416 relations: Aeolis quadrangle, Airy-0, Albedo, Albedo feature, Alexandria, Alkali, Allan Hills 84001, Alluvial fan, Almagest, Aluminium, Amazonian (Mars), Amazonis Planitia, Ancient Rome, Andesite, Angular diameter, Animated cartoon, Apparent magnitude, Apparent retrograde motion, Apsis, Arabia Terra, Arctic Ocean, Ares, Argon, Aristotle, Arizona, Arsia Mons, Asaph Hall, Asteroid, Asteroid belt, Astrobiology, Astronomy, Astronomy & Geophysics, Athabasca Valles, Atmosphere, Atmosphere of Mars, Atmospheric methane, Atmospheric pressure, Aurora, Aurorae Sinus, Axial tilt, Babylonian astronomy, Barack Obama, Barsoom, Basalt, Base (chemistry), BBC News, Bermuda Triangle, Bond albedo, Bradbury Landing, Brine, ..., Butterscotch, C. S. Lewis, C/2013 A1, Calcium, Calcium sulfate, Camille Flammarion, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Carbonaceous chondrite, Carl Sagan, Cave, Celestia, Celsius, Cerberus Fossae, Chemical compound, Chinese astronomy, Chlorine, Chondrite, Christiaan Huygens, Chronology of discoveries of water on Mars, Circular orbit, Cirrus cloud, Classical albedo features on Mars, CNN, Collier's, Coma (cometary), Comet, Coordinated Universal Time, Coriolis force, Coronal mass ejection, Crater chain, Crater lake, Crust (geology), Cryosphere, CubeSat, Curiosity (rover), Cydonia (region of Mars), Dark slope streak, Deimos (deity), Deimos (moon), Deneb, Deposition (phase transition), Deuterium, Dry ice, Dust devil, Dust storm, Dynamo theory, Earliest known life forms, Earth, East Asia, Ecliptic, Edgar Rice Burroughs, Edward Charles Pickering, Egyptian astronomy, Ellipse, Ellipsoid, Elon Musk, Elysium Planitia, Epoch (astronomy), Equator, European Space Agency, ExoMars (rover), ExoMars 2020 surface platform, ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter, Experience Curiosity, Extremophile, Fahrenheit, Fayalite, Formaldehyde, Formation and evolution of the Solar System, Forsterite, Full moon, G-force, Gale (crater), Galileo Galilei, Gender symbol, Geoid, Geology (journal), Geometric albedo, Geomorphology, Geophysical Research Letters, Geyser, Geyserite, Geysers on Mars, Giant-impact hypothesis, Gilbert Levin, Giovanni Domenico Cassini, Giovanni Schiaparelli, Glenelg, Mars, Goethite, Google Earth, Graben, Grand Canyon, Gravity of Mars, Greek language, Greek mythology, Greenland ice sheet, Greenwich, Groundwater sapping, Gulliver's Travels, Gully, Gypsum, H. G. Wells, Haredevil Hare, Harvard College Observatory, Heat transfer, Heidelberg, Hellas Planitia, Hematite, Henri Joseph Anastase Perrotin, Hesperia Planum, Hesperian, HiRISE, HiWish program, Hohmann transfer orbit, Hope Mars Mission, Hot spring, Hubble Space Telescope, Human mission to Mars, Hydroxide, Icarus (journal), Impact crater, Impact event, Impactite, India, Indian astronomy, Indian Space Research Organisation, Infrared, InSight, International Space Station, Invariable plane, Ionosphere, Iron oxide, Iron(II) sulfide, Iron(III) oxide, Iron–nickel alloy, Jarosite, Johann Heinrich von Mädler, Johannes Kepler, Jonathan Swift, Journal of Geophysical Research, Jupiter, Katabatic wind, Kelvin, Kim Stanley Robinson, Lake Superior, Late Heavy Bombardment, Life on Mars, List of missions to Mars, List of tallest mountains in the Solar System, Looney Tunes, Louis Thollon, Lowell Observatory, Ma'adim Vallis, Magnesium, Magnetic field, Magnetosphere, Magnitude (astronomy), Mantle (geology), Mare Erythraeum, Mariner 9, Mariner program, Mars (mythology), Mars 2020, Mars Cube One, Mars Exploration Rover, Mars Express, Mars Global Surveyor, Mars landing, Mars ocean hypothesis, Mars Orbiter Mission, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars rover, Mars Science Laboratory, Mars surface color, Mars trilogy, Mars trojan, Martian, Martian dichotomy, Marvin the Martian, Mass, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MAVEN, Mercury (planet), Metal, Meteorite, Meteoroid, Methane, Methanogen, Methanol, Michael Maestlin, Microorganism, Middle Paleolithic, Milan, Mineral, Mineral hydration, Moon, Moons of Mars, Mount Everest, MSN, NASA, NASA World Wind, Nature Communications, Neo-Babylonian Empire, Nergal, New Scientist, Nikola Tesla, Nineveh, Nitrogen, Noachian, Noachis Terra, Nodule (geology), North Polar Basin (Mars), North Pole, Northern Arizona University, Occultation, Olivine, Olympus Mons, Opportunity (rover), Opposition (planets), Optical illusion, Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System, Orbital eccentricity, Orbital period, Orbital plane (astronomy), Orbiter, Orders of magnitude (radiation), Organic compound, Organism, Out of the Silent Planet, Outflow channels, Outline of Mars, Oxygen, Paleomagnetism, Parallax, Parts-per notation, Pascal (unit), Perchlorate, Percival Lowell, Perihelion and aphelion, Permafrost, PH, Phobos (moon), Phobos (mythology), Phoenix (spacecraft), Phosphorus, Pilbara Craton, Pink, Plagioclase, Planet, Planetary core, Planetary differentiation, Planetary habitability, Planum Australe, Planum Boreum, Plate tectonics, Pluto, Polar ice cap, Potassium, Prime meridian, Protoplanetary disk, Ptolemy, Pyroxene, Quadrangle (geography), Radiation, Ray Bradbury, Regolith, Richard C. Hoagland, River delta, Robert A. Heinlein, Rock (geology), Roscosmos, Rosetta (spacecraft), Rotation period, Saline water, Salt (chemistry), Sample Analysis at Mars, Scale height, Schiaparelli EDM lander, Science (journal), Science fiction, Sea level, Seasonal flows on warm Martian slopes, Semi-major and semi-minor axes, Serpentinite, SHARAD, Shield volcano, Silicate minerals, Silicon, Silicon dioxide, Sinus Meridiani, Society for Scientific Exploration, Sodium, Solar flare, Solar System, Solar wind, Solid solution, South Pole–Aitken basin, Soviet space program, Space probe, Space.com, Spacecraft, SpaceX, Spirit (rover), Springer Science+Business Media, Stickney (crater), Stochastic process, Sublimation (phase transition), Sulfur, Sumer, Sun, Sunspot, Surface runoff, Surya Siddhanta, Swiss cheese features, Synchronous orbit, Syrtis Major Planum, Tawny (color), Tectonics of Mars, Telemetry, Telescope, Terra Cimmeria, Terrestrial planet, Texas, Tharsis, The Hindu, The Martian Chronicles, The New York Times, The War of the Worlds, Thermal Emission Imaging System, Tholeiitic magma series, Tidal force, Timekeeping on Mars, Tintina (rock), Transform fault, Transit (astronomy), Transit of Deimos from Mars, Transit of Earth from Mars, Transit of Mercury from Mars, Transit of Phobos from Mars, Transit of Venus, Triple point, Tycho Brahe, United States Geological Survey, Utopia Planitia, Valles Marineris, Valley network, Vapor pressure, Vein (geology), Venus, Viking program, VNIR, Volcanism, Volcano, Volumetric heat capacity, Warner Bros., Water on Mars, Water on terrestrial planets of the Solar System, Western Australia, Wilhelm Beer, William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, Wu Xing, Year, 1,000,000,000, 2001 Mars Odyssey, 5261 Eureka. Expand index (366 more) » « Shrink index
The Aeolis quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Research Program.
