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Martial arts

Index Martial arts

Martial arts are codified systems and traditions of combat practices, which are practiced for a number of reasons: as self-defense, military and law enforcement applications, mental and spiritual development; as well as entertainment and the preservation of a nation's intangible cultural heritage. [1]

248 relations: Agni Purana, Aikido, Aka (Burmese martial arts), Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek boxing, Ancient Olympic Games, Arnis, Art, Asia, Astrology, Bartitsu, Bayonet, Bōjutsu, Belt (clothing), Black Belt (magazine), Bloodsport (film), Bodhidharma, Bonesetter, Boxing, Boxing at the Summer Olympics, Boxing glove, Brazil, Brazilian jiu-jitsu, Breaking (martial arts), British Army, British Empire, Broadcasting of sports events, Bruce Lee, Canne de combat, Capoeira, Cave painting, Central Guoshu Institute, Championship belt, China, Chinese culture, Chinese martial arts, Chiyou, Chokehold, Chuck Norris, Cinema of the United States, Codex Wallerstein, Cold War, Combat, Combat sport, Combatives, Dance, Defendu, Diploma mill, Donn F. Draeger, Duel, ..., East Asia, Edged and bladed weapons, Edo period, Edward William Barton-Wright, Emotion, Eric A. Sykes, Europe, Fencing, Fiore dei Liberi, Firearm, Folk wrestling, General officer, German Renaissance, Gladiator, Grappling, Grappling hold, Greco-Roman wrestling, Greek wrestling, Ground fighting, Halling (dance), Hand-to-hand combat, Hapkido, Headgear (martial arts), Historical European martial arts, History of China, History of martial arts, Hojo undō, Hong Kong action cinema, Hopak, Hybrid martial arts, Hyeong, Iaidō, India, Indian martial arts, Intangible cultural heritage, International Boxing Association (amateur), Iraq War, Israel Defense Forces, Jack Broughton, Jackie Chan, Japan, Japanese martial arts, Jean-Claude Van Damme, Jet Li, Jixiao Xinshu, Jogo do pau, Johannes Liechtenauer, Joint lock, Joseon, Judo, Judo at the Summer Olympics, Jujutsu, K-1, Kalaripayattu, Kapap, Karate, Karate World Championships, Kata, Kendo, Kenjutsu, Kick, Kickboxing, Knockout, Ko-ryū, Korea, Korean martial arts, Korean War, Krav Maga, Kuomintang, Kyū, Kyūdō, Kyokushin, Latin, Law enforcement, LINE (combat system), List of fictional martial arts, List of martial arts, List of martial arts weapons, Longsword, Lonsdale Belt, Mahayana, Makiwara, Malla-yuddha, Marine Corps Martial Arts Program, Marquess of Queensberry Rules, Mars (mythology), Martial arts film, Martial arts manual, Martial arts timeline, Matt Larsen, Meditation, Meiji Restoration, Melee weapon, Mental health, Middle Ages, Ming dynasty, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Japan), Mixed martial arts, Modern competitive archery, Modern schools of ninjutsu, Morihei Ueshiba, Morris dance, Mu ren zhuang, Muay boran, Muay Thai, Muscle memory, Muyejebo, Nanjing decade, Neijia, Odzemek, Okinawan kobudō, Pancrase, Pankration, Penn & Teller: Bullshit!, Personal protective equipment, Physical fitness, Point shooting, Pole weapon, Popular culture, Pride Fighting Championships, Professional boxing, Punch (combat), Punching bag, Renaissance, Rex Applegate, Roman Empire, Roman mythology, Russian Orthodox Church, Sambo (martial art), Samurai, Sangam literature, Sangam period, Sanshou, Savate, Seidokaikan, Self-control, Self-defense, Self-esteem, Shaolin Kung Fu, Shepherd's axe, Shooto, Short twentieth century, Shuai jiao, Silambam, Silat, Silk Road transmission of Buddhism, Singlestick, South India, Sparring, Spear, Special Operations Executive, Spirituality, Sport industry, Stage combat, Stand-up fighting, Stick-fighting, Strike (attack), Styles of Chinese martial arts, Submission wrestling, Subversion, Sumo, Sun Tzu, Swordsmanship, Systema, Taekkyeon, Taekwondo, Telegraph Media Group, The Art of War, The Daily Telegraph, The Karate Kid, Throw (grappling), Tokyo, Training manual, UFC 1, Ultimate Fighting Championship, UNESCO, Unifight, United States, United States Armed Forces, United States Army, United States Marine Corps, Vale tudo, Varma kalai, War, War dance, Warring States period, William E. Fairbairn, Wing Chun, World Fencing Championships, World Judo Championships, World War I, World War II combatives, World Wrestling Championships, Wrestling, Wushu (sport), Xia dynasty, Yellow Emperor, 1896 Summer Olympics. Expand index (198 more) »

Agni Purana

The Agni Purana, (अग्नि पुराण) is a Sanskrit text and one of the eighteen major Puranas of Hinduism.

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Aikido

is a modern Japanese martial art developed by Morihei Ueshiba as a synthesis of his martial studies, philosophy, and religious beliefs.

