557 relations: Aboriginal Australians, Act of Congress, Adolescence, Adoption, Adultery, Affinity (law), Africa, Akan people, Alimony, All Things Considered, Alliance theory, Anand Karaj, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek, Andrey Korotayev, Angela Carter, Anglican Communion, Anglicanism, Anglo-Saxons, Animal husbandry, Anita Pratap, Annulment, Anthropologist, Anthropology, Anti-miscegenation laws, Apartheid, Argentina, Aristotle, Arranged marriage, Arranged marriage in the Indian subcontinent, Article 809 of the Korean Civil Code, Ashkenazi Jews, Asian Americans, Augsburg Fortress, Avunculate marriage, Bahá'í Faith, Bahá'í marriage, Balochistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bastard (law of England and Wales), BBC Radio 4, Beijing, Bell hooks, Bertrand Russell, Bigamy, Bishop, Black Death, Book of Numbers, Brazil, Bride kidnapping, ..., Bride price, Bulgaria, Calvinism, Cambodia, Cambridge University Press, Cancer, Capital punishment, Caribbean, Catechism, Catholic Church, Caucasus, Celibacy, Celts, Central Asia, Ceremonial marriage, Chabad.org, Child marriage, Child Marriage Restraint Act, Child sexual abuse, Child support, Chile, Christian, Christianity, Citizenship of the United States, Civil marriage, Civil solidarity pact, Civil union, Civil union in New Zealand, Claude Lévi-Strauss, Codex Theodosianus, Cohabitation, College Historical Society, Colombia, Columbus School of Law, Commentaries on the Laws of England, Common Era, Common-law marriage, Commonwealth, Community, Community property, Concubinage, Confucianism, Confucius, Consanguinity, Constitutionality, Contract, Convention on Consent to Marriage, Minimum Age for Marriage and Registration of Marriages, Cook Islands, Council of Trent, Counter-Reformation, Courtship, Cousin marriage, Covenant (religion), Covenant Code, Coverture, Crime, Crime of passion, Cross-cultural, Cultural universal, Current Anthropology, David Norris (politician), Deacon, Declaration of nullity, Delaware, Deutsche Welle, Developed country, Developing country, Disease, Divine grace, Divine Liturgy, Divorce, Divorce demography, Divorce law by country, Domestic violence, Dower, Dowry, Dowry death, Duran Bell, Early Christianity, Early modern Britain, Early modern period, East Germany, Eastern Christianity, Eastern Europe, Eastern Orthodox Church, Ecclesiastical court, Edmund Leach, Edvard Westermarck, Edward Burnett Tylor, Egalitarianism, Elopement, Emma Goldman, Endogamy, Engagement, England, England and Wales, England in the Middle Ages, English law, Episcopal Church (United States), Equinox Publishing (Sheffield), Erusin, Eucharist, European Convention on Human Rights, European Court of Human Rights, European Union, Exogamy, Extenuating circumstances, Extortion, Extramarital sex, Family, Family tree, Fear, Feminism, Feminist theory, Fertilisation, Flagellation, Fleet Marriage, Forced adoption in Australia, Forced marriage, Fornication, France, Fueros of Navarre, Fujian, Full moon, Fuxi, Gender and Language, Gender role, George Murdock, Germania, Germanic peoples, Gershom ben Judah, Get (divorce document), Ghana, Ghost marriage (Sudanese), Girl, Green card marriage, Grounds for divorce, Group marriage, Grover Cleveland, Guru Granth Sahib, Hajnal line, Halakha, Health, Heterosexuality, Hindu texts, Hinduism, History of marriage in Great Britain and Ireland, History of the family, Homosexuality, Honor killing, Honour killing in Pakistan, Human Relations Area Files, Human rights, Human rights movement, Human sexual activity, Husband, Hypothesis, Ignatius of Antioch, Immorality Act, In Our Time (radio series), In vitro fertilisation, Incest, Incest taboo, Income tax, India, Infertility, Initiative, Institution, Intentional community, Interfaith marriage, Interracial marriage, Iran, Iraq, Isaac, Islam, Islam in the United States, Islamic marital jurisprudence, Israel, Israr Ullah Zehri, Jack Goody, Jacob, Jael, Jesus, Jewish wedding, John Calvin, Jointure, Jordan, Journal of Family History, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, Judaism, Julia Gillard, Jurisdiction, Kabbalah, Kaingang, Kathleen Gough, Ketubah, Kingdom of Navarre, Kinship, Kirtan, Korotayev, Kshatriya, Latin, Latin America, Latin Church, Latin liturgical rites, Lebanon, Legal fiction, Legal guardian, Leonard Hobhouse, Lesser of two evils principle, Levirate marriage, Lewis H. 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Finland, Same-sex marriage in France, Same-sex marriage in Germany, Same-sex marriage in Gibraltar, Same-sex marriage in Guernsey, Same-sex marriage in Hawaii, Same-sex marriage in Iceland, Same-sex marriage in Illinois, Same-sex marriage in Jalisco, Same-sex marriage in Luxembourg, Same-sex marriage in Malta, Same-sex marriage in Mexico, Same-sex marriage in Mexico City, Same-sex marriage in Michoacán, Same-sex marriage in Morelos, Same-sex marriage in Nayarit, Same-sex marriage in New Zealand, Same-sex marriage in Norway, Same-sex marriage in Portugal, Same-sex marriage in Puebla, Same-sex marriage in Quintana Roo, Same-sex marriage in Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, Same-sex marriage in South Africa, Same-sex marriage in Spain, Same-sex marriage in Sweden, Same-sex marriage in Taiwan, Same-sex marriage in the British Antarctic Territory, Same-sex marriage in the British Indian Ocean Territory, Same-sex marriage in the Falkland Islands, Same-sex marriage in the Isle of Man, Same-sex marriage in the Netherlands, Same-sex marriage in the Pitcairn Islands, Same-sex marriage in the Republic of Ireland, Same-sex marriage in the United Kingdom, Same-sex marriage in the United States, Same-sex marriage in Uruguay, Same-sex relationship, Samson, San Giovanni a Porta Latina, Sanskrit, Sarah, Saudi Arabia, Scandinavia, Scotland, Second-wave feminism, Secularity, Sexual intercourse, Sexual violence, Shared earning/shared parenting marriage, Sharia, Shia Islam, Slavs, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Spain, Spirituality, Spouse, Sri Lanka, State (polity), Stoning, Structural functionalism, Sub-Saharan Africa, Suicide, Sunni Islam, Supreme Court of the United States, Surgery, Tacitus, Talmud, Tanakh, Tax bracket, Teenage pregnancy, Temple (LDS Church), Thailand, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, The Guardian, The History of Human Marriage, The Rape of the Sabine Women, The University of Utah Press, Theocracy, Third gender, Tokelau, Torah, Totem, Trafficking of children, Trial by ordeal, Tribe, Trust law, Turkey, Two-spirit, Umrani, United Church of Canada, United Church of Christ, United Kingdom, United Methodist Church, United States, United States Constitution, Unregistered cohabitation, Urf, Utah, Vatican City, Violence against women, Virginity, Visigothic Code, Vocation, Void marriage, Voidable marriage, Voluntary childlessness, Wali, We'wha, Wedding, West Germany, West Sumatra, Western culture, Western Europe, Western European marriage pattern, Western world, Widow inheritance, Wife, Will and testament, William Blackstone, William Robertson Smith, Women's rights, Zaragoza, Zuni, 1890 Manifesto, 1983 Code of Canon Law. 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Aboriginal Australians are legally defined as people who are members "of the Aboriginal race of Australia" (indigenous to mainland Australia or to the island of Tasmania).
An Act of Congress is a statute enacted by the United States Congress.
AdolescenceMacmillan Dictionary for Students Macmillan, Pan Ltd.
Adoption is a process whereby a person assumes the parenting of another, usually a child, from that person's biological or legal parent or parents, and, in so doing, permanently transfers all rights and responsibilities, along with filiation, from the biological parent or parents.
Adultery (from Latin adulterium) is extramarital sex that is considered objectionable on social, religious, moral, or legal grounds.
In law and in cultural anthropology, affinity, as distinguished from consanguinity (blood relationship), is the kinship relationship that is created or exists between two or more people as a result of someone's marriage.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
The Akan are a meta-ethnicity predominantly speaking Central Tano languages and residing in the southern regions of the former Gold Coast region in what is today the nation of Ghana.