Airy-0 is a crater on Mars whose location defined the position of the prime meridian of that planet.
Albedo (albedo, meaning "whiteness") is the measure of the diffuse reflection of solar radiation out of the total solar radiation received by an astronomical body (e.g. a planet like Earth).
An albedo feature is a large area on the surface of a planet (or other solar system body) which shows a contrast in brightness or darkness (albedo) with adjacent areas.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.
Allan Hills 84001 (commonly abbreviated ALH84001) is a meteorite that was found in Allan Hills, Antarctica on December 27, 1984, by a team of U.S. meteorite hunters from the ANSMET project.
An alluvial fan is a fan- or cone-shaped deposit of sediment crossed and built up by streams.
The Almagest is a 2nd-century Greek-language mathematical and astronomical treatise on the apparent motions of the stars and planetary paths, written by Claudius Ptolemy. One of the most influential scientific texts of all time, its geocentric model was accepted for more than 1200 years from its origin in Hellenistic Alexandria, in the medieval Byzantine and Islamic worlds, and in Western Europe through the Middle Ages and early Renaissance until Copernicus.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
The Amazonian is a geologic system and time period on the planet Mars characterized by low rates of meteorite and asteroid impacts and by cold, hyperarid conditions broadly similar to those on Mars today.
Amazonis Planitia is one of the smoothest plains on Mars.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Andesite is an extrusive igneous, volcanic rock, of intermediate composition, with aphanitic to porphyritic texture.
The angular diameter, angular size, apparent diameter, or apparent size is an angular measurement describing how large a sphere or circle appears from a given point of view.
An animated cartoon is a film for the cinema, television or computer screen, which is made using sequential drawings, as opposed to animation in general, which include films made using clay, puppets, 3-D modeling and other means.
The apparent magnitude of a celestial object is a number that is a measure of its brightness as seen by an observer on Earth.
Apparent retrograde motion is the apparent motion of a planet in a direction opposite to that of other bodies within its system, as observed from a particular vantage point.
An apsis (ἁψίς; plural apsides, Greek: ἁψῖδες) is an extreme point in the orbit of an object.
Arabia Terra is a large upland region in the north of Mars that lies mostly in the Arabia quadrangle, but a small part is in the Mare Acidalium quadrangle.
The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major oceans.
Ares (Ἄρης, Áres) is the Greek god of war.
Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Arizona (Hoozdo Hahoodzo; Alĭ ṣonak) is a U.S. state in the southwestern region of the United States.
Arsia Mons is the southernmost of three volcanos (collectively known as Tharsis Montes) on the Tharsis bulge near the equator of the planet Mars.
Asaph Hall III (October 15, 1829 – November 22, 1907) was an American astronomer who is most famous for having discovered the moons of Mars, Deimos and Phobos, in 1877.
Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System.
The asteroid belt is the circumstellar disc in the Solar System located roughly between the orbits of the planets Mars and Jupiter.
Astrobiology is a branch of biology concerned with the origins, early evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
Astronomy & Geophysics (A&G) is a scientific journal and trade magazine published on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS) by Oxford University Press.
Athabasca Valles is an outflow channel on Mars, cut into its surface by catastrophic flooding.
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
The atmosphere of the planet Mars is composed mostly of carbon dioxide.
Atmospheric methane is the methane present in earth's atmosphere.
Atmospheric pressure, sometimes also called barometric pressure, is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet).
An aurora (plural: auroras or aurorae), sometimes referred to as polar lights, northern lights (aurora borealis) or southern lights (aurora australis), is a natural light display in the Earth's sky, predominantly seen in the high-latitude regions (around the Arctic and Antarctic).
Aurorae Sinus is a dark feature in the southern hemisphere of the planet Mars.
In astronomy, axial tilt, also known as obliquity, is the angle between an object's rotational axis and its orbital axis, or, equivalently, the angle between its equatorial plane and orbital plane.
The history of astronomy in Mesopotamia, and the world, begins with the Sumerians who developed the earliest writing system—known as cuneiform—around 3500–3200 BC.
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
Barsoom is a fictional representation of the planet Mars created by American pulp fiction author Edgar Rice Burroughs.
Basalt is a common extrusive igneous (volcanic) rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface of a planet or moon.
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
The Bermuda Triangle, also known as the Devil's Triangle, is a loosely-defined region in the western part of the North Atlantic Ocean, where a number of aircraft and ships are said to have disappeared under mysterious circumstances.
The Bond albedo, named after the American astronomer George Phillips Bond (1825–1865), who originally proposed it, is the fraction of power in the total electromagnetic radiation incident on an astronomical body that is scattered back out into space.
Bradbury Landing is a landing location on the planet Mars inside Gale crater.
Brine is a high-concentration solution of salt (usually sodium chloride) in water.
