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Martial law

Index Martial law

Martial law is the imposition of direct military control of normal civilian functions of government, especially in response to a temporary emergency such as invasion or major disaster, or in an occupied territory. Martial law can be used by governments to enforce their rule over the public. [1]

208 relations: Administrative detention, Alexander Macomb (general), American Civil War, Amir Peretz, April Revolution, Arab citizens of Israel, Arabs, Archibald Acheson, 2nd Earl of Gosford, Assassination of Anwar Sadat, Assassination of Benigno Aquino Jr., Attack on Pearl Harbor, Authoritarianism, Autumn Uprising of 1946, Balochistan, Pakistan, Bangkok, Bassma Kodmani, Battle of Marawi, Battle of New Orleans, Benigno Aquino Jr., Benny Morris, Black Friday (1978), Black War, Bosnia and Herzegovina, British Empire, Brunei revolt, Cantons of Switzerland, Chiang Ching-kuo, Chief executive officer, Chief Martial Law Administrator, Civil and political rights, Civil disorder, Civil law (legal system), Civil rights movement, Client state, Commanding General of the United States Army, Communist Party of China, Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Constitution of the Republic of China, Continental Congress, Corazon Aquino, Council for National Security, Coup d'état, Court-martial, CPP–NPA–NDF rebellion, Croatia, Curfew, Czesław Kiszczak, Davos, DEFCON, Dublin, ..., East Pakistan, Easter Rising, Emadeddin Baghi, Emergencies Act, Empire of Japan, Ernesto Abella, Esmael Mangudadatu, Ferdinand Marcos, Forced disappearance, Freedom Riders, Galilee, Gaza Strip, Geneva Conventions, Gholam Ali Oveissi, Gholam Reza Azhari, Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, Government of Canada, Great Chicago Fire, Habeas corpus, Hassanal Bolkiah, Hawaii, History of Nauvoo, Illinois, Hosni Mubarak, Human rights in the Philippines, Invasion of Quebec (1775), Iranian Green Movement, Irish Civil War, Irish War of Independence, Israel, Israel Defense Forces, Ivor Guest, 1st Viscount Wimborne, Jafar Sharif-Emami, Jeju uprising, John Colborne, 1st Baron Seaton, José P. Laurel, Juan Ponce Enrile, Kumanovo Agreement, Kuomintang, Lanao del Sur, Law of the United States, Lech Wałęsa, Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, Lower Canada, Lower Canada Rebellion, Maguindanao, Maguindanao massacre, Mandaluyong, Marawi, Martial law, Maute group, Middle class, Military dictatorship, Military history of the Philippines during World War II, Military justice, Military occupation, Military rule, Mindanao, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Muhammad Rafiq Tarar, Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, Narathiwat Province, NATO, Nauvoo, Illinois, Nawaz Sharif, Negev, New York City, October Crisis, Omar Suleiman, Pakistan, Palace Revolt of 1912, Pattani Province, People Power Revolution, Pervez Musharraf, Philippine presidential election, 1986, Philippine presidential election, 2004, Philippine Standard Time, Philippines, PiliPinas Debates 2016, Plaza Miranda bombing, Police state, Political violence, Posse Comitatus Act, Prayut Chan-o-cha, President of Pakistan, President of South Korea, President of the Philippines, Prime Minister of Pakistan, Proclamation No. 1081, Proclamation No. 216, Province of Quebec (1763–1791), Provinces of the Philippines, Rahimuddin Khan, Reconstruction era, Republic of China (1912–1949), Rodrigo Duterte, Second Philippine Republic, Secretary of National Defense (Philippines), Senate of the Philippines, Serbia and Montenegro, Shah, Shapour Bakhtiar, Shaukat Aziz, Shujaat Hussain, Sir George Arthur, 1st Baronet, Six-Day War, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Sonthi Boonyaratglin, South Thailand insurgency, Soviet Union, State of emergency, Statute, Supreme Court of the United States, Surayud Chulanont, Swiss Armed Forces, Switzerland, Syngman Rhee, Taiwan, Tehran, Thailand, Thaksin Shinawatra, The Hankyoreh, The Jerusalem Post, Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, Torture, Triangle (Israel), Turkey, Turkish Armed Forces, United Kingdom, United Nations General Assembly, United States, United States Army, United States Army Military Government in Korea, United States Congress, United States Constitution, Utah, Utah War, Vajiravudh, War, West Bank, Whiskey Rebellion, Wojciech Jaruzelski, World Economic Forum, World War I, World War II, Wujek Coal Mine, Yala Province, Yugoslav Wars, Zafarullah Khan Jamali, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, 1906 San Francisco earthquake, 1934 West Coast waterfront strike, 1963 Syrian coup d'état, 2006 Dahab bombings, 2006 Lebanon War, 2006 state of emergency in the Philippines, 2006 Thai coup d'état, 2014 Thai coup d'état. Expand index (158 more) »

Administrative detention

Administrative detention is arrest and detention of individuals by the state without trial, usually for security reasons.

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Alexander Macomb (general)

Alexander Macomb (April 3, 1782 – June 25, 1841) was the Commanding General of the United States Army from May 29, 1828 until his death on June 25, 1841.

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American Civil War

The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.

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Amir Peretz

Amir Peretz (עמיר פרץ; born Armand Peretz on 9 March 1952) is an Israeli politician who currently serves as a member of the Knesset for the Zionist Union.

