC, and censor in 22 BC with Lucius Aemilius Lepidus Paullus.
Several men of plebeian status were named Lucius Scribonius Libo during the Roman Republic and Roman Empire; they were members of the gens Scribonia.
For others of this name see, Lucius Scribonius Libo. Lucius Scribonius Libo was a Roman politician and military commander who was Consul in 34 BC and brother-in-law to both Pompey the Great and Augustus.
Lucius Valerius Flaccus (d. circa 73–69 BC) was a consul of the Roman Republic in 100 BC and princeps senatus (leader of the senate) during the civil wars of the 80s.
Lucius Volcatius Tullus was a Roman politician who was elected consul in 33 BC.
Lucius Licinius Lucullus (118 – 57/56 BC) was an optimate politician of the late Roman Republic, closely connected with Lucius Cornelius Sulla.
The Lupercal (from lupa, Latin for she-wolf) was a cave at the southwest foot of the Palatine Hill in Rome, located somewhere between the temple of Magna Mater and the Basilica di Sant'Anastasia al Palatino.
Lupercalia was a very ancient, possibly pre-Roman pastoral annual festival, observed in the city of Rome on February 15, to avert evil spirits and purify the city, releasing health and fertility.
Lycia et Pamphylia was the name of a province of the Roman empire, located in southern Anatolia.
The Roman province of Macedonia (Provincia Macedoniae, Ἐπαρχία Μακεδονίας) was officially established in 146 BC, after the Roman general Quintus Caecilius Metellus defeated Andriscus of Macedon, the last self-styled King of the ancient kingdom of Macedonia in 148 BC, and after the four client republics (the "tetrarchy") established by Rome in the region were dissolved.
Machaerus (Μαχαιροῦς, from Makhaira (a sword); ِقلعة مكاور Qal'atu Mkawer) is a fortified hilltop palace located in Jordan southeast of the mouth of the Jordan river on the eastern side of the Dead Sea.
The Magister equitum, in English Master of the Horse or Master of the Cavalry, was a Roman magistrate appointed as lieutenant to a dictator.
Jonathan Manu Bennett (born 10 October 1969) is a New Zealand-Australian actor.
Marcus is a Latin praenomen, or personal name, which was one of the most common names throughout Roman history.
Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (c. 89 or 88 BC – late 13 or early 12 BC) was a Roman patrician who was a part of the Second Triumvirate alongside Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (the future Augustus) and Marcus Antonius, and the last Pontifex Maximus of the Roman Republic.
Marcus Aemilius Lepidus the Younger or Marcus Aemilius Lepidus Minor (died 30 BC), was the only child of triumvir Marcus Aemilius Lepidus.
Marcus Antonius (Born 143 BC-died 87 BC) was a Roman politician of the Antonius family and one of the most distinguished Roman orators of his time.
Marcus Antonius Antyllus (47 BC – August 23, 30 BC) was known as Marcus Antonius Minor to distinguish him from his famous father, the Roman Triumvir Marc Antony (Marcus Antonius Major).
Marcus Antonius Creticus (flourished 1st century BC) was a Roman politician, member of the Antonius family.
Marcus Claudius Marcellus (c. 268 – 208 BC), five times elected as consul of the Roman Republic, was an important Roman military leader during the Gallic War of 225 BC and the Second Punic War.
Marcus Junius Brutus (the Younger) (85 BC – 23 October 42 BC), often referred to as Brutus, was a politician of the late Roman Republic.
Marcus Licinius Crassus (c. 115 – 6 May 53 BC) was a Roman general and politician who played a key role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
Marcus Valerius Messalla Corvinus was a Roman Senator who lived in the Roman Empire in the 1st century.
Marcus Velleius Paterculus (c. 19 BC – c. AD 31), also known as Velleius was a Roman historian.
Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (64/62 BC – 12 BC) was a Roman consul, statesman, general and architect.
Margaret George is an American historical novelist specializing in epic fictional biographies.
Mark Antony is a historical figure who features as a character in the HBO/BBC2 original television series Rome, played by James Purefoy.
Marlon Brando Jr. (April 3, 1924 – July 1, 2004) was an American actor and film director.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
The Master of the Horse was (and in some cases, still is) a position of varying importance in several European nations.
Masters of Rome is a series of historical novels by Australian author Colleen McCullough, set in ancient Rome during the last days of the old Roman Republic; it primarily chronicles the lives and careers of Gaius Marius, Lucius Cornelius Sulla, Pompeius Magnus, Gaius Julius Caesar, and the early career of Caesar Augustus.
Mathew John Baynton (born 18 November 1980) is an English actor, writer, comedian, singer, and musician.
Mauretania (also spelled Mauritania; both pronounced) is the Latin name for an area in the ancient Maghreb.