Butterscotch is a type of confectionery whose primary ingredients are brown sugar and butter, but other ingredients are part of some recipes, such as corn syrup, cream, vanilla and salt.
Clive Staples Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963) was a British novelist, poet, academic, medievalist, literary critic, essayist, lay theologian, broadcaster, lecturer, and Christian apologist.
C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) is an Oort cloud comet discovered on 3 January 2013 by Robert H. McNaught at Siding Spring Observatory using the Uppsala Southern Schmidt Telescope.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Calcium sulfate (or calcium sulphate) is the inorganic compound with the formula CaSO4 and related hydrates.
Nicolas Camille Flammarion FRAS (26 February 1842 – 3 June 1925) was a French astronomer and author.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
Carbonaceous chondrites or C chondrites are a class of chondritic meteorites comprising at least 8 known groups and many ungrouped meteorites.
Carl Edward Sagan (November 9, 1934 – December 20, 1996) was an American astronomer, cosmologist, astrophysicist, astrobiologist, author, science popularizer, and science communicator in astronomy and other natural sciences.
A cave is a hollow place in the ground, specifically a natural space large enough for a human to enter.
Celestia is a 3D astronomy program created by Chris Laurel.
The Celsius scale, previously known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units (SI).
The Cerberus Fossae are a series of semi-parallel fissures on Mars formed by faults which pulled the crust apart in the Cerberus region.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
Astronomy in China has a long history, beginning from the Shang Dynasty (Chinese Bronze Age).
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Chondrites are stony (non-metallic) meteorites that have not been modified due to melting or differentiation of the parent body.
Christiaan Huygens (Hugenius; 14 April 1629 – 8 July 1695) was a Dutch physicist, mathematician, astronomer and inventor, who is widely regarded as one of the greatest scientists of all time and a major figure in the scientific revolution.
Today, interplanetary spacecraft have provided abundant evidence of water on Mars, dating back to the Mariner 9 mission, which arrived at Mars in 1971.
A circular orbit is the orbit with a fixed distance around the barycenter, that is, in the shape of a circle.
Cirrus (cloud classification symbol: Ci) is a genus of atmospheric cloud generally characterized by thin, wispy strands, giving the type its name from the Latin word cirrus, meaning a ringlet or curling lock of hair.
The classical albedo features of Mars are the light and dark features that can be seen on the planet Mars through an Earth-based telescope.
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
Collier's was an American magazine, founded in 1888 by Peter Fenelon Collier.
The coma is the nebulous envelope around the nucleus of a comet, formed when the comet passes close to the Sun on its highly elliptical orbit; as the comet warms, parts of it sublime.
A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, warms and begins to release gases, a process called outgassing.
In physics, the Coriolis force is an inertial force that acts on objects that are in motion relative to a rotating reference frame.
A coronal mass ejection (CME) is a significant release of plasma and magnetic field from the solar corona.
A crater chain is a line of craters along the surface of an astronomical body.
A crater lake is a lake that forms in a volcanic crater or caldera, such as a maar; less commonly and with lower association to the term a lake may form in an impact crater caused by a meteorite, or in the crater left by an artificial explosion caused by humans.
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
The cryosphere (from the Greek κρύος kryos, "cold", "frost" or "ice" and σφαῖρα sphaira, "globe, ball") is those portions of Earth's surface where water is in solid form, including sea ice, lake ice, river ice, snow cover, glaciers, ice caps, ice sheets, and frozen ground (which includes permafrost).
A CubeSat (U-class spacecraft) is a type of miniaturized satellite for space research that is made up of multiples of 10×10×10 cm cubic units.
Curiosity is a car-sized rover designed to explore Gale Crater on Mars as part of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory mission (MSL).
Cydonia is a region on the planet Mars that has attracted both scientific and popular interest.
Dark slope streaks are narrow, avalanche-like features common on dust-covered slopes in the equatorial regions of Mars.
Deimos (Δεῖμος,, meaning “dread”) is the god of terror in Greek mythology.
Deimos (systematic designation: Mars II) is the smaller and outer of the two natural satellites of the planet Mars, the other being Phobos.
Deneb, also designated α Cygni (Latinised alpha Cygni, abbreviated Alpha Cyg, α Cyg), is the brightest star in the constellation of Cygnus.
Deposition is a thermodynamic process, a phase transition in which gas transforms into solid without passing through the liquid phase.
Deuterium (or hydrogen-2, symbol or, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen (the other being protium, or hydrogen-1).
Dry ice, sometimes referred to as "cardice" (chiefly by British chemists), is the solid form of carbon dioxide.
A dust devil is a strong, well-formed, and relatively long-lived whirlwind, ranging from small (half a metre wide and a few metres tall) to large (more than 10 metres wide and more than 1000 metres tall).
A dust storm is a meteorological phenomenon common in arid and semi-arid regions.
In physics, the dynamo theory proposes a mechanism by which a celestial body such as Earth or a star generates a magnetic field.
The earliest known life forms on Earth are putative fossilized microorganisms found in hydrothermal vent precipitates.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
The ecliptic is the circular path on the celestial sphere that the Sun follows over the course of a year; it is the basis of the ecliptic coordinate system.
Edgar Rice Burroughs (September 1, 1875 – March 19, 1950) was an American fiction writer best known for his celebrated and prolific output in the adventure and science-fiction genres.
Prof Edward Charles Pickering FRS(For) HFRSE (July 19, 1846 – February 3, 1919) was an American astronomer and physicist and the older brother to William Henry Pickering.
Egyptian astronomy begins in prehistoric times, in the Predynastic Period.
In mathematics, an ellipse is a curve in a plane surrounding two focal points such that the sum of the distances to the two focal points is constant for every point on the curve.
An ellipsoid is a surface that may be obtained from a sphere by deforming it by means of directional scalings, or more generally, of an affine transformation.
Elon Reeve Musk (born June 28, 1971) is an American business magnate, investor and engineer.
Elysium Planitia, located in the Elysium and Aeolis quadrangles, is a broad plain that straddles the equator of Mars, centered at.
In astronomy, an epoch is a moment in time used as a reference point for some time-varying astronomical quantity, such as the celestial coordinates or elliptical orbital elements of a celestial body, because these are subject to perturbations and vary with time.
An equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel).
The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.
The ExoMars rover is a planned robotic Mars rover, part of the international ExoMars programme led by the European Space Agency and the Russian Roscosmos State Corporation.
