250 relations: Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope, Al Gore, Alabama, Alan Shepard, Alex McCool, Ames Research Center, Angular resolution, Apollo (spacecraft), Apollo 11, Apollo 12, Apollo 13, Apollo 14, Apollo 15, Apollo 16, Apollo 17, Apollo Applications Program, Apollo Command/Service Module, Apollo Lunar Module, Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package, Apollo program, Apollo Telescope Mount, Apollo–Soyuz Test Project, Ares I, Ares V, Army Ballistic Missile Agency, Art Stephenson, Arthur E. Goldman, Arthur Rudolph, Astronaut, Atlas-Centaur, Atom, Barack Obama, Boeing, Boeing 747, Boilerplate (spaceflight), Boris Yeltsin, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Carolyn S. Griner, Cassegrain reflector, Chandra X-ray Observatory, Chief of Staff of the United States Army, Chrysler, Cold War, Constellation program, Cosmic ray, Crew Exploration Vehicle, Crew Return Vehicle, Cummings Research Park, DARPA, David A. King (engineer), ..., Delta (rocket family), Destiny (ISS module), Dieter Grau, Diffraction-limited system, Douglas Aircraft Company, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Eberhard Rees, Einstein Observatory, Electronvolt, Ellipse, Enrico Costa (physicist), Ernst Geissler, Ernst Stuhlinger, European Space Research Organisation, Expendable launch system, Explorer 1, Extended Duration Orbiter, Extravehicular activity, FASTSAT, Federal government of the United States, Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, Fort Bliss, Frederick W. Leslie, Gamma-ray astronomy, Gene Porter Bridwell, General of the army, General of the Army (United States), General relativity, George H. W. Bush, George Marshall, George Mueller (NASA), Gerald J. Fishman, Getaway Special, Gimbaled thrust, Glenn Research Center, Goddard Space Flight Center, Gravity Probe A, Gravity Probe B, Great Observatories program, Hancock County, Mississippi, Harmony (ISS module), HEAO Program, Heinz-Hermann Koelle, Helmut Hölzer, Hertz, Hinode, Houston, Hubble Space Telescope, Human-rating certification, Huntsville, Alabama, Hydrogen maser, IBM, Inertial Upper Stage, Infrared, International Space Station, J. Wayne Littles, James R. Thompson Jr., James Webb Space Telescope, John C. Stennis Space Center, John F. Kennedy, Johnson Space Center, Juno I, Jupiter-C, Kennedy Space Center, Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39, Kibo (ISS module), Kodiak Island, Kurt H. Debus, LAGEOS, Langley Research Center, Launch escape system, List of Space Shuttle missions, Low Earth orbit, Lunar Roving Vehicle, Lyman Spitzer, Madison County, Alabama, Magellan (spacecraft), Man Will Conquer Space Soon!, Man-hour, Manned Orbiting Laboratory, Manned Venus flyby, Marshall Plan, Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Michoud Assembly Facility, Micrometeoroid, Minotaur IV, Minute and second of arc, Mir, Mir-2, Moon landing, NanoSail-D2, NASA, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, National Aeronautics and Space Act, National Space Science and Technology Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator, Nobel Prize, North American Aviation, Nose cone, O-ring, Occultation, Operation Paperclip, Orbital period, Orbital Space Plane Program, Orbiting Astronomical Observatory, Orbiting Solar Observatory, Ordnance Corps (United States Army), Pacific Spaceport Complex – Alaska, Patrick Scheuermann, Payload Operations and Integration Center, Peenemünde, Pegasus (satellite), PGM-11 Redstone, PGM-19 Jupiter, Plate tectonics, Principal investigator, Project Highwater, Project Horizon, Project Mercury, Project Orbiter, Proton (rocket family), Quest Joint Airlock, Radioisotope thermoelectric generator, Redstone Arsenal, Richard Nixon, RL10, Robert M. Lightfoot Jr., Robin Henderson, Rocco Petrone, Rocket, Rocketdyne, Rocketdyne F-1, Rocketdyne H-1, Rocketdyne J-2, Ronald Reagan, Salyut programme, Saturn (rocket family), Saturn I, Saturn IB, Saturn V, Saturn V Dynamic Test Stand, Saturn V Instrument Unit, Scout (rocket family), Shaw Prize, Skylab, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Solid rocket booster, Soyuz (spacecraft), Space capsule, Space Launch System, Space Shuttle, Space Shuttle Challenger, Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, Space Shuttle Columbia, Space Shuttle Columbia disaster, Space Shuttle external tank, Space Shuttle orbiter, Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster, Space Shuttle thermal protection system, Space Station Freedom, Spacecraft propulsion, Spacelab, Spherical aberration, Spitzer Space Telescope, Sputnik 1, Sputnik 2, STS-1, STS-2, STS-26, STS-3, STS-35, STS-4, STS-45, STS-5, STS-50, STS-51-L, STS-73, STS-9, Sub-orbital spaceflight, T. Jack Lee, Ultraviolet, United States Naval Research Laboratory, United States Secretary of State, United States Secretary of the Army, Unity (ISS module), University of Alabama in Huntsville, University of Chicago, V-2 rocket, Vanguard (rocket), Viktor Chernomyrdin, WAC Corporal, Walter Haeussermann, Weightlessness, Wernher von Braun, White Sands Missile Range, William R. Lucas, X-ray astronomy, Yuri Gagarin, Zarya, Zarya (spacecraft). Expand index (200 more) » « Shrink index
The Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) is an 8– to 16.8–meter UV-optical-NIR space telescope proposed by the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), the science operations center for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST).
