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Marshall Plan

Index Marshall Plan

The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave over $13 billion (nearly $ billion in US dollars) in economic assistance to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II. [1]

202 relations: A Report on Germany, Aftermath of World War II, Al Gore, Alan Greenspan, Alfred Friendly, Allied Control Council, Allied plans for German industry after World War II, Allies of World War II, Andorra, Andrey Vyshinsky, Anti-communism, Anti-Western sentiment, Arthur Vandenberg, Austria, Axis powers, Barry Eichengreen, BBC, Belgium, Benelux, Bretton Woods system, Brookings Institution, Bulgaria, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Capital city, Central Intelligence Agency, Charles E. Bohlen, Châteauneuf-du-Pape AOC, Comecon, Cominform, Committee of European Economic Co-operation, Communism, Communist party, Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Containment, Corporatism, Counterpart fund, Covert operation, Czechoslovakia, Daimler-Benz, Deindustrialization, Deutsche Schiff- und Maschinenbau, East Germany, Eastern Bloc, Economic Cooperation Administration, Economic reconstruction, Edward E. Cox, End of World War II in Europe, Erik S. Reinert, Ernest Bevin, Europe, ..., European Coal and Steel Community, European Economic Community, European integration, European Union, Export–Import Bank of the United States, Factory, Fascism, Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy, Finland, Finlandization, Foreign-exchange reserves, France, Francisco Franco, Frank Wisner, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Frederick Cleveland Smith, Geoffrey Roberts, George F. Kennan, George Marshall, Georges Bidault, GITP International BV, Global Marshall Plan, Google Books, Gordon Brown, Great Depression, Greece, Greenwood Publishing Group, Gross domestic product, Guerrilla warfare, Harper (publisher), Harry S. Truman, Harvard University, Harvard Yard, Henry A. Wallace, Henry Cabot Lodge Jr., Henry Hazlitt, Henry Morgenthau Jr., Henry Wallich, Herbert Hoover, Historical revisionism, History of the United States Democratic Party, History of the United States Republican Party, History Today, Hungary, Iceland, Iceland in World War II, Imperialism, Indonesia, Indonesian National Revolution, Industry, International Authority for the Ruhr, J. Bradford DeLong, James F. Byrnes, Jan Masaryk, Józef Cyrankiewicz, Jews, Joint session of the United States Congress, Jomo Kwame Sundaram, Joseph Stalin, Kenneth S. Wherry, KfW, Konrad Adenauer, Korean War, Lewis H. Brown, Liechtenstein, London Agreement on German External Debts, Ludwig Erhard, Ludwig von Mises, Luxembourg, Maurice J. Tobin, Measures of national income and output, Memorial Church of Harvard University, Mission statement, Molotov Plan, Monaco, Morgenthau Plan, Multinational corporation, Mutual Security Act, Mykola Lebed, Nachtigall Battalion, Netherlands, Neutral powers during World War II, Noam Chomsky, NORC at the University of Chicago, Obrigheim, OECD, Office of Policy Coordination, Oxford University Press, Paul G. Hoffman, Petersberg Agreement, Petroleum, Planned economy, Poland, Polish People's Republic, Productivity, Refugee camp, Republican Party (United States), Robert A. Taft, Robert Marjolin, Rollback, Romania, Rowman & Littlefield, San Marino, Satellite state, Schweinfurt, Shortage economy, Simon & Schuster, Soviet Union, Strategic bombing during World War II, Sweden, Switzerland, The Age of Turbulence, The President's Economic Mission to Germany and Austria, Time (magazine), Timeline of United States diplomatic history, Tito–Stalin Split, Tony Blair, Tony Judt, Trade agreement, Trade barrier, Trade union, Truman Doctrine, Turkey, Ukrainian Insurgent Army, UN Chronicle, United Kingdom, United Nations, United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration, United States, United States Department of State, United States House of Representatives elections, 1950, United States presidential election, 1948, United States Secretary of Commerce, United States Secretary of State, United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, University Press of Kentucky, Very Short Introductions, Vyacheslav Molotov, W. Averell Harriman, Walter LaFeber, War reparations, Werner Abelshauser, West Germany, Western Europe, Wilhelm Röpke, William L. Clayton, Winter of 1946–47 in the United Kingdom, Wirtschaftswunder, World War II, World War II reparations, 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état, 80th United States Congress. Expand index (152 more) »