The ExoMars 2020 surface platform is a planned robotic Mars lander, part of the ExoMars 2020 mission by the European Space Agency and the Roscosmos State Corporation.
The ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) is a collaborative project between the European Space Agency (ESA) and Roscosmos that sent an atmospheric research orbiter and the ''Schiaparelli'' demonstration lander to Mars in 2016 as part of the European-led ExoMars programme.
Experience Curiosity is an interactive web application developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory to celebrate the third anniversary of the ''Curiosity'' rover landing on Mars.
An extremophile (from Latin extremus meaning "extreme" and Greek philiā (φιλία) meaning "love") is an organism that thrives in physically or geochemically extreme conditions that are detrimental to most life on Earth.
The Fahrenheit scale is a temperature scale based on one proposed in 1724 by Dutch-German-Polish physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736).
Fayalite (Fe2SiO4; commonly abbreviated to Fa), also called iron chrysolite, is the iron-rich end-member of the olivine solid-solution series.
The formation and evolution of the Solar System began 4.6 billion years ago with the gravitational collapse of a small part of a giant molecular cloud.
Forsterite (Mg2SiO4; commonly abbreviated as Fo) is the magnesium-rich end-member of the olivine solid solution series.
The full moon is the lunar phase when the Moon appears fully illuminated from Earth's perspective.
The gravitational force, or more commonly, g-force, is a measurement of the type of acceleration that causes a perception of weight.
Gale is a crater, and probable dry lake, on Mars near the northwestern part of the Aeolis quadrangle at.
Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath.
A gender symbol is a pictogram or glyph used to represent either biological sex or sociological gender (a terminological distinction originating in 1950s sociology) in either biology, medicine, genealogy or selective breeding, or in sociology, gender politics, LGBT subculture and identity politics.
The geoid is the shape that the surface of the oceans would take under the influence of Earth's gravity and rotation alone, in the absence of other influences such as winds and tides.
Geology is a peer-reviewed publication of the Geological Society of America (GSA).
In astronomy, the geometric albedo of a celestial body is the ratio of its actual brightness as seen from the light source (i.e. at zero phase angle) to that of an idealized flat, fully reflecting, diffusively scattering (Lambertian) disk with the same cross-section.
Geomorphology (from Ancient Greek: γῆ, gê, "earth"; μορφή, morphḗ, "form"; and λόγος, lógos, "study") is the scientific study of the origin and evolution of topographic and bathymetric features created by physical, chemical or biological processes operating at or near the Earth's surface.
Geophysical Research Letters is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal of geoscience published by the American Geophysical Union that was established in 1974.
A geyser is a spring characterized by intermittent discharge of water ejected turbulently and accompanied by steam.
Geyserite is a form of opaline silica that is often found around hot springs and geysers.
Martian geysers (or jets) are putative sites of small gas and dust eruptions that occur in the south polar region of Mars during the spring thaw.
The giant-impact hypothesis, sometimes called the Big Splash, or the Theia Impact suggests that the Moon formed out of the debris left over from a collision between Earth and an astronomical body the size of Mars, approximately 4.5 billion years ago, in the Hadean eon; about 20 to 100 million years after the solar system coalesced.
Gilbert V. Levin is an American engineer, the founder of Spherix and the principal investigator of the ''Viking'' mission Labeled Release experiment.
Giovanni Domenico Cassini (8 June 1625 – 14 September 1712) was an Italian (naturalised French) mathematician, astronomer and engineer.
Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli FRS(For) HFRSE (14 March 1835 Savigliano – 4 July 1910 Milan) was an Italian astronomer and science historian.
Glenelg, Mars (or Glenelg Intrigue) is a location on Mars near the Mars Science Laboratory (Curiosity rover) landing site ("Bradbury Landing") in Gale Crater marked by a natural intersection of three kinds of terrain.
Goethite (FeO(OH)) is an iron bearing hydroxide mineral of the diaspore group.
Google Earth is a computer program that renders a 3D representation of Earth based on satellite imagery.
In geology, a graben is a depressed block of the Earth's crust bordered by parallel faults.
The Grand Canyon (Hopi: Ongtupqa; Wi:kaʼi:la, Navajo: Tsékooh Hatsoh, Spanish: Gran Cañón) is a steep-sided canyon carved by the Colorado River in Arizona, United States.
The gravity of Mars is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass around Mars are brought towards it.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Greek mythology is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices.
The Greenland ice sheet (Grønlands indlandsis, Sermersuaq) is a vast body of ice covering, roughly 80% of the surface of Greenland.
Greenwich is an area of south east London, England, located east-southeast of Charing Cross.
Groundwater sapping is a geomorphic erosion process that results in the headward migration of channels in response to near constant fluid discharge at a fixed point.
Gulliver's Travels, or Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World.
A gully is a landform created by running water, eroding sharply into soil, typically on a hillside.
Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O.
Herbert George Wells.
Haredevil Hare is a 1948 Looney Tunes cartoon directed by Chuck Jones.
The Harvard College Observatory (HCO) is an institution managing a complex of buildings and multiple instruments used for astronomical research by the Harvard University Department of Astronomy.
Heat transfer is a discipline of thermal engineering that concerns the generation, use, conversion, and exchange of thermal energy (heat) between physical systems.
Heidelberg is a college town in Baden-Württemberg situated on the river Neckar in south-west Germany.
Hellas Planitia is a plain located within the huge, roughly circular impact basin Hellas located in the southern hemisphere of the planet Mars.
Hematite, also spelled as haematite, is the mineral form of iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3), one of several iron oxides.
Henri Joseph Anastase Perrotin (December 19, 1845 – February 29, 1904) was a French astronomer and a discoverer of minor planets.
Hesperia Planum is a broad lava plain in the southern highlands of the planet Mars.
The Hesperian is a geologic system and time period on the planet Mars characterized by widespread volcanic activity and catastrophic flooding that carved immense outflow channels across the surface.
For the Apple accessory see Twelve South High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment is a camera on board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.
HiWish is a program created by NASA so that anyone can suggest a place for the HiRISE camera on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter to photograph.
In orbital mechanics, the Hohmann transfer orbit is an elliptical orbit used to transfer between two circular orbits of different radii in the same plane.
The Hope Mars Mission or Emirates Mars Mission (مسبار الأمل) is a space exploration probe mission to Mars, set to be launched by the United Arab Emirates in 2020.
A hot spring is a spring produced by the emergence of geothermally heated groundwater that rises from the Earth's crust.