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Aka (Burmese martial arts)

Aka are pre-arranged sets of movement or forms in the Burmese martial arts.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Ancient Greek boxing

Ancient Greek boxing (πυγμαχία pygmachia, "fist fighting") dates back to at least the 8th century BCE (Homer's Iliad), and was practiced in a variety of social contexts in different Greek city-states.

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Ancient Olympic Games

The ancient Olympic Games were originally a festival, or celebration of and for Zeus; later, events such as a footrace, a javelin contest, and wrestling matches were added.

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Arnis

Arnis, also known as Kali or Eskrima, is the national sport and martial art of the Philippines.

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Art

Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts (artworks), expressing the author's imaginative, conceptual idea, or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power.

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Asia

Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.

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Astrology

Astrology is the study of the movements and relative positions of celestial objects as a means for divining information about human affairs and terrestrial events.

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Bartitsu

Bartitsu is an eclectic martial art and self-defence method originally developed in England during the years 1898–1902, combining elements of boxing, jujitsu, cane fighting, and French kickboxing.

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Bayonet

A bayonet (from French baïonnette) is a knife, sword, or spike-shaped weapon designed to fit on the end of a rifles muzzle, allowing it to be used as a pike.

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Bōjutsu

, translated from Japanese as "staff technique", is the martial art of using a staff weapon called bō which simply means "staff".

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Belt (clothing)

A belt is a flexible band or strap, typically made of leather or heavy cloth, and worn around the waist.

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Black Belt (magazine)

Black Belt is an American magazine covering martial arts and combat sports.

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Bloodsport (film)

Bloodsport is a 1988 American martial arts film directed by Newt Arnold.

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Bodhidharma

Bodhidharma was a Buddhist monk who lived during the 5th or 6th century.

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Bonesetter

A bonesetter is a practitioner of joint manipulation.

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Boxing

Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined set of time in a boxing ring.

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Boxing at the Summer Olympics

Boxing has been contested at every Summer Olympic Games since its introduction to the program at the 1904 Summer Olympics, except for the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm, because Swedish law banned the sport at the time.

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Boxing glove

Boxing gloves are cushioned gloves that fighters wear on their hands during boxing matches and practices.

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Brazil

Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.

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Brazilian jiu-jitsu

Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ; jiu-jitsu brasileiro) is a martial art and combat sport system that focuses on grappling and especially ground fighting.

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Breaking (martial arts)

Breaking is a martial arts technique that is used in competition, demonstration and testing.

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British Army

The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.

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British Empire

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.

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Broadcasting of sports events

The broadcasting of sports events (also known as a sportscast) is the live coverage of sports as a television program, on radio, and other broadcasting media.

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Bruce Lee

Lee Jun-fan (November 27, 1940 – July 20, 1973), known professionally as Bruce Lee, was a Hong Kong and American actor, film director, martial artist, martial arts instructor, philosopher, and founder of the martial art Jeet Kune Do, one of the wushu or kungfu styles.

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Canne de combat

Canne de combat is a French martial art.

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Capoeira

Capoeira is an Afro-Brazilian martial art that combines elements of dance, acrobatics, and music.

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Cave painting

Cave paintings, also known as parietal art, are painted drawings on cave walls or ceilings, mainly of prehistoric origin, beginning roughly 40,000 years ago (around 38,000 BCE) in Eurasia.

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Central Guoshu Institute

The Central Guoshu Institute; was established in Nanjing by the Kuomintang government of the Republic of China in 1928 for the propagation of Chinese martial arts, and was an important center of martial arts during the Nanjing decade.

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Championship belt

A championship belt is a large, extravagantly designed belt used primarily in combat sports such as boxing, mixed martial arts, and professional wrestling to signify the champions of the promotion or company, much like a cup or trophy in other sports.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Chinese culture

Chinese culture is one of the world's oldest cultures, originating thousands of years ago.

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Chinese martial arts

Chinese martial arts, often named under the umbrella terms kung fu and wushu, are the several hundred fighting styles that have developed over the centuries in China.

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Chiyou

Chiyou (蚩尤) was a tribal leader of the Nine Li tribe (九黎) in ancient China.

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Chokehold

A chokehold, choke, stranglehold or, in Judo, shime-waza (絞技; constriction technique) is a general term for a grappling hold that critically reduces or prevents either air (choking)The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1999).

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Chuck Norris

Carlos Ray Norris (born March 10, 1940) is an American martial artist, actor, film producer and screenwriter.

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Cinema of the United States

The cinema of the United States, often metonymously referred to as Hollywood, has had a profound effect on the film industry in general since the early 20th century.

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Codex Wallerstein

The so-called Codex Wallerstein or Vonn Baumanns Fechtbuch (Oettingen-Wallerstein Cod. I.6.4o.2, Augsburg University library) is a 16th-century convolution of three 15th-century fechtbuch manuscripts, with a total of 221 pages.

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Cold War

The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).

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Combat

Combat (French for fight) is a purposeful violent conflict meant to weaken, establish dominance over, or kill the opposition, or to drive the opposition away from a location where it is not wanted or needed.