A Report on Germany

After World War II, in 1947 Lewis H. Brown wrote at the request of General Lucius D. Clay A Report on Germany, which served as a detailed recommendation for the reconstruction of post-war Germany, and served as a basis for the Marshall Plan.

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Aftermath of World War II

The Aftermath of World War II was the beginning of an era defined by the decline of all great powers except for the Soviet Union and the United States, and the simultaneous rise of two superpowers: the Soviet Union (USSR) and the United States of America (USA).

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Al Gore

Albert Arnold Gore Jr. (born March 31, 1948) is an American politician and environmentalist who served as the 45th Vice President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.

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Alan Greenspan

Alan Greenspan (born March 6, 1926) is an American economist who served as Chairman of the Federal Reserve of the United States from 1987 to 2006.

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Alfred Friendly

Alfred Friendly (December 30, 1911 – November 7, 1983) was an American journalist, editor and writer for the Washington Post.

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Allied Control Council

The Allied Control Council or Allied Control Authority, known in the German language as the Alliierter Kontrollrat and also referred to as the Four Powers (Vier Mächte), was a military occupation governing body of the Allied Occupation Zones in Germany and Austria after the end of World War II in Europe.

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Allied plans for German industry after World War II

The industrial plans for Germany were designs the Allies considered imposing on Germany in the aftermath of World War II to reduce and manage Germany's industrial capacity.

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Allies of World War II

The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).

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Andorra

Andorra, officially the Principality of Andorra (Principat d'Andorra), also called the Principality of the Valleys of Andorra (Principat de les Valls d'Andorra), is a sovereign landlocked microstate on the Iberian Peninsula, in the eastern Pyrenees, bordered by France in the north and Spain in the south.

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Andrey Vyshinsky

Andrey Yanuaryevich Vyshinsky (italic; Andrzej Wyszyński) (– 22 November 1954) was a Soviet politician, jurist and diplomat.

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Anti-communism

Anti-communism is opposition to communism.

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Anti-Western sentiment

Anti-Western sentiment, also known as Anti-Atlanticism refers to broad opposition or hostility to the people, culture, values, or policies of the Western World.

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Arthur Vandenberg

Arthur Hendrick Vandenberg (March 22, 1884April 18, 1951) was an American politician who served as a United States Senator from Michigan from 1928 to 1951.

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Austria

Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.

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Axis powers

The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.

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Barry Eichengreen

Barry Julian Eichengreen (born 1952) is an American economist who holds the title of George C. Pardee and Helen N. Pardee Professor of Economics and Political Science at the University of California, Berkeley, where he has taught since 1987.

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BBC

The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

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Belgium

Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.

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Benelux

The Benelux Union (Benelux Unie; Union Benelux) is a politico-economic union of three neighbouring states in western Europe: Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg.

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Bretton Woods system

The Bretton Woods system of monetary management established the rules for commercial and financial relations among the United States, Canada, Western Europe, Australia, and Japan after the 1944 Bretton-Woods Agreement.

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Brookings Institution

The Brookings Institution is a century-old American research group on Think Tank Row in Washington, D.C. It conducts research and education in the social sciences, primarily in economics, metropolitan policy, governance, foreign policy, and global economy and development.

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Bulgaria

Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.

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Bureau of Labor Statistics

The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) is a unit of the United States Department of Labor.

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Capital city

A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.

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Central Intelligence Agency

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).