Alimony (also called aliment (Scotland), maintenance (England, Ireland, Northern Ireland, Wales, Canada), spousal support (U.S., Canada) and spouse maintenance (Australia)) is a legal obligation on a person to provide financial support to their spouse before or after marital separation or divorce.
All Things Considered (ATC) is the flagship news program on the American network National Public Radio (NPR).
The alliance theory, also known as the general theory of exchanges, is a structuralist method of studying kinship relations.
Anand Karaj (ਅਨੰਦ ਕਾਰਜ) is the Sikh marriage ceremony, meaning "Blissful Union" or "Joyful Union", that was introduced by Guru Amar Das.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Andrey Vitalievich Korotayev (Андре́й Вита́льевич Корота́ев; born 17 February 1961) is a Russian anthropologist, economic historian, comparative political scientist, demographer and sociologist, with major contributions to world-systems theory, cross-cultural studies, Near Eastern history, Big History, and mathematical modelling of social and economic macrodynamics.
Angela Olive Carter-Pearce (née Stalker; 7 May 1940 – 16 February 1992), who published under the pen name Angela Carter, was an English novelist, short story writer and journalist, known for her feminist, magical realism, and picaresque works.
The Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion with 85 million members, founded in 1867 in London, England.
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.
The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.
Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat, fibre, milk, eggs, or other products.
Anita Pratap is an expatriate Indian writer and journalist.
Annulment is a legal procedure within secular and religious legal systems for declaring a marriage null and void.
An anthropologist is a person engaged in the practice of anthropology.
Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.
Anti-miscegenation laws or miscegenation laws are laws that enforce racial segregation at the level of marriage and intimate relationships by criminalizing interracial marriage and sometimes also sex between members of different races.
Apartheid started in 1948 in theUnion of South Africa |year_start.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Arranged marriage is a type of marital union where the bride and groom are selected by individuals other than the couple themselves, particularly family members, such as the parents.
Arranged marriage in the Indian subcontinent is a tradition in the societies of the Indian subcontinent, and continue to account for an overwhelming majority of marriages in the Indian subcontinent.
Article 809 of the Korean Civil Code (Korean: 민법 제 809조) was the codification of a traditional rule prohibiting marriage between men and women who have the same surname and ancestral home (bon-gwan).
Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or simply Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים, Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation:, singular:, Modern Hebrew:; also), are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium.
Asian Americans are Americans of Asian descent.
Augsburg Fortress is the official publishing house of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA), also publishing for the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada (ELCIC) as Augsburg Fortress Canada.
An avunculate marriage is any marriage between an uncle/aunt and a niece/nephew.
The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.
Bahá'í marriage is union of a man and a woman.
Balochistan (bəloːt͡ʃɪs't̪ɑːn) (بلوچِستان), is one of the five provinces of Pakistan.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
A bastard (also historically called whoreson, although both of these terms have largely dropped from common usage) in the law of England and Wales is an illegitimate child, that is, one whose parents were not married at the time of his or her birth.
BBC Radio 4 is a radio station owned and operated by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) that broadcasts a wide variety of spoken-word programmes including news, drama, comedy, science and history.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
Gloria Jean Watkins (born September 25, 1952), better known by her pen name bell hooks, is an American author, feminist, and social activist.
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate.
In cultures that practice marital monogamy, bigamy is the act of entering into a marriage with one person while still legally married to another.
A bishop (English derivation from the New Testament of the Christian Bible Greek επίσκοπος, epískopos, "overseer", "guardian") is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight.
The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.
The Book of Numbers (from Greek Ἀριθμοί, Arithmoi; בְּמִדְבַּר, Bəmiḏbar, "In the desert ") is the fourth book of the Hebrew Bible, and the fourth of five books of the Jewish Torah.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Bride kidnapping, also known as marriage by abduction or marriage by capture, is a practice in which a man abducts the woman he wishes to marry.
Bride price, bridewealth, or bride token, is money, property, or other form of wealth paid by a groom or his family to the family of the woman he will be married or is just about to marry.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.
The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.
A catechism (from κατηχέω, "to teach orally") is a summary or exposition of doctrine and serves as a learning introduction to the Sacraments traditionally used in catechesis, or Christian religious teaching of children and adult converts.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
Celibacy (from Latin, cælibatus") is the state of voluntarily being unmarried, sexually abstinent, or both, usually for religious reasons.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
Ceremonial marriage is a common form of marriage in which a couple follows laws and procedures specified by the state in order to gain recognition of their marriage (ex. buying a marriage license, participating in a ceremony led by an authorized official, having witnesses at a ceremony).
Chabad.org is the flagship website of the Chabad-Lubavitch Hasidic movement.
Child marriage is a formal marriage or informal union entered into by an individual before reaching a certain age, specified by several global organizations such as UNICEF as minors under the age of 18.
Child Marriage Restraint Act 1929 passed on 28 September 1929 in the British India Legislature of India, fixed the age of marriage for girls at 14 years and boys at 18 years which was later amended to 18 for girls and 21 for boys.
Child sexual abuse, also called child molestation, is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent uses a child for sexual stimulation.
In family law and public policy, child support (or child maintenance) is an ongoing, periodic payment made by a parent for the financial benefit of a child (or parent, caregiver, guardian, or state) following the end of a marriage or other relationship.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Citizenship of the United States is a status that entails specific rights, duties and benefits.
A civil marriage is a marriage performed, recorded and recognised by a government official.
In France, a civil solidarity pact (pacte civil de solidarité), commonly known as a PACS, is a contractual form of civil union between two adults for organising their joint life.
A civil union, also referred to by a variety of other names, is a legally recognized arrangement similar to marriage.
Civil union has been legal in New Zealand since 26 April 2005.
Claude Lévi-Strauss (28 November 1908, Brussels – 30 October 2009, Paris) was a French anthropologist and ethnologist whose work was key in the development of the theory of structuralism and structural anthropology.
The Codex Theodosianus (Eng. Theodosian Code) was a compilation of the laws of the Roman Empire under the Christian emperors since 312.
Cohabitation is an arrangement where two people who are not married live together.
The College Historical Society (CHS) – popularly referred to as The Hist – is one of the two debating societies at Trinity College, Dublin.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
The Columbus School of Law, also known as CUA Law, is the law school of The Catholic University of America, in Washington, D.C. More than 450 Juris Doctor students attend CUA Law.
The Commentaries on the Laws of England are an influential 18th-century treatise on the common law of England by Sir William Blackstone, originally published by the Clarendon Press at Oxford, 1765–1769.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
Common-law marriage, also known as sui iuris marriage, informal marriage, marriage by habit and repute, or marriage in fact, is a legal framework in a limited number of jurisdictions where a couple is legally considered married, without that couple having formally registered their relation as a civil or religious marriage.
A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good.
A community is a small or large social unit (a group of living things) that has something in common, such as norms, religion, values, or identity.
Community property is a marital property regime under which most property acquired during the marriage (except for gifts or inheritances), the community, or communio bonorum, is owned jointly by both spouses and is divided upon divorce, annulment, or death.
Concubinage is an interpersonal and sexual relationship in which the couple are not or cannot be married.
Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.
Confucius (551–479 BC) was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history.
Consanguinity ("blood relation", from the Latin consanguinitas) is the property of being from the same kinship as another person.
Constitutionality is the condition of acting in accordance with an applicable constitution; the status of a law, a procedure, or an act's accordance with the laws or guidelines set forth in the applicable constitution.
A contract is a promise or set of promises that are legally enforceable and, if violated, allow the injured party access to legal remedies.
The Convention on Consent to Marriage, Minimum Age for Marriage, and Registration of Marriages was a treaty agreed upon in the United Nations on the standards of marriage.
The Cook Islands (Cook Islands Māori: Kūki 'Āirani) is a self-governing island country in the South Pacific Ocean in free association with New Zealand.
The Council of Trent (Concilium Tridentinum), held between 1545 and 1563 in Trent (or Trento, in northern Italy), was an ecumenical council of the Catholic Church.
The Counter-Reformation, also called the Catholic Reformation or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic resurgence initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War (1648).
Courtship is the period of development towards an intimate relationship wherein people (usually a couple) get to know each other and decide if there will be an engagement or other romantic arrangement.
Cousin marriage is marriage between cousins (i.e. people with common grandparents or people who share other fairly recent ancestors).