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Combat sport

A combat sport, or fighting sport, is a competitive contact sport that usually involves one-on-one combat.

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Combatives

Combatives is a term for hand-to-hand combat training and techniques.

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Dance

Dance is a performing art form consisting of purposefully selected sequences of human movement.

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Defendu

Close Quarters Combat System (i.e. Defendu) is a modern martial art developed by William E. Fairbairn and Eric A. Sykes prior to World War II.

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Diploma mill

A diploma mill (also known as a degree mill) is a company or organization that claims to be a higher education institution but provides illegitimate academic degrees and diplomas for a fee.

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Donn F. Draeger

Donald Frederick "Donn" Draeger (April 15, 1922 – October 20, 1982) was an internationally known teacher and practitioner of Japanese martial arts.

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Duel

A duel is an arranged engagement in combat between two people, with matched weapons, in accordance with agreed-upon rules.

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East Asia

East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.

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Edged and bladed weapons

Bladed and edged weapons have been used throughout history for combat, hunting and in ceremonies.

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Edo period

The or is the period between 1603 and 1868 in the history of Japan, when Japanese society was under the rule of the Tokugawa shogunate and the country's 300 regional daimyō.

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Edward William Barton-Wright

Edward William Barton-Wright CE, M.J.S. (member of the Japan Society) (1860–1951) was an English entrepreneur specialising in both self defence training and physical therapy.

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Emotion

Emotion is any conscious experience characterized by intense mental activity and a certain degree of pleasure or displeasure.

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Eric A. Sykes

Eric Anthony Sykes (5 February 1883–12 May 1945), born Eric Anthony Schwabe in Barton-upon-Irwell, Eccles, Greater Manchester, England, was a soldier and firearms expert.

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Europe

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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Fencing

Fencing is a group of three related combat sports.

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Fiore dei Liberi

Fiore Furlano de Cividale d'Austria, delli Liberi da Premariacco (Fiore dei Liberi, Fiore Furlano, Fiore de Cividale d'Austria; born ca. 1350; died after 1409) was a late 14th century knight, diplomat, and itinerant fencing master.

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Firearm

A firearm is a portable gun (a barreled ranged weapon) that inflicts damage on targets by launching one or more projectiles driven by rapidly expanding high-pressure gas produced by exothermic combustion (deflagration) of propellant within an ammunition cartridge.

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Folk wrestling

A folk wrestling style is any traditional style of wrestling, which may or may not be codified as a modern sport.

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General officer

A general officer is an officer of high rank in the army, and in some nations' air forces or marines.

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German Renaissance

The German Renaissance, part of the Northern Renaissance, was a cultural and artistic movement that spread among German thinkers in the 15th and 16th centuries, which developed from the Italian Renaissance.

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Gladiator

A gladiator (gladiator, "swordsman", from gladius, "sword") was an armed combatant who entertained audiences in the Roman Republic and Roman Empire in violent confrontations with other gladiators, wild animals, and condemned criminals.

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Grappling

In hand-to-hand combat, grappling is a close fighting technique used to gain a physical advantage such as improving relative position, or causing injury to the opponent.

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Grappling hold

A grappling hold (commonly referred to simply as a hold; in Japanese referred to as katame-waza,, "grappling technique") is a specific grappling, wrestling, judo or other martial arts grip that is applied to an opponent.

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Greco-Roman wrestling

Greco-Roman (US) or Graeco-Roman (UK) wrestling is a style of wrestling that is practiced worldwide.

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Greek wrestling

Greek wrestling (πάλη, pálē), also known as Ancient Greek wrestling and Palé, was the most popular organized sport in Ancient Greece.

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Ground fighting

Ground fighting (also called ground work or ground game) is hand-to-hand combat or wrestling which takes place while the combatants are on the ground, generally involving grappling.

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Halling (dance)

The Halling (hallingdansen) is a folk dance (bygdedans) traditionally performed in rural Norway, although versions of the halling can also be found in parts of Sweden.

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Hand-to-hand combat

Hand-to-hand combat (sometimes abbreviated as HTH or H2H) is a lethal or non-lethal physical confrontation between two or more persons at very short range (grappling distance, or within the physical reach of a handheld weapon) that does not involve the use of ranged weapons.

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Hapkido

Hapkido (also spelled hap ki do or hapki-do; from Korean hapgido) is a highly eclectic Korean martial art.

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Headgear (martial arts)

Headgear is padded helmet worn during sparring in the martial arts.

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Historical European martial arts

Historical European martial arts (HEMA) refers to martial arts of European origin, particularly using arts formerly practised, but having since died out or evolved into very different forms.

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History of China

The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.

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History of martial arts

Although the earliest evidence of martial arts goes back millennia, the true roots are difficult to reconstruct.

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Hojo undō

Hojo undō (補助運動) is a Japanese language term, translated as "supplementary exercises", that refers to the conditioning exercises specifically used in martial arts more specifically in Karate.

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Hong Kong action cinema

Hong Kong action cinema is the principal source of the Hong Kong film industry's global fame.