Albert Arnold Gore Jr. (born March 31, 1948) is an American politician and environmentalist who served as the 45th Vice President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
Alabama is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
Rear Admiral Alan Bartlett Shepard Jr. (November 18, 1923 – July 21, 1998) was an American astronaut, naval aviator, test pilot, and businessman.
Alex A. McCool Jr. is manager of the Space Shuttle Projects Office at the NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama.
Ames Research Center (ARC), also known as NASA Ames, is a major NASA research center at Moffett Federal Airfield in California's Silicon Valley.
Angular resolution or spatial resolution describes the ability of any image-forming device such as an optical or radio telescope, a microscope, a camera, or an eye, to distinguish small details of an object, thereby making it a major determinant of image resolution.
The Apollo spacecraft was composed of three parts designed to accomplish the American Apollo program's goal of landing astronauts on the Moon by the end of the 1960s and returning them safely to Earth.
Apollo 11 was the spaceflight that landed the first two humans on the Moon.
Apollo 12 was the sixth manned flight in the United States Apollo program and the second to land on the Moon.
Apollo 13 was the seventh manned mission in the Apollo space program and the third intended to land on the Moon.
Apollo 14 was the eighth manned mission in the United States Apollo program, and the third to land on the Moon.
Apollo 15 was the ninth manned mission in the United States' Apollo program, the fourth to land on the Moon, and the eighth successful manned mission.
Apollo 16 was the tenth manned mission in the United States Apollo space program, the fifth and penultimate to land on the Moon and the first to land in the lunar highlands.
Apollo 17 was the final mission of NASA's Apollo program.
The Apollo Applications Program (AAP) was established by NASA headquarters in 1968 to develop science-based manned space missions using hardware developed for the Apollo program.
The Command/Service Module (CSM) was one of the two United States '''Apollo''' spacecraft, used for the Apollo program which landed astronauts on the Moon between 1969 and 1972.
The Lunar Module (LM, pronounced "Lem"), originally designated the Lunar Excursion Module (LEM), was the lander portion of the Apollo spacecraft built for the US Apollo program by Grumman Aircraft to carry a crew of two from lunar orbit to the surface and back.
The Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) comprised a set of scientific instruments placed by the astronauts at the landing site of each of the five Apollo missions to land on the Moon following Apollo 11 (Apollos 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17).
The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished landing the first humans on the Moon from 1969 to 1972.
The Apollo Telescope Mount, or ATM, was a solar observatory attached to Skylab, the first American space station.
The Apollo–Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) (Экспериментальный полёт «Аполлон» - «Союз» (ЭПАС), Eksperimentalniy polyot Apollon-Soyuz, lit. "Experimental flight Apollo-Soyuz", commonly referred to by the Soviets as "Soyuz-Apollo"), conducted in July 1975, was the first joint U.S.–Soviet space flight, as a symbol of the policy of détente that the two superpowers were pursuing at the time.
Ares I was the crew launch vehicle that was being developed by NASA as part of the Constellation program.
The Ares V (formerly known as the Cargo Launch Vehicle or CaLV) was the planned cargo launch component of the cancelled NASA Constellation program, which was to have replaced the Space Shuttle after its retirement in 2011.
The Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA) was formed to develop the U.S. Army's first large ballistic missile.
Arthur G. Stephenson (born 1942) was the ninth Director of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center located in Huntsville, Alabama.
Arthur E. "Gene" Goldman (born November 10, 1953) is the executive director for Aerojet's Southeast Space Operations division.
Arthur Louis Hugo Rudolph (November 9, 1906 – January 1, 1996) was a German rocket engineer who was a leader of the effort to develop the V-2 rocket for Nazi Germany.
An astronaut or cosmonaut is a person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft.
