214 relations: Ablation, Acceleration, Accelerometer, Aeolis quadrangle, Aerobraking, Aerogel, Airbag, Alpha particle X-ray spectrometer, Altimeter, Antenna (radio), Apollo 17, Apollo program, Arizona State University, Asteroid, Astrogeology Research Program, Atmospheric entry, Australia, Autotroph, Ball Aerospace & Technologies, Basalt, Binder (material), Biosphere, Boeing, Boeing Defense, Space & Security, BoPET, Boulder, Colorado, Bromine, Calcium, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Space Launch Complex 17, Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, Carbonate, Central processing unit, Chandler wobble, Chemotroph, Chlorine, Columbia Hills (Mars), Composition of Mars, Concretion, Copenhagen, Cork (material), Cornell University, Cross-bedding, Curiosity (rover), Delta II, Diameter, Directional antenna, Dynamic random-access memory, EEPROM, Embedded operating system, Endeavour (crater), ..., Endurance (crater), Environmental science, Evaporite, Flash memory, Flexure, Forbes, Fossil, Freon, G-force, Geology of Mars, Germany, Goethite, Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex, Graphite, Gravity of Mars, Gyroscope, Hazcam, Heat shield, Heliocentric orbit, Hematite, Hertz, Home Plate (Mars), Honeybee Robotics, Human penis, Human spaceflight, Husband Hill, Hydrazine, Hydrothermal vent, IBM RAD6000, ICER, Jarosite, Jens Martin Knudsen, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Johannes Gutenberg, Kevlar, Kilowatt hour, Komatiite, Lacustrine plain, Launch Services Program, Life, Lithium-ion battery, Lockheed Martin, Lunar rover, Lunar Roving Vehicle, Lunokhod 2, Lunokhod programme, Maestro (software), Magnetism, Magnetite, Mainz, Mars, Mars Exploration Program, Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Orbiter Camera, Mars Pathfinder, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars rover, Mars Science Laboratory, Martian meteorite, Martian spherules, Mass, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mössbauer spectroscopy, McCool Hill, Megabyte, Meridiani Planum, Meteorite, Metre, Microorganism, MIMOS II, Mineralogy, Mini-TES, Multi-junction solar cell, Multi-layer insulation, Multi-mission radioisotope thermoelectric generator, NASA, NASA Deep Space Network, Navcam, Newton (unit), Nickel, Niels Bohr Institute, Nylon, Olivine, Omnidirectional antenna, Opportunity (rover), Organic acid anhydride, Pancam, Parachute, Patch (computing), Phenol, Phosphorus, Picrite basalt, Pioneer Aerospace Corporation, Plagioclase, Plain, Planetary habitability, Polyester, Pound (mass), Precession, Precipitation, Project Gemini, Project Mercury, Propellant, Pyroxene, Radar, Radiation hardening, Radio, Radioisotope heater unit, Radionuclide, Reddit, Revolutions per minute, Robotic spacecraft, Rock (geology), Rock Abrasion Tool, Rocker-bogie, Rover (space exploration), S band, Science (journal), Scientific information from the Mars Exploration Rover mission, Screw, Sedimentary rock, Signal strength in telecommunications, Silicate minerals, Silicon dioxide, Soil, Solar panel, Solid-propellant rocket, South Windsor, Connecticut, Space exploration, Spirit (rover), Stardust (spacecraft), Sterilization (microbiology), Steve Squyres, Sulfate, Sulfur, Sun sensor, Syd Lieberman, Taphonomy, Terabit, Tetrahedron, Tharsis, Thunderstorm, Titanium, Total organic carbon, Ultra high frequency, United States Geological Survey, Units of textile measurement, University of California, University of Guelph, Vectran, Victoria (crater), Viking program, VxWorks, Water on Mars, Water vapor, Watt, Wavelength, Wavelet, X band, X-ray, Zylon, 2001 Mars Odyssey, 37452 Spirit, 39382 Opportunity. Expand index (164 more) » « Shrink index
Ablation is removal of material from the surface of an object by vaporization, chipping, or other erosive processes.
In physics, acceleration is the rate of change of velocity of an object with respect to time.
An accelerometer is a device that measures proper acceleration.
The Aeolis quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Research Program.
Aerobraking is a spaceflight maneuver that reduces the high point of an elliptical orbit (apoapsis) by flying the vehicle through the atmosphere at the low point of the orbit (periapsis).