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Hopak

Hopak (Гопа́к), also referred to as Gopak in transliteration from the Russian language, the Cossack dance, or more recently as the Kazotsky Kick is a national Ukrainian dance.

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Hybrid martial arts

Hybrid martial arts, also known as hybrid fighting systems or sometimes eclectic martial arts or freestyle fighting, refer to martial arts or fighting systems that incorporate techniques and theories from several particular martial arts (eclecticism).

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Hyeong

The Korean terms hyeong, pumsae, and teul (meaning "form" or "pattern") are all used to refer to martial arts forms that are typically used in Korean martial arts such as Taekwondo and Tang Soo Do.

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Iaidō

, abbreviated with, is a Japanese martial art that emphasizes being aware and capable of quickly drawing the sword and responding to a sudden attack.

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India

India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indian martial arts

Indian martial arts refers to the fighting systems of the Indian subcontinent.

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Intangible cultural heritage

An intangible cultural heritage (ICH) is a practice, representation, expression, knowledge, or skill, as well as the instruments, objects, artefacts, and cultural spaces that are considered by UNESCO to be part of a place's cultural heritage.

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International Boxing Association (amateur)

The International Boxing Association, originally the Association Internationale de Boxe Amateur and still referred to as the AIBA is a sport organization that sanctions amateur (Olympic-style) boxing matches and awards world and subordinate championships.

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Iraq War

The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.

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Israel Defense Forces

The Israel Defense Forces (IDF; צְבָא הַהֲגָנָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, lit. "The Army of Defense for Israel"; جيش الدفاع الإسرائيلي), commonly known in Israel by the Hebrew acronym Tzahal, are the military forces of the State of Israel.

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Jack Broughton

John "Jack" Broughton (c. 1703 or 5 July 1704 – 8 January 1789) was an English bare-knuckle boxer.

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Jackie Chan

Chan Kong-sang, SBS, MBE, PMW (生; born 7 April 1954), known professionally as Jackie Chan, is a Hong Kong martial artist, actor, film director, producer, stuntman, and singer.

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Japan

Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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Japanese martial arts

Japanese martial arts refer to the variety of martial arts native to the country of Japan.

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Jean-Claude Van Damme

Jean-Claude Camille François Van Varenberg (born 18 October 1960), professionally known as Jean-Claude Van Damme and abbreviated as JCVD, is a Belgian actor, martial artist, screenwriter, film producer, and director best known for his martial arts action films.

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Jet Li

Li Lianjie (born 26 April 1963), better known by his stage name Jet Li, is a Chinese film actor, film producer, martial artist, and retired Wushu champion who was born in Beijing.

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Jixiao Xinshu

The Jixiao Xinshu or New Treatise on Military Efficiency is a military manual written during the 1560s and 1580s by the Ming dynasty general Qi Jiguang.

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Jogo do pau

Jogo do pau ("game of the stick") is a Galician and Portuguese martial art which developed along the Minho river and its surrounding regions (Minho, Trás-os-Montes, Pontevedra and Ourense), focusing on the use of a staff of fixed measures and characteristics.

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Johannes Liechtenauer

Johannes Liechtenauer (also Lichtnauer, Hans Lichtenawer) was a 14th-century German fencing master who had a great level of influence on the German fencing tradition.

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Joint lock

A joint lock is a grappling technique involving manipulation of an opponent's joints in such a way that the joints reach their maximal degree of motion.

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Joseon

The Joseon dynasty (also transcribed as Chosŏn or Chosun, 조선; officially the Kingdom of Great Joseon, 대조선국) was a Korean dynastic kingdom that lasted for approximately five centuries.

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Judo

was created as a physical, mental and moral pedagogy in Japan, in 1882, by Jigoro Kano (嘉納治五郎).

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Judo at the Summer Olympics

Judo was first included in the Summer Olympic Games at the 1964 Games in Tokyo, Japan.

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Jujutsu

Jujutsu (柔術, jūjutsu), also known in the West as Ju-Jitsu or Jiu-Jitsu, is a Japanese martial art and a method of close combat for defeating an armed and armored opponent in which one uses either a short weapon or none.

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K-1

K-1 began in 1993 and is a kickboxing platform and martial arts brand well-known worldwide mainly for its heavyweight division fights.

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Kalaripayattu

Kalaripayattu (pronounced Kalarippayatt) is a martial art and fighting system, which originated as a style in North Malabar, Kerala, Southern India.

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Kapap

Kapap (קפ"פ), often written KAPAP, a Hebrew acronym for Krav Panim el Panim (lit. face-to-face combat), is a close-quarter battle system of defensive tactics, hand-to-hand combat and self-defense.

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Karate

(Okinawan pronunciation) is a martial art developed in the Ryukyu Kingdom.

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Karate World Championships

The Karate World Championships, also known as the World Karate Championships, are the highest level of competition for karate organized by the World Karate Federation (WKF).

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Kata

, a Japanese word, are detailed choreographed patterns of movements practiced either solo or in pairs.

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Kendo

is a traditional Japanese martial art, which descended from swordsmanship (kenjutsu) and uses bamboo swords (shinai) and protective armour (bōgu).