The Atlas-Centaur was an American expendable launch system derived from the SM-65 Atlas D missile.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
The Boeing Company is an American multinational corporation that designs, manufactures, and sells airplanes, rotorcraft, rockets, satellites, and missiles worldwide.
The Boeing 747 is an American wide-body commercial jet airliner and cargo aircraft, often referred to by its original nickname, "Jumbo Jet".
A boilerplate spacecraft, also known as a mass simulator, is a nonfunctional craft or payload that is used to test various configurations and basic size, load, and handling characteristics of rocket launch vehicles.
Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (p; 1 February 1931 – 23 April 2007) was a Soviet and Russian politician and the first President of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999.
Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) (known as Cape Kennedy Air Force Station from 1963 to 1973) is an installation of the United States Air Force Space Command's 45th Space Wing.
Carolyn S. Griner (born 1945) is an American astronautical engineer.
The Cassegrain reflector is a combination of a primary concave mirror and a secondary convex mirror, often used in optical telescopes and radio antennas.
The Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO), previously known as the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), is a Flagship-class space observatory launched on STS-93 by NASA on July 23, 1999.
The Chief of Staff of the Army (CSA) is a statutory office held by a four-star general in the United States Army.
Fiat Chrysler Automobiles US LLC (commonly known as Chrysler) is the American subsidiary of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N.V., an Italian-American automobile manufacturer registered in the Netherlands with headquarters in London, U.K., for tax purposes.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
The Constellation Program (abbreviated CxP) is a cancelled manned spaceflight program developed by NASA, the space agency of the United States, from 2005 to 2009.
Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.
The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) was the conceptual component of the U.S. NASA Vision for Space Exploration that later became known as the Orion spacecraft.
The Crew Return Vehicle (CRV), sometimes referred to as the Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV), was a proposed dedicated lifeboat or escape module for the International Space Station (ISS).
Cummings Research Park, located primarily in the city of Huntsville, Alabama is the second largest research park in the country and the fourth largest in the world.
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of emerging technologies for use by the military.
David Arnold King is an American engineer who was the tenth Director of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center located in Huntsville, Alabama.
Delta is an American versatile family of expendable launch systems that has provided space launch capability in the United States since 1960.
The Destiny module, also known as the US Lab, is the primary operating facility for U.S. research payloads aboard the International Space Station (ISS).
Dieter Grau (April 24, 1913 – December 17, 2014) was an aerospace engineer and member of the "von Braun rocket group", at Peenemünde (1939–1945) working on the V-2 rockets in World War II.
The resolution of an optical imaging system a microscope, telescope, or camera can be limited by factors such as imperfections in the lenses or misalignment.
The Douglas Aircraft Company was an American aerospace manufacturer based in Southern California.
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.
Eberhard Friedrich Michael Rees (April 28, 1908 – April 2, 1998) was a German-American (by becoming a naturalized citizen of the United States) rocketry pioneer and the second director of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center.
Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2) was the first fully imaging X-ray telescope put into space and the second of NASA's three High Energy Astrophysical Observatories.
In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV, also written electron-volt and electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately joules (symbol J).
In mathematics, an ellipse is a curve in a plane surrounding two focal points such that the sum of the distances to the two focal points is constant for every point on the curve.
Enrico Costa (born 1944 in Sassari, Sardinia) is an Italian astrophysicist, known for studies of gamma ray bursts (GRBs).
Ernst Geissler (3 August 1915 in Chemnitz, Saxony, Germany – 3 June 1989 in Huntsville, Alabama, United States) was a German-American aerospace engineer.
Ernst Stuhlinger (December 19, 1913 Niederrimbach, Germany – May 25, 2008) was a German-American atomic, electrical, and rocket scientist.
The European Space Research Organisation (ESRO) was an international organisation founded by 10 European nations with the intention of jointly pursuing scientific research in space.
An expendable launch vehicle (ELV) is a launch system or launch vehicle stage that is used only once to carry a payload into space.
Explorer 1 was the first satellite of the United States, launched as part of its participation in the International Geophysical Year.
The Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) program was a project by NASA to prepare for long-term (months) microgravity research aboard Space Station Freedom, which later evolved into the International Space Station.
Extravehicular activity (EVA) is any activity done by an astronaut or cosmonaut outside a spacecraft beyond the Earth's appreciable atmosphere.
Fast, Affordable, Science and Technology Satellite or FASTSAT, also known as US(PISA), Miniature Imager for Neutral Ionospheric atoms and Magnetosphereic electrons (MINI-ME), a Miniature Star Tracker (MST), and NanoSail-D2.
The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.
The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (FGST), formerly called the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), is a space observatory being used to perform gamma-ray astronomy observations from low Earth orbit.
Fort Bliss is a United States Army post in the U.S. states of New Mexico and Texas, with its headquarters located in El Paso, Texas.