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Charles E. Bohlen

Charles Eustis "Chip" Bohlen (August 30, 1904 – January 1, 1974) was a US diplomat from 1929 to 1969 and an expert on the Soviet Union.

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Châteauneuf-du-Pape AOC

Châteauneuf-du-Pape is a French wine Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) located around the village of Châteauneuf-du-Pape in the Rhône wine region in southeastern France.

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Comecon

The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (English abbreviation COMECON, CMEA, or CAME) was an economic organization from 1949 to 1991 under the leadership of the Soviet Union that comprised the countries of the Eastern Bloc along with a number of communist states elsewhere in the world.

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Cominform

Founded on October 5, 1947, Cominform (from Communist Information Bureau) is the common name for what was officially referred to as the Information Bureau of the Communist and Workers' Parties.

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Committee of European Economic Co-operation

The Committee of European Economic Co-operation (CEEC) was a joint European conference to determine the priorities for the recovery of the European economy after World War II, and to assist in the administration of the Marshall Plan.

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Communism

In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.

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Communist party

A communist party is a political party that advocates the application of the social and economic principles of communism through state policy.

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Communist Party of the Soviet Union

The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union.

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Containment

Containment is a geopolitical strategy to stop the expansion of an enemy.

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Corporatism

Corporatism is the organization of a society by corporate groups and agricultural, labour, military or scientific syndicates and guilds on the basis of their common interests.

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Counterpart fund

A counterpart fund is a technique for turning foreign aid into reserves of domestic currency.

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Covert operation

A covert operation is a military operation that intended to conceal the identity of or allow plausible denial by the sponsor.

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Czechoslovakia

Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.

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Daimler-Benz

Daimler-Benz AG was a German manufacturer of motor vehicles and internal combustion engines, which was founded in 1926.

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Deindustrialization

Deindustrialization or deindustrialisation is a process of social and economic change caused by the removal or reduction of industrial capacity or activity in a country or region, especially heavy industry or manufacturing industry.

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Deutsche Schiff- und Maschinenbau

Deutsche Schiff- und Maschinenbau Aktiengesellschaft (abbreviated Deschimag) was a cooperation of eight German shipyards in the period 1926 to 1945.

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East Germany

East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.

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Eastern Bloc

The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.

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Economic Cooperation Administration

The Economic Cooperation Administration (ECA) was a U.S. government agency set up in 1948 to administer the Marshall Plan.

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Economic reconstruction

Economic reconstruction refers to a process for creating a proactive vision of economic change.

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Edward E. Cox

Edward Eugene "Eugene" or "Goober" Cox (April 3, 1880 – December 24, 1952) served as a U.S. Representative from Georgia for nearly twenty-eight years.

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End of World War II in Europe

The final battles of the European Theatre of World War II as well as the German surrender to the Allies took place in late April and early May 1945.

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Erik S. Reinert

Erik Steenfeldt Reinert (born 15 February 1949) is a Norwegian economist, with development economics and economic history as his specialties.

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Ernest Bevin

Ernest Bevin (9 March 1881 – 14 April 1951) was a British statesman, trade union leader, and Labour politician.

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Europe

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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European Coal and Steel Community

The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was an organisation of 6 European countries set up after World War II to regulate their industrial production under a centralised authority.

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European Economic Community

The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.

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European integration

European integration is the process of industrial, political, legal, economic, social and cultural integration of states wholly or partially in Europe.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Export–Import Bank of the United States

The Export–Import Bank of the United States (abbreviated as Ex-Im Bank or the Bank) is the official export credit agency (ECA) of the United States federal government.

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Factory

A factory or manufacturing plant is an industrial site, usually consisting of buildings and machinery, or more commonly a complex having several buildings, where workers manufacture goods or operate machines processing one product into another.

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Fascism

Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian ultranationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.

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Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy

The Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Energie), abbreviated BMWi, is a cabinet-level ministry of the Federal Republic of Germany.

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Finland

Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.