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Kenjutsu

is the umbrella term for all (koryū) schools of Japanese swordsmanship, in particular those that predate the Meiji Restoration.

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Kick

A kick is a physical strike using the leg, foot, heel, tibia, thigh or knee (the latter is also known as a knee strike).

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Kickboxing

Kickboxing is a group of stand-up combat sports based on kicking and punching, historically developed from karate mixed with boxing.

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Knockout

A knockout (abbreviated to KO or K.O.) is a fight-ending, winning criterion in several full-contact combat sports, such as boxing, kickboxing, muay thai, mixed martial arts, karate, some forms of taekwondo, and other sports involving striking, as well as fighting-based video games.

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Ko-ryū

is a Japanese term for Japanese martial arts that predate the Meiji Restoration (1868).

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Korea

Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.

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Korean martial arts

Korean martial arts (Hangul: 무술, Hanja: 武術, musul or Hangul: 무예, Hanja: 武藝, muye) are military practices and methods which have their place in the history of Korea but have been adapted for use by both military and non-military personnel as a method of personal growth or recreation.

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Korean War

The Korean War (in South Korean, "Korean War"; in North Korean, "Fatherland: Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States).

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Krav Maga

Krav Maga (קְרַב מַגָּע, lit. "contact-combat") is a military self-defense and fighting system developed for the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) and Israeli security forces (Shin Bet and Mossad) that derived from a combination of techniques sourced from boxing, wrestling, aikido, judo and karate, along with realistic fight training.

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Kuomintang

The Kuomintang of China (KMT; often translated as the Nationalist Party of China) is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei and is currently the opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.

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Kyū

is a Japanese term used in modern martial arts as well as in tea ceremony, flower arranging, Go, shogi, academic tests and other similar activities to designate various grades, levels or degrees of proficiency or experience.

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Kyūdō

Kyūdō is the Japanese martial art of archery.

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Kyokushin

is a style of stand-up, full contact karate, founded in 1964 by Korean-Japanese.

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Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Law enforcement

Law enforcement is any system by which some members of society act in an organized manner to enforce the law by discovering, deterring, rehabilitating, or punishing people who violate the rules and norms governing that society.

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LINE (combat system)

LINE is a close quarters combat system, derived from various martial arts, used by the United States Marine Corps between 1989 and 1998, and then from 1998 through to 2007 for the US Army Special Forces.

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List of fictional martial arts

Many works of fiction such as movies and books have characters that practice martial arts.

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List of martial arts

There are a large number of distinct styles and schools of martial arts.

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List of martial arts weapons

Weapons used in the world's martial arts can be classified either by type of weapon or by the martial arts school using them.

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Longsword

A longsword (also spelled as long sword or long-sword) is a type of European sword characterized as having a cruciform hilt with a grip for two-handed use (around), a straight double-edged blade of around, and weighing approximately.

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Lonsdale Belt

The Lonsdale Belt (full name Lord Lonsdale Challenge Belt, originally known as the Challenge Belt) is the oldest championship belt in boxing.

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Mahayana

Mahāyāna (Sanskrit for "Great Vehicle") is one of two (or three, if Vajrayana is counted separately) main existing branches of Buddhism and a term for classification of Buddhist philosophies and practice.

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Makiwara

The makiwara is a padded striking post used as a training tool in various styles of traditional karate.

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Malla-yuddha

(Devanagari: मल्लयुद्ध, মল্লযুদ্ধ, Odia: ମଲ୍ଲ ଯୁଦ୍ଧ, Kannada: ಮಲ್ಲಯುದ್ಧ, Telugu: మల్ల యుద్ధం malla-yuddhaṁ, Tamil: மல்யுத்தம் malyutham, Thai: มัลละยุทธ์ mạllayutṭh̒) is the traditional South Asian form of combat-wrestling created in what is now India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka.

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Marine Corps Martial Arts Program

The Marine Corps Martial Arts Program (MCMAP) is a combat system developed by the United States Marine Corps to combine existing and new hand-to-hand and close quarters combat techniques with morale and team-building functions and instruction in the Warrior Ethos.

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Marquess of Queensberry Rules

The Marquess of Queensberry Rules are a code of generally accepted rules in the sport of boxing.

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Mars (mythology)

In ancient Roman religion and myth, Mars (Mārs) was the god of war and also an agricultural guardian, a combination characteristic of early Rome.

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Martial arts film

Martial arts films are a subgenre of action films, which feature numerous martial arts fights between characters.

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Martial arts manual

Martial arts manuals are instructions, with or without illustrations, specifically designed to be learnt from a book.

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Martial arts timeline

This martial arts timeline is designed to help describe the history of the martial arts in a linear fashion.

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Matt Larsen

Matt Larsen is a former United States Marine, United States Army Ranger and Black Belt Magazine Hall of Fame combatives instructor.

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Meditation

Meditation can be defined as a practice where an individual uses a technique, such as focusing their mind on a particular object, thought or activity, to achieve a mentally clear and emotionally calm state.