In religion, a covenant is a formal alliance or agreement made by God with a religious community or with humanity in general.
The Covenant Code, or The Book of the Covenant, is the name given by academics to a text appearing in the Torah at Exodus –. Biblically, the text is the second of the law codes given to Moses by God at Mount Sinai.
Coverture (sometimes spelled couverture) was a legal doctrine whereby, upon marriage, a woman's legal rights and obligations were subsumed by those of her husband, in accordance with the wife's legal status of feme covert.
In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority.
A crime of passion (French: crime passionnel), in popular usage, refers to a violent crime, especially homicide, in which the perpetrator commits the act against someone because of sudden strong impulse such as sudden rage rather than as a premeditated crime.
Cross-cultural may refer to.
A cultural universal (also called an anthropological universal or human universal), as discussed by Emile Durkheim, George Murdock, Claude Lévi-Strauss, Donald Brown and others, is an element, pattern, trait, or institution that is common to all human cultures worldwide.
Current Anthropology is a peer-reviewed anthropology academic journal published by the University of Chicago Press and sponsored by the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research.
David Patrick Bernard Norris (born 31 July 1944) is an Irish scholar, independent Senator and civil rights activist.
A deacon is a member of the diaconate, an office in Christian churches that is generally associated with service of some kind, but which varies among theological and denominational traditions.
In the Catholic Church, a declaration of nullity, commonly called an annulment and less commonly a decree of nullity, is a judgment on the part of an ecclesiastical tribunal determining that a marriage was invalidly contracted or, less frequently, a judgment determining that ordination was invalidly conferred.
Delaware is one of the 50 states of the United States, in the Mid-Atlantic or Northeastern region.
Deutsche Welle ("German wave" in German) or DW is Germany's public international broadcaster.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
Divine grace is a theological term present in many religions.
Divine Liturgy (Theia Leitourgia; Bozhestvena liturgiya; saghmrto lit'urgia; Sfânta Liturghie; 'Bozhestvennaya liturgiya; Sveta Liturgija; Surb Patarag;, and Boska Liturgia Świętego, Božská liturgie) is the Eucharistic service of the Byzantine Rite which is the Rite of The Great Church of Christ and was developed from the Antiochene Rite of Christian liturgy.
Divorce, also known as dissolution of marriage, is the termination of a marriage or marital union, the canceling or reorganizing of the legal duties and responsibilities of marriage, thus dissolving the bonds of matrimony between a married couple under the rule of law of the particular country or state.
Divorce demography is the study of the demographic factors that impact divorce as a social phenomenon.
This article is a general overview of divorce laws around the world.
Domestic violence (also named domestic abuse or family violence) is violence or other abuse by one person against another in a domestic setting, such as in marriage or cohabitation.
Dower is a provision accorded by law, but traditionally by a husband or his family, to a wife for her support in the event that she should become widowed.
A dowry is a transfer of parental property, gifts or money at the marriage of a daughter.
Dowry deaths are deaths of women who are murdered or driven to suicide by continuous harassment and torture by husbands and in-laws in an effort to extort an increased dowry.
Duran J. Bell Jr. (born April 21, 1936) is Professor Emeritus of Economics at the University of California, Irvine.
Early Christianity, defined as the period of Christianity preceding the First Council of Nicaea in 325, typically divides historically into the Apostolic Age and the Ante-Nicene Period (from the Apostolic Age until Nicea).
Early modern Britain is the history of the island of Great Britain roughly corresponding to the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries.
The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
Eastern Christianity consists of four main church families: the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox churches, the Eastern Catholic churches (that are in communion with Rome but still maintain Eastern liturgies), and the denominations descended from the Church of the East.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
An ecclesiastical court, also called court Christian or court spiritual, is any of certain courts having jurisdiction mainly in spiritual or religious matters.
Sir Edmund Ronald Leach (7 November 1910 – 6 January 1989) was a British social anthropologist.
Edvard Alexander Westermarck (20 November 1862 – 3 September 1939) was a Finnish philosopher and sociologist.
Sir Edward Burnett Tylor (2 October 1832 – 2 January 1917) was an English anthropologist, the founder of cultural anthropology.
Egalitarianism – or equalitarianism – is a school of thought that prioritizes equality for all people.
To elope, most literally, means to run away and to not come back to the point of origin.
Emma Goldman (1869May 14, 1940) was an anarchist political activist and writer.
Endogamy is the practice of marrying within a specific social group, caste or ethnic group, rejecting those from others as unsuitable for marriage or other close personal relationships.
An engagement, betrothal, or fiancer is a promise to wed, and also the period of time between a marriage proposal and a marriage.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
England and Wales is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom.
England in the Middle Ages concerns the history of England during the medieval period, from the end of the 5th century through to the start of the Early Modern period in 1485.
English law is the common law legal system of England and Wales, comprising mainly criminal law and civil law, each branch having its own courts and procedures.
The Episcopal Church is the United States-based member church of the worldwide Anglican Communion.
Equinox Publishing Ltd is an independent academic publisher founded in 2003 by Janet Joyce and based in Sheffield.
Erusin is the Hebrew term for betrothal.
The Eucharist (also called Holy Communion or the Lord's Supper, among other names) is a Christian rite that is considered a sacrament in most churches and an ordinance in others.
The European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) (formally the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms) is an international treaty to protect human rights and political freedoms in Europe.
The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR or ECtHR; Cour européenne des droits de l’homme) is a supranational or international court established by the European Convention on Human Rights.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Exogamy is a social arrangement where marriage is allowed only outside a social group.
In law, extenuating circumstances in criminal cases are unusual or extreme facts leading up to or attending the perpetration of the offense which, although an offense has been perpetrated without legal justification or excuse, mitigate or reduce its gravity from the point of view of punishment or moral opprobrium.
Extortion (also called shakedown, outwrestling and exaction) is a criminal offense of obtaining money, property, or services from an individual or institution, through coercion.
Extramarital sex occurs when a married person engages in sexual activity with someone other than his or her spouse.
Every person has his/her own family.mother reproduces with husband for children.In the context of human society, a family (from familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth), affinity (by marriage or other relationship), or co-residence (as implied by the etymology of the English word "family" from Latin familia 'family servants, domestics collectively, the servants in a household,' thus also 'members of a household, the estate, property; the household, including relatives and servants,' abstract noun formed from famulus 'servant, slave ') or some combination of these.
A family tree, or pedigree chart, is a chart representing family relationships in a conventional tree structure.
Fear is a feeling induced by perceived danger or threat that occurs in certain types of organisms, which causes a change in metabolic and organ functions and ultimately a change in behavior, such as fleeing, hiding, or freezing from perceived traumatic events.
Feminism is a range of political movements, ideologies, and social movements that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve political, economic, personal, and social equality of sexes.
Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, fictional, or philosophical discourse.
Fertilisation or fertilization (see spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, conception, fecundation, syngamy and impregnation, is the fusion of gametes to initiate the development of a new individual organism.
Flagellation (Latin flagellum, "whip"), flogging, whipping or lashing is the act of beating the human body with special implements such as whips, lashes, rods, switches, the cat o' nine tails, the sjambok, etc.
A Fleet Marriage is the best-known example of an irregular or a clandestine marriage taking place in England before the Marriage Act 1753 came into force on March 25, 1754.
Forced adoption was the practice of taking the babies from unmarried mothers, against their will, and placing them for adoption.
Forced marriage is a marriage in which one or more of the parties is married without his or her consent or against his or her will.
Fornication is generally consensual sexual intercourse between two people not married to each other.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The Fueros of Navarre (Fuero General de Navarra, Nafarroako Foru Orokorra, meaning in English General Charter of Navarre) were the laws of the Kingdom of Navarre up to 1841, tracing its origins to the Early Middle Ages and issued from Basque consuetudinary law prevalent across the (western) Pyrenees.
Fujian (pronounced), formerly romanised as Foken, Fouken, Fukien, and Hokkien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China.
The full moon is the lunar phase when the Moon appears fully illuminated from Earth's perspective.
Fuxi (Chinese: 伏羲), also romanized as Fu-hsi, is a culture hero in Chinese legend and mythology, credited (along with his sister Nüwa 女娲) with creating humanity and the invention of hunting, fishing and cooking as well as the Cangjie system of writing Chinese characters c. 2,000 BCE.