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Finlandization

Finlandization (suomettuminen; finlandisering; Finnlandisierung) is the process by which one powerful country makes a smaller neighboring country abide by the former's foreign policy rules, while allowing it to keep its nominal independence and its own political system.

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Foreign-exchange reserves

Foreign-exchange reserves (also called forex reserves or FX reserves) is money or other assets held by a central bank or other monetary authority so that it can pay if need be its liabilities, such as the currency issued by the central bank, as well as the various bank reserves deposited with the central bank by the government and other financial institutions.

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France

France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Francisco Franco

Francisco Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892 – 20 November 1975) was a Spanish general who ruled over Spain as a military dictator from 1939, after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War, until his death in 1975.

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Frank Wisner

Frank Gardiner Wisner (June 23, 1909 – October 29, 1965) was head of Office of Strategic Services operations in southeastern Europe in 1944-1945 at the end of World War II, and served as the second Deputy Director of Plans (DDP) in charge of the Directorate of Plans (DDP) of the Central Intelligence Agency from August 23, 1951 to September 1958.

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Franklin D. Roosevelt

Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.

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Frederick Cleveland Smith

Frederick Cleveland Smith (July 29, 1884 – July 16, 1956) was a Republican member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Ohio.

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Geoffrey Roberts

Geoffrey Roberts (born 1952) is a British historian of the Second World War.

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George F. Kennan

George Frost Kennan (February 16, 1904 – March 17, 2005) was an American diplomat and historian.

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George Marshall

George Catlett Marshall Jr. (December 31, 1880 – October 16, 1959) was an American statesman and soldier.

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Georges Bidault

Georges-Augustin Bidault (5 October 189927 January 1983) was a French politician.

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GITP International BV

GITP (Gemeenschappelijk Instituut voor Toegepaste Psychologie) is a HRD consultancy firm, founded in 1947 in collaboration with the Nijmegen University and the Tilburg School of Economics (Netherlands).

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Global Marshall Plan

The Global Marshall Plan is a plan first devised by former American Vice-President Al Gore in his bestselling book Earth in the Balance, which gives specific ideas on how to save the global environment.

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Google Books

Google Books (previously known as Google Book Search and Google Print and by its codename Project Ocean) is a service from Google Inc. that searches the full text of books and magazines that Google has scanned, converted to text using optical character recognition (OCR), and stored in its digital database.

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Gordon Brown

James Gordon Brown (born 20 February 1951) is a British politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Labour Party from 2007 to 2010.

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Great Depression

The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.

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Greece

No description.

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Greenwood Publishing Group

ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.

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Gross domestic product

Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.

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Guerrilla warfare

Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.

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Harper (publisher)

Harper is an American publishing house, currently the flagship imprint of global publisher HarperCollins.

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Harry S. Truman

Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was an American statesman who served as the 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953), taking office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt.

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Harvard University

Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

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Harvard Yard

Harvard Yard, in Cambridge, Massachusetts, is a grassy area of enclosed by fences with twenty-seven gates.

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Henry A. Wallace

Henry Agard Wallace (October 7, 1888 – November 18, 1965) served as the 33rd Vice President of the United States (1941–1945), the 11th Secretary of Agriculture (1933–1940), and the 10th Secretary of Commerce (1945–1946).

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Henry Cabot Lodge Jr.

Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. (July 5, 1902 – February 27, 1985), sometimes referred to as Henry Cabot Lodge II, was a Republican United States Senator from Massachusetts and a United States ambassador.

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Henry Hazlitt

Henry Stuart Hazlitt (November 28, 1894July 9, 1993) was an American journalist who wrote about business and economics for such publications as The Wall Street Journal, The Nation, The American Mercury, Newsweek, and The New York Times.

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Henry Morgenthau Jr.

Henry Morgenthau Jr. (May 11, 1891 – February 6, 1967) was the United States Secretary of the Treasury during the administration of Franklin D. Roosevelt.

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Henry Wallich

Henry Christopher Wallich (June 10, 1914 – September 15, 1988) was a German American economist and central banker.