The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a space telescope that was launched into low Earth orbit in 1990 and remains in operation.
A human mission to Mars has been the subject of science fiction, aerospace engineering, and scientific proposals since the 19th century.
Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH−.
Icarus is a scientific journal dedicated to the field of planetary science.
An impact crater is an approximately circular depression in the surface of a planet, moon, or other solid body in the Solar System or elsewhere, formed by the hypervelocity impact of a smaller body.
An impact event is a collision between astronomical objects causing measurable effects.
Impactite (or impact glass) is rock created or modified by the impact of a meteorite.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indian astronomy has a long history stretching from pre-historic to modern times.
The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is the space agency of the Government of India headquartered in the city of Bangalore.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
InSight is a robotic lander designed to study the interior of the planet Mars.
The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.
The invariable plane of a planetary system, also called Laplace's invariable plane, is the plane passing through its barycenter (center of mass) perpendicular to its angular momentum vector.
The ionosphere is the ionized part of Earth's upper atmosphere, from about to altitude, a region that includes the thermosphere and parts of the mesosphere and exosphere.
Iron oxides are chemical compounds composed of iron and oxygen.
Iron(II) sulfide or ferrous sulfide (Br.E. sulphide) is one of a family chemical compounds and minerals with the approximate formula.
Iron(III) oxide or ferric oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Fe2O3.
An iron–nickel alloy or nickel–iron alloy, abbreviated FeNi or NiFe, is a group of alloys consisting primarily of the elements nickel (Ni) and iron (Fe).
Jarosite is a basic hydrous sulfate of potassium and iron with a chemical formula of KFe3+3(OH)6(SO4)2.
Johann Heinrich von Mädler (May 29, 1794, Berlin – March 14, 1874, Hannover) was a German astronomer.
Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer.
Jonathan Swift (30 November 1667 – 19 October 1745) was an Anglo-Irish satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for the Whigs, then for the Tories), poet and cleric who became Dean of St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin.
The Journal of Geophysical Research is a peer-reviewed scientific journal.
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.
A katabatic wind (named from the Greek word κατάβασις katabasis, meaning "descending") is the technical name for a drainage wind, a wind that carries high-density air from a higher elevation down a slope under the force of gravity.
The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.
Kim Stanley Robinson (born March 23, 1952) is an American writer of science fiction.
Lake Superior (Lac Supérieur; ᑭᑦᒉᐁ-ᑲᒣᐁ, Gitchi-Gami) is the largest of the Great Lakes of North America.
The Late Heavy Bombardment (abbreviated LHB and also known as the lunar cataclysm) is an event thought to have occurred approximately 4.1 to 3.8 billion years (Ga) ago, at a time corresponding to the Neohadean and Eoarchean eras on Earth.
The possibility of life on Mars is a subject of significant interest to astrobiology due to its proximity and similarities to Earth.
There are a number of derelict orbiters around Mars whose location is not known precisely; there is a proposal to search for small moons, dust rings, and old orbiters with the Optical Navigation Camera on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.
This is a list of the tallest mountains in the Solar System.
Looney Tunes is an American animated series of comedy short films produced by Warner Bros. from 1930 to 1969 during the golden age of American animation, alongside its sister series Merrie Melodies.
Louis Thollon (May 2, 1829 – April 8, 1887) was a French astronomer.
Lowell Observatory is an astronomical observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona, United States.
Ma'adim Vallis is one of the largest outflow channels on Mars, about 700 km long and significantly larger than Earth's Grand Canyon.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.
A magnetosphere is the region of space surrounding an astronomical object in which charged particles are manipulated or affected by that object's magnetic field.
In astronomy, magnitude is a logarithmic measure of the brightness of an object in a defined passband, often in the visible or infrared spectrum, but sometimes across all wavelengths.
The mantle is a layer inside a terrestrial planet and some other rocky planetary bodies.
Mare Erythraeum is a very large dark dusky region of Mars that can be viewed by even a small telescope.
Mariner 9 (Mariner Mars '71 / Mariner-I) was an unmanned NASA space probe that contributed greatly to the exploration of Mars and was part of the Mariner program.
The Mariner program was a 10-mission program conducted by the American space agency NASA in conjunction with Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL).
In ancient Roman religion and myth, Mars (Mārs) was the god of war and also an agricultural guardian, a combination characteristic of early Rome.
Mars 2020 is a Mars rover mission by NASA's Mars Exploration Program with a planned launch in 2020.
Mars Cube One (or MarCO) is a Mars flyby mission consisting of two nanospacecraft, of the 6U CubeSat format, that was launched on 5 May 2018 alongside NASA's InSight Mars lander mission.
NASA's Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission is an ongoing robotic space mission involving two Mars rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, exploring the planet Mars.
Mars Express is a space exploration mission being conducted by the European Space Agency (ESA).
Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) was an American robotic spacecraft developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and launched November 1996.
A Mars landing is a landing of a spacecraft on the surface of Mars.
The Mars ocean hypothesis states that nearly a third of the surface of Mars was covered by an ocean of liquid water early in the planet’s geologic history.
The Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM), also called Mangalyaan ("Mars-craft", from मंगल mangala, "Mars" and यान yāna, "craft, vehicle"), is a space probe orbiting Mars since 24 September 2014.
Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) is a multipurpose spacecraft designed to conduct reconnaissance and exploration of Mars from orbit.
A Mars rover is an automated motor vehicle that propels itself across the surface of the planet Mars upon arrival.
Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is a robotic space probe mission to Mars launched by NASA on November 26, 2011, which successfully landed Curiosity, a Mars rover, in Gale Crater on August 6, 2012.
The surface of the planet Mars appears reddish from a distance because of rusty dust suspended in the atmosphere.
The Mars trilogy is a series of award-winning science fiction novels by Kim Stanley Robinson that chronicles the settlement and terraforming of the planet Mars through the intensely personal and detailed viewpoints of a wide variety of characters spanning almost two centuries.
The Mars trojans are a group of objects that share the orbit of the planet Mars around the Sun.
A Martian is a native inhabitant of the planet Mars.
The most conspicuous feature of Mars is a sharp contrast, known as the Martian dichotomy, between the Southern hemisphere and the Northern.
Marvin the Martian is a character from Warner Bros.' Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies cartoons.
Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission (MAVEN) is a space probe developed by NASA to study the Martian atmosphere while orbiting Mars.