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Meiji Restoration

The, also known as the Meiji Ishin, Renovation, Revolution, Reform, or Renewal, was an event that restored practical imperial rule to the Empire of Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji.

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Melee weapon

A melee weapon, or close combat weapon, is any weapon used in direct hand-to-hand combat; by contrast with ranged weapons which act at a distance.

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Mental health

Mental health is a level of psychological well-being or an absence of mental illness.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Ming dynasty

The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.

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Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Japan)

The is a cabinet-level ministry of the Japanese government responsible for the country's foreign relations.

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Mixed martial arts

Mixed martial arts (MMA) is a full-contact combat sport that allows striking and grappling, both standing and on the ground, using techniques from other combat sports and martial arts.

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Modern competitive archery

Modern competitive archery involves shooting arrows at a target for accuracy from a set distance or distances.

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Modern schools of ninjutsu

Modern schools of ninjutsu are schools which offer instruction in martial arts.

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Morihei Ueshiba

was a martial artist and founder of the Japanese martial art of aikido.

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Morris dance

Morris dance is a form of English folk dance usually accompanied by music.

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Mu ren zhuang

Muk Yan Jong (Cantonese: muk yan jong/Mandarin: mu ren zhuang) is a wooden dummy used in Chinese martial arts training.

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Muay boran

Muay Boran (มวยโบราณ,,, lit. "ancient boxing") or originally "Toi Muay" (ต่อยมวย) is an umbrella term for the unarmed martial arts of Thailand prior to the introduction of modern equipment and rules in the 1930s.

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Muay Thai

Muay Thai (มวยไทย) or Thai boxing is a combat sport of Thailand that uses stand-up striking along with various clinching techniques.

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Muscle memory

Muscle memory has been used synonymously with motor learning, which is a form of procedural memory that involves consolidating a specific motor task into memory through repetition.

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Muyejebo

The Muyejebo (Compendium of Several Martial Arts) is the oldest extant Korean martial arts manual, written during the reign of King Seonjo (d. 1608).

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Nanjing decade

The Nanjing decade (also Nanking decade, Nánjīng shí nián, or The Golden decade, Huángjīn shí nián) is an informal name for the decade from 1927 (or 1928) to 1937 in the Republic of China.

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Neijia

Neijia is a term in Chinese martial arts, grouping those styles that practice neijing, usually translated as internal martial arts, occupied with spiritual, mental or qi-related aspects, as opposed to an "external" approach focused on physiological aspects.

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Odzemek

The Odzemek (in slovak Odzemok) is a Slovak solo traditional dance for men which always has an improvised character.

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Okinawan kobudō

, literally "old martial way of Okinawa", is the weapon systems of Okinawan martial arts.

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Pancrase

Pancrase Inc. is a mixed martial arts promotion company founded in Japan in 1993 by professional wrestlers Masakatsu Funaki and Minoru Suzuki.

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Pankration

Pankration (παγκράτιον) was a sporting event introduced into the Greek Olympic Games in 648 BC and was an empty-hand submission sport with scarcely any rules.

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Penn & Teller: Bullshit!

Penn & Teller: Bullshit! is an American documentary television series that aired from 2003 to 2010 on the premium cable channel Showtime.

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Personal protective equipment

Personal protective equipment (PPE) refers to protective clothing, helmets, goggles, or other garments or equipment designed to protect the wearer's body from injury or infection.

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Physical fitness

Physical fitness is a state of health and well-being and, more specifically, the ability to perform aspects of sports, occupations and daily activities.

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Point shooting

Point shooting — also known as target- or threat-focused shooting, instinctive aiming, instinctive firing, and instinctive shooting — is a method of shooting a firearm quickly and accurately that does not rely on the use of the sights in close quarters, life-threatening situations where there is the greatest chance of being killed.

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Pole weapon

A pole weapon or pole arm is a close combat weapon in which the main fighting part of the weapon is fitted to the end of a long shaft, typically of wood, thereby extending the user's effective range.

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Popular culture

Popular culture (also called pop culture) is generally recognized as a set of the practices, beliefs, and objects that are dominant or ubiquitous in a society at a given point in time.

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Pride Fighting Championships

Pride Fighting Championships (Pride or Pride FC, founded as KRS-Pride) was a Japanese mixed martial arts promotion company founded by Nobuyuki Sakakibara and Nobuhiko Takada.

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Professional boxing

Professional boxing, or prizefighting, is a regulated, sanctioned boxing.

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Punch (combat)

A punch is a striking blow with the fist.

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Punching bag

A punching bag (or, British English, punchbag) is a sturdy bag designed to be repeatedly punched.

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Renaissance

The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.

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Rex Applegate

Rex Applegate (June 21, 1914 – July 14, 1998) was an American military officer who worked for the Office of Strategic Services, where he trained Allied special forces personnel in close-quarters combat during World War II.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Roman mythology

Roman mythology is the body of traditional stories pertaining to ancient Rome's legendary origins and religious system, as represented in the literature and visual arts of the Romans.

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Russian Orthodox Church

The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC; Rússkaya pravoslávnaya tsérkov), alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate (Moskóvskiy patriarkhát), is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox patriarchates.