Fred Weldon Leslie is an American scientist who flew on the NASA STS-73 Space Shuttle mission as a payload specialist.
Gamma-ray astronomy is the astronomical observation of gamma rays,Astronomical literature generally hyphenates "gamma-ray" when used as an adjective, but uses "gamma ray" without a hyphen for the noun.
Gene Porter Bridwell was the seventh director of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center located in Huntsville, Alabama.
General of the Army (GA) is a military rank used (primarily in the United States of America) to denote a senior military leader, usually a general in command of a nation's army.
General of the Army (abbreviated as GA) is a five-star general officer and the second highest possible rank in the United States Army.
General relativity (GR, also known as the general theory of relativity or GTR) is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.
George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 41st President of the United States from 1989 to 1993.
George Catlett Marshall Jr. (December 31, 1880 – October 16, 1959) was an American statesman and soldier.
George Edwin Mueller (July 16, 1918 – October 12, 2015), was an American electrical engineer who was an associate administrator at NASA who headed the Office of Manned Space Flight from September 1963 until December 1969.
Gerald Jay (Jerry) Fishman (born February 10, 1943) is an American research astrophysicist, specializing in gamma-ray astronomy.
Getaway Special was a NASA program that offered interested individuals, or groups, opportunities to fly small experiments aboard the Space Shuttle.
Gimbaled thrust is the system of thrust vectoring used in most rockets, including the Space Shuttle, the Saturn V lunar rockets, and the Falcon 9.
NASA John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field is a NASA center, located within the cities of Brook Park and Cleveland between Cleveland Hopkins International Airport and the Rocky River Reservation of Cleveland Metroparks, with a subsidiary facility in Sandusky, Ohio.
The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is a major NASA space research laboratory located approximately northeast of Washington, D.C. in Greenbelt, Maryland, United States.
Gravity Probe A (GP-A) was a space-based experiment to test the equivalence principle, a feature of Einstein's theory of relativity.
Gravity Probe B (GP-B) was a satellite-based mission which launched on 20 April 2004 on a Delta II rocket.
NASA's series of Great Observatories satellites are four large, powerful space-based astronomical telescopes.
Hancock County is the southernmost county of the U.S. state of Mississippi.
Harmony, also known as Node 2, is the "utility hub" of the International Space Station.
The High Energy Astronomy Observatory Program was a NASA program of the late 1970s and early 1980s that included a series of three large low-Earth-orbiting spacecraft for X-ray and Gamma-Ray astronomy and Cosmic-Ray investigations.
Heinz-Hermann Koelle (born 22 July 1925 Danzig, died 20 February 2011 in Berlin, Germany, 85 years old) was an aeronautical engineer who made the preliminary designs on the rocket that would emerge as the Saturn I.
Helmut Hoelzer was a Nazi Germany V-2 rocket engineer who was brought to the United States under Operation Paperclip.
The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.
Hinode (ひので,, Sunrise), formerly Solar-B, is a Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency Solar mission with United States and United Kingdom collaboration.
Houston is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Texas and the fourth most populous city in the United States, with a census-estimated 2017 population of 2.312 million within a land area of.
The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a space telescope that was launched into low Earth orbit in 1990 and remains in operation.
Human-rating certification is the certification of a spacecraft or launch vehicle as capable of safely transporting humans.
Huntsville is a city located primarily in Madison County in the Appalachian region of northern Alabama.
A hydrogen maser, also known as hydrogen frequency standard, is a specific type of maser that uses the intrinsic properties of the hydrogen atom to serve as a precision frequency reference.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
The Inertial Upper Stage (IUS), originally designated the Interim Upper Stage, was a two-stage solid-fueled rocket upper stage developed by Boeing for the United States Air Force beginning in 1976 for raising payloads from low Earth orbit to higher orbits or interplanetary trajectories following launch aboard a Titan 34D or Titan IV rocket, or from the payload bay of the Space Shuttle.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.
James Robert Thompson Jr., known as J.R. Thompson, (March 6, 1936 – November 7, 2017) was the fifth director of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center located in Huntsville, Alabama.
The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a space telescope developed in collaboration between NASA, the European Space Agency, and the Canadian Space Agency that will be the scientific successor to the Hubble Space Telescope.
The John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) is a NASA rocket testing facility.
John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.
The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Manned Spacecraft Center, where human spaceflight training, research, and flight control are conducted.
The Juno I was a four-stage American booster rocket which launched America's first satellite, Explorer 1, in 1958.
The Jupiter-C was an American research and development vehicle developed from the Jupiter-A. Jupiter-C was used for three sub-orbital spaceflights in 1956 and 1957 to test re-entry nosecones that were later to be deployed on the more advanced PGM-19 Jupiter mobile missile.