The Medes (Old Persian Māda-, Μῆδοι, מָדַי) were an ancient Iranian people who lived in an area known as Media (northwestern Iran) and who spoke the Median language. At around 1100 to 1000 BC, they inhabited the mountainous area of northwestern Iran and the northeastern and eastern region of Mesopotamia and located in the Hamadan (Ecbatana) region. Their emergence in Iran is thought to have occurred between 800 BC and 700 BC, and in the 7th century the whole of western Iran and some other territories were under Median rule. Its precise geographical extent remains unknown. A few archaeological sites (discovered in the "Median triangle" in western Iran) and textual sources (from contemporary Assyrians and also ancient Greeks in later centuries) provide a brief documentation of the history and culture of the Median state. Apart from a few personal names, the language of the Medes is unknown. The Medes had an ancient Iranian religion (a form of pre-Zoroastrian Mazdaism or Mithra worshipping) with a priesthood named as "Magi". Later during the reigns of the last Median kings, the reforms of Zoroaster spread into western Iran.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Menas, also known as Menodorus, was an admiral who served under Sextus Pompey during the 1st Century BC Roman Civil Wars.
Valeria Messalina (sometimes spelled Messallina; c. 17/20–48) was the third wife of the Roman Emperor Claudius.
Methoni (Μεθώνη, Modone, Modon) is a village and a former municipality in Messenia, Peloponnese, Greece.
Michael Livingston is a historian, a professor of medieval literature, and a historical fantasy novelist.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Mithridates II (meaning "Gift of Mithra") was king of Parthian Empire from 121 to 91 BC.
There were three Mithridatic Wars between Rome and the Kingdom of Pontus in the 1st century BC.
Modena (Mutna; Mutina; Modenese: Mòdna) is a city and comune (municipality) on the south side of the Po Valley, in the Province of Modena in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy.
The Nabataean Kingdom (المملكة النبطية), also named Nabatea, was a political state of the Arab Nabataeans during classical antiquity.
Nana (ნანა) was a Queen consort of Kingdom of Iberia as the second wife of Mirian III in the 4th century.
Narbonne (Occitan: Narbona,; Narbo,; Late Latin:Narbona) is a commune in southern France in the Occitanie region.
The National Maritime Museum (NMM) in Greenwich, London, is the leading maritime museum of the United Kingdom and may be the largest museum of its kind in the world.
The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.
Nero (Latin: Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 15 December 37 – 9 June 68 AD) was the last Roman emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty.
Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus (January 14, 38 BC – summer of 9 BC), born Decimus Claudius Drusus, also called Drusus Claudius Nero, Drusus, Drusus I, Nero Drusus, or Drusus the Elder was a Roman politician and military commander.
Nero Julius Caesar Germanicus (c. AD 6–31) was the adopted son and heir of Tiberius, alongside his brother Drusus.
Numidia (202 BC – 40 BC, Berber: Inumiden) was an ancient Berber kingdom of the Numidians, located in what is now Algeria and a smaller part of Tunisia and Libya in the Berber world, in North Africa.
Octavia the Elder (born before 69 BC – died after 29 BC), also known as Octavia Major or Octavia Maior (Maior is Latin for the Elder) was the daughter of the Roman governor and senator Gaius Octavius by his first wife, Ancharia.
Octavia the Younger (69 BC – 11 BC), also known as Octavia Minor or simply Octavia, was the elder sister of the first Roman Emperor, Augustus (known also as Octavian), the half-sister of Octavia the Elder, and the fourth wife of Mark Antony.
The Odrysian Kingdom (Ancient Greek: Βασίλειον Ὀδρυσῶν; Regnum Odrysium) was a state union of over 40 Thracian tribes and 22 kingdoms that existed between the 5th century BC and the 1st century AD.
Oligarchy is a form of power structure in which power rests with a small number of people.
The Optimates (optimates, "best ones", singular; also known as boni, "good men") were the traditionalist Senatorial majority of the late Roman Republic.
Orodes II of Parthia (ارد دوم), (also called Hyrodes Anaridius) was the king of the Parthian Empire from 57 BC to 37 BC.
In historical legal systems, an outlaw is declared as outside the protection of the law.
Pacorus I (died 38 BC) was a Parthian prince, who was the son of King Orodes II and Queen Laodice.
The Pact of Misenum was a treaty to end the naval blockade of the Italian Peninsula during the Sicilian revolt.
Palmyra (Palmyrene: Tadmor; تَدْمُر Tadmur) is an ancient Semitic city in present-day Homs Governorate, Syria.
Plutarch's Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans, commonly called Parallel Lives or Plutarch's Lives, is a series of biographies of famous men, arranged in tandem to illuminate their common moral virtues or failings, probably written at the beginning of the second century AD.