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Sambo (martial art)

Sambo (p; САМозащита Без Оружия) is a Russian-Soviet martial art and combat sport.

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Samurai

were the military nobility and officer caste of medieval and early-modern Japan.

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Sangam literature

The Sangam literature (Tamil: சங்க இலக்கியம், Sanga ilakkiyam) is the ancient Tamil literature of the period in the history of ancient southern India (known as the Thamizhagam or the Tamilagam) spanning from c. 300 BCE to 300 CE.

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Sangam period

Sangam period is the period of history of ancient Tamil Nadu and Kerala (known as Tamilakam) spanning from c. 3rd century BC to c. 3rd century AD.

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Sanshou

Sanshou (Wushu Sanshou), also known as Sanda (Wushu Sanda), Chinese boxing or Chinese kickboxing, is a Chinese self-defense system and combat sport.

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Savate

Savate, also known as boxe française, savate boxing, French boxing or French footfighting, is a French combat sport that uses the hands and feet as weapons combining elements of English boxing with graceful kicking techniques.

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Seidokaikan

is a traditional full contact karate derived from Kyokushin by Kazuyoshi Ishii.

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Self-control

Self-control, an aspect of inhibitory control, is the ability to regulate one's emotions, thoughts, and behavior in the face of temptations and impulses.

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Self-defense

Self-defence (self-defense in some varieties of English) is a countermeasure that involves defending the health and well-being of oneself from harm.

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Self-esteem

Self-esteem reflects an individual's overall subjective emotional evaluation of his or her own worth.

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Shaolin Kung Fu

Shaolin Kung Fu, also called Shaolin Wushu or Shaolin quan, is one of the oldest, largest, and most famous styles of wushu or kungfu.

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Shepherd's axe

The shepherd's axe is a long thin light axe used in past centuries by shepherds in the Carpathian Mountains, especially in Slovakia, Czech Republic, Poland, Ukraine and Hungary.

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Shooto

Shooto is a combat sport/mixed martial arts system and mixed martial arts organization that is governed by the Shooto Association and the International Shooto Commission.

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Short twentieth century

The term short twentieth century, originally proposed by Iván Berend (Hungarian Academy of Sciences) but defined by Eric Hobsbawm, a British Marxist historian and author, refers to the period between the years 1914 and 1991.

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Shuai jiao

Shuai jiao is the term pertaining to the ancient jacket wrestling Kung-Fu style of Beijing, Tianjin and Baoding of Hebei Province in the North China Plain which was codified by Shan Pu Ying (善撲营 The Battalion of Excellency in Catching) of the Nei Wu Fu (内務府, Internal Administration Unit of Imperial Household Department).

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Silambam

Silambam (சிலம்பம்) is a weapon-based martial art of India, more specifically in the state of Tamil Nadu, where it originated around 1000 BC.

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Silat

Silat is a collective word for a class of indigenous martial arts from a geo-cultural area of Southeast Asia encompassing most of the Nusantara, the Malay Archipelago, and the entirety of the Malay Peninsula.

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Silk Road transmission of Buddhism

Buddhism entered Han China via the Silk Road, beginning in the 1st or 2nd century CE.

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Singlestick

Singlestick, also known as cudgels, refers to both a martial art that uses a wooden stick as well as the weapon used in the art.

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South India

South India is the area encompassing the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry, occupying 19% of India's area.

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Sparring

Sparring is a form of training common to many combat sports.

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Spear

A spear is a pole weapon consisting of a shaft, usually of wood, with a pointed head.

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Special Operations Executive

The Special Operations Executive (SOE) was a British World War II organisation.

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Spirituality

Traditionally, spirituality refers to a religious process of re-formation which "aims to recover the original shape of man," oriented at "the image of God" as exemplified by the founders and sacred texts of the religions of the world.

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Sport industry

Sport industry is a market in which people, activities, business, and organizations involved in producing, facilitating, promoting, or organizing any activity, experience, or business enterprise focused on sports.

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Stage combat

Stage combat or Fight choreography is a specialised technique in theatre designed to create the illusion of physical combat without causing harm to the performers.

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Stand-up fighting

In martial arts and combat sports, stand-up fighting is hand-to-hand combat between opponents in a standing position, as distinguished from ground fighting.

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Stick-fighting

Stick-fighting, stickfighting, or stick fighting is a variety of martial arts which use simple long slender, blunt, hand-held, generally wooden 'sticks' for fighting; such as a staff, cane, walking stick, baton or similar.

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Strike (attack)

A strike is a directed physical attack with either a part of the human body or with an inanimate object (such as a weapon) intended to cause blunt trauma or penetrating trauma upon an opponent.

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Styles of Chinese martial arts

There are hundreds of different styles of Chinese martial arts, each with their own sets of techniques and ideas.

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Submission wrestling

Submission wrestling (also known as submission fighting, submission grappling, sport grappling, or simply as no-gi) or combat wrestling (in Japan), is a form of competition and a general term for martial arts and combat sports that focus on clinch and ground fighting with the aim of obtaining a submission through the use of submission holds.