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April Revolution

The April Revolution, sometimes called the April 19 Revolution or April 19 Movement, was a popular uprising in April 1960, led by labor and student groups, which overthrew the autocratic First Republic of South Korea under Syngman Rhee.

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Arab citizens of Israel

Arab citizens of Israel, or Arab Israelis, are Israeli citizens whose primary language or linguistic heritage is Arabic. Many identify as Palestinian and commonly self-designate themselves as Palestinian citizens of Israel or Israeli Palestinians.See the terminology and self-identification sections for an extended discussion of the various terms used to refer to this population. The traditional vernacular of most Arab citizens, irrespective of religion, is the Palestinian dialect of Arabic. Most Arab citizens of Israel are functionally bilingual, their second language being Modern Hebrew. By religious affiliation, most are Muslim, particularly of the Sunni branch of Islam. There is a significant Arab Christian minority from various denominations as well as the Druze, among other religious communities. According to Israel's Central Bureau of Statistics, the Arab population in 2013 was estimated at 1,658,000, representing 20.7% of the country's population. The majority of these identify themselves as Arab or Palestinian by nationality and Israeli by citizenship.. "The issue of terminology relating to this subject is sensitive and at least partially a reflection of political preferences. Most Israeli official documents refer to the Israeli Arab community as "minorities". The Israeli National Security Council (NSC) has used the term "Arab citizens of Israel". Virtually all political parties, movements and non-governmental organisations from within the Arab community use the word "Palestinian" somewhere in their description – at times failing to make any reference to Israel. For consistency of reference and without prejudice to the position of either side, ICG will use both Arab Israeli and terms the community commonly uses to describe itself, such as Palestinian citizens of Israel or Palestinian Arab citizens of Israel."An IDI Guttman Study of 2008 shows that most Arab citiens of Israel identify as Arabs (45%). While 24% consider themselves Palestinian, 12% consider themselves Israelis, and 19% identify themselves according to religion. Arab citizens of Israel mostly live in Arab-majority towns and cities; with eight of Israel's ten poorest cities being Arab. The vast majority attend separate schools to Jewish Israelis, and Arab political parties have never joined a government coalition. Many have family ties to Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza Strip as well as to Palestinian refugees in Jordan, Syria and Lebanon. Negev Bedouins and the Druze tend to identify more as Israelis than other Arab citizens of Israel. Most of the Arabs living in East Jerusalem and the Golan Heights, occupied by Israel in the Six-Day War of 1967 and later annexed, were offered Israeli citizenship, but most have refused, not wanting to recognize Israel's claim to sovereignty. They became permanent residents instead. They have the right to apply for citizenship, are entitled to municipal services and have municipal voting rights.

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Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.

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Archibald Acheson, 2nd Earl of Gosford

Archibald Acheson, 2nd Earl of Gosford (1 August 1776 – 27 March 1849, Markethill), styled The Honourable Archibald Acheson from 1790 to 1806 and Lord Acheson from 1806 to 1807, was a British politician who served as Lieutenant-Governor of Lower Canada and Governor General of British North America in the 19th century.

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Assassination of Anwar Sadat

The assassination of Anwar Sadat occurred on 6 October 1981.

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Assassination of Benigno Aquino Jr.

The assassination of Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino Jr., former Philippine Senator, took place on Sunday, August 21, 1983 at Manila International Airport (renamed Ninoy Aquino International Airport in his honor).

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Attack on Pearl Harbor

The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Territory, on the morning of December 7, 1941.

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Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.

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Autumn Uprising of 1946

The 10.1 Daegu Uprising of 1946 (hangul: 대구 10·1 사건; hanja: 大邱 10·1 事件) in Korea was a peasant uprising throughout the southern provinces of Korea against the policies of the United States Army Military Government in Korea headed by General John R. Hodge and in favor of restoration of power to the people's committees that made up the People's Republic of Korea.

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Balochistan, Pakistan

Balochistan (bəloːt͡ʃɪs't̪ɑːn) (بلوچِستان), is one of the five provinces of Pakistan.

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Bangkok is the capital and most populous city of the Kingdom of Thailand.

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Bassma Kodmani

Bassma Kodmani (Arabic: بسمة قضماني; born 29 April 1958 in Damascus, Syria) is a Syrian academic and former spokesperson of the Syrian National Council.

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Battle of Marawi

The Battle of Marawi (Labanan sa Marawi), also known as the Marawi siege (Pagkubkob sa Marawi) and the Marawi crisis (Krisis sa Marawi), was a five-month-long armed conflict in Marawi, Lanao del Sur, that started on 23 May 2017, between Philippine government security forces and militants affiliated with the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), including the Maute and Abu Sayyaf Salafi jihadist groups.

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Battle of New Orleans

The Battle of New Orleans was a series of engagements fought between December 14, 1814 and January 18, 1815, constituting the last major battle of the War of 1812.

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Benigno Aquino Jr.

Benigno Simeon "Ninoy" Aquino Jr. (November 27, 1932 – August 21, 1983) was the husband of former Philippine President Corazon Aquino and father of former Philippine President Benigno Aquino III.

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Benny Morris

Benny Morris (בני מוריס; born 8 December 1948) is an Israeli historian.