Parthia (𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺 Parθava; 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅 Parθaw; 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥 Pahlaw) is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran.
The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran and Iraq.
A pastiche is a work of visual art, literature, theatre, or music that imitates the style or character of the work of one or more other artists.
Patricia Southern (born 1948) is an English historian of classical Rome.
The patricians (from patricius) were originally a group of ruling class families in ancient Rome.
In Greek mythology, Persephone (Περσεφόνη), also called Kore ("the maiden"), is the daughter of Zeus and Demeter and is the queen of the underworld.
The ancient Perusia, now Perugia, first appears in history as one of the 12 confederate cities of Etruria.
The Perusine War (also Perusian or Perusinian War, or the War of Perusia) was a civil war of the Roman Republic, which lasted from 41 to 40 BC.
Pharaoh (ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ Prro) is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until circa 1200 BCE.
Parnavaz II (ფარნავაზი) (died 30 BC), of the Artaxiad Dynasty, was a king of Iberia (Kartli, eastern Georgia) from 63 to 30 BC.
Phasael (died 40 BC;, Fatza'el; Latin: Phasaelus; from Φασάηλος, Phasaelos), was a prince from the Herodian Dynasty of Judea.
Philhellenism ("the love of Greek culture") and philhellene ("the admirer of Greeks and everything Greek"), from the Greek φίλος philos "friend, lover" and ἑλληνισμός hellenism "Greek", was an intellectual fashion prominent mostly at the turn of the 19th century.
Philippi (Φίλιπποι, Philippoi) was a city in eastern Macedonia, in the Edonis region.
The Philippicae or Philippics are a series of 14 speeches Cicero gave condemning Mark Antony in 44 and 43 BC.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.
Phraates IV of Parthia (son of Orodes II), ruled the Parthian Empire from 37–2 BC.
Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence by ship or boat-borne attackers upon another ship or a coastal area, typically with the goal of stealing cargo and other valuable items or properties.
The plebs were, in ancient Rome, the general body of free Roman citizens who were not patricians, as determined by the census.
Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.
Marcus Antonius Polemon Pythodoros, also known as Polemon II of Pontus and Polemon of Cilicia (Μάρκος Ἀντώνιος Πολέμων Πυθόδωρος; 12 BC/11 BC–74) was a prince of the Bosporan, Pontus, Cilicia and Cappadocia.
Pompeia Magna (about 42 BC - ?) was the daughter and only child of political rebel Sextus Pompey and Scribonia.
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (29 September 106 BC – 28 September 48 BC), usually known in English as Pompey or Pompey the Great, was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic.
The Pontifex Maximus or pontifex maximus (Latin, "greatest priest") was the chief high priest of the College of Pontiffs (Collegium Pontificum) in ancient Rome.
Pontus (translit, "Sea") is a historical Greek designation for a region on the southern coast of the Black Sea, located in modern-day eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey.
The Populares (populares, "favouring the people", singular popularis) were a grouping in the late Roman Republic which favoured the cause of the plebeians (the commoners).
In political science and political history, the term power vacuum, also known as a power void, is an analogy between a physical vacuum, to the political condition "when someone has lost control of something and no one has replaced them." The situation can occur when a government has no identifiable central power or authority.
Praetor (also spelled prætor) was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army (in the field or, less often, before the army had been mustered); or, an elected magistratus (magistrate), assigned various duties (which varied at different periods in Rome's history).
The Principate is the name sometimes given to the first period of the Roman Empire from the beginning of the reign of Augustus in 27 BC to the end of the Crisis of the Third Century in 284 AD, after which it evolved into the so-called Dominate.
In Roman law, the Latin adjective privatus makes a legal distinction between that which is "private" and that which is publicus, "public" in the sense of pertaining to the Roman people (''populus Romanus'').
A proconsul was an official of ancient Rome who acted on behalf of a consul.
In ancient Rome a promagistrate (pro magistratu) was an ex consul or ex praetor whose imperium (the power to command an army) was extended at the end of his annual term of office or later.
Proscription (proscriptio) is, in current usage, a "decree of condemnation to death or banishment" (OED) and can be used in a political context to refer to state-approved murder or banishment.
The Ptolemaic Kingdom (Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ basileía) was a Hellenistic kingdom based in Egypt.
Ptolemy of Mauretania (Πτολεμαῖος, whence Ptolemaeus; 13 BC/9 BC-40) was the last Roman client king and ruler of Mauretania for Rome.
Ptolemy Philadelphus (Πτολεμαῖος ὁ Φιλάδελφος, "Ptolemy the brother-loving", August/September 36 BC – 29 BC) was a Ptolemaic prince and was the youngest and fourth child of Greek Ptolemaic Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt, and her third with Roman Triumvir Mark Antony.