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Herbert Hoover

Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964) was an American engineer, businessman and politician who served as the 31st President of the United States from 1929 to 1933 during the Great Depression.

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Historical revisionism

In historiography, the term historical revisionism identifies the re-interpretation of the historical record.

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History of the United States Democratic Party

The Democratic Party is the oldest voter-based political party in the world and the oldest existing political party in the United States, tracing its heritage back to the anti-Federalists and the Jeffersonian Democratic-Republican Party of the 1790s.

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History of the United States Republican Party

The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the world's oldest extant political parties.

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History Today

History Today is an illustrated history magazine.

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Hungary

Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.

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Iceland

Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.

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Iceland in World War II

At the beginning of World War II, Iceland was a sovereign kingdom in personal union with Denmark, with King Christian X as head of state.

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Imperialism

Imperialism is a policy that involves a nation extending its power by the acquisition of lands by purchase, diplomacy or military force.

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Indonesia

Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.

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Indonesian National Revolution

The Indonesian National Revolution, or Indonesian War of Independence (Perang Kemerdekaan Indonesia; Indonesische Onafhankelijkheidsoorlog), was an armed conflict and diplomatic struggle between the Republic of Indonesia and the Dutch Empire and an internal social revolution during postwar and postcolonial Indonesia.

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Industry

Industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy.

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International Authority for the Ruhr

The International Authority for the Ruhr (IAR) was an international body established in 1949 by the Allied powers to control the coal and steel industry of the Ruhr Area in West Germany.

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J. Bradford DeLong

James Bradford "Brad" DeLong (born June 24, 1960) is an economic historian who is professor of Economics at the University of California, Berkeley.

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James F. Byrnes

James Francis Byrnes (May 2, 1882 – April 9, 1972) was an American judge and politician from the state of South Carolina.

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Jan Masaryk

Jan Garrigue Masaryk (14 September 1886 – 10 March 1948) was a Czech diplomat and politician who served as the Foreign Minister of Czechoslovakia from 1940 to 1948.

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Józef Cyrankiewicz

Józef Cyrankiewicz (April 23, 1911 – January 20, 1989) was a Polish Socialist (PPS) and after 1948 Communist politician.

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Jews

Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.

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Joint session of the United States Congress

A joint session of the United States Congress is a gathering of members of the two chambers of the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States: the Senate and the House of Representatives.

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Jomo Kwame Sundaram

Jomo Kwame Sundaram (born 11 December 1952), known as Jomo, is a prominent Malaysian economist.

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Joseph Stalin

Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.

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Kenneth S. Wherry

Kenneth Spicer Wherry (February 28, 1892November 29, 1951) was an American businessman, attorney, and politician.

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KfW

No description.

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Konrad Adenauer

Konrad Hermann Joseph Adenauer (5 January 1876 – 19 April 1967) was a German statesman who served as the first Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) from 1949 to 1963.

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Korean War

The Korean War (in South Korean, "Korean War"; in North Korean, "Fatherland: Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States).

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Lewis H. Brown

Lewis Herold Brown (1894–1951) was an industrialist and former President of Johns-Manville, once the world's largest manufacturer of asbestos and asbestos products.

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Liechtenstein

Liechtenstein, officially the Principality of Liechtenstein (Fürstentum Liechtenstein), is a doubly landlocked German-speaking microstate in Central Europe.

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London Agreement on German External Debts

The London Agreement on German External Debts, also known as the London Debt Agreement (German: Londoner Schuldenabkommen), was a debt relief treaty between the Federal Republic of Germany and creditor nations.

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Ludwig Erhard

Ludwig Wilhelm Erhard (4 February 1897 – 5 May 1977) was a German politician affiliated with the CDU and the second Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) from 1963 until 1966.

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Ludwig von Mises

Ludwig Heinrich Edler von Mises (29 September 1881 – 10 October 1973) was an Austrian-American theoretical Austrian School economist.