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Black Friday (1978)

Black Friday (Persian: جمعه سیاه Jom'e-ye Siyāh) is the name given to 8 September 1978 (17 Shahrivar 1357 Iranian calendar) because of the shootings in Jaleh Square (Persian: میدان ژاله Meydān-e Jāleh) in Tehran, Iran.

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Black War

The Black War was the period of violent conflict between British colonists and Aboriginal Australians in Tasmania from the mid-1820s to 1832.

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Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.

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British Empire

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.

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Brunei revolt

The Brunei revolt (Pemberontakan Brunei) was a December 1962 insurrection in the British protectorate of Brunei by opponents of its monarchy and its proposed inclusion in the Federation of Malaysia.

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Cantons of Switzerland

The 26 cantons of Switzerland (Kanton, canton, cantone, chantun) are the member states of the Swiss Confederation.

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Chiang Ching-kuo

Chiang Ching-kuo (Ningbo dialect) (27 April 1910 – 13 January 1988) was a politician in Taiwan.

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Chief executive officer

Chief executive officer (CEO) is the position of the most senior corporate officer, executive, administrator, or other leader in charge of managing an organization especially an independent legal entity such as a company or nonprofit institution.

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Chief Martial Law Administrator

The office of the Chief Martial Law Administrator was a senior government authoritative post created in countries such as Pakistan, Bangladesh and Indonesia that gave considerable executive authority and powers to the holder of the post to enforce martial law in the country in an events to ensure the continuity of government.

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Civil and political rights

Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals.

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Civil disorder

Civil disorder, also known as civil disturbance or civil unrest, is an activity arising from a mass act of civil disobedience (such as a demonstration, riot, or strike) in which the participants become hostile toward authority, and authorities incur difficulties in maintaining public safety and order, over the disorderly crowd.

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Civil law (legal system)

Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.

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Civil rights movement

The civil rights movement (also known as the African-American civil rights movement, American civil rights movement and other terms) was a decades-long movement with the goal of securing legal rights for African Americans that other Americans already held.

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Client state

A client state is a state that is economically, politically, or militarily subordinate to another more powerful state in international affairs.

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Commanding General of the United States Army

Prior to the institution of the Chief of Staff of the Army in 1903, there was generally recognized to be a single senior-most officer in the United States Army (and its predecessor the Continental Army), even though there was not a statutory office as such.

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Communist Party of China

The Communist Party of China (CPC), also referred to as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China.

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Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran

The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran was adopted by referendum on 2 and 3 December 1979, and went into force replacing the Constitution of 1906.

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Constitution of the Republic of China

During the National Constituent Assembly session on 25 December 1946 in Nanking, the fifth and current Chinese constitution was officially adopted on 25 December 1947, at a time when the ROC still had nominal control of Mainland China and to which this constitution applied.

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Continental Congress

The Continental Congress, also known as the Philadelphia Congress, was a convention of delegates called together from the Thirteen Colonies.

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Corazon Aquino

Maria Corazon "Cory" Sumulong Cojuangco Aquino (January 25, 1933 – August 1, 2009) was a Filipina politician who served as the 11th President of the Philippines and the first woman to hold that office.

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Council for National Security

The Council for National Security (คณะมนตรีความมั่นคงแห่งชาติ) or CNS (ม.), formerly known as the Council for Democratic Reform (คณะปฏิรูปการปกครองในระบอบประชาธิปไตยอันมีพระมหากษัตริย์ทรงเป็นประมุข) or CDR (ป.), was the military junta that governed Thailand after staging a coup d'état against Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra.

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Coup d'état

A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.

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A court-martial or court martial (plural courts-martial or courts martial, as "martial" is a postpositive adjective) is a military court or a trial conducted in such a court.

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CPP–NPA–NDF rebellion

The CPP–NPA–NDF rebellion refers to the ongoing conflict between the Government of the Philippines (GPH) and the communist coalition of the Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP), the New People's Army (NPA), and the National Democratic Front (NDF).

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Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.

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A curfew is an order specifying a time during which certain regulations apply.

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Czesław Kiszczak

Czesław Kiszczak (19 October 1925 – 5 November 2015) was a Polish general, communist-era interior minister (1981–1990) and prime minister (1989).

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Davos (German pronunciation; Tavau, archaic Italian: Tavate) is an Alpine town, and a municipality in the Prättigau/Davos Region in the canton of Graubünden, Switzerland.

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The defense readiness condition (DEFCON) is an alert state used by the United States Armed Forces.

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Dublin is the capital of and largest city in Ireland.

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East Pakistan

East Pakistan was the eastern provincial wing of Pakistan between 1955 and 1971, covering the territory of the modern country Bangladesh.

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Easter Rising

The Easter Rising (Éirí Amach na Cásca), also known as the Easter Rebellion, was an armed insurrection in Ireland during Easter Week, April 1916.

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Emadeddin Baghi

Emadeddin Baghi (born 25 April 1962) is an Iranian human rights activist, prisoners' rights advocate, investigative journalist, theologian and writer.

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Emergencies Act

The Emergencies Act (Loi sur les mesures d’urgence) (the Act) is an Act of the Parliament of Canada to authorize the taking of special temporary measures to ensure safety and security during national emergencies and to amend other Acts in consequence thereof.

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Empire of Japan

The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.

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Ernesto Abella

Ernesto "Ernie" Corpuz Abella is a Filipino businessman, writer, former evangelist, and former Presidential Spokesperson for Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte.