Ptolemy Neos Dionysos Theos Philopator Theos Philadelphos (Πτολεμαῖος Νέος Διόνυσος Θεός Φιλοπάτωρ Θεός Φιλάδελφος, Ptolemaios Néos Diónysos Theós Philopátōr Theós Philádelphos "Ptolemy New Dionysus, God Beloved of his Father, God Beloved of his Brother"; 117–51 BC) was a pharaoh of the ethnically Macedonian Greek Ptolemaic dynasty of Ancient Egypt.
Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator (Πτολεμαῖος Θεός Φιλοπάτωρ, Ptolemaĩos Theós Philopátōr "Ptolemy, God Beloved of his Father"; 62 BC/61 BC – prob. January 13, 47 BC, reigned from 51 BC) was one of the last members of the Ptolemaic dynasty (305–30 BC) of Egypt.
Public enemy is a term which was first widely used in the United States in the 1930s to describe individuals whose activities were seen as criminal and extremely damaging to society, though the phrase had been used for centuries to describe pirates and similar outlaws.
Publishers Weekly (PW) is an American weekly trade news magazine targeted at publishers, librarians, booksellers and literary agents.
Publius Canidius Crassus (died 30 BC) was a Roman general and Mark Antony's lieutenant.
Publius Clodius Pulcher (c. December 93 BC – 52 BC, on January 18 of the pre-Julian calendar) was a Roman politician.
Publius Cornelius Dolabella (c. 85–80 BC – 43 BC) was a Roman general, by far the most important of the Dolabellae.
Publius Cornelius Lentulus, nicknamed Sura (114 BC – 5 December 63 BC), was one of the chief figures in the Catilinarian conspiracy and also a stepfather of Mark Antony.
Publius Servilius Vatia Isauricus was a Roman consul elected in 48 BC along with Gaius Julius Caesar.
Publius Ventidius Bassus, or in full, Publius Ventidius Publii filius Bassus, "Publius Ventidius, Publius's son, Bassus" (P·VENTIDIVS·P·F·BASSVS) was a Roman general and one of Julius Caesar's protégés.
Pythodorida or Pythodoris of Pontus (Πυθοδωρίδα or Πυθοδωρίς, 30 BC or 29 BC – 38) was a Roman client queen of Pontus, the Bosporan Kingdom, Cilicia, and Cappadocia.
Pythodoris II or Pythodorida II (reigned 38–46) was client ruler of the Odrysian kingdom of Thrace under Roman rule, in association with her cousin Rhoemetalces III.
Pythodoros of Tralles, also known as Pythodorus (Πυθόδωρος; c. 70 – after 28 BC), was an exceedingly wealthy Greek living in the 1st century BC.
A quaestor (investigator) was a public official in Ancient Rome.
Quintus Haterius Antoninus or known as Antoninus was a Roman who lived in the 1st century.
Quintus Labienus Parthicus (died 39 BC) was the son of Titus Labienus.
Quintus Pedius (died late 43 BC) was a Roman who lived during the late Republic.
Raymond William Stacy Burr (May 21, 1917September 12, 1993) was a Canadian-American actor, primarily known for his title roles in the television dramas Perry Mason and Ironside.
Reggio di Calabria (also; Reggino: Rìggiu, Bovesia Calabrian Greek: script; translit, Rhēgium), commonly known as Reggio Calabria or simply Reggio in Southern Italy, is the largest city and the most populated comune of Calabria, Southern Italy.
Rev II (რევ II) was a prince of Iberia of the Chosroid Dynasty (natively known as Kartli, eastern Georgia) who functioned as a co-king to his father Mirian III, the first Christian Georgian ruler and his mother was Nana of Iberia.
Rhetoric is the art of discourse, wherein a writer or speaker strives to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations.
Rhodes (Ρόδος, Ródos) is the largest of the Dodecanese islands of Greece in terms of land area and also the island group's historical capital.
Rhoemetalces II was a Client Ruler in association with his mother Antonia Tryphaena of the Odrysian kingdom of Thrace under the Romans from 18 to 38.
Richard Burton, CBE (born Richard Walter Jenkins Jr.; 10 November 19255 August 1984) was a Welsh actor.
A riot is a form of civil disorder commonly characterized by a group lashing out in a violent public disturbance against authority, property or people.
The Roman army (Latin: exercitus Romanus) is a term that can in general be applied to the terrestrial armed forces deployed by the Romans throughout the duration of Ancient Rome, from the Roman Kingdom (to c. 500 BC) to the Roman Republic (500–31 BC) and the Roman Empire (31 BC – 395), and its medieval continuation the Eastern Roman Empire.