Gender and Language is a triannual peer-reviewed academic journal covering research on and debates about feminist research on gender and language.
A gender role, also known as a sex role, is a social role encompassing a range of behaviors and attitudes that are generally considered acceptable, appropriate, or desirable for people based on their actual or perceived sex or sexuality.
George Peter ("Pete") Murdock (May 11, 1897 – March 29, 1985), also known as G. P. Murdock, was an American anthropologist.
"Germania" was the Roman term for the geographical region in north-central Europe inhabited mainly by Germanic peoples.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
Gershom ben Judah, (c. 960 -1040) best known as Rabbeinu Gershom (רבנו גרשום, "Our teacher Gershom") and also commonly known to scholars of Judaism by the title Rabbeinu Gershom Me'Or Hagolah ("Our teacher Gershom the light of the exile"), was a famous Talmudist and Halakhist.
A get or gett (גט, plural gittin גיטין) is a divorce document in Jewish religious law, which must be presented by a husband to his wife to effectuate their divorce.
Ghana, officially the Republic of Ghana, is a unitary presidential constitutional democracy, located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa.
In Sudan, a ghost marriage is a marriage where a deceased groom is replaced by his brother.
A girl is a young female human, usually a child or an adolescent.
A green card marriage is a marriage of convenience between a legal resident of the United States of America and a person who would be ineligible for residency but for being married to the resident.
Grounds for divorce are regulations specifying the circumstances under which a person will be granted a divorce.
Group marriage (a form of polyfidelity) is a marriage-like arrangement between more than two people, where three or more adults live together, all considering themselves partners, sharing finances, children, and household responsibilities.
Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837 – June 24, 1908) was an American politician and lawyer who was the 22nd and 24th President of the United States, the only president in American history to serve two non-consecutive terms in office (1885–1889 and 1893–1897).
Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi: ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ) is the religious scripture of Sikhism, regarded by Sikhs as the final, sovereign, and eternal living guru following the lineage of the ten human Sikh gurus of the Sikh religion.
The Hajnal line is a border that links Saint Petersburg, Russia and Trieste, Italy.
Halakha (הֲלָכָה,; also transliterated as halacha, halakhah, halachah or halocho) is the collective body of Jewish religious laws derived from the Written and Oral Torah.
Health is the ability of a biological system to acquire, convert, allocate, distribute, and utilize energy with maximum efficiency.
Heterosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between persons of the opposite sex or gender.
Hindu texts are manuscripts and historical literature related to any of the diverse traditions within Hinduism.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
Marriages held in Great Britain and Ireland from the 12th century onward have been influenced by religious and traditional practices.
The history of the family is a branch of social history that concerns the sociocultural evolution of kinship groups from prehistoric to modern times.
Homosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between members of the same sex or gender.
An honor killing or shame killing is the murder of a member of a family, due to the perpetrators' belief that the victim has brought shame or dishonor upon the family, or has violated the principles of a community or a religion, usually for reasons such as refusing to enter an arranged marriage, being in a relationship that is disapproved by their family, having sex outside marriage, becoming the victim of rape, dressing in ways which are deemed inappropriate, engaging in non-heterosexual relations or renouncing a faith.
Honour killings in Pakistan are known locally as karo-kari (کاروکاری).
The Human Relations Area Files, Inc. (HRAF), located in New Haven, Connecticut is a nonprofit international membership organization with over 300 member institutions in the U.S. and more than 20 other countries.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
Human rights movement refers to a nongovernmental social movement engaged in activism related to the issues of human rights.
Human sexual activity, human sexual practice or human sexual behaviour is the manner in which humans experience and express their sexuality.
A husband is a male in a marital relationship.
A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon.
Ignatius of Antioch (Greek: Ἰγνάτιος Ἀντιοχείας, Ignátios Antiokheías; c. 35 – c. 107), also known as Ignatius Theophorus (Ιγνάτιος ὁ Θεοφόρος, Ignátios ho Theophóros, lit. "the God-bearing") or Ignatius Nurono (lit. "The fire-bearer"), was an early Christian writer and bishop of Antioch.
Immorality Act was the title of two acts of the Parliament of South Africa which prohibited, amongst other things, sexual relations between white people and people of other races.
In Our Time is a live BBC radio discussion series exploring the history of ideas, presented by Melvyn Bragg since 15 October 1998.
In vitro fertilisation (IVF) is a process of fertilisation where an egg is combined with sperm outside the body, in vitro ("in glass").
Incest is sexual activity between family members or close relatives.
An incest taboo is any cultural rule or norm that prohibits sexual relations between closely related persons.
An income tax is a tax imposed on individuals or entities (taxpayers) that varies with respective income or profits (taxable income).
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Infertility is the inability of a person, animal or plant to reproduce by natural means.
In political science, an initiative (also known as a popular or citizens' initiative) is a means by which a petition signed by a certain minimum number of registered voters can force a public vote (referendum, sometimes called a plebiscite).
Institutions are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior".
An intentional community is a planned residential community designed from the start to have a high degree of social cohesion and teamwork.
Interfaith marriage, traditionally called "mixed marriage", is marriage between spouses professing different religions.
Interracial marriage is a form of marriage outside a specific social group (exogamy) involving spouses who belong to different socially-defined races or racialized ethnicities.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
According to the biblical Book of Genesis, Isaac (إسحٰق/إسحاق) was the son of Abraham and Sarah and father of Jacob; his name means "he will laugh", reflecting when Sarah laughed in disbelief when told that she would have a child.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islam is the third largest religion in the United States after Christianity and Judaism.
In Islamic law (sharia), marriage (nikāḥ نکاح) is a legal and social contract between a man and a woman.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Nawabzada Mir Israr Ullah Khan Zehri (مير اسراراللہ زہری; born December 15, 1965) is a Pakistani politician.
Sir John Rankine Goody, (27 July 1919 – 16 July 2015) was a British social anthropologist.
Jacob, later given the name Israel, is regarded as a Patriarch of the Israelites.
Jael or Yael (Hebrew Ya'el, יָעֵל, meaning Ibex) is a woman mentioned in the Book of Judges in the Hebrew Bible, as the heroine who killed Sisera to deliver Israel from the troops of King Jabin.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
A Jewish wedding is a wedding ceremony that follows Jewish laws and traditions.
John Calvin (Jean Calvin; born Jehan Cauvin; 10 July 150927 May 1564) was a French theologian, pastor and reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation.
Jointure is, in law, a provision for a wife after the death of her husband.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
Journal of Family History is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers in the fields of History and Anthropology.
The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Julia Eileen Gillard (born 29 September 1961) is a retired Australian politician who served as the 27th Prime Minister of Australia and Leader of the Australian Labor Party from 2010 to 2013.
Jurisdiction (from the Latin ius, iuris meaning "law" and dicere meaning "to speak") is the practical authority granted to a legal body to administer justice within a defined field of responsibility, e.g., Michigan tax law.
Kabbalah (קַבָּלָה, literally "parallel/corresponding," or "received tradition") is an esoteric method, discipline, and school of thought that originated in Judaism.
The Kaingang (also spelled caingangue in Portuguese or kanhgág in the Kaingang language) people are a Native American ethnic group spread out over the three southern Brazilian states of Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul and the southeastern state of São Paulo.
Eleanor Kathleen Gough Aberle (16 August 1925 – 8 September 1990) was a British anthropologist and feminist who was known for her work in South Asia and South-East Asia.
A ketubah (pl. ketubot) is a special type of Jewish prenuptial agreement.
The Kingdom of Navarre (Nafarroako Erresuma, Reino de Navarra, Royaume de Navarre, Regnum Navarrae), originally the Kingdom of Pamplona (Iruñeko Erresuma), was a Basque-based kingdom that occupied lands on either side of the western Pyrenees, alongside the Atlantic Ocean between present-day Spain and France.
In anthropology, kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of all humans in all societies, although its exact meanings even within this discipline are often debated.
Kirtan or Kirtana (कीर्तन) is a Sanskrit word that means "narrating, reciting, telling, describing" of an idea or story.
Korotayev or Korotaev (Коротаев) is a Russian masculine surname, its feminine counterpart is Korotayeva or Korotaeva.
Kshatriya (Devanagari: क्षत्रिय; from Sanskrit kṣatra, "rule, authority") is one of the four varna (social orders) of the Hindu society.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
The Latin Church, sometimes called the Western Church, is the largest particular church sui iuris in full communion with the Pope and the rest of the Catholic Church, tracing its history to the earliest days of Christianity.