Aerogel is a synthetic porous ultralight material derived from a gel, in which the liquid component for the gel has been replaced with a gas.
An airbag is a type of vehicle safety device and is an occupant restraint system.
An alpha particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS) is a spectrometer that analyses the chemical element composition of a sample from the scattered alpha particles, and fluorescent X-rays after the sample is irradiated with alpha particles and X-rays from radioactive sources.
An altimeter or an altitude meter is an instrument used to measure the altitude of an object above a fixed level.
In radio, an antenna is the interface between radio waves propagating through space and electric currents moving in metal conductors, used with a transmitter or receiver.
Apollo 17 was the final mission of NASA's Apollo program.
The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished landing the first humans on the Moon from 1969 to 1972.
Arizona State University (commonly referred to as ASU or Arizona State) is a public metropolitan research university on five campuses across the Phoenix metropolitan area, and four regional learning centers throughout Arizona.
Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System.
The Astrogeology Research Program is a program of the United States Geological Survey concerned with the study of planetary geology and planetary cartography.
Atmospheric entry is the movement of an object from outer space into and through the gases of an atmosphere of a planet, dwarf planet or natural satellite.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
An autotroph ("self-feeding", from the Greek autos "self" and trophe "nourishing") or producer, is an organism that produces complex organic compounds (such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) from simple substances present in its surroundings, generally using energy from light (photosynthesis) or inorganic chemical reactions (chemosynthesis).
Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. (commonly Ball Aerospace) is an American manufacturer of spacecraft, components, and instruments for national defense, civil space and commercial space applications.
Basalt is a common extrusive igneous (volcanic) rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface of a planet or moon.
A binder or binding agent is any material or substance that holds or draws other materials together to form a cohesive whole mechanically, chemically, by adhesion or cohesion.
The biosphere (from Greek βίος bíos "life" and σφαῖρα sphaira "sphere") also known as the ecosphere (from Greek οἶκος oîkos "environment" and σφαῖρα), is the worldwide sum of all ecosystems.
The Boeing Company is an American multinational corporation that designs, manufactures, and sells airplanes, rotorcraft, rockets, satellites, and missiles worldwide.
Boeing Defense, Space & Security (BDS) is a division (business unit) of The Boeing Company.
BoPET (biaxially-oriented polyethylene terephthalate) is a polyester film made from stretched polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and is used for its high tensile strength, chemical and dimensional stability, transparency, reflectivity, gas and aroma barrier properties, and electrical insulation.
Boulder is the home rule municipality that is the county seat and the most populous municipality of Boulder County, and the 11th most populous municipality in the U.S. state of Colorado.
Bromine is a chemical element with symbol Br and atomic number 35.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Space Launch Complex 17 (SLC-17), previously designated Launch Complex 17 (LC-17), was a launch site at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida used for Thor and Delta rocket launches between 1958 and 2011.
Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, carbon fiber reinforced plastic or carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic (CFRP, CRP, CFRTP or often simply carbon fiber, carbon composite or even carbon), is an extremely strong and light fiber-reinforced plastic which contains carbon fibers.
In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid (H2CO3), characterized by the presence of the carbonate ion, a polyatomic ion with the formula of.
A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.
The Chandler wobble or variation of latitude is a small deviation in the Earth's axis of rotation relative to the solid earth, which was discovered by American astronomer Seth Carlo Chandler in 1891.
Chemotrophs are organisms that obtain energy by the oxidation of electron donors in their environments.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
The Columbia Hills are a range of low hills inside Gusev crater on Mars.
The composition of Mars covers the branch of the geology of Mars that describes the make-up of the planet Mars.
A concretion is a hard, compact mass of matter formed by the precipitation of mineral cement within the spaces between particles, and is found in sedimentary rock or soil.
Copenhagen (København; Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark.
Cork is an impermeable buoyant material, the phellem layer of bark tissue that is harvested for commercial use primarily from Quercus suber (the cork oak), which is endemic to southwest Europe and northwest Africa.
Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university located in Ithaca, New York.
In geology, cross-bedding is layering within a stratum and at an angle to the main bedding plane.
Curiosity is a car-sized rover designed to explore Gale Crater on Mars as part of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory mission (MSL).
Delta II is an expendable launch system, originally designed and built by McDonnell Douglas.
In geometry, a diameter of a circle is any straight line segment that passes through the center of the circle and whose endpoints lie on the circle.