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Subversion

Subversion (Latin subvertere: overthrow) refers to a process by which the values and principles of a system in place are contradicted or reversed, an attempt to transform the established social order and its structures of power, authority, hierarchy, and norm (social).

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Sumo

or sumo wrestling is a competitive full-contact wrestling sport where a rikishi (wrestler) attempts to force another wrestler out of a circular ring (dohyō) or into touching the ground with anything other than the soles of his feet.

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Sun Tzu

Sun Tzu (also rendered as Sun Zi; 孫子) was a Chinese general, military strategist, writer, and philosopher who lived in the Eastern Zhou period of ancient China.

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Swordsmanship

Swordsmanship or sword fighting refers to the skills of a swordsman, a person versed in the art of the sword.

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Systema

Systema (Система, literally meaning The System) is a Russian martial art.

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Taekkyeon

Taekkyeon is a traditional Korean martial art first explicitly recorded during the Joseon Dynasty.

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Taekwondo

Taekwondo (from Korean 태권도, 跆拳道) is a Korean martial art, characterised by its emphasis on head-height kicks, jumping and spinning kicks, and fast kicking techniques.

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Telegraph Media Group

The Telegraph Media Group (TMG, previously the Telegraph Group) is the proprietor of The Daily Telegraph and The Sunday Telegraph.

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The Art of War

The Art of War is an ancient Chinese military treatise dating from the Spring and Autumn period.

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The Daily Telegraph

The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.

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The Karate Kid

The Karate Kid is a 1984 American martial arts drama film produced by Jerry Weintraub, directed by John G. Avildsen, written by Robert Mark Kamen, and stars Ralph Macchio, Pat Morita and Elisabeth Shue.

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Throw (grappling)

A throw, in martial arts, is a grappling technique that involves off-balancing or lifting an opponent, and throwing them to the ground, in Japanese martial arts referred to as nage-waza, 投げ技, "throwing technique".

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Tokyo

, officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and has been the capital since 1869.

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Training manual

A training manual is a book or booklet of instructions, designed to improve the quality of a performed task.

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UFC 1

The Ultimate Fighting Championship (later renamed UFC 1: The Beginning) was the first mixed martial arts event by the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC), held at the McNichols Sports Arena in Denver, Colorado, on November 12, 1993.

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Ultimate Fighting Championship

The Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) is an American mixed martial arts organization based in Las Vegas, Nevada, that is owned and operated by parent company William Morris Endeavor.

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UNESCO

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.

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Unifight

Unifight (or Universal Fight) is a competitive training system with military applications.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Armed Forces

The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America.

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United States Army

The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.

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United States Marine Corps

The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting amphibious operations with the United States Navy.

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Vale tudo

Vale tudo (anything goes) is an unarmed, full-contact combat sport with relatively few rules.

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Varma kalai

Varma Kalai (Tamil:வர்மக்கலை varmakkalai),is a Tamil term for the Indian knowledge of vital points.

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War

War is a state of armed conflict between states, societies and informal groups, such as insurgents and militias.

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War dance

A war dance is a dance involving mock combat, usually in reference to tribal warrior societies where such dances were performed as a ritual connected with endemic warfare.

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Warring States period

The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history of warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation, following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire known as the Qin dynasty.

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William E. Fairbairn

William Ewart Fairbairn (28 February 1885 – 20 June 1960) was a British Royal Marine and police officer.

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Wing Chun

Wing Chun is a traditional Southern Chinese Kung fu (wushu) specializing in close range combat.

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World Fencing Championships

The World Championships in Fencing is an annual competition organized by the Fédération Internationale d'Escrime or FIE, (International Fencing Federation in English).

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World Judo Championships

The World Judo Championships are the highest level of international judo competition, along with the Olympic judo competition.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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World War II combatives

World War II combatives are close quarters combat techniques, including hand-to-hand, advanced firearm point shooting methods, and weapons techniques (knife/bayonet/improvised weapons) that were taught to allied special forces in World War II by such famous instructors as Rex Applegate and William Ewart Fairbairn.

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World Wrestling Championships

UWW United World Wrestling is the Amateur Wrestling World Championship organized by the United World Wrestling.

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Wrestling

Wrestling is a combat sport involving grappling type techniques such as clinch fighting, throws and takedowns, joint locks, pins and other grappling holds.

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Wushu (sport)

Wushu is a martial art and a full-contact sport.

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Xia dynasty

The Xia dynasty is the legendary, possibly apocryphal first dynasty in traditional Chinese history.

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Yellow Emperor

The Yellow Emperor, also known as the Yellow Thearch, the Yellow God or the Yellow Lord, or simply by his Chinese name Huangdi, is a deity in Chinese religion, one of the legendary Chinese sovereigns and culture heroes included among the mytho-historical Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors and cosmological Five Forms of the Highest Deity (五方上帝 Wǔfāng Shàngdì).

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1896 Summer Olympics

The 1896 Summer Olympics (Θερινοί Ολυμπιακοί Αγώνες 1896), officially known as the Games of the I Olympiad, was the first international Olympic Games held in modern history.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martial_arts

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