A consul held the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic (509 to 27 BC), and ancient Romans considered the consulship the highest level of the cursus honorum (an ascending sequence of public offices to which politicians aspired).
Roman Cyprus was a minor senatorial province within the Roman Empire.
A dictator was a magistrate of the Roman Republic, entrusted with the full authority of the state to deal with a military emergency or to undertake a specific duty.
The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC).
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Roman Forum, also known by its Latin name Forum Romanum (Foro Romano), is a rectangular forum (plaza) surrounded by the ruins of several important ancient government buildings at the center of the city of Rome.
Roman Gaul refers to Gaul under provincial rule in the Roman Empire from the 1st century BC to the 5th century AD.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
The Roman Senate (Senatus Romanus; Senato Romano) was a political institution in ancient Rome.
Syria was an early Roman province, annexed to the Roman Republic in 64 BC by Pompey in the Third Mithridatic War, following the defeat of Armenian King Tigranes the Great.
Ancient Roman temples were among the most important buildings in Roman culture, and some of the richest buildings in Roman architecture, though only a few survive in any sort of complete state.
The Roman triumph (triumphus) was a civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly celebrate and sanctify the success of a military commander who had led Roman forces to victory in the service of the state or, originally and traditionally, one who had successfully completed a foreign war.
The Roman–Parthian Wars (66 BC – 217 AD) were a series of conflicts between the Parthian Empire and the Roman Republic and Roman Empire.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Rome is a British-American-Italian historical drama television series created by John Milius, William J. MacDonald, and Bruno Heller.
In Roman mythology, Romulus and Remus are twin brothers, whose story tells the events that led to the founding of the city of Rome and the Roman Kingdom by Romulus.
Rubellia Bassa (born between 33-38) was a daughter of Gaius Rubellius Blandus, consul in AD 18 and possibly his wife Julia Livia (killed 43) or an earlier wife.
Gaius Rubellius Plautus (33–62 AD) was a Roman noble and a political rival of Emperor Nero.
The Rubicon (Rubicō, Rubicone) is a shallow river in northeastern Italy, just south of Ravenna.
Sacrosanctity was the declaration of physical inviolability of a temple, a sacred object or a person through the lex sacrata (sacred law), which had religious connotations.
Samosata (Armenian: Շամուշատ, Shamushat, Σαμόσατα Samósata, ܫܡܝܫܛ šmīšaṭ) was an ancient city on the right (west) bank of the Euphrates, whose ruins exist at the previous location of the modern city of Samsat, Adıyaman Province, Turkey but are no longer accessible as the site was flooded by the newly constructed Atatürk Dam.
The Province of Sardinia and Corsica (Provincia Sardinia et Corsica) was an ancient Roman province including the islands of Sardinia and Corsica.
Saurmag II (საურმაგ II, Latinized as Sauromaces), of the Chosroid Dynasty, was a king of Iberia (Kartli, eastern Georgia) from 361 to 363 and diarch from 370 to 378.
The second Catilinarian conspiracy, also known simply as the Catiline conspiracy, was a plot, devised by the Roman senator Lucius Sergius Catilina (or Catiline), with the help of a group of fellow aristocrats and disaffected veterans of Lucius Cornelius Sulla, to overthrow the consulship of Marcus Tullius Cicero and Gaius Antonius Hybrida.
The Second Triumvirate is the name historians have given to the official political alliance of Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (Caesar Augustus), Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony), and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, formed on 27 November 43 BC with the enactment of the Lex Titia, the adoption of which some view as marking the end of the Roman Republic, whilst others argue the Battle of Actium or Octavian becoming Caesar Augustus in 27 BC.
The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
Senatus consultum ultimum ("final decree of the Senate" or Final Act, often abbreviated SCU), more properly senatus consultum de re publica defendenda ("decree of the Senate about defending the Republic") is the modern term (based on Caesar's wording at Bell. Civ. 1.5) given to a decree of the Roman Senate during the late Roman Republic passed in times of emergency.
Sergius Octavius Laenas Pontianus was a consul of Ancient Rome in the year 131 AD, during the reign of the Emperor Hadrian.
Serpent of the Nile is a 1953 low budget Technicolor historical adventure film produced by Sam Katzman and directed by William Castle.
This article is about Sextus Pompeius, the paternal uncle of triumvir Pompey and the descendants from Pompey’s uncle.
Sextus Pompeius Magnus Pius, in English Sextus Pompey (67 BC – 35 BC), was a Roman general from the late Republic (1st century BC).
is a 2005 hybrid hack and slash/stealth video game, with elements of vehicular combat, developed and published by Capcom for the PlayStation 2.