Mercury is the smallest and innermost planet in the Solar System.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
A meteorite is a solid piece of debris from an object, such as a comet, asteroid, or meteoroid, that originates in outer space and survives its passage through the atmosphere to reach the surface of a planet or moon.
A meteoroid is a small rocky or metallic body in outer space.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
Methanogens are microorganisms that produce methane as a metabolic byproduct in anoxic conditions.
Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH).
Michael Maestlin (also Mästlin, Möstlin, or Moestlin) (30 September 1550, Göppingen – 20 October 1631, Tübingen) was a German astronomer and mathematician, known for being the mentor of Johannes Kepler.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
The Middle Paleolithic (or Middle Palaeolithic) is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
Mineral hydration is an inorganic chemical reaction where water is added to the crystal structure of a mineral, usually creating a new mineral, usually called a hydrate.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
The two moons of Mars are Phobos and Deimos.
Mount Everest, known in Nepali as Sagarmāthā and in Tibetan as Chomolungma, is Earth's highest mountain above sea level, located in the Mahalangur Himal sub-range of the Himalayas.
MSN (stylized as msn) is a web portal and related collection of Internet services and apps for Windows and mobile devices, provided by Microsoft and launched on August 24, 1995, the same release date as Windows 95.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
World Wind is an open-source (released under the NOSA license) virtual globe.
Nature Communications is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Nature Publishing Group since 2010.
The Neo-Babylonian Empire (also Second Babylonian Empire) was a period of Mesopotamian history which began in 626 BC and ended in 539 BC.
Nergal, Nirgal, or Nirgali (Sumerian: dGÌR-UNUG-GAL;; Aramaic ܢܹܪܓܵܐܠ; Nergel) was a deity worshipped throughout Mesopotamia (Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia) with the main seat of his worship at Cuthah represented by the mound of Tell-Ibrahim.
New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.
Nikola Tesla (Никола Тесла; 10 July 1856 – 7 January 1943) was a Serbian-American inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, physicist, and futurist who is best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system.
Nineveh (𒌷𒉌𒉡𒀀 URUNI.NU.A Ninua); ܢܝܼܢܘܹܐ was an ancient Assyrian city of Upper Mesopotamia, located on the outskirts of Mosul in modern-day northern Iraq.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
The Noachian is a geologic system and early time period on the planet Mars characterized by high rates of meteorite and asteroid impacts and the possible presence of abundant surface water.
Noachis Terra (lit. "Land of Noah") is an extensive southern landmass (terra) of the planet Mars.
In sedimentology and geology, a nodule is small, irregularly rounded knot, mass, or lump of a mineral or mineral aggregate that typically has a contrasting composition, such as a pyrite nodule in coal, a chert nodule in limestone, or a phosphorite nodule in marine shale, from the enclosing sediment or sedimentary rock.
The North Polar Basin, more commonly known as the Borealis Basin, is a large basin in the northern hemisphere of Mars that covers 40% of the planet.
The North Pole, also known as the Geographic North Pole or Terrestrial North Pole, is (subject to the caveats explained below) defined as the point in the Northern Hemisphere where the Earth's axis of rotation meets its surface.
Northern Arizona University (NAU) is a public higher-research university with a main campus at the base of the San Francisco Peaks in Flagstaff, Arizona, statewide campuses, and NAU Online.
An occultation is an event that occurs when one object is hidden by another object that passes between it and the observer.
The mineral olivine is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg2+, Fe2+)2SiO4.
Olympus Mons (Latin for Mount Olympus) is a very large shield volcano on the planet Mars.
Opportunity, also known as MER-B (Mars Exploration Rover – B) or MER-1, is a robotic rover active on Mars since 2004.
In positional astronomy, two astronomical objects are said to be in opposition when they are on opposite sides of the celestial sphere, as observed from a given body (usually Earth).
An optical illusion (also called a visual illusion) is an illusion caused by the visual system and characterized by a visual percept that (loosely said) appears to differ from reality.
OSIRIS (Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System) is the main scientific imaging system on the orbiter of the ESA spacecraft Rosetta.
The orbital eccentricity of an astronomical object is a parameter that determines the amount by which its orbit around another body deviates from a perfect circle.
The orbital period is the time a given astronomical object takes to complete one orbit around another object, and applies in astronomy usually to planets or asteroids orbiting the Sun, moons orbiting planets, exoplanets orbiting other stars, or binary stars.
The orbital plane of a revolving body is the geometric plane on which its orbit lies.
An orbiter is a space probe that orbits a planet or other astronomical object.
Recognized effects of higher acute radiation doses are described in more detail in the article on radiation poisoning.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
Out of the Silent Planet is a science fiction novel by the British author C. S. Lewis, published in 1938 by John Lane, The Bodley Head.
Outflow channels are extremely long, wide swathes of scoured ground on Mars, commonly containing the streamlined remnants of pre-existing topography and other linear erosive features indicating sculpting by fluids moving downslope.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Mars: Mars – fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System, after Mercury.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
This term is also sometimes used for natural remanent magnetization. Paleomagnetism (or palaeomagnetism in the United Kingdom) is the study of the record of the Earth's magnetic field in rocks, sediment, or archeological materials.
Parallax is a displacement or difference in the apparent position of an object viewed along two different lines of sight, and is measured by the angle or semi-angle of inclination between those two lines.
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength.
A perchlorate is the name for a chemical compound containing the perchlorate ion,.
Percival Lawrence Lowell (March 13, 1855 – November 12, 1916) was an American businessman, author, mathematician, and astronomer who fueled speculation that there were canals on Mars.
The perihelion of any orbit of a celestial body about the Sun is the point where the body comes nearest to the Sun.
In geology, permafrost is ground, including rock or (cryotic) soil, at or below the freezing point of water for two or more years.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Phobos (systematic designation) is the innermost and larger of the two natural satellites of Mars, the other being Deimos.
Phobos (Φόβος,, meaning "fear") is the personification of fear in Greek mythology.
Phoenix was a robotic spacecraft on a space exploration mission on Mars under the Mars Scout Program.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
The Pilbara Craton is an old and stable part of the continental lithosphere located in Pilbara, Western Australia.
Pink is a pale red color that is named after a flower of the same name.
Plagioclase is a series of tectosilicate (framework silicate) minerals within the feldspar group.
A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.
The planetary core consists of the innermost layer(s) of a planet; which may be composed of solid and liquid layers.