The John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is one of ten National Aeronautics and Space Administration field centers.
Launch Complex 39 (LC-39) is a rocket launch site at the John F. Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island in Florida, United States.
The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), nicknamed, is a Japanese science module for the International Space Station (ISS) developed by JAXA.
Kodiak Island (Alutiiq: Qikertaq, Кадьякъ) is a large island on the south coast of the U.S. state of Alaska, separated from the Alaska mainland by the Shelikof Strait.
Kurt Heinrich Debus (November 29, 1908 – October 10, 1983) was a German V-2 rocket scientist during World War II who, after being brought to the United States under Operation Paperclip, became the first director of NASA's Kennedy Space Center in 1962.
LAGEOS, Laser Geodynamics Satellite or Laser Geometric Environmental Observation Survey, are a series of two scientific research satellites designed to provide an orbiting laser ranging benchmark for geodynamical studies of the Earth.
Langley Research Center (LaRC or NASA Langley) located in Hampton, Virginia, United States, is the oldest of NASA's field centers.
A launch escape system (LES) or launch abort system (LAS) is a crew safety system connected to a space capsule, used to quickly separate the capsule from its launch vehicle rocket in case of a launch abort emergency, such as an impending explosion.
The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).
A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit around Earth with an altitude of or less, and with an orbital period of between about 84 and 127 minutes.
The Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) or lunar rover is a battery-powered four-wheeled rover used on the Moon in the last three missions of the American Apollo program (15, 16, and 17) during 1971 and 1972.
Lyman Strong Spitzer, Jr. (June 26, 1914 – March 31, 1997) was an American theoretical physicist, astronomer and mountaineer.
Madison County is a county of the U.S. state of Alabama.
The Magellan spacecraft, also referred to as the Venus Radar Mapper, was a robotic space probe launched by NASA of the United States, on May 4, 1989, to map the surface of Venus by using synthetic aperture radar and to measure the planetary gravitational field.
"Man Will Conquer Space Soon!" was the title of a famous series of 1950s magazine articles in ''Collier's'' detailing Wernher von Braun's plans for manned spaceflight.
A man-hour, or less commonly person-hour, is the amount of work performed by the average worker in one hour.
The Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL), originally referred to as the Manned Orbital Laboratory, was part of the United States Air Force's manned spaceflight program, a successor to the cancelled Boeing X-20 Dyna-Soar military reconnaissance space plane project.
A number of proposals for a manned Venus flyby have been considered since the start of the space age.
The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave over $13 billion (nearly $ billion in US dollars) in economic assistance to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II.
The Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics is a Max Planck Institute, located in Garching, near Munich, Germany.
The Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF) is an 832-acre (337 ha) manufacturing complex owned by NASA in New Orleans East, a district within New Orleans, Louisiana, in the United States.
A micrometeoroid is a tiny meteoroid; a small particle of rock in space, usually weighing less than a gram.
Minotaur IV, also known as Peacekeeper SLV and OSP-2 PK is an active expendable launch system derived from the LGM-118 Peacekeeper ICBM.
A minute of arc, arcminute (arcmin), arc minute, or minute arc is a unit of angular measurement equal to of one degree.
Mir (Мир,; lit. peace or world) was a space station that operated in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001, operated by the Soviet Union and later by Russia.
Mir-2 was a space station project which began in February 1976.
A Moon landing is the arrival of a spacecraft on the surface of the Moon.
NanoSail-D2 was a small satellite built by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and Ames Research Center to study the deployment of a solar sail in space.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) was a U.S. federal agency founded on March 3, 1915, to undertake, promote, and institutionalize aeronautical research.
The National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 is the United States federal statute that created the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).
The National Space Science and Technology Center (NSSTC) is a joint research venture between NASA and the seven research universities of the state of Alabama, represented by the Space Science and Technology Alliance.
The Neutral Buoyancy Simulator was a neutral buoyancy pool located at NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
North American Aviation (NAA) was a major American aerospace manufacturer, responsible for a number of historic aircraft, including the T-6 Texan trainer, the P-51 Mustang fighter, the B-25 Mitchell bomber, the F-86 Sabre jet fighter, the X-15 rocket plane, and the XB-70, as well as Apollo Command and Service Module, the second stage of the Saturn V rocket, the Space Shuttle orbiter and the B-1 Lancer.
The term nose cone is used to refer to the forwardmost section of a rocket, guided missile or aircraft.
An O-ring, also known as a packing, or a toric joint, is a mechanical gasket in the shape of a torus; it is a loop of elastomer with a round cross-section, designed to be seated in a groove and compressed during assembly between two or more parts, creating a seal at the interface.