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Luxembourg

Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.

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Maurice J. Tobin

Maurice Joseph Tobin (May 22, 1901July 19, 1953) was a Mayor of Boston, Massachusetts, the Governor of Massachusetts, and United States Secretary of Labor.

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Measures of national income and output

A variety of measures of national income and output are used in economics to estimate total economic activity in a country or region, including gross domestic product (GDP), gross national product (GNP), net national income (NNI), and adjusted national income also called as NNI at factor cost (NNI* adjusted for natural resource depletion).

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Memorial Church of Harvard University

The Memorial Church of Harvard University, more commonly known as the Harvard Memorial Church (or simply MemChurch) is a building on the campus of Harvard University.

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Mission statement

A mission statement is a short statement of an organization's purpose, identifying the goal of its operations: what kind of product or service it provides, its primary customers or market, and its geographical region of operation.

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Molotov Plan

The Molotov Plan was the system created by the Soviet Union in 1947 in order to provide aid to rebuild the countries in Eastern Europe that were politically and economically aligned to the Soviet Union.

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Monaco

Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco (Principauté de Monaco), is a sovereign city-state, country and microstate on the French Riviera in Western Europe.

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Morgenthau Plan

The Morgenthau Plan (Morgenthau-Plan) by the Allied occupation of Germany following World War II was a proposal to eliminate Germany's ability to wage war by eliminating its arms industry, and the removal or destruction of other key industries basic to military strength.

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Multinational corporation

A multinational corporation (MNC) or worldwide enterprise is a corporate organization that owns or controls production of goods or services in at least one country other than its home country.

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Mutual Security Act

The Mutual Security Act of 1951 launched a major American foreign aid program, 1951–61, of grants to numerous countries.

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Mykola Lebed

Mykola Lebed (Микола Лебідь; January 11, 1909 – July 18, 1998), also known as Maksym Ruban, Marko or Yevhen Skyrba, was a Ukrainian political activist, Ukrainian nationalist, and guerrilla fighter.

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Nachtigall Battalion

The Nachtigall Battalion (Nightingale Battalion), also known as the Ukrainian Nightingale Battalion Group (Bataillon Ukrainische Gruppe Nachtigall), or officially as Special Group Nachtigall,Abbot, Peter.

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Netherlands

The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.

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Neutral powers during World War II

The neutral powers were countries that remained neutral during World War II.

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Noam Chomsky

Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic and political activist.

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NORC at the University of Chicago

NORC at the University of Chicago is one of the largest independent social research organizations in the United States, established in 1941.

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Obrigheim

Obrigheim is a town in the district of Neckar-Odenwald-Kreis, in Baden-Württemberg, Germany.

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OECD

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.

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Office of Policy Coordination

The Office of Policy Coordination (OPC) was the covert operation wing of the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Paul G. Hoffman

Paul Gray Hoffman (April 26, 1891October 8, 1974) was an American automobile company executive, statesman, and global development aid administrator.

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Petersberg Agreement

The Petersberg Agreement is an international treaty that extended the rights of the Federal Government of Germany vis-a-vis the occupying forces of Britain, France, and the United States, and is viewed as the first major step of Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) towards sovereignty.

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Petroleum

Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.

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Planned economy

A planned economy is a type of economic system where investment and the allocation of capital goods take place according to economy-wide economic and production plans.

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Poland

Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.

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Polish People's Republic

The Polish People's Republic (Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) covers the history of contemporary Poland between 1952 and 1990 under the Soviet-backed socialist government established after the Red Army's release of its territory from German occupation in World War II.

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Productivity

Productivity describes various measures of the efficiency of production.

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Refugee camp

A refugee camp is a temporary settlement built to receive refugees and people in refugee-like situations.

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Republican Party (United States)

The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party.

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Robert A. Taft

Robert Alphonso Taft Sr. (September 8, 1889 – July 31, 1953) was an American conservative politician, lawyer, and scion of the Taft family.

