190 relations: Accelerometer, Aerobraking, Alunite, Ampere hour, Amplifier, Angular resolution, Applied Physics Laboratory, Apsis, Areocentric orbit, Atlas V, Atmosphere of Mars, Atmospheric entry, Attitude control, Ball Aerospace & Technologies, Beagle 2, C/2013 A1, California, California Institute of Technology, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Space Launch Complex 41, Carbon dioxide, Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, Carbonate, Cassegrain reflector, Cebrenia quadrangle, Centaur (rocket stage), Channel (digital image), Charge-coupled device, Chlorite group, Clay, Climate of Mars, Coulomb, Curiosity (rover), Darian calendar, Data transmission, Deimos (moon), Diacria quadrangle, Digital camera, Doppler effect, Electra (radio), Elliptic orbit, Endeavour (crater), ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter, Exploration of Mars, Far infrared, Focal length, Gale (crater), Geography of Mars, Gigabit, Gigabyte, ..., Glacier, Google Maps, Grayscale, Green Valley (Mars), Ground speed, Gypsum, Gyroscope, Hellas Planitia, Hematite, Hertz, High frequency, High Resolution Stereo Camera, HiRISE, Hohmann transfer orbit, Honeywell, Hydrazine, IBM RAD6000, Ice, Ice cap, Infrared, InSight, International Launch Services, Isidis Planitia, Italian Space Agency, James B. Garvin, Jarosite, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University, JPEG 2000, Kaolinite, Kennedy Space Center, KOMO-TV, Landform, Launch window, Laurel, Maryland, Light, List of Mars orbiters, List of missions to Mars, Lobate debris apron, Lockheed Martin, Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, Maksutov telescope, Malin Space Science Systems, Mariner 4, Mars, Mars Climate Orbiter, Mars Exploration Rover, Mars Express, Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Observer, Mars Orbiter Camera, Mars Orbiter Mission, Mars Polar Lander, Mars Science Laboratory, Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander, MARSIS, Mass, Mass ratio, MAVEN, Megabit, Memnonia quadrangle, Mineralogy, Miniature inertial measurement unit, Monopropellant, Motherboard, Multi-junction solar cell, NASA, NASA Deep Space Network, Nickel–hydrogen battery, Opal, Opportunity (rover), Orbit insertion, Outer space, Oxide, Pasadena, California, PDF, Personal computer, PH, Phaethontis quadrangle, Phobos (moon), Phoenix (spacecraft), Photogrammetry, Pixel, Polar ice cap, PowerPC, PowerPC 7xx, Prehnite, RAD750, Radar, Radian, Radiation hardening, Reaction wheel, Reflecting telescope, Revolutions per minute, Rock (geology), Satellite imagery, Science Mission Directorate, Seasonal flows on warm Martian slopes, SHARAD, Silicate minerals, Silicon dioxide, Sinus Meridiani, Small Deep Space Transponder, Software-defined radio, Solar conjunction, Solar flare, Solar panel, Spacecraft, Spectrometer, Spirit (rover), Star, Stratigraphy, Structural engineering, Sun, Sun-synchronous orbit, The New York Times, Thermal Emission Imaging System, Timekeeping on Mars, Titanium, Trajectory, Transistor, Tucson, Arizona, Turbo code, Ultra high frequency, Ultraviolet, University of Arizona, Valles Marineris, Vastitas Borealis, Victoria (crater), Viking program, Vikings, Visible spectrum, VNIR, Volt, VxWorks, Water on Mars, Watt, X band, 2001 Mars Odyssey. Expand index (140 more) » « Shrink index
An accelerometer is a device that measures proper acceleration.
Aerobraking is a spaceflight maneuver that reduces the high point of an elliptical orbit (apoapsis) by flying the vehicle through the atmosphere at the low point of the orbit (periapsis).
Alunite is a hydrated aluminium potassium sulfate mineral, formula KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6.
An ampere hour or amp hour (symbol Ah; also denoted A⋅h or A h) is a unit of electric charge, having dimensions of electric current multiplied by time, equal to the charge transferred by a steady current of one ampere flowing for one hour, or 3600 coulombs.