Latin liturgical rites are Christian liturgical rites of Latin tradition, used mainly by the Catholic Church as liturgical rites within the Latin Church, that originated in the area where the Latin language once dominated.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
A legal fiction is a fact assumed or created by courts which is then used in order to help reach a decision or to apply a legal rule.
A legal guardian is a person who has the legal authority (and the corresponding duty) to care for the personal and property interests of another person, called a ward.
Leonard Trelawny Hobhouse (8 September 1864 – 21 June 1929) was a British liberal political theorist and sociologist, who has been considered one of the leading and earliest proponents of social liberalism.
The lesser of two evils principle (or lesser evil principle and lesser-evilism) is the principle that when faced with selecting from two immoral options, the one which is least immoral should be chosen.
Levirate marriage is a type of marriage in which the brother of a deceased man is obliged to marry his brother's widow.
Lewis Henry Morgan (November 21, 1818 – December 17, 1881) was a pioneering American anthropologist and social theorist who worked as a railroad lawyer.
Laws affecting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people vary greatly by country or territory; everything from the legal recognition of same-sex marriage to the death penalty as punishment for same-sex romantic/sexual activity or identity.
Libido, colloquially known as sex drive, is a person's overall sexual drive or desire for sexual activity.
This is a list of people who remarried each other, usually after divorcing.
The United States of America is a federal republic consisting of 50 states, a federal district (Washington, D.C., the capital city of the United States), five major territories, and various minor islands.
The literary prophets is a name given to the Biblical figures who wrote down their prophecies and personal histories, rather than histories of the Israelites.
Love marriage is a term used primarily in South Asia, especially in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka, to describe a marriage where the individuals love each other and get married with or without consent of their parents.
Loving v. Virginia, is a landmark civil rights decision of the United States Supreme Court, which invalidated laws prohibiting interracial marriage.
Macmillan Publishers Ltd (occasionally known as the Macmillan Group) is an international publishing company owned by Holtzbrinck Publishing Group.
Magnus Hirschfeld (14 May 1868 – 14 May 1935) was a German Jewish physician and sexologist educated primarily in Germany; he based his practice in Berlin-Charlottenburg.
In Islam, a mahr (in مهر; مهريه; Mehir also transliterated mehr, meher, mehrieh or mahriyeh) is a mandatory payment, in the form of money or possessions paid by the groom, or by groom's father, to the bride at the time of marriage, that legally becomes her property.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
A referendum on divorce was held in Malta on 28 May 2011.
A mamzer (ממזר) is a person born from certain forbidden relationships, or the descendant of such a person, in the Hebrew Bible and Jewish religious law.
Marital rape (or spousal rape) is the act of sexual intercourse with one's spouse without the spouse's consent.
The Marriage Act 1753, full title "An Act for the Better Preventing of Clandestine Marriage", popularly known as Lord Hardwicke's Marriage Act (citation 26 Geo. II. c. 33), was the first statutory legislation in England and Wales to require a formal ceremony of marriage.
The Act for Marriages in England 1836, 6 & 7 Wm IV, c. 85 (17 August 1836) was an Act that legalised civil marriage in England and Wales from 1 January 1837.
Marriage and Morals is a 1929 book by philosopher Bertrand Russell, in which the author questions the Victorian notions of morality regarding sex and marriage.
In Islam, marriage is a legal contract between a man and a woman.
Marriages in Israel can be performed only under the auspices of the religious community to which couples belong, and no religious intermarriages can be performed legally in Israel.
In pre-Islamic Arabia, a variety of different marriage practices existed.
In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, marriage between a man and a woman is considered to be "ordained of God".
Marriage law refers to the legal requirements that determine the validity of a marriage, and which vary considerably among countries.
A marriage of convenience (plural marriages of convenience) is a marriage contracted for reasons other than that of relationship, family, or love.
The marriage penalty in the United States refers to the higher taxes required from some married couples with both partners earning income that would not be required by two otherwise identical single people with exactly the same incomes.
Marriage promotion is a policy aiming to produce “strong families” for the purposes of social security; as found in 21st-century American maternalism.
Marriageable age (or marriage age) is the minimum age at which a person is allowed by law to marry, either as a right or subject to parental or other forms of consent.
Martin Luther, (10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk, and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation.
A martyr (Greek: μάρτυς, mártys, "witness"; stem μάρτυρ-, mártyr-) is someone who suffers persecution and death for advocating, renouncing, refusing to renounce, or refusing to advocate a belief or cause as demanded by an external party.
Mary Wollstonecraft (27 April 1759 – 10 September 1797) was an English writer, philosopher, and advocate of women's rights.
Matchmaking is the process of matching two or more people together, usually for the purpose of marriage, but the word is also used in the context of sporting events such as boxing, in business, in online video games and in pairing organ donors.
In social anthropology, matrilocal residence or matrilocality (also uxorilocal residence or uxorilocality) is the societal system in which a married couple resides with or near the wife's parents.
Mauritius (or; Maurice), officially the Republic of Mauritius (République de Maurice), is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about off the southeast coast of the African continent.
The means of grace in Christian theology are those things (the means) through which God gives grace.
Methodism or the Methodist movement is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley, an Anglican minister in England.
The Metropolitan Community Church (MCC), also known as the Universal Fellowship of Metropolitan Community Churches (UFMCC), is an international Protestant Christian denomination.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.
In the Ottoman Empire, a millet was a separate court of law pertaining to "personal law" under which a confessional community (a group abiding by the laws of Muslim Sharia, Christian Canon law, or Jewish Halakha) was allowed to rule itself under its own laws.
Minangkabau people (Minangkabau: Urang Minang; Indonesian: Suku Minang; Jawi script: اورڠ مينڠ), also known as Minang, are an ethnic group indigenous to the Minangkabau Highlands of West Sumatra, Indonesia.
Miscegenation (from the Latin miscere "to mix" + genus "kind") is the mixing of different racial groups through marriage, cohabitation, sexual relations, or procreation.
The Mishnah or Mishna (מִשְׁנָה, "study by repetition", from the verb shanah, or "to study and review", also "secondary") is the first major written collection of the Jewish oral traditions known as the "Oral Torah".
A misyar marriage' (nikah al-misyar or more often زواج المسيار zawaj al-misyar "traveller's marriage") is a type of Sunni marriage contract (some aspects are similar to mutah marriage in Shia Islam).
Money is any item or verifiable record that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts in a particular country or socio-economic context.
Monogamy is a form of relationship in which an individual has only one partner during their lifetime — alternately, only one partner at any one time (serial monogamy) — as compared to non-monogamy (e.g., polygamy or polyamory).
In philosophy, moral responsibility is the status of morally deserving praise, blame, reward, or punishment for an act or omission, in accordance with one's moral obligations.
Morganatic marriage, sometimes called a left-handed marriage, is a marriage between people of unequal social rank, which in the context of royalty prevents the passage of the husband's titles and privileges to the wife and any children born of the marriage.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
The Mosuo (also spelled Moso or Musuo), often called the Na among themselves, are a small ethnic group living in Yunnan and Sichuan Provinces in China, close to the border with Tibet.
A mother is the female parent of a child.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
The narthex is an architectural element typical of early Christian and Byzantine basilicas and churches consisting of the entrance or lobby area, located at the west end of the nave, opposite the church's main altar.
Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Nüwa or Nügua is the mother goddess of Chinese mythology, the sister and wife of Fuxi, the emperor-god.
Neolocal residence is a type of post-marital residence in which a newly married couple resides separately from both the husband's natal household and the wife's natal household.
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
The New Marriage Law (also First Marriage Law) was a civil marriage law passed in the People's Republic of China on May 1, 1950.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Newsday is an American daily newspaper that primarily serves Nassau and Suffolk counties and the New York City borough of Queens on Long Island, although it is sold throughout the New York metropolitan area.
Niger, also called the Niger officially the Republic of the Niger, is a landlocked country in Western Africa named after the Niger River.
Nights at the Circus is a novel by Angela Carter, first published in 1984 and that year's winner of the James Tait Black Memorial Prize for fiction.