An occultation is an event that occurs when one object is hidden by another object that passes between it and the observer.
Operation Paperclip was a secret program of the Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency (JIOA) largely carried out by Special Agents of Army CIC, in which more than 1,600 German scientists, engineers, and technicians, such as Wernher von Braun and his V-2 rocket team, were recruited in post-Nazi Germany and taken to the U.S. for government employment, primarily between 1945 and 1959.
The orbital period is the time a given astronomical object takes to complete one orbit around another object, and applies in astronomy usually to planets or asteroids orbiting the Sun, moons orbiting planets, exoplanets orbiting other stars, or binary stars.
The Orbital Space Plane (OSP) program was a NASA concept in the early 2000s designed to support the International Space Station requirements for crew rescue, crew transport and contingency cargo such as supplies, food and other needed equipment.
The Orbiting Astronomical Observatory (OAO) satellites were a series of four American space observatories launched by NASA between 1966 and 1972, which provided the first high-quality observations of many objects in ultraviolet light.
The Orbiting Solar Observatory (abbreviated OSO) Program was the name of a series of American space telescopes primarily intended to study the Sun, though they also included important non-solar experiments.
The United States Army Ordnance Corps, formerly the United States Army Ordnance Department, is a Sustainment branch of the United States Army, headquartered at Fort Lee, Virginia.
The Pacific Spaceport Complex – Alaska (PSCA), formerly known as the Kodiak Launch Complex, is a dual-use commercial and military spaceport for sub-orbital and orbital launch vehicles.
Patrick Scheuermann (pronounced "Sherman") is the former Director of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center located in Huntsville, Alabama.
Also known as Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) or Payload Operations Center, it is a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) facility that works in conjunction with the International Space Station and Space Shuttle Control Centers in Houston, Texas.
Peenemünde ("Peene Mouth") is a municipality on the Baltic Sea island of Usedom in the Vorpommern-Greifswald district in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.
The Pegasus satellite program was a series of three American satellites launched in 1965 to study the frequency of micrometeorite impacts on spacecraft.
The PGM-11 Redstone was the first large American ballistic missile.
The PGM-19 Jupiter was the first nuclear tipped, medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM) of the United States Air Force (USAF).
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
A principal investigator (PI) is the holder of an independent grant administered by a university and the lead researcher for the grant project, usually in the sciences, such as a laboratory study or a clinical trial.
Project Highwater was an experiment carried out as part of two of the test flights of NASA's Saturn I launch vehicle (using battleship upper stages), successfully launched into a sub-orbital trajectory from Cape Canaveral, Florida.
Project Horizon was a 1959 study to determine the feasibility of constructing a scientific / military base on the Moon, at a time when the U.S. Department of the Army, Department of the Navy, and Department of the Air Force had total responsibility for U.S. space program plans.
Project Mercury was the first human spaceflight program of the United States, running from 1958 through 1963.
Project Orbiter was a proposed United States spacecraft, an early competitor to Project Vanguard.
Proton (Russian: Протон) (formal designation: UR-500) is an expendable launch system used for both commercial and Russian government space launches.
The Quest Joint Airlock, previously known as the Joint Airlock Module, is the primary airlock for the International Space Station.
A Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG, RITEG) is an electrical generator that uses an array of thermocouples to convert the heat released by the decay of a suitable radioactive material into electricity by the Seebeck effect.
Redstone Arsenal (RSA) is a United States Army post and a census-designated place (CDP) adjacent to Huntsville in Madison County, Alabama, United States and is part of the Huntsville-Decatur Combined Statistical Area.
Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974, when he resigned from office, the only U.S. president to do so.
The RL10 is a liquid-fuel cryogenic rocket engine used on the Centaur, S-IV, and Delta Cryogenic Second Stage upper stages.
Robert M. Lightfoot Jr. (born 1963) is an engineer and former Acting Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), serving from January 20, 2017 until April 23, 2018, making him the longest-serving Acting Administrator in NASA history.
Robin Neely Henderson is the Associate Director, Management, of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center located in Huntsville, Alabama.
Rocco Anthony Petrone (March 31, 1926 – August 24, 2006) was an American mechanical engineer of Italian ethnicity and U.S. Army officer who was the third director of the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, from 1973 to 1974.
A rocket (from Italian rocchetto "bobbin") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.
Rocketdyne was an American rocket engine design and production company headquartered in Canoga Park, in the western San Fernando Valley of suburban Los Angeles, in southern California.
The F-1 is a gas-generator cycle rocket engine developed in the United States by Rocketdyne in the late 1950s and used in the Saturn V rocket in the 1960s and early 1970s.
The Rocketdyne H-1 is a thrust liquid-propellant rocket engine burning LOX and RP-1.