An amplifier, electronic amplifier or (informally) amp is an electronic device that can increase the power of a signal (a time-varying voltage or current).
Angular resolution or spatial resolution describes the ability of any image-forming device such as an optical or radio telescope, a microscope, a camera, or an eye, to distinguish small details of an object, thereby making it a major determinant of image resolution.
The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, commonly known as simply the Applied Physics Laboratory, or APL, located in Howard County, Maryland, near Laurel and Columbia, is a not-for-profit, university-affiliated research center (or UARC) employing 6,000 people.
An apsis (ἁψίς; plural apsides, Greek: ἁψῖδες) is an extreme point in the orbit of an object.
An areocentric orbit is an orbit around the planet Mars.
Atlas V ("V" is pronounced "Five") is an expendable launch system in the Atlas rocket family.
The atmosphere of the planet Mars is composed mostly of carbon dioxide.
Atmospheric entry is the movement of an object from outer space into and through the gases of an atmosphere of a planet, dwarf planet or natural satellite.
Attitude control is controlling the orientation of an object with respect to an inertial frame of reference or another entity like the celestial sphere, certain fields, and nearby objects, etc.
Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. (commonly Ball Aerospace) is an American manufacturer of spacecraft, components, and instruments for national defense, civil space and commercial space applications.
The Beagle 2 was a British Mars lander that was transported by the European Space Agency's 2003 Mars Express mission. It was an astrobiology mission that would have looked for past life on the shallow surface of Mars. The spacecraft was successfully deployed from the Mars Express on 19 December 2003 and was scheduled to land on the surface of Mars on 25 December; however, no contact was received at the expected time of landing on Mars, with the ESA declaring the mission lost in February 2004, after numerous attempts to contact the spacecraft were made. The Beagle 2 fate remained a mystery until January 2015 when it was located intact on the surface of Mars in a series of images from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter HiRISE camera. The images suggest that two of the spacecraft's four solar panels failed to deploy, blocking the spacecraft's communications antenna. The Beagle 2 is named after, the ship used by Charles Darwin.
C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) is an Oort cloud comet discovered on 3 January 2013 by Robert H. McNaught at Siding Spring Observatory using the Uppsala Southern Schmidt Telescope.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
The California Institute of Technology (abbreviated Caltech)The university itself only spells its short form as "Caltech"; other spellings such as.
Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) (known as Cape Kennedy Air Force Station from 1963 to 1973) is an installation of the United States Air Force Space Command's 45th Space Wing.
Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Space Launch Complex 41 (SLC-41), previously Launch Complex 41 (LC-41), is an active launch site at the north end of Cape Canaveral, Florida at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, carbon fiber reinforced plastic or carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic (CFRP, CRP, CFRTP or often simply carbon fiber, carbon composite or even carbon), is an extremely strong and light fiber-reinforced plastic which contains carbon fibers.
In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid (H2CO3), characterized by the presence of the carbonate ion, a polyatomic ion with the formula of.
The Cassegrain reflector is a combination of a primary concave mirror and a secondary convex mirror, often used in optical telescopes and radio antennas.
The Cebrenia quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Research Program.
Centaur has been designed to be the upper stage of space launch vehicles and is used on the Atlas V. Centaur was the world's first high-energy upper stage, burning liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LOX).
Color digital images are made of pixels, and pixels are made of combinations of primary colors represented by a series of code.
A charge-coupled device (CCD) is a device for the movement of electrical charge, usually from within the device to an area where the charge can be manipulated, for example conversion into a digital value.
The chlorites are a group of phyllosilicate minerals.
Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO2), metal oxides (Al2O3, MgO etc.) and organic matter.
The climate of the planet Mars has been an issue of scientific curiosity for centuries, in part because it is the only terrestrial planet whose surface can be directly observed in detail from the Earth with help from a telescope.
The coulomb (symbol: C) is the International System of Units (SI) unit of electric charge.
Curiosity is a car-sized rover designed to explore Gale Crater on Mars as part of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory mission (MSL).