Nikah mut'ah (nikāḥ al-mutʿah, literally "pleasure marriage";or Sigheh (صیغه) is a private and verbal temporary marriage contract that is practiced in Twelver Shia Islam in which the duration of the marriage and the mahr must be specified and agreed upon in advance.Berg H. Brill 2003, 9789004126022. Accessed at Google Books 15 March 2014.Hughes T. Asian Educational Services 1 December 1995. Accessed 15 April 2014.Pohl F. Marshall Cavendish, 2010., 1780761479277 Accessed at Google Books 15 March 2014. It is a private contract made in a verbal or written format. A declaration of the intent to marry and an acceptance of the terms are required as in other forms of marriage in Islam. According to Twelver Shia jurisprudence, preconditions for mutah are: The bride must not be married, she must be Muslim or belong to ''Ahl al-Kitab'' (People of the Book), she should be chaste, not addicted to fornication and she should not be a young virgin (if her father is absent and cannot give consent). At the end of the contract, the marriage ends and the wife must undergo iddah, a period of abstinence from marriage (and thus, sexual intercourse). The iddah is intended to give paternal certainty to any child/ren should the wife become pregnant during the temporary marriage contract. Generally, the Nikah mut'ah has no proscribed minimum or maximum duration. However, one source, The Oxford Dictionary of Islam, indicates the minimum duration of the marriage is debatable and durations of at least three days, three months or one year have been suggested.Esposito J. Oxford University Press 2003 p221 Accessed 15 March 2014. Sunni Muslims, and within Shia Islam, Zaidi Shias, Ismaili Shias, and Dawoodi Bohras do not practice Nikah mut'ah. However, Sunni Muslims practice Nikah misyar, which has been regularly considered a somewhat similar marriage arrangement. Some Muslims and Western scholars have claimed that both Nikah mut'ah and Nikah misyar are Islamically void attempts to religiously sanction prostitution which is otherwise forbidden.
Niue (Niuean: Niuē) is an island country in the South Pacific Ocean, northeast of New Zealand, east of Tonga, south of Samoa, and west of the Cook Islands.
No-fault divorce is a divorce in which the dissolution of a marriage does not require a showing of wrongdoing by either party.
Normative generally means relating to an evaluative standard.
Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.
Northern Sotho (Sesotho sa Leboa), also (incorrectly) known by the name of its standardised dialect version Sepedi (or Pedi) is a Bantu language spoken primarily in South Africa, where it is one of the 11 official languages.
National Public Radio (usually shortened to NPR, stylized as npr) is an American privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization based in Washington, D.C. It serves as a national syndicator to a network of over 1,000 public radio stations in the United States.
A nuclear family, elementary family or conjugal family is a family group consisting of two parents and their children (one or more).
The Nuer people are a Nilotic ethnic group primarily inhabiting the Nile Valley.
The Nuremberg Laws (Nürnberger Gesetze) were antisemitic and racial laws in Nazi Germany.
Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.
The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
The Oneida Community was a perfectionist religious communal society founded by John Humphrey Noyes in 1848 in Oneida, New York.
A Sotah (שוטה / סוטה) is a woman suspected of adultery who undergoes the ordeal of bitter water or ordeal of jealousy as described and prescribed in the Priestly Code, in the Book of Numbers, the fourth book of the Hebrew Bible.
Ordination is the process by which individuals are consecrated, that is, set apart as clergy to perform various religious rites and ceremonies.
An organization or organisation is an entity comprising multiple people, such as an institution or an association, that has a collective goal and is linked to an external environment.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
In discussing consanguineal kinship in anthropology, a parallel cousin or ortho-cousin is a cousin from a parent's same-sex sibling, while a cross-cousin is from a parent's opposite-sex sibling.
A parent is a caregiver of the offspring in their own species.
Paternity law refers to body of law underlying legal relationship between a father and his biological or adopted children and deals with the rights and obligations of both the father and the child to each other as well as to others.
Patriarchy is a social system in which males hold primary power and predominate in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control of property.
In social anthropology, patrilocal residence or patrilocality, also known as virilocal residence or virilocality, are terms referring to the social system in which a married couple resides with or near the husband's parents.
Paul the Apostle (Paulus; translit, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; c. 5 – c. 64 or 67), commonly known as Saint Paul and also known by his Jewish name Saul of Tarsus (translit; Saũlos Tarseús), was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of the Christ to the first century world.
Peake's Commentary on the Bible is a one-volume commentary on the Bible that gives special attention to Biblical archaeology and the then-recent discoveries of biblical manuscripts.
Peer pressure (or social pressure) is the direct influence on people by peers, or the effect on an individual who gets encouraged to follow their peers by changing their attitudes, values or behaviors to conform to those of the influencing group or individual.
Personal property is generally considered property that is movable, as opposed to real property or real estate.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Pierre Felix Bourdieu (1 August 1930 – 23 January 2002) was a French sociologist, anthropologist, philosopher, and public intellectual.
According to doctrine of the Latter Day Saint movement, the plan of salvation (also known as the plan of happiness) is a plan that God created to save, redeem, and exalt humankind, through the atonement of Jesus Christ.
Polyamory (from Greek πολύ poly, "many, several", and Latin amor, "love") is the ability or capacity to love more than one person at a time.
Polyandry (from πολυ- poly-, "many" and ἀνήρ anēr, "man") is a form of polygamy in which a woman takes two or more husbands at the same time.
Polycarp (Πολύκαρπος, Polýkarpos; Polycarpus; AD 69 155) was a 2nd-century Christian bishop of Smyrna.
Polygamy (from Late Greek πολυγαμία, polygamía, "state of marriage to many spouses") is the practice of marrying multiple spouses.
Polygamy in India is outlawed.
Polygamy in Myanmar, also known as Burma, was outlawed in 2015.
Polygamous unions are legally recognized in the Republic of the Congo.
Tunisia became the first Arab state to formally abolish polygamy in 1956, the same year it gained official independence.
Akin to Uganda, Republic of the Congo and the Central African Republic, Zambia is one of the few Christian nations that allows polygamous unions to be legally formed.
Polygyny (from Neoclassical Greek πολυγυνία from πολύ- poly- "many", and γυνή gyne "woman" or "wife") is the most common and accepted form of polygamy, entailing the marriage of a man with several women.
Under Sunni and Shia Islamic marital jurisprudence, Muslim men are allowed to practice polygyny, that is, they can have more than one wife at the same time, up to a total of four.
Poverty is the scarcity or the lack of a certain (variant) amount of material possessions or money.
In social science and politics, power is the ability to influence or outright control the behaviour of people.
Prejudice is an affective feeling towards a person or group member based solely on that person's group membership.
Premarital sex is sexual activity practiced by people before they are married.
A prenuptial agreement, antenuptial agreement, or premarital agreement, commonly abbreviated to prenup or prenupt, is a contract entered into prior to marriage, civil union or any agreement prior to the main agreement by the people intending to marry or contract with each other.
The Presbyterian Church (USA), or PC (USA), is a mainline Protestant Christian denomination in the United States.
A priest or priestess (feminine) is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities.
The Priestly Code (in Hebrew Torat Kohanim, תורת כהנים) is the name given, by academia, to the body of laws expressed in the Torah which do not form part of the Holiness Code, the Covenant Code, the Ritual Decalogue, or the Ethical Decalogue.
The Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act, Act No 55 of 1949, was an apartheid law in South Africa that prohibited marriages between "Europeans" and "non-Europeans".
A promise is a commitment by someone to do or not do something.
Propaganda is information that is not objective and is used primarily to influence an audience and further an agenda, often by presenting facts selectively to encourage a particular synthesis or perception, or using loaded language to produce an emotional rather than a rational response to the information that is presented.
Property, in the abstract, is what belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as a component of said thing.
Prostitution is the business or practice of engaging in sexual activity in exchange for payment.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Provocation is a set of events that might be adequate to cause a reasonable person to lose self control, whereby a criminal act is less morally culpable than a premeditated act done out of pure malice (malice aforethought).
Puberty is the process of physical changes through which a child's body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction.
Quakers (or Friends) are members of a historically Christian group of religious movements formally known as the Religious Society of Friends or Friends Church.
In Judaism, a rabbi is a teacher of Torah.
Raptio (in archaic or literary English rendered as rape) is a Latin term for the large-scale abduction of women, i.e. kidnapping for marriage or enslavement (particularly sexual slavery).