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Esmael Mangudadatu

Esmael "Toto" Mangudadatu (or Ismael "Toto" Mangudadatu) (b. August 15, 1968) is the Governor of Maguindanao, in the Philippines.

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Ferdinand Marcos

Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos Sr. (September 11, 1917 – September 28, 1989) was a Filipino politician and kleptocrat who was President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986.

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Forced disappearance

In international human rights law, a forced disappearance (or enforced disappearance) occurs when a person is secretly abducted or imprisoned by a state or political organization or by a third party with the authorization, support, or acquiescence of a state or political organization, followed by a refusal to acknowledge the person's fate and whereabouts, with the intent of placing the victim outside the protection of the law.

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Freedom Riders

Freedom Riders were civil rights activists who rode interstate buses into the segregated southern United States in 1961 and subsequent years to challenge the non-enforcement of the United States Supreme Court decisions Morgan v. Virginia (1946) and Boynton v. Virginia (1960), which ruled that segregated public buses were unconstitutional.

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Galilee (הגליל, transliteration HaGalil); (الجليل, translit. al-Jalīl) is a region in northern Israel.

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Gaza Strip

The Gaza Strip (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p.761 "Gaza Strip /'gɑːzə/ a strip of territory under the control of the Palestinian National Authority and Hamas, on the SE Mediterranean coast including the town of Gaza...". قطاع غزة), or simply Gaza, is a self-governing Palestinian territory on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, that borders Egypt on the southwest for and Israel on the east and north along a border.

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Geneva Conventions

Original document as PDF in single pages, 1864 The Geneva Conventions comprise four treaties, and three additional protocols, that establish the standards of international law for humanitarian treatment in war.

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Gholam Ali Oveissi

Gholam-Ali Oveissi was an Iranian four-star general and the Chief Commander of the Imperial Iranian Armed Forces under Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.

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Gholam Reza Azhari

Gholam Reza Azhari (غلامرضا ازهاری.; 18 February 1912 – 5 November 2001) was a military leader and Prime Minister of Iran.

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Gloria Macapagal Arroyo

Maria Gloria Macaraeg Macapagal Arroyo (born April 5, 1947) is a Filipino professor and politician who served as the 14th President of the Philippines from 2001 until 2010, as the 10th Vice President of the Philippines from 1998 to 2001, as the deputy speaker of the 17th Congress and a member of the House of Representatives representing the 2nd District of Pampanga since 2010.

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Government of Canada

The Government of Canada (Gouvernement du Canada), formally Her Majesty's Government (Gouvernement de Sa Majesté), is the federal administration of Canada.

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Great Chicago Fire

The Great Chicago Fire was a conflagration that burned from Sunday, October 8, to Tuesday, October 10, 1871.

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Habeas corpus

Habeas corpus (Medieval Latin meaning literally "that you have the body") is a recourse in law through which a person can report an unlawful detention or imprisonment to a court and request that the court order the custodian of the person, usually a prison official, to bring the prisoner to court, to determine whether the detention is lawful.

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Hassanal Bolkiah

Hassanal Bolkiah, GCB GCMG (full name: Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah ibn Al-Marhum Sultan Haji Omar Ali Saifuddien Sa'adul Khairi Waddien Sultan and Yang Di-Pertuan of Brunei Darussalam; born 15 July 1946) is the 29th and current Sultan and Yang Di-Pertuan of Brunei.

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Hawaii (Hawaii) is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959.

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History of Nauvoo, Illinois

The known history of Nauvoo, Illinois, starts with the Sauk and Fox tribes who frequented the area.

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Hosni Mubarak

Muhammad Hosni El Sayed Mubarak (محمد حسني السيد مبارك,,; born 4 May 1928) is a former Egyptian military and political leader who served as the fourth President of Egypt from 1981 to 2011.

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Human rights in the Philippines

Human rights in the Philippines pertains to the concept, practice, and issues of human rights within the Philippine archipelago.

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Invasion of Quebec (1775)

The Invasion of Quebec in 1775 was the first major military initiative by the newly formed Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War.

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Iranian Green Movement

The Iranian Green Movement (جنبش سبز ایران), also known as the Persian Awakening or Persian Spring by the western media, refers to a political movement that arose after the 2009 Iranian presidential election, in which protesters demanded the removal of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad from office.

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Irish Civil War

The Irish Civil War (Cogadh Cathartha na hÉireann; 28 June 1922 – 24 May 1923) was a conflict that followed the Irish War of Independence and accompanied the establishment of the Irish Free State, an entity independent from the United Kingdom but within the British Empire.

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Irish War of Independence

The Irish War of Independence (Cogadh na Saoirse) or Anglo-Irish War was a guerrilla war fought from 1919 to 1921 between the Irish Republican Army (IRA, the army of the Irish Republic) and the British security forces in Ireland.

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Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.

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Israel Defense Forces

The Israel Defense Forces (IDF; צְבָא הַהֲגָנָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, lit. "The Army of Defense for Israel"; جيش الدفاع الإسرائيلي), commonly known in Israel by the Hebrew acronym Tzahal, are the military forces of the State of Israel.