The J-2 was a liquid-fuel cryogenic rocket engine used on NASA's Saturn IB and Saturn V launch vehicles.
Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
The Salyut programme (Салю́т,, meaning "salute" or "fireworks") was the first space station programme, undertaken by the Soviet Union.
The Saturn family of American rocket boosters was developed by a team of mostly German rocket scientists led by Wernher von Braun to launch heavy payloads to Earth orbit and beyond.
The Saturn I (pronounced "Saturn one") was the United States' first heavy-lift dedicated space launcher, a rocket designed specifically to launch large payloads into low Earth orbit.
The Saturn IB (pronounced "one B", also known as the Uprated Saturn I) was an American launch vehicle commissioned by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for the Apollo program.
The Saturn V (pronounced "Saturn five") was an American human-rated expendable rocket used by NASA between 1967 and 1973.
Saturn V Dynamic Test Stand, also known as Dynamic Structural Test Facility, at the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama is the test stand used for testing of the Saturn V rocket and the Space Shuttle prior to the vehicles' first flights.
The Saturn V Instrument Unit is a ring-shaped structure fitted to the top of the Saturn V rocket's third stage (S-IVB) and the Saturn IB's second stage (also an S-IVB).
The Scout family of rockets were American launch vehicles designed to place small satellites into orbit around the Earth.
The Shaw Prize is an annual award first presented by the Shaw Prize Foundation in 2004.
Skylab was the United States' space station that orbited the Earth from 1973 to 1979, when it fell back to Earth amid huge worldwide media attention.
The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) is a research institute of the Smithsonian Institution headquartered in Cambridge, Massachusetts, where it is joined with the Harvard College Observatory (HCO) to form the Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA).
Solid-fuel rocket boosters (SRBs) are large solid propellant motors used to provide thrust in spacecraft launches from initial launch through the first ascent stage.
Soyuz is a series of spacecraft designed for the Soviet space program by the Korolev Design Bureau (now RKK Energia) in the 1960s that remains in service today.
A space capsule is an often manned spacecraft which has a simple shape for the main section, without any wings or other features to create lift during atmospheric reentry.
The Space Launch System (SLS) is an American Space Shuttle-derived heavy-lift expendable launch vehicle.
The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), as part of the Space Shuttle program.
Space Shuttle Challenger (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-099) was the second orbiter of NASA's space shuttle program to be put into service, after ''Columbia''.
On January 28, 1986, the NASA shuttle orbiter mission STS-51-L and the tenth flight of (OV-99) broke apart 73 seconds into its flight, killing all seven crew members, which consisted of five NASA astronauts and two payload specialists.
Space Shuttle Columbia (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-102) was the first space-rated orbiter in NASA's Space Shuttle fleet.
On February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle ''Columbia'' disintegrated upon reentering Earth's atmosphere, killing all seven crew members.
A Space Shuttle external tank (ET) was the component of the Space Shuttle launch vehicle that contained the liquid hydrogen fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer.
The Space Shuttle orbiter was the spaceplane component of the Space Shuttle, a partially reusable orbital spacecraft system that was part of the Space Shuttle program.
The Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) were the first solid fuel motors to be used for primary propulsion on a vehicle used for human spaceflight and provided the majority of the Space Shuttle's thrust during the first two minutes of flight.
The Space Shuttle thermal protection system (TPS) is the barrier that protected the Space Shuttle Orbiter during the searing heat of atmospheric reentry.
Space Station Freedom was a NASA project to construct a permanently manned Earth-orbiting space station in the 1980s.
Spacecraft propulsion is any method used to accelerate spacecraft and artificial satellites.
Spacelab was a reusable laboratory used on certain spaceflights flown by the Space Shuttle.
Spherical aberration is an optical effect observed in an optical device (lens, mirror, etc.) that occurs due to the increased refraction of light rays when they strike a lens or a reflection of light rays when they strike a mirror near its edge, in comparison with those that strike close to the centre.
The Spitzer Space Telescope (SST), formerly the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), is an infrared space telescope launched in 2003 and still operating as of 2018.
Sputnik 1 (or; "Satellite-1", or "PS-1", Простейший Спутник-1 or Prosteyshiy Sputnik-1, "Elementary Satellite 1") was the first artificial Earth satellite.
Sputnik 2 (Спутник-2, Satellite 2), or Prosteyshiy Sputnik 2 (PS-2, italic, Elementary Satellite 2) was the second spacecraft launched into Earth orbit, on 3 November 1957, and the first to carry a living animal, a Soviet space dog named Laika, who died a few hours after the launch.
STS-1 (Space Transportation System-1) was the first orbital spaceflight of NASA's Space Shuttle program.