Shah (Šāh, pronounced, "king") is a title given to the emperors, kings, princes and lords of Iran (historically also known as Persia).
Sicilia was the first province acquired by the Roman Republic.
The Sicilian revolt was a revolt against the Second Triumvirate of the Roman Republic which occurred between 44 BC and 36 BC.
Sicyon (Σικυών; gen.: Σικυῶνος) was an ancient Greek city state situated in the northern Peloponnesus between Corinth and Achaea on the territory of the present-day regional unit of Corinthia.
Sid James (born Solomon Joel Cohen; 8 May 1913 – 26 April 1976) (sometimes credited as Sidney James) was a South African-born British character and comic actor.
Herod the Great's Siege of Jerusalem (37 BC) was the final step in his campaign to secure the throne of Judea.
Social class in ancient Rome was hierarchical, but there were multiple and overlapping social hierarchies, and an individual's relative position in one might be higher or lower than in another.
Sovereign immunity, or crown immunity, is a legal doctrine by which the sovereign or state cannot commit a legal wrong and is immune from civil suit or criminal prosecution.
A military staff (often referred to as general staff, army staff, navy staff, or air staff within the individual services) is a group of officers, enlisted and civilian personnel that are responsible for the administrative, operational and logistical needs of its unit.
Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, commonly known as Suetonius (c. 69 – after 122 AD), was a Roman historian belonging to the equestrian order who wrote during the early Imperial era of the Roman Empire.
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.
Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (c. 138 BC – 78 BC), known commonly as Sulla, was a Roman general and statesman.
Sulla's second civil war was one of a series of civil wars of ancient Rome.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Syria Palaestina was a Roman province between 135 AD and about 390.
The talent (talentum, from Ancient Greek: τάλαντον, talanton 'scale, balance, sum') was one of several ancient units of mass, a commercial weight, as well as corresponding units of value equivalent to these masses of a precious metal.
Tarsus (Hittite: Tarsa; Greek: Ταρσός Tarsós; Armenian: Տարսոն Tarson; תרשיש Ṭarśīś; طَرَسُوس Ṭarsūs) is a historic city in south-central Turkey, 20 km inland from the Mediterranean.
The Taurus Mountains (Turkish: Toros Dağları, Armenian: Թորոս լեռներ, Ancient Greek: Ὄρη Ταύρου) are a mountain complex in southern Turkey, separating the Mediterranean coastal region of southern Turkey from the central Anatolian Plateau.
The Temple of Artemis or Artemision (Ἀρτεμίσιον; Artemis Tapınağı), also known less precisely as the Temple of Diana, was a Greek temple dedicated to an ancient, local form of the goddess Artemis.
"The God Abandons Antony" (Ἀπολείπειν ὁ θεὸς Ἀντώνιον; also translated as "The God Forsakes Antony") is a poem by Constantine P. Cavafy, published in 1911.
The Jewish War or Judean War (in full Flavius Josephus's Books of the History of the Jewish War against the Romans, Φλαυίου Ἰωσήπου ἱστορία Ἰουδαϊκοῦ πολέμου πρὸς Ῥωμαίους βιβλία, Phlauiou Iōsēpou historia Ioudaikou polemou pros Rōmaious biblia), also referred to in English as The Wars of the Jews, is a book written by Josephus, a Roman-Jewish historian of the 1st century.
The Memoirs of Cleopatra is a 1997 historical fiction novel written by American author Margaret George, detailing the purported life of Cleopatra VII, Queen of Egypt.
The Roman Revolution (1939) is a scholarly study of the final years of the ancient Roman Republic and the creation of the Roman Empire by Caesar Augustus.
The Shards of Heaven is a 2015 historical fantasy debut novel by Michael Livingston.
Thessaly (Θεσσαλία, Thessalía; ancient Thessalian: Πετθαλία, Petthalía) is a traditional geographic and modern administrative region of Greece, comprising most of the ancient region of the same name.
The Third Mithridatic War (73–63 BC) was the last and longest of three Mithridatic Wars and was fought between Mithridates VI of Pontus, who was joined by his allies, and the Roman Republic.
The Third Servile War, also called by Plutarch the Gladiator War and The War of Spartacus, was the last in a series of slave rebellions against the Roman Republic, known collectively as the Servile Wars.
Tiberius (Tiberius Caesar Divi Augusti filius Augustus; 16 November 42 BC – 16 March 37 AD) was Roman emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD, succeeding the first emperor, Augustus.
Tiberius Julius Caesar Nero Gemellus, known as Tiberius Gemellus (Latin: Tiberius Caesar Drusus filius Tiberius Augustus nepos divus Augustus pronepos; 10 October AD 19–37/38) was the son of Drusus and Livilla, the grandson of the Emperor Tiberius, and the second cousin of the Emperor Caligula.