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Ivor Guest, 1st Viscount Wimborne

Ivor Churchill Guest, 1st Viscount Wimborne, PC (16 January 1873 – 14 June 1939), known as Lord Ashby St Ledgers from 1910 to 1914 and as Lord Wimborne from 1914 was a British politician, and one of the last Lords Lieutenant of Ireland, serving in that position at the time of the Easter Rising.

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Jafar Sharif-Emami

Jafar Sharif-Imami (9 September 1910 – 16 June 1998) was an Iranian politician who was prime minister from 1960 to 1961 and again in 1978.

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Jeju uprising

From April 1948 to May 1949, the Korean province of Jeju Island was subjected to a communist insurgency and subsequent anticommunist suppression campaign, killing between 14,000 and 30,000 people.

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John Colborne, 1st Baron Seaton

Field Marshal John Colborne, 1st Baron Seaton (16 February 1778 – 17 April 1863) was a British Army officer and Colonial Governor.

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José P. Laurel

José P. Laurel, PLH (born José Paciano Laurel y García; March 9, 1891 – November 6, 1959) was a Filipino politician and judge.

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Juan Ponce Enrile

Juan Ponce Enrile Sr. (born February 14, 1924) is a Filipino politician and lawyer.

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Kumanovo Agreement

The Military Technical Agreement between the International Security Force ("KFOR") and the Governments of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the Republic of Serbia (commonly known as the Military Technical Agreement or Kumanovo Agreement) was an accord concluded on 9 June 1999 in Kumanovo, Macedonia.

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The Kuomintang of China (KMT; often translated as the Nationalist Party of China) is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei and is currently the opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.

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Lanao del Sur

Lanao del Sur (Maranao: Ranao Pagabagatan), officially the Province of Lanao del Sur, is a province in the Philippines located in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM).

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Law of the United States

The law of the United States comprises many levels of codified and uncodified forms of law, of which the most important is the United States Constitution, the foundation of the federal government of the United States.

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Lech Wałęsa

Lech Wałęsa (born 29 September 1943) is a retired Polish politician and labour activist.

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Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada

The Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada was the lower house of the bicameral structure of provincial government in Lower Canada until 1838.

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Lord Lieutenant of Ireland

Lord Lieutenant of Ireland was the title of the chief governor of Ireland from the Williamite Wars of 1690 till the Partition of Ireland in 1922.

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Lower Canada

The Province of Lower Canada (province du Bas-Canada) was a British colony on the lower Saint Lawrence River and the shores of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence (1791–1841).

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Lower Canada Rebellion

The Lower Canada Rebellion (French: La rébellion du Bas-Canada), commonly referred to as the Patriots' War (French: La Guerre des patriotes) by Quebecers, is the name given to the armed conflict in 1837–38 between the rebels of Lower Canada (now Quebec) and the British colonial power of that province.

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Maguindanao (Maguindanaon: Dalapa sa Magindanaw) is a province in the Philippines located in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM).

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Maguindanao massacre

The Maguindanao massacre, also known as the Ampatuan massacre after the town where the mass graves were found, occurred on the morning of November 23, 2009, in the town of Ampatuan in Maguindanao province, on the island of Mindanao in the Philippines.

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Mandaluyong City (Lungsod ng Mandaluyong) is a city in the Philippines located directly east of Manila.

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Marawi (Maranao: Inged san Marawi; Arabic: مدينة مراوي‎; Lungsod Islamiko ng Marawi) is the capital city of Lanao del Sur province in the Philippines.

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Martial law

Martial law is the imposition of direct military control of normal civilian functions of government, especially in response to a temporary emergency such as invasion or major disaster, or in an occupied territory. Martial law can be used by governments to enforce their rule over the public.

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Maute group

The Maute Group, also known as the Islamic State of Lanao, is a radical Islamist group composed of former Moro Islamic Liberation Front guerrillas and foreign fighters led by Abdullah Bahugduga, the alleged founder of a Dawlah Islamiya, or Islamic state based in Lanao del Sur, Mindanao, Philippines.

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Middle class

The middle class is a class of people in the middle of a social hierarchy.

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Military dictatorship

A military dictatorship (also known as a military junta) is a form of government where in a military force exerts complete or substantial control over political authority.

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Military history of the Philippines during World War II

The Commonwealth of the Philippines was attacked by the Empire of Japan on 8 December 1941 nine hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor (the Philippines is on the Asian side of the international date line).

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Military justice

Military justice (or military law) is the body of laws and procedures governing members of the armed forces.

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Military occupation

Military occupation is effective provisional control by a certain ruling power over a territory which is not under the formal sovereignty of that entity, without the violation of the actual sovereign.

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Military rule

Military rule may mean.

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Mindanao is the second largest island in the Philippines.

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Mohammad Reza Pahlavi

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (Mohammad Reza Pahlavi,; 26 October 1919 – 27 July 1980), also known as Mohammad Reza Shah (Mohammad Rezā Šāh), was the last Shah of Iran from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow by the Iranian Revolution on 11 February 1979.

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Muhammad Rafiq Tarar

Muhammad Rafiq Tarar (محمد رفیق تارڑ; born 2 November 1929) is a retired senior justice of the Supreme Court of Pakistan who served as the 9th President of Pakistan from 20 January 1998 until resigning the office on 20 June 2001.

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Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq

Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq (12 August 1924 – 17 August 1988) was a Pakistani four-star general who served as the 6th President of Pakistan from 1978 until his death in 1988, after declaring martial law in 1977.