STS-2 was the second Space Shuttle mission conducted by NASA, and the second flight of the orbiter ''Columbia''.
STS-26 was the 26th NASA Space Shuttle mission and the seventh flight of the orbiter ''Discovery''.
STS-3 was NASA's third Space Shuttle mission, and was the third mission for the Space Shuttle ''Columbia''.
STS-35 was the tenth flight of Space Shuttle ''Columbia'', the 38th shuttle flight, and a mission devoted to astronomical observations with ASTRO-1, a Spacelab observatory consisting of four telescopes.
STS-4 was the fourth NASA Space Shuttle mission, and also the fourth for Space Shuttle ''Columbia''.
STS-45 was a 1992 Space Shuttle mission using the.
STS-5 was the fifth NASA Space Shuttle mission and the fifth flight of the Space Shuttle ''Columbia''.
STS-50 (U.S. Microgravity Laboratory 1) was a United States Space Shuttle mission, the 12th mission of the Columbia orbiter.
STS-51-L was the 25th mission of the United States Space Shuttle program, and disastrous final mission of the Space Shuttle ''Challenger''.
STS-73 was a Space Shuttle program mission, during October–November 1995, on board the space shuttle Columbia.
STS-9 (also referred to as STS-41A and Spacelab 1) was the ninth NASA Space Shuttle mission and the sixth mission of the Space Shuttle ''Columbia''.
A sub-orbital spaceflight is a spaceflight in which the spacecraft reaches space, but its trajectory intersects the atmosphere or surface of the gravitating body from which it was launched, so that it will not complete one orbital revolution.
Thomas Jack Lee (born 1935) was the sixth Director of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, from July 6, 1989 to January 6, 1994.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The United States Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is the corporate research laboratory for the United States Navy and the United States Marine Corps.
The Secretary of State is a senior official of the federal government of the United States of America, and as head of the U.S. Department of State, is principally concerned with foreign policy and is considered to be the U.S. government's equivalent of a Minister for Foreign Affairs.
The Secretary of the Army (SA, SECARM or SECARMY) is a senior civilian official within the Department of Defense of the United States of America with statutory responsibility for all matters relating to the United States Army: manpower, personnel, reserve affairs, installations, environmental issues, weapons systems and equipment acquisition, communications, and financial management.
The ''Unity'' module as seen in May 2011 The Unity connecting module, also known as Node 1, was the first U.S.-built component of the International Space Station.
The University of Alabama in Huntsville (also known as UAHuntsville or UAH) is a state-supported, public, coeducational research university in Huntsville, Alabama, United States.
The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.
The V-2 (Vergeltungswaffe 2, "Retribution Weapon 2"), technical name Aggregat 4 (A4), was the world's first long-range guided ballistic missile.
The Vanguard rocket was intended to be the first launch vehicle the United States would use to place a satellite into orbit.
Viktor Stepanovich Chernomyrdin (Ви́ктор Степа́нович Черномы́рдин,; 9 April 19383 November 2010) was a Russian politician.
The WAC or WAC Corporal was the first sounding rocket developed in the United States.
Walter Haeussermann (also spelled Häussermann; March 2, 1914 – December 8, 2010) was a German-American aerospace engineer and member of the "von Braun rocket group", both at Peenemünde and later at Marshall Space Flight Center, where he was the director of the guidance and control laboratory.
Weightlessness, or an absence of weight, is an absence of stress and strain resulting from externally applied mechanical contact-forces, typically normal forces (from floors, seats, beds, scales, etc.). Counterintuitively, a uniform gravitational field does not by itself cause stress or strain, and a body in free fall in such an environment experiences no g-force acceleration and feels weightless.
Wernher Magnus Maximilian Freiherr von Braun (March 23, 1912 – June 16, 1977) was a German (and, later, American) aerospace engineer and space architect.
White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) is a United States Army military testing area of almost in parts of five counties in southern New Mexico.
William R. Lucas (born March 1, 1922) was the fourth Director of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center.
X-ray astronomy is an observational branch of astronomy which deals with the study of X-ray observation and detection from astronomical objects.
Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (p; 9 March 1934 – 27 March 1968) was a Soviet pilot and cosmonaut.
Zarya (Dawn), also known as the Functional Cargo Block or FGB (from the Funktsionalno-gruzovoy blok or ФГБ), is the first module of the International Space Station to be launched.
The Zarya spacecraft was a secret Soviet project of the late 1980s aiming to design and build a large manned vertical-takeoff, vertical-landing (VTVL) reusable space capsule, a much larger replacement for the Soyuz (spacecraft).
GHCC, George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), Global Hydrology and Climate Center, Marshall Rocket Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, AL, Marshall Spaceflight Center, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, The George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, The George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).