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Robert Marjolin

Robert Marjolin (27 July 1911 – 15 April 1986) was a French economist and politician involved in the formation of the European Economic Community.

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Rollback

In political science, rollback is the strategy of forcing a change in the major policies of a state, usually by replacing its ruling regime.

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Romania

Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.

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Rowman & Littlefield

Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group is an independent publishing house founded in 1949.

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San Marino

San Marino, officially the Republic of San Marino (Repubblica di San Marino), also known as the Most Serene Republic of San Marino (Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino), is an enclaved microstate surrounded by Italy, situated on the Italian Peninsula on the northeastern side of the Apennine Mountains.

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Satellite state

The term satellite state designates a country that is formally independent in the world, but under heavy political, economic and military influence or control from another country.

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Schweinfurt

Schweinfurt (in German literally 'swine ford') is a city in the Lower Franconia region of Bavaria in Germany on the right bank of the navigable Main River, which is spanned by several bridges here, 27 km northeast of Würzburg.

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Shortage economy

Shortage economy (gospodarka niedoboru, hiánygazdaság) is a term coined by the Hungarian economist, János Kornai.

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Simon & Schuster

Simon & Schuster, Inc., a subsidiary of CBS Corporation, is an American publishing company founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard Simon and Max Schuster.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Strategic bombing during World War II

Strategic bombing during World War II was the sustained aerial attack on railways, harbours, cities, workers' housing, and industrial districts in enemy territory during World War II.

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Sweden

Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

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Switzerland

Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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The Age of Turbulence

The Age of Turbulence: Adventures in a New World is a 2007 memoir written by former Chairman of the Federal Reserve Alan Greenspan.

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The President's Economic Mission to Germany and Austria

The President's Economic Mission to Germany and Austria was a series of reports commissioned by US President Harry S. Truman and written by former US President Herbert Hoover.

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Time (magazine)

Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.

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Timeline of United States diplomatic history

The diplomatic history of the United States oscillated among three positions: isolation from diplomatic entanglements of other (typically European) nations (but with economic connections to the world); alliances with European and other military partners; and unilateralism, or operating on its own sovereign policy decisions.

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Tito–Stalin Split

The Tito–Stalin Split, or Yugoslav–Soviet Split, was a conflict between the leaders of SFR Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union, which resulted in Yugoslavia's expulsion from the Communist Information Bureau (Cominform) in 1948.

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Tony Blair

Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007.

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Tony Judt

Tony Robert Judt, FBA (2 January 1948 – 6 August 2010) was a English-American historian, essayist and university professor who specialised in European history.

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Trade agreement

A trade agreement (also known as trade pact) is a wide ranging taxes, tariff and trade treaty that often includes investment guarantees.

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Trade barrier

Trade barriers are government-induced restrictions on international trade.

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Trade union

A trade union or trades union, also called a labour union (Canada) or labor union (US), is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve many common goals; such as protecting the integrity of its trade, improving safety standards, and attaining better wages, benefits (such as vacation, health care, and retirement), and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by the creation of a monopoly of the workers.

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Truman Doctrine

The Truman Doctrine was an American foreign policy whose stated purpose was to counter Soviet geopolitical expansion during the Cold War.

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Turkey

Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Ukrainian Insurgent Army

The Ukrainian Insurgent Army (Українська повстанська армія, УПА, Ukrayins’ka Povstans’ka Armiya, UPA) was a Ukrainian nationalist paramilitary and later partisan army that engaged in a series of guerrilla conflicts during World War II against Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, and both Underground and Communist Poland.

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UN Chronicle

The UN Chronicle (formerly the UN Monthly Chronicle) is a quarterly publication of the Outreach Division of the United Nations Department of Public Information, reporting on issues such as human rights, economic development, peacekeeping, health, refugees, programs and activities of the UN and regional issues.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration

The United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) was an international relief agency, largely dominated by the United States but representing 44 nations.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Department of State

The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.