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Narathiwat Province

Narathiwat (นราธิวาส) is one of the southern provinces (changwat) of Thailand.

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The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.

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Nauvoo, Illinois

Nauvoo (etymology) is a small city in Hancock County, Illinois, United States, on the Mississippi River near Fort Madison, Iowa.

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Nawaz Sharif

Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif (Urdu/میاں محمد نواز شریف, born 25 December 1949) is a Pakistani business magnate and former politician who has served as the Prime Minister of Pakistan for three non-consecutive terms, all of the three terms were unsuccessful.

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The Negev (הַנֶּגֶב, Tiberian vocalization:; النقب an-Naqab) is a desert and semidesert region of southern Israel.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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October Crisis

The October Crisis (La crise d'Octobre) occurred in October 1970 in the province of Quebec in Canada, mainly in the Montreal metropolitan area.

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Omar Suleiman

Omar Mahmoud Suleiman (عمر محمود سليمان,; 2 July 1936 – 19 July 2012) was an Egyptian army general, politician, diplomat, and intelligence officer.

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Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.

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Palace Revolt of 1912

The Palace Revolt of 1912 (Thai: กบฏ ร.ศ. 130) was a failed uprising against the absolute monarchy of Siam.

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Pattani Province

Pattani (ปัตตานี) is one of the southern provinces (changwat) of Thailand.

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People Power Revolution

The People Power Revolution (also known as the EDSA Revolution and the Philippine Revolution of 1986 or simply EDSA 1986) was a series of popular demonstrations in the Philippines, mostly in the capital city of Manila from February 22–25, 1986.

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Pervez Musharraf

Pervez Musharraf (پرویز مشرف; born 11 August 1943) is a Pakistani politician and a retired four-star army general who was the tenth President of Pakistan from 2001 until tendering resignation, to avoid impeachment, in 2008.

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Philippine presidential election, 1986

The Presidential election was held on 7 February 1986 in the Philippines were snap elections, and are popularly known as the Snap Elections, that followed the end of Martial Law and brought about the People Power Revolution, the downfall of President Ferdinand E. Marcos, and the accession of Corazon C. Aquino as President.

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Philippine presidential election, 2004

The Philippine presidential and vice presidential elections of 2004 was held on Monday, May 10, 2004.

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Philippine Standard Time

Philippine Standard Time (Pamantayang Oras ng Pilipinas, abbreviated PST or PhST), also known as Philippine Time (PHT), is the official name for the time in the Philippines.

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The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.

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PiliPinas Debates 2016

PiliPinas Debates 2016 is a debate series administered by the Commission on Elections (COMELEC) with the assistance of KBP (the Filipino broadcasters' association) in preparation for the May 9, 2016 general elections.

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Plaza Miranda bombing

The Plaza Miranda bombing occurred during a political campaign rally of the Liberal Party at Plaza Miranda in the district of Quiapo, Manila in the Philippines on August 21, 1971.

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Police state

Police state is a term denoting a government that exercises power arbitrarily through the power of the police force.

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Political violence

Political violence is a broad term used to describe violence perpetrated by either persons or governments to achieve political goals.

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Posse Comitatus Act

The Posse Comitatus Act is a United States federal law (original at) signed on June 18, 1878 by President Rutherford B. Hayes.

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Prayut Chan-o-cha

Prayut Chan-o-cha (previously spelt "Prayuth Chan-ocha"); (ประยุทธ์ จันทร์โอชา,,; born 21 March 1954) is a Thai politician, retired Royal Thai Army officer and the head of the National Council for Peace and Order (NCPO), a military junta, and concurrently serves as the Prime Minister of Thailand.

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President of Pakistan

The President of Pakistan (صدر مملکت پاکستان —), is the ceremonial head of state of Pakistan and a figurehead who represents the "unity of the Republic." in Chapter 1: The President, Part III: The Federation of Pakistan in the Constitution of Pakistan.

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President of South Korea

The President of the Republic of Korea is, according to the South Korean constitution, the chairperson of the cabinet, the chief executive of the government, commander-in-chief of the armed forces, and the head of state of South Korea.

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President of the Philippines

The President of the Philippines (Pangulo ng Pilipinas, informally referred to as Presidente ng Pilipinas; or in Presidente de Filipinas) is the head of state and head of government of the Philippines.

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Prime Minister of Pakistan

The Prime Minister of Pakistan (وزِیرِ اعظم —,; lit. "Grand Vizier") is the head of government of Pakistan and designated as the "chief executive of the Republic".

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Proclamation No. 1081

Proclamation № 1081 was the proclamation of Martial Law in the Philippines by President Ferdinand E. Marcos.

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Proclamation No. 216

Proclamation No.

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Province of Quebec (1763–1791)

The Province of Quebec was a colony in North America created by Great Britain after the Seven Years' War.

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Provinces of the Philippines

The Provinces of the Philippines (Filipino: Mga Lalawigan ng Pilipinas) are the primary political and administrative divisions of the Philippines.

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Rahimuddin Khan

Rahimuddin Khan (born 21 July 1924) is a retired four-star general of the Pakistan Army who served as Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee from 1984 to 1987, after serving as the 7th Governor of Balochistan from 1978 to 1984.

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Reconstruction era

The Reconstruction era was the period from 1863 (the Presidential Proclamation of December 8, 1863) to 1877.