The Darian calendar is a proposed system of time-keeping designed to serve the needs of any possible future human settlers on the planet Mars.
Data transmission (also data communication or digital communications) is the transfer of data (a digital bitstream or a digitized analog signal) over a point-to-point or point-to-multipoint communication channel.
Deimos (systematic designation: Mars II) is the smaller and outer of the two natural satellites of the planet Mars, the other being Phobos.
The Diacria quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Research Program.
A digital camera or digicam is a camera that captures photographs in digital memory.
The Doppler effect (or the Doppler shift) is the change in frequency or wavelength of a wave in relation to observer who is moving relative to the wave source.
Electra, formally called the Electra Proximity Link Payload, is a telecommunications package that acts as a communications relay and navigation aid for Mars spacecraft and rovers.
In astrodynamics or celestial mechanics, an elliptic orbit or elliptical orbit is a Kepler orbit with an eccentricity of less than 1; this includes the special case of a circular orbit, with eccentricity equal to 0.
Endeavour is an impact crater located in the Meridiani Planum extraterrestrial plain within the Margaritifer Sinus quadrangle (MC-19) region of the planet Mars.
The ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) is a collaborative project between the European Space Agency (ESA) and Roscosmos that sent an atmospheric research orbiter and the ''Schiaparelli'' demonstration lander to Mars in 2016 as part of the European-led ExoMars programme.
The planet Mars has been explored remotely by spacecraft.
Far infrared (FIR) is a region in the infrared spectrum of electromagnetic radiation.
The focal length of an optical system is a measure of how strongly the system converges or diverges light.
Gale is a crater, and probable dry lake, on Mars near the northwestern part of the Aeolis quadrangle at.
The geography of Mars, also known as areography, entails the delineation and characterization of regions on Mars.
The gigabit is a multiple of the unit bit for digital information or computer storage.
The gigabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.
A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.
Google Maps is a web mapping service developed by Google.
In photography, computing, and colorimetry, a grayscale or greyscale image is one in which the value of each pixel is a single sample representing only an amount of light, that is, it carries only intensity information.
Green Valley is a region on Mars within Vastitas Borealis that was chosen as the landing site of NASA's Phoenix lander.
Ground speed is the horizontal speed of an aircraft relative to the ground.
Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O.
A gyroscope (from Ancient Greek γῦρος gûros, "circle" and σκοπέω skopéō, "to look") is a device used for measuring or maintaining orientation and angular velocity.
Hellas Planitia is a plain located within the huge, roughly circular impact basin Hellas located in the southern hemisphere of the planet Mars.
Hematite, also spelled as haematite, is the mineral form of iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3), one of several iron oxides.
The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.
High frequency (HF) is the ITU designation for the range of radio frequency electromagnetic waves (radio waves) between 3 and 30 megahertz (MHz).
High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) is a camera experiment on Mars Express.
For the Apple accessory see Twelve South High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment is a camera on board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.
In orbital mechanics, the Hohmann transfer orbit is an elliptical orbit used to transfer between two circular orbits of different radii in the same plane.
Honeywell International Inc. is an American multinational conglomerate company that produces a variety of commercial and consumer products, engineering services and aerospace systems for a wide variety of customers, from private consumers to major corporations and governments.
Hydrazine is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula (also written), called diamidogen, archaically.
The RAD6000 radiation-hardened single board computer, based on the IBM RISC Single Chip CPU, was manufactured by IBM Federal Systems.
Ice is water frozen into a solid state.
An ice cap is a mass of ice that covers less than 50,000 km2 of land area (usually covering a highland area).
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
InSight is a robotic lander designed to study the interior of the planet Mars.
Isidis Planitia is a plain located inside a giant impact basin on Mars, centered at; Isidis Planitia is partly in the Syrtis Major quadrangle and partly in the Amenthes quadrangle.
The Italian Space Agency (Agenzia Spaziale Italiana; ASI) is a government agency established in 1988 to fund, regulate and coordinate space exploration activities in Italy.
James B Garvin served as NASA's Chief Scientist from October 2004 - September 2005 and is known for his foundational work in NASA's Mars explorational programs.