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United States House of Representatives elections, 1950

The 1950 United States House of Representatives elections was an election for the United States House of Representatives in 1950 which occurred in the middle of President Harry Truman's second term.

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United States presidential election, 1948

The United States presidential election of 1948 was the 41st quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 2, 1948.

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United States Secretary of Commerce

The United States Secretary of Commerce (SecCom) is the head of the United States Department of Commerce.

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United States Secretary of State

The Secretary of State is a senior official of the federal government of the United States of America, and as head of the U.S. Department of State, is principally concerned with foreign policy and is considered to be the U.S. government's equivalent of a Minister for Foreign Affairs.

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United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations

The United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations is a standing committee of the United States Senate.

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University Press of Kentucky

The University Press of Kentucky (UPK) is the scholarly publisher for the Commonwealth of Kentucky, and was organized in 1969 as successor to the University of Kentucky Press.

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Very Short Introductions

Very Short Introductions (VSI) are a book series published by the Oxford University Press (OUP).

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Vyacheslav Molotov

Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov (né Skryabin; 9 March 1890 – 8 November 1986) was a Soviet politician and diplomat, an Old Bolshevik, and a leading figure in the Soviet government from the 1920s, when he rose to power as a protégé of Joseph Stalin.

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W. Averell Harriman

William Averell Harriman (November 15, 1891July 26, 1986) was an American Democratic politician, businessman, and diplomat.

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Walter LaFeber

Walter "Walt" LaFeber (born August 30, 1933 in Walkerton, Indiana) is the Marie Underhill Noll Professor Emeritus of History and a Stephen H. Weiss Presidential Fellow in the Department of History at Cornell University.

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War reparations

War reparations are payments made after a war by the vanquished to the victors.

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Werner Abelshauser

Werner Abelshauser (born 24 November 1944 in Wiesloch near Heidelberg) is a German economic historian.

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West Germany

West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.

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Western Europe

Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.

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Wilhelm Röpke

Wilhelm Röpke (October 10, 1899 – February 12, 1966) was Professor of Economics, first in Jena, then in Graz, Marburg, Istanbul, and finally Geneva, Switzerland, and one of the spiritual fathers of the social market economy, theorising and collaborating to organise the post-World War II economic re-awakening of the war-wrecked German economy, deploying a program sometimes referred to as the sociological neoliberalism (compared to ordoliberalism, a more sociologically inclined variant of German neoliberalism).

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William L. Clayton

William Lockhart "Will" Clayton (February 7, 1880 – February 8, 1966) was an American business leader and government official.

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Winter of 1946–47 in the United Kingdom

The winter of 1946–1947 was a harsh European winter noted for its effects in the United Kingdom.

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Wirtschaftswunder

The term Wirtschaftswunder ("economic miracle"), also known as The Miracle on the Rhine, describes the rapid reconstruction and development of the economies of West Germany and Austria after World War II (adopting an Ordoliberalism-based social market economy).

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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World War II reparations

After World War II, both West Germany and East Germany were obliged to pay war reparations to the Allied governments, according to the Potsdam Conference.

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1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état

The 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état (often simply the Czech coup) (Únor 1948, Február 1948, both meaning "February 1948") – in Marxist historiography known as "Victorious February" (Vítězný únor, Víťazný február) – was an event late that February in which the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, with Soviet backing, assumed undisputed control over the government of Czechoslovakia, marking the onset of four decades of communist rule in the country.

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80th United States Congress

The Eightieth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives.

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Redirects here:

Economic Cooperation Act of 1948, European Recovery Program, European Recovery Programme, European recovery act, Marshal plan, Marshall Aid, Marshall Paln, Marshall aid, Marshall aid plan, Marshall plan, Ministère de la Reconstruction, Operation Rathole, Organization for European Economic Recovery, Postwar reconstruction, The Marshall Plan, The marshal plan.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marshall_Plan

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