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Republic of China (1912–1949)

The Republic of China was a sovereign state in East Asia, that occupied the territories of modern China, and for part of its history Mongolia and Taiwan.

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Rodrigo Duterte

Rodrigo Roa Duterte (born March 28, 1945), also known as Digong and Rody, is a Filipino politician who is the 16th and current President of the Philippines and the first from Mindanao, the southernmost island of the country to hold the office.

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Second Philippine Republic

The Second Philippine Republic, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas; きょうわこく|Firipin kyōwakoku; Spanish: República de Filipinas), or known in the Philippines as Japanese-sponsored Philippine Republic, was a puppet state established on October 14, 1943, during the Japanese occupation.

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Secretary of National Defense (Philippines)

The Secretary of National Defense (Filipino: Kalihim ng Tanggulang Pambansa) is the head of the Department of National Defense and is a member of the President’s Cabinet.

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Senate of the Philippines

The Senate of the Philippines (Filipino: Senado ng Pilipinas, also Mataas na Kapulungan ng Pilipinas or "upper chamber") is the upper house of the bicameral legislature of the Philippines, the Congress; the House of Representatives is the lower house.

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Serbia and Montenegro

Serbia and Montenegro (Srbija i Crna Gora, Србија и Црна Гора; SCG, СЦГ), officially the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro (Državna Zajednica Srbija i Crna Gora, Државна Заједница Србија и Црна Гора), was a country in Southeast Europe, created from the two remaining federal republics of Yugoslavia after its breakup in 1992.

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Shah (Šāh, pronounced, "king") is a title given to the emperors, kings, princes and lords of Iran (historically also known as Persia).

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Shapour Bakhtiar

Shapour Bakhtiar (شاپور بختیار; 26 June 19146 August 1991) was an Iranian politician who served as the last Prime Minister of Iran under the Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi.

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Shaukat Aziz

Shaukat Aziz (شوکت عزیز) (born 6 March 1949 in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan) is a Pakistani economist and financier who served as 18th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 20 August 2004 to 15 November 2007, as well as the Finance Minister of Pakistan from 6 November 1999 to 15 November 2007.

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Shujaat Hussain

Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain (چودھری شجاعت حسین; born 27 January 1937), is a senior conservative politician hailing from Gujrat and a business oligarch who previously served as 17th Prime minister of Pakistan from 30 June 2004 on a temporary basis during a transitional period to accommodate Shaukat Aziz till 28 August 2004.

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Sir George Arthur, 1st Baronet

Lieutenant-General Sir George Arthur, 1st Baronet, KCH, PC (21 June 1784 – 19 September 1854) was Lieutenant Governor of British Honduras (1814–1822), Van Diemen's Land (now the State of Tasmania, part of Australia) (1823–1837) and Upper Canada (1838–1841).

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Six-Day War

The Six-Day War (Hebrew: מלחמת ששת הימים, Milhemet Sheshet Ha Yamim; Arabic: النكسة, an-Naksah, "The Setback" or حرب ۱۹٦۷, Ḥarb 1967, "War of 1967"), also known as the June War, 1967 Arab–Israeli War, or Third Arab–Israeli War, was fought between 5 and 10 June 1967 by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt (known at the time as the United Arab Republic), Jordan, and Syria.

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Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia or SFRY) was a socialist state led by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars.

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Sonthi Boonyaratglin

Sonthi Boonyaratglin (สนธิ บุญยรัตกลิน) (born 2 October 1946) is former Commander-in-Chief of the Royal Thai Army and former head of the Council for National Security, the military junta that ruled the kingdom.

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South Thailand insurgency

The South Thailand insurgency (ความไม่สงบในชายแดนภาคใต้ของประเทศไทย; Pemberontakan di Selatan Thailand) is an ongoing conflict centered in southern Thailand.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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State of emergency

A state of emergency is a situation in which a government is empowered to perform actions that it would normally not be permitted.

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A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislative authority that governs a city, state, or country.

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Supreme Court of the United States

The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.

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Surayud Chulanont

Surayud Chulanont (สุรยุทธ์ จุลานนท์, RTGS: Surayut Chulanon; born 28 August 1943) is a Thai politician.

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Swiss Armed Forces

The Swiss Armed Forces (German: Schweizer Armee, French: Armée suisse, Italian: Esercito svizzero, Romanisch: Armada svizra) operates on land, in the air, and in international waters.

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Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Syngman Rhee

Syngman Rhee (April 18, 1875 – July 19, 1965) was a South Korean politician, the first and the last Head of State of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, and President of South Korea from 1948 to 1960.

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Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.

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Tehran (تهران) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.

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Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.

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Thaksin Shinawatra

Thaksin Shinawatra (ทักษิณ ชินวัตร,,; born 26 July 1949) is a Thai and Montenegrin businessman and politician.

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The Hankyoreh

The Hankyoreh (literally "The Korean Nation" or "One Nation") is a daily newspaper in South Korea.

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The Jerusalem Post

The Jerusalem Post is a broadsheet newspaper based in Jerusalem, founded in 1932 during the British Mandate of Palestine by Gershon Agron as The Palestine Post.

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Tiananmen Square protests of 1989

The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, commonly known in mainland China as the June Fourth Incident (六四事件), were student-led demonstrations in Beijing, the capital of the People's Republic of China, in 1989.