Tiberius Julius Cotys I Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, also known as Cotys I or Kotys I (Τιβέριος Ἰούλιος Κότυς Α' Φιλόκαισαρ Φιλορωμαῖος Eὐσεβής, Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, means lover of Caesar, lover of Rome who is the pious one, flourished 1st century) was a prince and Roman client king of the Bosporan Kingdom.
Tiberius Julius Cotys II Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, also known as Cotys II or Kotys II (Τιβέριος Ἰούλιος Κότυς Β' Φιλόκαισαρ Φιλορώμαίος Eυσεbής., Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, means lover of Caesar, lover of Rome who is the Pius one, flourished 2nd century, died 132) was a prince and Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom.
Tiberius Julius Cotys III Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, also known as Cotys III or Kotys III (Τιβέριος Ἰούλιος Κότυς Γ' Φιλόκαισαρ Φιλορώμαίος Eυσεbής., Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, means lover of Caesar, lover of Rome who is the Pius one, flourished second half of 2nd century and first half of 3rd century – died 235) was a prince and Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom.
Tiberius Julius Eupator Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes (Τιβέριος Ἰούλιος Ευπάτωρ Φιλόκαισαρ Φιλορώμαίος Eυσεbής., Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, means lover of Caesar, lover of Rome who is the Pius one, flourished 2nd century, died 174), also known as Eupator, was a prince and Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom.
Tiberius Julius Ininthimeus Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, also known as Ininthimaeus, Ininthimeus or Inithimeus (Τιβέριος Ἰούλιος Iνινθιμηος Φιλόκαισαρ Φιλορώμαίος Eυσεbής., Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, means lover of Caesar, lover of Rome who is the Pious one, flourished 3rd century – died 240) was a prince and Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom.
Tiberius Julius Mithridates Philogermanicus Philopatris, sometimes known as Mithridates III of the Bosporan (Τιβέριος Ιούλιος Μιθριδάτης Φιλογερμανικος Φιλοπατρíς, Philopatris means lover of his country, flourished 1st century, died 68) was a Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom.
Tiberius Julius Pharsanzes, also known as Pharsanzes (Τιβέριος Ἰούλιος Φαρσανζης., flourished 3rd century – died 254) was a prince and Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom.
Tiberius Julius Rhadamsades, sometimes known as Rhadamsades (Τιβέριος Ἰούλιος Ραδαμσαδης., flourished second half of 3rd century & first half of 4th century – died 323) was a prince and Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom.
Tiberius Julius Rhescuporis I Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, also known as Rhescuporis I (Τιβέριος Ἰούλιος Ῥησκούπορις Α' Φιλόκαισαρ Φιλορώμαίος Eυσεbής, Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, means lover of Caesar, lover of Rome who is the Pius one, flourished 1st century, died 90) was a prince and Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom.
Tiberius Julius Rhescuporis II Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, also known as Rhescuporis II (Τιβέριος Ἰούλιος Ῥησκούπορις Β' Φιλόκαισαρ Φιλορώμαίος Eυσεbής., Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, means lover of Caesar, lover of Rome who is the Pius one, flourished 3rd century – died 227) was a prince and Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom.
Tiberius Julius Rhescuporis III Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, also known as Rhescuporis III (Τιβέριος Ἰούλιος Ῥησκούπορις Γ' Φιλόκαισαρ Φιλορώμαίος Eυσεbής., Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, means lover of Caesar, lover of Rome who is the Pius one, flourished 3rd century – died 227) was a prince and Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom.
Tiberius Julius Rhescuporis IV, also known as Rhescuporis IV (Τιβέριος Ἰούλιος Ῥησκούπορις Δ'., flourished 3rd century – died 235) was a prince and Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom.
Tiberius Julius Rhescuporis V Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, also known as Rhescuporis V (Τιβέριος Ἰούλιος Ῥησκούπορις Ε' Φιλόκαισαρ Φιλορώμαίος Eυσεbής., Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, means lover of Caesar, lover of Rome who is the Pius one, flourished 3rd century – died 276) was a prince and Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom.
Tiberius Julius Rhescuporis VI (Τιβέριος Ἰούλιος Ῥησκούπορις Στ'.; died 342) was the last ruler of the Bosporan Kingdom, a client realm of the Roman Empire.
Tiberius Julius Rhoemetalces Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, also known as Rhoemetalces or Rhoimetalces (Τιβέριος Ιούλιος Ροιμητάλκης Φιλοκαισαρ Φιλορώμαίος Ευσεβής., Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, means lover of Caesar, lover of Rome who is the Pius one, flourished 2nd century, died 153) was a prince and Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom.