A directional antenna or beam antenna is an antenna which radiates or receives greater power in specific directions allowing increased performance and reduced interference from unwanted sources.
Dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) is a type of random access semiconductor memory that stores each bit of data in a separate tiny capacitor within an integrated circuit.
EEPROM (also E2PROM) stands for Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory and is a type of non-volatile memory used in computers, integrated in microcontrollers for smart cards and remote keyless system, and other electronic devices to store relatively small amounts of data but allowing individual bytes to be erased and reprogrammed.
An embedded operating system is an operating system for embedded computer systems.
Endeavour is an impact crater located in the Meridiani Planum extraterrestrial plain within the Margaritifer Sinus quadrangle (MC-19) region of the planet Mars.
Endurance is an impact crater lying situated within the Margaritifer Sinus quadrangle (MC-19) region of the planet Mars.
Environmental science is an interdisciplinary academic field that integrates physical, biological and information sciences (including ecology, biology, physics, chemistry, plant science, zoology, mineralogy, oceanology, limnology, soil science, geology and physical geography (geodesy), and atmospheric science) to the study of the environment, and the solution of environmental problems.
Evaporite is the term for a water-soluble mineral sediment that results from concentration and crystallization by evaporation from an aqueous solution.
Flash memory is an electronic (solid-state) non-volatile computer storage medium that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed.
A flexure is a flexible element (or combination of elements) engineered to be compliant in specific degrees of freedom.
Forbes is an American business magazine.
A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.
Freon is a registered trademark of The Chemours Company, which uses it for a number of halocarbon products.
The gravitational force, or more commonly, g-force, is a measurement of the type of acceleration that causes a perception of weight.
The geology of Mars is the scientific study of the surface, crust, and interior of the planet Mars.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Goethite (FeO(OH)) is an iron bearing hydroxide mineral of the diaspore group.
The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC), commonly called the Goldstone Observatory, is located in the Mojave Desert near Barstow in the U.S. state of California.
Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.
The gravity of Mars is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass around Mars are brought towards it.
A gyroscope (from Ancient Greek γῦρος gûros, "circle" and σκοπέω skopéō, "to look") is a device used for measuring or maintaining orientation and angular velocity.
Hazcams (short for hazard avoidance cameras) are photographic cameras mounted on the front and rear of NASA's ''Spirit'', ''Opportunity'' and ''Curiosity'' rover missions to Mars and on the lower front portion of Chinese ''Yutu'' rover mission to the Moon.
A heat shield is designed to shield a substance from absorbing excessive heat from an outside source by either dissipating, reflecting or simply absorbing the heat.
A heliocentric orbit (also called circumsolar orbit) is an orbit around the barycenter of the Solar System, which is usually located within or very near the surface of the Sun.
Hematite, also spelled as haematite, is the mineral form of iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3), one of several iron oxides.
The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.
Home Plate is a plateau roughly 90 m across within the Columbia Hills, Mars.
Honeybee Robotics Spacecraft Mechanisms Corporation is a small spacecraft technology and robotics companyErik Baard, "", New York Times, BUSINESS: DIARY; November 10, 2002 headquartered in Brooklyn, New York, with offices in Pasadena, California and Longmont, Colorado.
The human penis is an external male intromittent organ that additionally serves as the urinal duct.
Human spaceflight (also referred to as crewed spaceflight or manned spaceflight) is space travel with a crew or passengers aboard the spacecraft.
Husband Hill is one of the Columbia Hills in Gusev crater, Mars, which are close to the landing site of NASA's ''Spirit'' rover.
Hydrazine is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula (also written), called diamidogen, archaically.
A hydrothermal vent is a fissure in a planet's surface from which geothermally heated water issues.
The RAD6000 radiation-hardened single board computer, based on the IBM RISC Single Chip CPU, was manufactured by IBM Federal Systems.
ICER is a wavelet-based image compression file format used by the NASA Mars Rovers.
Jarosite is a basic hydrous sulfate of potassium and iron with a chemical formula of KFe3+3(OH)6(SO4)2.
Jens Martin Knudsen (October 12, 1930 – February 17, 2005) was a Danish astrophysicist.
The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is a federally funded research and development center and NASA field center in Pasadena, California, United States, with large portions of the campus in La Cañada Flintridge, California.
Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg (– February 3, 1468) was a German blacksmith, goldsmith, printer, and publisher who introduced printing to Europe with the printing press.
Kevlar is a heat-resistant and strong synthetic fiber, related to other aramids such as Nomex and Technora.
The kilowatt hour (symbol kWh, kW⋅h or kW h) is a unit of energy equal to 3.6 megajoules.
Komatiite is a type of ultramafic mantle-derived volcanic rock.
Lacustrine Plains (or lake plains) are lakes that get filled by incoming sediment.
Launch Services Program (LSP) is responsible for NASA oversight of launch operations and countdown management, providing added quality and mission assurance in lieu of the requirement for the launch service provider to obtain a commercial launch license.
Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.
A lithium-ion battery or Li-ion battery (abbreviated as LIB) is a type of rechargeable battery in which lithium ions move from the negative electrode to the positive electrode during discharge and back when charging.
Lockheed Martin is an American global aerospace, defense, security and advanced technologies company with worldwide interests.
A lunar rover or Moon rover is a space exploration vehicle (rover) designed to move across the surface of the Moon.
The Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) or lunar rover is a battery-powered four-wheeled rover used on the Moon in the last three missions of the American Apollo program (15, 16, and 17) during 1971 and 1972.
Lunokhod 2 (Луноход-2, moon walker) was the second of two unmanned lunar rovers landed on the Moon by the Soviet Union as part of the Lunokhod programme.
Lunokhod (Луноход, "Moonwalker") was a series of Soviet robotic lunar rovers designed to land on the Moon between 1969 and 1977.
Maestro (software) was a free program released by NASA to allow users to view photos and daily progress of the Spirit and Opportunity rovers.
Magnetism is a class of physical phenomena that are mediated by magnetic fields.
Magnetite is a rock mineral and one of the main iron ores, with the chemical formula Fe3O4.
Satellite view of Mainz (south of the Rhine) and Wiesbaden Mainz (Mogontiacum, Mayence) is the capital and largest city of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.
The Mars Exploration Program (MEP) is a long-term effort to explore the planet Mars, funded and led by NASA.
Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) was an American robotic spacecraft developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and launched November 1996.
The Mars Orbiter Camera and Mars Observer Camera (MOC) were scientific instruments on board the Mars Observer and Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft.
Mars Pathfinder (MESUR Pathfinder) is an American robotic spacecraft that landed a base station with a roving probe on Mars in 1997.
Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) is a multipurpose spacecraft designed to conduct reconnaissance and exploration of Mars from orbit.
A Mars rover is an automated motor vehicle that propels itself across the surface of the planet Mars upon arrival.
Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is a robotic space probe mission to Mars launched by NASA on November 26, 2011, which successfully landed Curiosity, a Mars rover, in Gale Crater on August 6, 2012.
A Martian meteorite is a rock that formed on the planet Mars and was then ejected from Mars by the impact of an asteroid or comet, and finally landed on the Earth.
Martian spherules (also known as blueberries due to their blue hue in false-color images released by NASA) are the abundant spherical hematite inclusions discovered by the Mars rover ''Opportunity'' at Meridiani Planum on the planet Mars.
Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.
The Max Planck Institute for Chemistry (Otto Hahn Institute) (Max Planck Institut für Chemie - Otto Hahn Institut) is a non-university research institute under the auspices of the Max Planck Society (German: Max-Planck-Gesellschaft).
Mössbauer spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique based on the Mössbauer effect.
McCool Hill is the tallest of the Columbia Hills in Gusev crater, Mars.
The megabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.
Meridiani Planum is a plain located 2 degrees south of Mars' equator (centered at), in the westernmost portion of Terra Meridiani.
A meteorite is a solid piece of debris from an object, such as a comet, asteroid, or meteoroid, that originates in outer space and survives its passage through the atmosphere to reach the surface of a planet or moon.
The metre (British spelling and BIPM spelling) or meter (American spelling) (from the French unit mètre, from the Greek noun μέτρον, "measure") is the base unit of length in some metric systems, including the International System of Units (SI).
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
MIMOS II is the miniaturised Mössbauer spectrometer, developed by Dr.
Mineralogy is a subject of geology specializing in the scientific study of chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals and mineralized artifacts.
The Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) is an infrared spectrometer used for detecting the composition of a material (typically rocks) from a distance.
Multi-junction (MJ) solar cells are solar cells with multiple p–n junctions made of different semiconductor materials.