In planetary science, planetary differentiation is the process of separating out different constituents of a planetary body as a consequence of their physical or chemical behaviour, where the body develops into compositionally distinct layers; the denser materials of a planet sink to the center, while less dense materials rise to the surface, generally in a magma ocean.
Planetary habitability is the measure of a planet's or a natural satellite's potential to have habitable environments hospitable to life, or its ability to generate life endogenously.
Planum Australe (Latin: "the southern plain") is the southern polar plain on Mars.
Planum Boreum (Latin: "the northern plain") is the northern polar plain on Mars.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
Pluto (minor planet designation: 134340 Pluto) is a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, a ring of bodies beyond Neptune.
A polar ice cap or polar cap is a high-latitude region of a planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite that is covered in ice.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
A prime meridian is a meridian (a line of longitude) in a geographic coordinate system at which longitude is defined to be 0°.
A protoplanetary disk is a rotating circumstellar disk of dense gas and dust surrounding a young newly formed star, a T Tauri star, or Herbig Ae/Be star.
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
The pyroxenes (commonly abbreviated to Px) are a group of important rock-forming inosilicate minerals found in many igneous and metamorphic rocks.
In geology or geography, the word "quadrangle" usually refers to a United States Geological Survey (USGS) 7.5-minute quadrangle map, which are usually named after a local physiographic feature.
In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.
Ray Douglas Bradbury (August 22, 1920June 5, 2012) was an American author and screenwriter.
Regolith is a layer of loose, heterogeneous superficial deposits covering solid rock.
Richard Charles Hoagland (born April 25, 1945), is an American author, and a proponent of various conspiracy theories about NASA, lost alien civilizations on the Moon and on Mars and other related topics.
A river delta is a landform that forms from deposition of sediment carried by a river as the flow leaves its mouth and enters slower-moving or stagnant water.
Robert Anson Heinlein (See also the biography at the end of For Us, the Living, 2004 edition, p. 261. July 7, 1907 – May 8, 1988) was an American science-fiction writer.
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.
The Roscosmos State Corporation for Space Activities (Государственная корпорация по космической деятельности «Роскосмос»), commonly known as Roscosmos (Роскосмос), is a state corporation responsible for the space flight and cosmonautics program for the Russian Federation.
Rosetta was a space probe built by the European Space Agency launched on 2 March 2004.
In astronomy, the rotation period of a celestial object is the time that it takes to complete one revolution around its axis of rotation relative to the background stars.
Saline water (more commonly known as salt water) is water that contains a high concentration of dissolved salts (mainly NaCl).
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) is a suite of instruments on the Mars Science Laboratory ''Curiosity'' rover.
In various scientific contexts, a scale height is a distance over which a quantity decreases by a factor of e (approximately 2.72, the base of natural logarithms).
Schiaparelli EDM lander was the Entry, Descent and Landing Demonstrator Module (EDM) of the ExoMars programme—a joint mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Russian space agency Roscosmos.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Science fiction (often shortened to Sci-Fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction, typically dealing with imaginative concepts such as advanced science and technology, spaceflight, time travel, and extraterrestrial life.
Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured.
Seasonal flows on warm Martian slopes (also called recurring slope lineae, recurrent slope lineae and RSL) are thought to be salty water flows occurring during the warmest months on Mars, or alternatively, dry grains that "flow" downslope of at least 27 degrees.
In geometry, the major axis of an ellipse is its longest diameter: a line segment that runs through the center and both foci, with ends at the widest points of the perimeter.
Serpentinite is a rock composed of one or more serpentine group minerals, the name originating from the similarity of the texture of the rock to that of the skin of a snake.
SHARAD (Mars SHAllow RADar sounder) is a subsurface sounding radar embarked on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter probe.
A shield volcano is a type of volcano usually composed almost entirely of fluid lava flows.
Silicate minerals are rock-forming minerals with predominantly silicate anions.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
Sinus Meridiani is an albedo feature on Mars stretching east-west just south of that planet's equator.
The Society for Scientific Exploration, or SSE, is a group committed to studying fringe science.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
A solar flare is a sudden flash of increased Sun's brightness, usually observed near its surface.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
The solar wind is a stream of charged particles released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun, called the corona.
A solid solution is a solid-state solution of one or more solutes in a solvent.
The South Pole–Aitken basin is an impact crater on the far side of the Moon.
The Soviet space program (Russian: Космическая программа СССР, Kosmicheskaya programma SSSR) comprised several of the rocket and space exploration programs conducted by the Soviet Union (USSR) from the 1930s until its collapse in 1991.
A space probe is a robotic spacecraft that does not orbit the Earth, but, instead, explores further into outer space.
Space.com is a space and astronomy news website.
A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space.
Space Exploration Technologies Corp., doing business as SpaceX, is a private American aerospace manufacturer and space transportation services company headquartered in Hawthorne, California.
Spirit, also known as MER-A (Mars Exploration Rover – A) or MER-2, is a robotic rover on Mars, active from 2004 to 2010.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
Stickney is the largest crater on Phobos, which is a satellite of Mars.
--> In probability theory and related fields, a stochastic or random process is a mathematical object usually defined as a collection of random variables.
Sublimation is the transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase, without passing through the intermediate liquid phase.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
Sunspots are temporary phenomena on the Sun's photosphere that appear as spots darker than the surrounding areas.
Surface runoff (also known as overland flow) is the flow of water that occurs when excess stormwater, meltwater, or other sources flows over the Earth's surface.
The Surya Siddhanta is the name of a Sanskrit treatise in Indian astronomy from 6th Century BCE.
Swiss cheese features (SCFs) are curious pits in the south polar ice cap of Mars (Mare Australe quadrangle) named from their similarity to the holes in Swiss cheese.
A synchronous orbit is an orbit in which an orbiting body (usually a satellite) has a period equal to the average rotational period of the body being orbited (usually a planet), and in the same direction of rotation as that body.
Syrtis Major Planum is a "dark spot" (an albedo feature) located in the boundary between the northern lowlands and southern highlands of Mars just west of the impact basin Isidis in the Syrtis Major quadrangle.
Tawny (also called tenné) is a light brown to brownish-orange color.
Like the Earth, the crustal properties and structure of the surface of Mars are thought to have evolved through time; in other words, as on Earth, tectonic processes have shaped the planet.
Telemetry is an automated communications process by which measurements and other data are collected at remote or inaccessible points and transmitted to receiving equipment for monitoring.