Rassenschande ("race disgrace") or Blutschande ("blood disgrace") was an anti-miscegenation concept in Nazi German racial policy, pertaining to sexual relations between Aryans and non-Aryans.
Rónán Thomas Mullen (born 13 October 1970) is an Irish independent senator and former delegate to the Council of Europe.
The Realm of New Zealand is the entire area (or realm) in which the Queen of New Zealand is head of state.
De facto unions for same-sex couples were legalized by the approval of the 2008 Constitution of Ecuador, which includes all the rights of marriage except for joint adoption.
A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
A register office, much more commonly registry office (except in official use), is a British government office where births, deaths and marriages are officially recorded and civil marriages take place.
In statistical modeling, regression analysis is a set of statistical processes for estimating the relationships among variables.
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
A religious denomination is a subgroup within a religion that operates under a common name, tradition, and identity.
RELX Group (pronounced "Rel-ex") is a British multinational information and analytics company headquartered in London.
Remarriage is a marriage that takes place after a previous marital union has ended, as through divorce or widowhood.
Reproductive rights are legal rights and freedoms relating to reproduction and reproductive health that vary amongst countries around the world.
Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.
Rights are legal, social, or ethical principles of freedom or entitlement; that is, rights are the fundamental normative rules about what is allowed of people or owed to people, according to some legal system, social convention, or ethical theory.
Robert Flacelière (29 May 1904, Paris – 23 May 1982, Montpellier) was a scholar of Classical Greek.
Robin Fox (born 1934) is an Anglo-American anthropologist who has written on the topics of incest avoidance, marriage systems, human and primate kinship systems, evolutionary anthropology, sociology and the history of ideas in the social sciences.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group is an independent publishing house founded in 1949.
Rupa & Co. (Rupa Publications) is an Indian publishing company based in Kolkata which was founded in 1936 by D. Mehra at College Street in Calcutta.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
A sacrament is a Christian rite recognized as of particular importance and significance.
Sacred mysteries are the areas of supernatural phenomena associated with a divinity or a religious ideology.
A sacristy is a room for keeping vestments (such as the alb and chasuble) and other church furnishings, sacred vessels, and parish records.
Same-sex marriage (also known as gay marriage) is the marriage of a same-sex couple, entered into in a civil or religious ceremony.
Same-sex marriage has been legal in the British Overseas Territory of Akrotiri and Dhekelia since 3 June 2014.
Same-sex marriage in Argentina has been legal since July 22, 2010.
Same-sex marriages cannot be performed in Aruba, Curaçao or Sint Maarten, which are "landen" (constituent countries) of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
Same-sex marriage has been legal in Australia since 9 December 2017.
Registered partnerships (German: Eingetragene Partnerschaft) have been legal in Austria since 1 January 2010.
Same-sex marriage became legal in the Mexican state of Baja California on 3 November 2017.
On 1 June 2003, Belgium became the second country in the world to legalise same-sex marriage, after the Netherlands.
Same-sex marriage was legal in the British Overseas Territory of Bermuda between 5 May 2017 and 31 May 2018.
Same-sex marriage has been legal in Brazil since 16 May 2013, following a National Justice Council decision, which orders notaries of every state to perform same-sex marriages.
Same-sex marriage became legal in the Mexican state of Campeche on 20 May 2016.
Same-sex marriage in Canada was progressively introduced in several provinces by court decisions beginning in 2003 before being legally recognized nationwide with the enactment of the Civil Marriage Act on July 20, 2005.
Same-sex marriage is legal in the Mexican state of Chiapas, following a ruling by the Mexican Supreme Court on 11 July 2017.
Same-sex marriage has been legal in the Mexican state of Chihuahua since 12 June 2015, as a result of a decree by Chihuahuan Governor César Horacio Duarte Jáquez.
Same-sex marriage has been legal in the Mexican state of Coahuila since 17 September 2014, based on an effective date established by legislation passed on 1 September 2014.
Same-sex marriage became legal in the Mexican state of Colima on 12 June 2016.
Same-sex marriage became legal in Colombia on 28 April 2016, when the Constitutional Court of Colombia ruled by a 6-3 vote that banning same-sex marriage was unconstitutional under the Colombian Constitution.
Same-sex marriage became legal in Denmark on 15 June 2012.
Same-sex marriage (samaa sukupuolta olevien avioliitto; samkönat äktenskap) has been legal in Finland since 1 March 2017.
Same-sex marriage has been legal in France since 18 May 2013.
Same-sex marriage became legal in Germany on 1 October 2017.
Same-sex marriage became legal in Gibraltar on 15 December 2016.
The legal status of same-sex unions differs within the Bailiwick of Guernsey, a Crown dependency of the United Kingdom.
Same-sex marriage in Hawaii has been legal since December 2, 2013.
Same-sex marriage has been legal in Iceland since 27 June 2010.
Same-sex marriage has been legally recognized in the U.S. state of Illinois since a law signed by Governor Pat Quinn on November 20, 2013 took effect on June 1, 2014.
Same-sex marriage is legal in the Mexican state of Jalisco.
Same-sex marriage became legal in Luxembourg on 1 January 2015.
Same-sex marriage became legal in Malta on 1 September 2017, following the passage of legalisation in the Parliament on 12 July 2017.
In Mexico, only civil marriages are recognized by law, and all its proceedings fall under state legislation.
Same-sex marriage is legal in Mexico City —the Federal District of Mexico— having been approved by its Legislative Assembly on 21 December 2009, and signed into law by Head of Government Marcelo Ebrard on 29 December 2009.
Same-sex marriage has been legal in the Mexican state of Michoacán since 23 June 2016.
Same-sex marriage became legal in the Mexican state of Morelos on 5 July 2016.
Same-sex marriage has been legal in the Mexican state of Nayarit since 23 December 2015.
Same-sex marriage is recognised and performed in New Zealand.
Same-sex marriage became legal in Norway on 1 January 2009, when a gender-neutral marriage bill was enacted after being passed by the Norwegian Parliament in June 2008.
Same-sex marriage has been legal in Portugal since 5 June 2010.
Same-sex marriages became legal in the Mexican state of Puebla on 1 August 2017, with a ruling by the Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation (Mexican Supreme Court) striking down Article 300 of the Civil Code, which limited marriage to one man and one woman and Article 294, which stated that marriage existed solely for the purpose of procreation.
Same-sex marriages are performed and recognized in all municipalities in the Mexican state of Quintana Roo.
Same-sex marriage is legal in the British Overseas Territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha.
Same-sex marriage has been legal in South Africa since the Civil Union Act came into force on 30 November 2006.
Same-sex marriage has been legal in Spain since 3 July 2005.
Same-sex marriage in Sweden has been legal since 1 May 2009, following the adoption of a new gender-neutral law on marriage by the Swedish Parliament on 1 April 2009, making Sweden the seventh country in the world to open marriage to same-sex couples nationwide.
Same-sex marriage is not legal in Taiwan, although it has been the subject of public discussion since the early 2000s.
Same-sex marriage is legal in the British Antarctic Territory, which is a sector of Antarctica and is one of the 14 British Overseas Territories.
Same-sex marriage has been legal in the British Indian Ocean Territory since 3 June 2014.
Same-sex marriage has been legal in the Falkland Islands since 29 April 2017.
Same-sex marriage became legal in the Isle of Man on 22 July 2016.
In the Netherlands, same-sex marriage (Dutch: Huwelijk tussen personen van gelijk geslacht or commonly homohuwelijk) has been legal since 1 April 2001.
Same-sex marriage has been legal in the Pitcairn Islands since 14 May 2015, although there are no openly same-sex couples currently living on the island.
Same-sex marriage in the Republic of Ireland has been legal since 16 November 2015.
Marriage is a devolved issue in the different parts of the United Kingdom, and the status of same-sex marriage is different in England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland.
Same-sex marriage in the United States was initially established on a state-by-state basis, expanding from 1 state in 2004 to 36 states in 2015, when, on June 26, 2015, same-sex marriage was established in all 50 states as a result of the ruling of the Supreme Court of the United States in the landmark civil rights case of Obergefell v. Hodges, in which it was held that the right of same-sex couples to marry on the same terms and conditions as opposite-sex couples, with all the accompanying rights and responsibilities, is guaranteed by both the Due Process Clause and the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
Same-sex marriage became legal in Uruguay on August 5, 2013.
A same-sex relationship is a relationship between persons of the same sex and can take many forms, from romantic and sexual, to non-romantic homosocially-close relationships.