Multi-layer insulation, or MLI, is thermal insulation composed of multiple layers of thin sheets and is often used on spacecraft.
The multi-mission radioisotope thermoelectric generator (MMRTG) is a type of radioisotope thermoelectric generator developed for NASA space missions such as the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), under the jurisdiction of the United States Department of Energy's Office of Space and Defense Power Systems within the Office of Nuclear Energy.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) is a worldwide network of US spacecraft communication facilities, located in the United States (California), Spain (Madrid), and Australia (Canberra), that supports NASA's interplanetary spacecraft missions.
Navcam, short for navigational camera, is a type of camera found on certain robotic rovers or spacecraft used for navigation without interfering with scientific instruments.
The newton (symbol: N) is the International System of Units (SI) derived unit of force.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
The Niels Bohr Institute (Danish: Niels Bohr Institutet) is a research institute of the University of Copenhagen.
Nylon is a generic designation for a family of synthetic polymers, based on aliphatic or semi-aromatic polyamides.
The mineral olivine is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg2+, Fe2+)2SiO4.
In radio communication, an omnidirectional antenna is a class of antenna which have an axis about which radio wave power is radiated symmetrically, and, upon that axis, is zero.
Opportunity, also known as MER-B (Mars Exploration Rover – B) or MER-1, is a robotic rover active on Mars since 2004.
An organic acid anhydride is an acid anhydride that is an organic compound.
Each Pancam is one of two electronic stereo cameras on Mars Exploration Rovers ''Spirit'' and ''Opportunity''.
A parachute is a device used to slow the motion of an object through an atmosphere by creating drag (or in the case of ram-air parachutes, aerodynamic lift).
A patch is a set of changes to a computer program or its supporting data designed to update, fix, or improve it.
Phenol, also known as phenolic acid, is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
Picrite basalt, picrobasalt is a variety of high-magnesium olivine basalt that is very rich in the mineral olivine.
Pioneer Aerospace Corporation is one of the world's largest aerodynamic deceleration manufacturers.
Plagioclase is a series of tectosilicate (framework silicate) minerals within the feldspar group.
In geography, a plain is a flat, sweeping landmass that generally does not change much in elevation.
Planetary habitability is the measure of a planet's or a natural satellite's potential to have habitable environments hospitable to life, or its ability to generate life endogenously.
Polyester is a category of polymers that contain the ester functional group in their main chain.
The pound or pound-mass is a unit of mass used in the imperial, United States customary and other systems of measurement.
Precession is a change in the orientation of the rotational axis of a rotating body.
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.
Project Gemini was NASA's second human spaceflight program.
Project Mercury was the first human spaceflight program of the United States, running from 1958 through 1963.
A propellant or propellent is a chemical substance used in the production of energy or pressurized gas that is subsequently used to create movement of a fluid or to generate propulsion of a vehicle, projectile, or other object.
The pyroxenes (commonly abbreviated to Px) are a group of important rock-forming inosilicate minerals found in many igneous and metamorphic rocks.
Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.
Radiation hardening is the act of making electronic components and systems resistant to damage or malfunctions caused by ionizing radiation (particle radiation and high-energy electromagnetic radiation), such as those encountered in outer space and high-altitude flight, around nuclear reactors and particle accelerators, or during nuclear accidents or nuclear warfare.
Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.
Radioisotope heater units (RHU) are small devices that provide heat through radioactive decay.
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
Reddit (stylized in its logo as reddit) is an American social news aggregation, web content rating, and discussion website.
Revolutions per minute (abbreviated rpm, RPM, rev/min, r/min) is the number of turns in one minute.
A robotic spacecraft is an uncrewed spacecraft, usually under telerobotic control.
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.
The Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) is a grinding and brushing installation on NASA’s twin Mars Exploration Rovers, Spirit (MER-A) and Opportunity (MER-B), which landed on Mars in January 2004.
The rocker-bogie system is the suspension arrangement used in the Mars rovers (mechanical robot) introduced for the Mars Pathfinder and also used on the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) and Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) missions.
A rover (or sometimes planetary rover) is a space exploration vehicle designed to move across the surface of a planet or other celestial body.
The S band is a designation by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) for a part of the microwave band of the electromagnetic spectrum covering frequencies from 2 to 4 gigahertz (GHz).