Tiberius Julius Sauromates I Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, also known as Sauromates I (Τιβέριος Ιούλιος Σαυροματης Α' Φιλοκαισαρ Φιλορώμαίος Ευσεβής., Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, means lover of Caesar, lover of Rome who is the Pius one, flourished the second half of the 1st century and the first half of the 2nd century AD, died 123) was a prince and Roman client king of the Bosporan Kingdom.
Tiberius Julius Sauromates II Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, also known as Sauromates II (Τιβέριος Ἰούλιος Σαυρομάτης Β΄ Φιλόκαισαρ Φιλορώμαιος Eὐσεβής., Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, means lover of Caesar, lover of Rome who is the Pius one, r. 173/174 - 210/211 AD), was a prince and Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom.
Tiberius Julius Sauromates III, sometimes known as Sauromates III (Τιβέριος Ἰούλιος Σαυροματης Γ'., flourished 3rd century, died 232) was a prince and Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom.
Tiberius Julius Sauromates IV, also known as Sauromates IV (Τιβέριος Ἰούλιος Σαυροματης Δ'., flourished 3rd century – died 276) was a prince and Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom.
Tiberius Julius Synges, also known as Synges (flourished 3rd century – died 276) was a prince and Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom.
Tiberius Julius Teiranes, possibly known as Gaius Julius Teiranes or Teiranes (Τιβέριος Ἰούλιος Τειρανης., flourished 3rd century – died 279) was a prince and Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom.
Tiberius Julius Theothorses, also known as Thothorses or Fophors (Τιβέριος Ἰούλιος Θοθωρσης., flourished second half of 3rd century & first half of 4th century – died 309) was a prince and Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom.
Tigranes II, more commonly known as Tigranes the Great (Տիգրան Մեծ, Tigran Mets; Τιγράνης ὁ Μέγας Tigránes ho Mégas; Tigranes Magnus) (140 – 55 BC) was King of Armenia under whom the country became, for a short time, the strongest state to Rome's east.
Lucius Tillius Cimber (died 42 BC) was a Roman senator.
Titus Annius Milo Papianus was a Roman political agitator.
The toga, a distinctive garment of Ancient Rome, was a roughly semicircular cloth, between in length, draped over the shoulders and around the body.
Thomas Edward Alexander "Tom" Stourton (born 16 May 1987) is an English actor, voice actor, comedian and writer.
Transcaucasia (Закавказье), or the South Caucasus, is a geographical region in the vicinity of the southern Caucasus Mountains on the border of Eastern Europe and Western Asia.
Trdat (თრდატი, sometimes Latinized as Tiridates), of the Chosroid Dynasty, was the king of Iberia (Kartli, eastern Georgia) from c. 394 to 406.
In law, treason is the crime that covers some of the more extreme acts against one's nation or sovereign.
Gaius Trebonius (c. 92 BC – January 43 BC) was a military commander and politician of the late Roman Republic, who became suffect consul in 45 BC.
Tribunus plebis, rendered in English as tribune of the plebs, tribune of the people, or plebeian tribune, was the first office of the Roman state that was open to the plebeians, and throughout the history of the Republic, the most important check on the power of the Roman Senate and magistrates.
Tyrannicide is the killing or assassination of a tyrant or unjust ruler, usually for the common good, and usually by one of the tyrant's subjects.
Tyre (صور, Ṣūr; Phoenician:, Ṣūr; צוֹר, Ṣōr; Tiberian Hebrew, Ṣōr; Akkadian:, Ṣurru; Greek: Τύρος, Týros; Sur; Tyrus, Տիր, Tir), sometimes romanized as Sour, is a district capital in the South Governorate of Lebanon.
Vatican City (Città del Vaticano; Civitas Vaticana), officially the Vatican City State or the State of Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano; Status Civitatis Vaticanae), is an independent state located within the city of Rome.
The Vatican Museums (Musei Vaticani; Musea Vaticana) are Christian and art museums located within the city boundaries of the Vatican City.
Vercingetorix (– 46 BC) was a king and chieftain of the Arverni tribe; he united the Gauls in a revolt against Roman forces during the last phase of Julius Caesar's Gallic Wars.
The Via Egnatia (Greek: Ἐγνατία Ὁδός) was a road constructed by the Romans in the 2nd century BC.
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.
William Haines Lytle (November 2, 1826 – September 20, 1863) was a politician in Ohio, renowned poet, and military officer in the United States Army during both the Mexican-American War and American Civil War, where he was killed in action as a brigadier general.
William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.
Xena: Warrior Princess is an American fantasy television series filmed on location in New Zealand.
Septimia Zenobia (Palmyrene: (Btzby), pronounced Bat-Zabbai; 240 – c. 274 AD) was a third-century queen of the Syria-based Palmyrene Empire.