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Torture (from the Latin tortus, "twisted") is the act of deliberately inflicting physical or psychological pain in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or compel some action from the victim.

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Triangle (Israel)

The Triangle (המשולש, HaMeshulash; المثلث, al-Muthallath), formerly referred to as the Little Triangle, is a concentration of Israeli Arab towns and villages adjacent to the Green Line, located in the eastern Sharon plain among the Samarian foothills; this area is located within the easternmost boundaries of both the Central District and Haifa District.

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Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Turkish Armed Forces

The Turkish Armed Forces (TAF; Türk Silahlı Kuvvetleri, TSK) are the military forces of the Republic of Turkey.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United Nations General Assembly

The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Army

The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.

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United States Army Military Government in Korea

The United States Army Military Government in Korea (USAMGIK) was the official ruling body of the southern half of the Korean Peninsula from September 8, 1945 to August 15, 1948.

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United States Congress

The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.

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United States Constitution

The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.

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Utah is a state in the western United States.

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Utah War

The Utah War (1857–1858), also known as the Utah Expedition, Utah Campaign, Buchanan's Blunder,Poll, Richard D., and Ralph W. Hansen.

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Phra Bat Somdet Phra Poramenthra Maha Vajiravudh Phra Mongkut Klao Chao Yu Hua (พระบาทสมเด็จพระปรเมนทรมหาวชิราวุธฯ พระมงกุฎเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัว), or Phra Bat Somdet Phra Ramathibodi Si Sinthra Maha Vajiravudh Phra Mongkut Klao Chao Yu Hua (พระบาทสมเด็จพระรามาธิบดีศรีสินทรมหาวชิราวุธฯ พระมงกุฎเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัว), or Rama VI (1 January 1880 – 26 November 1925), was the sixth monarch of Siam under the Chakri dynasty, ruling from 1910 until his death.

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War is a state of armed conflict between states, societies and informal groups, such as insurgents and militias.

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West Bank

The West Bank (الضفة الغربية; הגדה המערבית, HaGadah HaMa'aravit) is a landlocked territory near the Mediterranean coast of Western Asia, the bulk of it now under Israeli control, or else under joint Israeli-Palestinian Authority control.

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Whiskey Rebellion

The Whiskey Rebellion (also known as the Whiskey Insurrection) was a tax protest in the United States beginning in 1791 during the presidency of George Washington.

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Wojciech Jaruzelski

Wojciech Witold Jaruzelski (6 July 1923 – 25 May 2014) was a Polish military officer and politician.

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World Economic Forum

The World Economic Forum (WEF) is a Swiss nonprofit foundation, based in Cologny, Geneva, Switzerland.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Wujek Coal Mine

Wujek Coal Mine (Polish: Kopalnia Wujek) is a coal mine in Katowice, Poland.

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Yala Province

Yala (ยะลา) is the southernmost province (changwat) of Thailand.

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Yugoslav Wars

The Yugoslav Wars were a series of ethnic conflicts, wars of independence and insurgencies fought from 1991 to 1999/2001 in the former Yugoslavia.

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Zafarullah Khan Jamali

Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali (born 1 January 1944) is a Pakistani politician who served as Prime Minister of Pakistan from 2002 until his resignation in 2004.

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Zulfikar Ali Bhutto

Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (5 January 1928 – 4 April 1979) was a Pakistani politician who served as the 9th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and prior to that as the 4th President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973.

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1906 San Francisco earthquake

The 1906 San Francisco earthquake struck the coast of Northern California at 5:12 a.m. on Wednesday, April 18 with an estimated moment magnitude of 7.9 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of XI (Extreme).

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1934 West Coast waterfront strike

The 1934 West Coast Waterfront Strike (also known as the 1934 West Coast Longshoremen's Strike, as well as a number of variations on these names) lasted eighty-three days, and began on May 9, 1934 when longshoremen in every West Coast port walked out.

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1963 Syrian coup d'état

The 1963 Syrian coup d'état, referred to by the Syrian government as the 8 March Revolution (ثورة الثامن من آذار), was the successful seizure of power in Syria by the military committee of the Syrian Regional Branch of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party.

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2006 Dahab bombings

The Dahab bombings of 24 April 2006 were three bomb attacks on the Egyptian resort city of Dahab, in the Sinai Peninsula.

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2006 Lebanon War

The 2006 Lebanon War, also called the 2006 Israel–Hezbollah War and known in Lebanon as the July War (حرب تموز, Ḥarb Tammūz) and in Israel as the Second Lebanon War (מלחמת לבנון השנייה, Milhemet Levanon HaShniya), was a 34-day military conflict in Lebanon, Northern Israel and the Golan Heights.

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2006 state of emergency in the Philippines

The Philippines was under a state of emergency, announced by presidential spokesperson Ignacio Bunye on the morning of February 24, 2006, by the virtue of Proclamation No.

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2006 Thai coup d'état

The 2006 Thai coup d'état took place on 19 September 2006, when the Royal Thai Army staged a coup d'état against the elected caretaker government of Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra.

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2014 Thai coup d'état

On 22 May 2014, the Royal Thai Armed Forces, led by General Prayut Chan-o-cha, Commander of the Royal Thai Army (RTA), launched a coup d'état, the 12th since the country's first coup in 1932, against the caretaker government of Thailand, following six months of political crisis.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martial_law

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