Samson (Shimshon, "man of the sun") was the last of the judges of the ancient Israelites mentioned in the Book of Judges in the Hebrew Bible (chapters 13 to 16) and one of the last of the leaders who "judged" Israel before the institution of the monarchy.
San Giovanni a Porta Latina (Italian: "Saint John Before the Latin Gate") is a Basilica church in Rome, Italy, near the Porta Latina (on the Via Latina) of the Aurelian Wall.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Sarah or Sara (ISO 259-3 Śara; Sara; Arabic: سارا or سارة Sāra) was the half–sister and wife of Abraham and the mother of Isaac as described in the Hebrew Bible.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
Second-wave feminism is a period of feminist activity and thought that began in the United States in the early 1960s and lasted roughly two decades.
Secularity (adjective form secular, from Latin saeculum meaning "worldly", "of a generation", "temporal", or a span of about 100 years) is the state of being separate from religion, or of not being exclusively allied with or against any particular religion.
Sexual intercourse (or coitus or copulation) is principally the insertion and thrusting of the penis, usually when erect, into the vagina for sexual pleasure, reproduction, or both.
Sexual violence is any sexual act or attempt to obtain a sexual act by violence or coercion, acts to traffic a person or acts directed against a person's sexuality, regardless of the relationship to the victim.
Shared earning/shared parenting marriage, also known as peer marriage, is a type of marriage where the partners at the outset agree to adhere to a model of shared responsibility for earning money, meeting the needs of children, doing household chores, and taking recreation time in near equal fashion across these four domains.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Traditionally, spirituality refers to a religious process of re-formation which "aims to recover the original shape of man," oriented at "the image of God" as exemplified by the founders and sacred texts of the religions of the world.
A spouse is a life partner in a marriage, civil union, or common-law marriage.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.
Stoning, or lapidation, is a method of capital punishment whereby a group throws stones at a person until the subject dies.
Structural functionalism, or simply functionalism, is "a framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability".
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (–) was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire.
The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד talmūd "instruction, learning", from a root LMD "teach, study") is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law and theology.
The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.
Tax brackets are the divisions at which tax rates change in a progressive tax system (or an explicitly regressive tax system, although this is much rarer).
Teenage pregnancy, also known as adolescent pregnancy, is pregnancy in females under the age of 20.
In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), a temple is a building dedicated to be a House of the Lord.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), often informally known as the Mormon Church, is a nontrinitarian, Christian restorationist church that is considered by its members to be the restoration of the original church founded by Jesus Christ.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The History of Human Marriage is an 1891 book about the history of human marriage by the Finnish philosopher Edvard Westermarck.
The Rape of the Sabine Women was an incident in Roman mythology in which the men of Rome committed a mass abduction of young women from the other cities in the region.
The University of Utah Press is the independent publishing branch of the University of Utah and is a division of the J. Willard Marriott Library.
Theocracy is a form of government in which a deity is the source from which all authority derives.
Third gender or third sex is a concept in which individuals are categorized, either by themselves or by society, as neither man nor woman.
Tokelau (previously known as the Union Islands, and officially as Tokelau Islands until 1976;; lit. "north-northeast") is an island country and dependent territory of New Zealand in the southern Pacific Ocean.
Torah (תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings.
A totem (Ojibwe doodem) is a spirit being, sacred object, or symbol that serves as an emblem of a group of people, such as a family, clan, lineage, or tribe.
Trafficking of children (aka "Child Labor" and "Child Exploitation) is a form of human trafficking and is defined as the "recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring, and/or receipt" of a child for the purpose of slavery, forced labor and exploitation.
Trial by ordeal was an ancient judicial practice by which the guilt or innocence of the accused was determined by subjecting them to a painful, or at least an unpleasant, usually dangerous experience.
A tribe is viewed developmentally, economically and historically as a social group existing outside of or before the development of states.
A trust is a three-party fiduciary relationship in which the first party, the trustor or settlor, transfers ("settles") a property (often but not necessarily a sum of money) upon the second party (the trustee) for the benefit of the third party, the beneficiary.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Two-Spirit (also two spirit or, occasionally, twospirited) is a modern, pan-Indian, umbrella term used by some indigenous North Americans to describe certain people in their communities who fulfill a traditional third-gender (or other gender-variant) ceremonial role in their cultures.
The Umrani are an eastern Baloch tribe of Balochistan, Pakistan.
The United Church of Canada (Église unie du Canada) is a mainline Reformed denomination and the largest Protestant Christian denomination in Canada, and the largest Canadian Christian denomination after the Catholic Church.
The United Church of Christ (UCC) is a mainline Protestant Christian denomination based in the United States, with historical confessional roots in the Reformed, Lutheran, Congregational and evangelical Protestant traditions, and "with over 5,000 churches and nearly one million members".
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Methodist Church (UMC) is a mainline Protestant denomination and a major part of Methodism.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.
Unregistered cohabitation is a legal status (sometimes de facto) given to same-sex or opposite-sex couples in certain jurisdictions.
ʿUrf (العرف) is an Arabic Islamic term referring to the custom, or 'knowledge', of a given society.
Utah is a state in the western United States.
Vatican City (Città del Vaticano; Civitas Vaticana), officially the Vatican City State or the State of Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano; Status Civitatis Vaticanae), is an independent state located within the city of Rome.
Violence against women (VAW), also known as gender-based violence and sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) is, collectively, violent acts that are primarily or exclusively committed against women and girls.
Virginity is the state of a person who has never engaged in sexual intercourse.
The Visigothic Code (Latin, Forum Iudicum or Liber Iudiciorum; Spanish, Libro de los Jueces, Book of the Judges), also called Lex Visigothorum (English: Law of the Visigoths) is a set of laws first promulgated by king Chindasuinth (642-653) of the Visigothic Kingdom in his second year of rule (642-643) that survives only in fragments.
A vocation is an occupation to which a person is specially drawn or for which they are suited, trained, or qualified.
A void marriage is a marriage which is unlawful or invalid under the laws of the jurisdiction where it is entered.
A voidable marriage (also called an avoidable marriage) is a marriage which can be canceled at the option of one of the parties.
Voluntary childlessness, also described by some as being childfree, is the voluntary choice to not have children.
Walī (ولي, plural أولياء) is an Arabic word whose literal meanings include "custodian", "protector", "helper", and "friend".
We'wha (1849–1896, various spellings) was a Zuni Native American from New Mexico.
A wedding is a ceremony where two people are united in marriage.
West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.
West Sumatra (Sumatera Barat, abbreviated to Sumbar, Jawi:, Minangkabau: Sumatera Baraik) is a province of Indonesia.
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
The Western European marriage pattern is a family and demographic pattern that is marked by comparatively late marriage (in the middle twenties), especially for women, with a generally small age difference between the spouses, a significant proportion of women who remain unmarried, and the establishment of a neolocal household after the couple has married.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
Widow inheritance (also known as bride inheritance) is a cultural and social practice whereby a widow is required to marry a male relative of her late husband, often his brother.
A wife is a female partner in a continuing marital relationship.
A will or testament is a legal document by which a person, the testator, expresses their wishes as to how their property is to be distributed at death, and names one or more persons, the executor, to manage the estate until its final distribution.
Sir William Blackstone (10 July 1723 – 14 February 1780) was an English jurist, judge and Tory politician of the eighteenth century.
William Robertson Smith (8 November 1846 – 31 March 1894) was a Scottish orientalist, Old Testament scholar, professor of divinity, and minister of the Free Church of Scotland.
Women's rights are the rights and entitlements claimed for women and girls worldwide, and formed the basis for the women's rights movement in the nineteenth century and feminist movement during the 20th century.
Zaragoza, also called Saragossa in English, is the capital city of the Zaragoza province and of the autonomous community of Aragon, Spain.
The Zuni (A:shiwi; formerly spelled Zuñi) are Native American Pueblo peoples native to the Zuni River valley.
The "1890 Manifesto" (also known as the "Woodruff Manifesto" or the "Anti-polygamy Manifesto") is a statement which officially advised against any future plural marriage in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church).
The 1983 Code of Canon Law (abbreviated 1983 CIC from its Latin title Codex Iuris Canonici), also called the Johanno-Pauline Code, is the "fundamental body of ecclesiastical laws for the Latin Church".
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