A telescope is an optical instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light).
Terra Cimmeria is a large Martian region, centered at and covering at its broadest extent.
A terrestrial planet, telluric planet, or rocky planet is a planet that is composed primarily of silicate rocks or metals.
Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.
Tharsis is a vast volcanic plateau centered near the equator in the western hemisphere of Mars.
The Hindu is an Indian daily newspaper, headquartered at Chennai.
The Martian Chronicles is a 1950 science fiction short story fixup by Ray Bradbury that chronicles the colonization of Mars by humans fleeing from a troubled and eventually atomically devastated Earth, and the conflict between aboriginal Martians and the new colonists.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The War of the Worlds is a science fiction novel by English author H. G. Wells first serialised in 1897 by Pearson's Magazine in the UK and by Cosmopolitan magazine in the US.
The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) is a camera on board the 2001 Mars Odyssey orbiter.
The tholeiitic magma series, named after the German municipality of Tholey, is one of two main magma series in igneous rocks, the other being the calc-alkaline series.
The tidal force is an apparent force that stretches a body towards the center of mass of another body due to a gradient (difference in strength) in gravitational field from the other body; it is responsible for the diverse phenomena, including tides, tidal locking, breaking apart of celestial bodies and formation of ring systems within Roche limit, and in extreme cases, spaghettification of objects.
Various schemes have been used or proposed for timekeeping on the planet Mars independently of Earth time and calendars.
Tintina is a rock on the surface of Aeolis Palus, between Peace Vallis and Aeolis Mons (Mount Sharp), in Gale crater on the planet Mars.
A transform fault or transform boundary is a plate boundary where the motion is predominantly horizontal.
In astronomy, a transit or astronomical transit is the phenomenon of at least one celestial body appearing to move across the face of another celestial body, hiding a small part of it, as seen by an observer at some particular vantage point.
A transit of Deimos across the Sun as seen from Mars occurs when Deimos passes directly between the Sun and a point on the surface of Mars, obscuring a small part of the Sun's disc for an observer on Mars.
A transit of Earth across the Sun as seen from Mars takes place when the planet Earth passes directly between the Sun and Mars, obscuring a small part of the Sun's disc for an observer on Mars.
A transit of Mercury across the Sun as seen from Mars takes place when the planet Mercury passes directly between the Sun and Mars, obscuring a small part of the Sun's disc for an observer on Mars.
A transit of Phobos across the Sun as seen from Mars takes place when Phobos passes directly between the Sun and a point on the surface of Mars, obscuring a large part of the Sun's disc for an observer on Mars.
A transit of Venus across the Sun takes place when the planet Venus passes directly between the Sun and a superior planet, becoming visible against (and hence obscuring a small portion of) the solar disk.
In thermodynamics, the triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which the three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium.
Tycho Brahe (born Tyge Ottesen Brahe;. He adopted the Latinized form "Tycho Brahe" (sometimes written Tÿcho) at around age fifteen. The name Tycho comes from Tyche (Τύχη, meaning "luck" in Greek, Roman equivalent: Fortuna), a tutelary deity of fortune and prosperity of ancient Greek city cults. He is now generally referred to as "Tycho," as was common in Scandinavia in his time, rather than by his surname "Brahe" (a spurious appellative form of his name, Tycho de Brahe, only appears much later). 14 December 154624 October 1601) was a Danish nobleman, astronomer, and writer known for his accurate and comprehensive astronomical and planetary observations.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
Utopia Planitia (Greek and Latin: "Nowhere Land Plain"—loosely, the plain of paradise) is a large plain within Utopia, the largest recognized impact basin on Mars and in the Solar System with an estimated diameter of 3,300 km, and is the Martian region where the Viking 2 lander touched down and began exploring on September 3, 1976.
Valles Marineris (Latin for Mariner Valleys, named after the Mariner 9 Mars orbiter of 1971–72 which discovered it) is a system of canyons that runs along the Martian surface east of the Tharsis region.
Valley networks are branching networks of valleys on Mars that superficially resemble terrestrial river drainage basins.
Vapor pressure or equilibrium vapor pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases (solid or liquid) at a given temperature in a closed system.
In geology, a vein is a distinct sheetlike body of crystallized minerals within a rock.
Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.
The Viking program consisted of a pair of American space probes sent to Mars, Viking 1 and Viking 2.
The visible and near-infrared (VNIR) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum has wavelengths between approximately 400 and 1400 nanometers (nm).
Volcanism is the phenomenon of eruption of molten rock (magma) onto the surface of the Earth or a solid-surface planet or moon, where lava, pyroclastics and volcanic gases erupt through a break in the surface called a vent.
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
Volumetric heat capacity (VHC), also termed volume-specific heat capacity, describes the ability of a given volume of a substance to store internal energy while undergoing a given temperature change, but without undergoing a phase transition.
Almost all water on Mars today exists as ice, though it also exists in small quantities as vapor in the atmosphere and occasionally as low-volume liquid brines in shallow Martian soil.
The origin and development of water on terrestrial planets, Venus, Earth, Mars, and the closely related Earth's Moon, varies with each planetary body, with the exact origins remaining unclear.
Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia.
Wilhelm Wolff Beer (4 January 1797 – 27 March 1850) was a banker and astronomer from Berlin, Prussia, and the brother of Giacomo Meyerbeer.
William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, (26 June 1824 – 17 December 1907) was a Scots-Irish mathematical physicist and engineer who was born in Belfast in 1824.
The Wu Xing, also known as the Five Elements, Five Phases, the Five Agents, the Five Movements, Five Processes, the Five Steps/Stages and the Five Planets of significant gravity: Jupiter-木, Saturn-土, Mercury-水, Venus-金, Mars-火Dr Zai, J..
A year is the orbital period of the Earth moving in its orbit around the Sun.
1,000,000,000 (one billion, short scale; one thousand million or milliard, yard, long scale) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001.
2001 Mars Odyssey is a robotic spacecraft orbiting the planet Mars.
5261 Eureka is the first Mars trojan discovered.
2003 opposition of Mars, 4th planet, Fourth planet, Hydrology of Mars, Magnetosphere of Mars, Mars (Planet), Mars (planet), Mars opposition, Mars orbit, Mars surface features, Mars/Planet, Oblate Mars, Opposition of Mars, Physical characteristics of Mars, Planet Mars, Sol 4, Sol IV, Sol e, Sol-4, Structure of Mars, Sun e, The planet Mars.