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
NASA's 2003 Mars Exploration Rover Mission has amassed an enormous amount of scientific information related to the Martian geology and atmosphere, as well as providing some astronomical observations from Mars.
A screw is a type of fastener, in some ways similar to a bolt (see Differentiation between bolt and screw below), typically made of metal, and characterized by a helical ridge, known as a male thread (external thread).
Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water.
In telecommunications, particularly in radio frequency, signal strength (also referred to as field strength) refers to the transmitter power output as received by a reference antenna at a distance from the transmitting antenna.
Silicate minerals are rock-forming minerals with predominantly silicate anions.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
Photovoltaic solar panels absorb sunlight as a source of energy to generate electricity.
A solid-propellant rocket or solid rocket is a rocket with a rocket engine that uses solid propellants (fuel/oxidizer).
South Windsor is a town in Hartford County, Connecticut, United States.
Space exploration is the discovery and exploration of celestial structures in outer space by means of evolving and growing space technology.
Spirit, also known as MER-A (Mars Exploration Rover – A) or MER-2, is a robotic rover on Mars, active from 2004 to 2010.
Stardust was a 390 kilogram robotic space probe launched by NASA on 7 February 1999.
Sterilization (or sterilisation) refers to any process that eliminates, removes, kills, or deactivates all forms of life and other biological agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, spore forms, prions, unicellular eukaryotic organisms such as Plasmodium, etc.) present in a specified region, such as a surface, a volume of fluid, medication, or in a compound such as biological culture media.
Steven W. Squyres (born January 9, 1956) is the James A. Weeks Professor of Physical Sciences at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York.
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
A sun sensor is a navigational instrument used by spacecraft to detect the position of the sun.
Sydney Lieberman (1944 – May 12, 2015) was a noted American storyteller who began performing professionally in 1982.
Taphonomy is the study of how organisms decay and become fossilized.
A terabit is a multiple of the unit bit for digital information or computer storage.
In geometry, a tetrahedron (plural: tetrahedra or tetrahedrons), also known as a triangular pyramid, is a polyhedron composed of four triangular faces, six straight edges, and four vertex corners.
Tharsis is a vast volcanic plateau centered near the equator in the western hemisphere of Mars.
A thunderstorm, also known as an electrical storm, lightning storm, or thundershower, is a storm characterized by the presence of lightning and its acoustic effect on the Earth's atmosphere, known as thunder.
Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.
Total organic carbon (TOC) is the amount of carbon found in an organic compound and is often used as a non-specific indicator of water quality or cleanliness of pharmaceutical manufacturing equipment.
Ultra high frequency (UHF) is the ITU designation for radio frequencies in the range between 300 megahertz (MHz) and 3 gigahertz (GHz), also known as the decimetre band as the wavelengths range from one meter to one decimeter.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
Textile fibers, threads, yarns and fabrics are measured in a multiplicity of units.
The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the US state of California.
The University of Guelph (U of G) is a comprehensive public research university in Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
Vectran is a manufactured fiber, spun from a liquid-crystal polymer (LCP) created by Celanese Corporation and now manufactured by Kuraray.
Victoria is an impact crater on Mars located at 2.05°S, 5.50°W in the Meridiani Planum extraterrestrial plain, lying situated within the Margaritifer Sinus quadrangle (MC-19) region of the planet Mars.
The Viking program consisted of a pair of American space probes sent to Mars, Viking 1 and Viking 2.
VxWorks is a real-time operating system (RTOS) developed as proprietary software by Wind River Systems, an Intel subsidiary of Alameda, California, US.
Almost all water on Mars today exists as ice, though it also exists in small quantities as vapor in the atmosphere and occasionally as low-volume liquid brines in shallow Martian soil.
The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
A wavelet is a wave-like oscillation with an amplitude that begins at zero, increases, and then decreases back to zero.
The X band is the designation for a band of frequencies in the microwave radio region of the electromagnetic spectrum.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
Zylon (IUPAC name: poly(p-phenylene-2,6-benzobisoxazole)) is a trademarked name for a range of thermoset liquid-crystalline polyoxazole.
2001 Mars Odyssey is a robotic spacecraft orbiting the planet Mars.
37452 Spirit, provisional designation, is a dark Hildian asteroid from the outermost region of the asteroid belt, approximately 9 kilometers in diameter.
39382 Opportunity, also designated, is a dark Hilidan asteroid from the outermost region of the asteroid belt, approximately 7.5 kilometers in diameter.