Jarosite is a basic hydrous sulfate of potassium and iron with a chemical formula of KFe3+3(OH)6(SO4)2.
The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is a federally funded research and development center and NASA field center in Pasadena, California, United States, with large portions of the campus in La Cañada Flintridge, California.
Johns Hopkins University is an American private research university in Baltimore, Maryland.
JPEG 2000 (JP2) is an image compression standard and coding system.
Kaolinite is a clay mineral, part of the group of industrial minerals, with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4.
The John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is one of ten National Aeronautics and Space Administration field centers.
KOMO-TV, virtual channel 4 (UHF digital channel 38), is an ABC-affiliated television station licensed to Seattle, Washington, United States and also serving Tacoma.
A landform is a natural feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other planetary body.
In the context of spaceflight, launch period is the collection of days and launch window is the time period on a given day during which a particular vehicle (rocket, Space Shuttle, etc.) must be launched in order to reach its intended target.
Laurel is a city in northern Prince George's County, Maryland, in the United States, located almost midway between Washington, D.C., and Baltimore on the banks of the Patuxent River.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
The following table is a list of Mars orbiters, consisting of space probes which were launched from Earth and are currently orbiting Mars.
There are a number of derelict orbiters around Mars whose location is not known precisely; there is a proposal to search for small moons, dust rings, and old orbiters with the Optical Navigation Camera on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.
Lobate debris aprons (LDAs) are geological features on Mars, first seen by the Viking Orbiters, consisting of piles of rock debris below cliffs.
Lockheed Martin is an American global aerospace, defense, security and advanced technologies company with worldwide interests.
Lockheed Martin Space is one of the four major business divisions of Lockheed Martin.
The Lunar and Planetary Laboratory (LPL) is a research center for planetary science located in Tucson, Arizona.
The Maksutov (also called a "Mak") is a catadioptric telescope design that combines a spherical mirror with a weakly negative meniscus lens in a design that takes advantage of all the surfaces being nearly "spherically symmetrical".
Malin Space Science Systems (or MSSS) is a San Diego, California company that designs, develops, and operates instruments to fly on unmanned spacecraft.
Mariner 4 (together with Mariner 3 known as Mariner–Mars 1964) was the fourth in a series of spacecraft intended for planetary exploration in a flyby mode.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.
The Mars Climate Orbiter (formerly the Mars Surveyor '98 Orbiter) was a robotic space probe launched by NASA on December 11, 1998 to study the Martian climate, Martian atmosphere, and surface changes and to act as the communications relay in the Mars Surveyor '98 program for Mars Polar Lander.
NASA's Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission is an ongoing robotic space mission involving two Mars rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, exploring the planet Mars.
Mars Express is a space exploration mission being conducted by the European Space Agency (ESA).
Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) was an American robotic spacecraft developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and launched November 1996.
The Mars Observer spacecraft, also known as the Mars Geoscience/Climatology Orbiter, was a robotic space probe launched by NASA on September 25, 1992 to study the Martian surface, atmosphere, climate and magnetic field.
The Mars Orbiter Camera and Mars Observer Camera (MOC) were scientific instruments on board the Mars Observer and Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft.
The Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM), also called Mangalyaan ("Mars-craft", from मंगल mangala, "Mars" and यान yāna, "craft, vehicle"), is a space probe orbiting Mars since 24 September 2014.
The Mars Polar Lander, also known as the Mars Surveyor '98 Lander, was a 290-kilogram robotic spacecraft lander launched by NASA on January 3, 1999 to study the soil and climate of Planum Australe, a region near the south pole on Mars.
Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is a robotic space probe mission to Mars launched by NASA on November 26, 2011, which successfully landed Curiosity, a Mars rover, in Gale Crater on August 6, 2012.
The NASA Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander was a planned Mars probe which was canceled in May 2000 in the wake of the failures of the Mars Climate Orbiter and Mars Polar Lander missions in late 1999.
MARSIS (Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding) is a low frequency, pulse-limited radar sounder and altimeter used on the ESA Mars Express mission.
Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.
In aerospace engineering, mass ratio is a measure of the efficiency of a rocket.
Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission (MAVEN) is a space probe developed by NASA to study the Martian atmosphere while orbiting Mars.
The megabit is a multiple of the unit bit for digital information.
The Memnonia quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Research Program.
Mineralogy is a subject of geology specializing in the scientific study of chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals and mineralized artifacts.
Miniature inertial measurement unit (MIMU) is an inertial measurement unit (IMU) developed and built by Honeywell International to control and stabilize spacecraft during mission operations.
Monopropellants are propellants consisting of chemicals that release energy through exothermic chemical decomposition.
A motherboard (sometimes alternatively known as the mainboard, system board, baseboard, planar board or logic board, or colloquially, a mobo) is the main printed circuit board (PCB) found in general purpose microcomputers and other expandable systems.
Multi-junction (MJ) solar cells are solar cells with multiple p–n junctions made of different semiconductor materials.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) is a worldwide network of US spacecraft communication facilities, located in the United States (California), Spain (Madrid), and Australia (Canberra), that supports NASA's interplanetary spacecraft missions.
A nickel–hydrogen battery (NiH2 or Ni–H2) is a rechargeable electrochemical power source based on nickel and hydrogen.
Opal is a hydrated amorphous form of silica (SiO2·nH2O); its water content may range from 3 to 21% by weight, but is usually between 6 and 10%.
Opportunity, also known as MER-B (Mars Exploration Rover – B) or MER-1, is a robotic rover active on Mars since 2004.
Orbit insertion is the spaceflight operation of adjusting a spacecraft’s momentum, in particular to allow for entry into a stable orbit around a planet, moon, or other celestial body.
Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies.
An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.
Pasadena is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States, located 10 miles (16 kilometers) northeast of Downtown Los Angeles.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
The Phaethontis quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Research Program.
Phobos (systematic designation) is the innermost and larger of the two natural satellites of Mars, the other being Deimos.
Phoenix was a robotic spacecraft on a space exploration mission on Mars under the Mars Scout Program.
Photogrammetry is the science of making measurements from photographs, especially for recovering the exact positions of surface points.
In digital imaging, a pixel, pel, dots, or picture element is a physical point in a raster image, or the smallest addressable element in an all points addressable display device; so it is the smallest controllable element of a picture represented on the screen.
A polar ice cap or polar cap is a high-latitude region of a planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite that is covered in ice.
PowerPC (with the backronym Performance Optimization With Enhanced RISC – Performance Computing, sometimes abbreviated as PPC) is a reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM.
The PowerPC 7xx is a family of third generation 32-bit PowerPC microprocessors designed and manufactured by IBM and Motorola (now Freescale Semiconductor).
Prehnite is an inosilicate of calcium and aluminium with the formula: Ca2Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)2.
The RAD750 is a radiation-hardened single board computer manufactured by BAE Systems Electronics, Intelligence & Support.
Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.
The radian (SI symbol rad) is the SI unit for measuring angles, and is the standard unit of angular measure used in many areas of mathematics.
Radiation hardening is the act of making electronic components and systems resistant to damage or malfunctions caused by ionizing radiation (particle radiation and high-energy electromagnetic radiation), such as those encountered in outer space and high-altitude flight, around nuclear reactors and particle accelerators, or during nuclear accidents or nuclear warfare.
A reaction wheel (RW) is a type of flywheel used primarily by spacecraft for three axis attitude control, which doesn't require rockets or external applicators of torque.
A reflecting telescope (also called a reflector) is a telescope that uses a single or a combination of curved mirrors that reflect light and form an image.
Revolutions per minute (abbreviated rpm, RPM, rev/min, r/min) is the number of turns in one minute.
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.
Satellite imagery (or spaceborne photography) are images of Earth or other planets collected by imaging satellites operated by governments and businesses around the world.
The Science Mission Directorate (SMD) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) engages the United States’ science community, sponsors scientific research, and develops and deploys satellites and probes in collaboration with NASA’s partners around the world to answer fundamental questions requiring the view from and into space.
Seasonal flows on warm Martian slopes (also called recurring slope lineae, recurrent slope lineae and RSL) are thought to be salty water flows occurring during the warmest months on Mars, or alternatively, dry grains that "flow" downslope of at least 27 degrees.
SHARAD (Mars SHAllow RADar sounder) is a subsurface sounding radar embarked on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter probe.
Silicate minerals are rock-forming minerals with predominantly silicate anions.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
Sinus Meridiani is an albedo feature on Mars stretching east-west just south of that planet's equator.
The Small Deep Space Transponder is a transponder designed by JPL specifically for deep space probes.
Software-defined radio (SDR) is a radio communication system where components that have been traditionally implemented in hardware (e.g. mixers, filters, amplifiers, modulators/demodulators, detectors, etc.) are instead implemented by means of software on a personal computer or embedded system.
Solar conjunction occurs when a planet or other solar system object is on the opposite side of the sun from the Earth.
A solar flare is a sudden flash of increased Sun's brightness, usually observed near its surface.
Photovoltaic solar panels absorb sunlight as a source of energy to generate electricity.
A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space.
A spectrometer is a scientific instrument used to separate and measure spectral components of a physical phenomenon.
Spirit, also known as MER-A (Mars Exploration Rover – A) or MER-2, is a robotic rover on Mars, active from 2004 to 2010.
A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.
Stratigraphy is a branch of geology concerned with the study of rock layers (strata) and layering (stratification).
Structural engineering is that part of civil engineering in which structural engineers are educated to create the 'bones and muscles' that create the form and shape of man made structures.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
A Sun-synchronous orbit (SSO, also called a heliosynchronous orbit) is a nearly polar orbit around a planet, in which the satellite passes over any given point of the planet's surface at the same local mean solar time.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) is a camera on board the 2001 Mars Odyssey orbiter.
Various schemes have been used or proposed for timekeeping on the planet Mars independently of Earth time and calendars.
Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.
A trajectory or flight path is the path that a massive object in motion follows through space as a function of time.
A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.
Tucson is a city and the county seat of Pima County, Arizona, United States, and home to the University of Arizona.
In information theory, turbo codes (originally in French Turbocodes) are a class of high-performance forward error correction (FEC) codes developed around 1990–91 (but first published in 1993), which were the first practical codes to closely approach the channel capacity, a theoretical maximum for the code rate at which reliable communication is still possible given a specific noise level.
Ultra high frequency (UHF) is the ITU designation for radio frequencies in the range between 300 megahertz (MHz) and 3 gigahertz (GHz), also known as the decimetre band as the wavelengths range from one meter to one decimeter.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The University of Arizona (also referred to as U of A, UA, or Arizona) is a public research university in Tucson, Arizona.
Valles Marineris (Latin for Mariner Valleys, named after the Mariner 9 Mars orbiter of 1971–72 which discovered it) is a system of canyons that runs along the Martian surface east of the Tharsis region.
Vastitas Borealis (Latin, 'northern waste') is the largest lowland region of Mars.
Victoria is an impact crater on Mars located at 2.05°S, 5.50°W in the Meridiani Planum extraterrestrial plain, lying situated within the Margaritifer Sinus quadrangle (MC-19) region of the planet Mars.
The Viking program consisted of a pair of American space probes sent to Mars, Viking 1 and Viking 2.
Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.
The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.
The visible and near-infrared (VNIR) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum has wavelengths between approximately 400 and 1400 nanometers (nm).
The volt (symbol: V) is the derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference (voltage), and electromotive force.
VxWorks is a real-time operating system (RTOS) developed as proprietary software by Wind River Systems, an Intel subsidiary of Alameda, California, US.
Almost all water on Mars today exists as ice, though it also exists in small quantities as vapor in the atmosphere and occasionally as low-volume liquid brines in shallow Martian soil.
The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.
The X band is the designation for a band of frequencies in the microwave radio region of the electromagnetic spectrum.
2001 Mars Odyssey is a robotic spacecraft orbiting the planet Mars.