168 relations: Abraham Lincoln, Agnes of Rome, Ahimsa, Ajit Singh (Sikhism), American Civil War, Anthony the Great, Apartheid, Arena (UK TV series), Argentina, Arjuna, Asceticism, Auschwitz concentration camp, Authorship of the Bible, Ñancahuazú Guerrilla, Bahá'í Faith, Bahá'u'lláh, Bhai Dayala, Bhai Mati Das, Bhai Sati Das, Bible, Black nationalism, Bobby Sands, Bolivia, Book of Revelation, Brit milah, Burkina Faso, Cain and Abel, Charlotte Corday, Che Guevara, Christianity, Civil rights movement, Communism, Constantine the Great, Crucifixion of Jesus, Culture of North Korea, Dan White, Death, Dharma, Early Christianity, English language, Eusebius, Fateh Singh (Sikhism), French Revolution, Gamal Abdel Nasser, Gaza Strip, Girondins, Gospel, Guru Arjan, Guru Radha Kishan, Guru Tegh Bahadur, ..., Harvey Milk, Hellenistic Judaism, Hellenistic period, Hellenization, Henry VIII of England, Hinduism, Honor killing, Hujum, Hungarian Revolution of 1956, Hungary, Husayn ibn Ali, Imre Nagy, India, Indian nationalism, Indochina Wars, Iqbal Masih, Israel Defense Forces, Jacobin, Jan Hus, Jean-Paul Marat, Jesus, Jesus Freaks (book), Jews, Jihad, John the Baptist, Joseph Stalin, Josephus, Judaism, Jujhar Singh, Karl Liebknecht, Kashrut, Ken Saro-Wiwa, Kiddush Hashem, Krishna, Kuomintang, Language, Leon Trotsky, Loanword, Maccabees, Mahabharata, Mahatma Gandhi, Malcolm X, Martin Luther King Jr., Martyr (politics), Martyr complex, Martyrology, Martyrs Mirror, Marxism, Maximilian Kolbe, Medgar Evers, Muhammad, Nathuram Godse, Nazism, New Testament, Nguyễn Thái Học, Nigeria, North Korea, Nurkhon Yuldashkhojayeva, Ogoni people, Order of Friars Minor, Pakistan, Passion of Jesus, Passion of Saint Perpetua, Saint Felicitas, and their Companions, Paul of Thebes, Paul the Apostle, Persecution, Persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire, Political Islam, Politician, President of Egypt, President of the United States, Rachel Corrie, Religion, Religious persecution, Religious views on suicide, Republic of Upper Volta, Revolution, Revolutionary, Revolutionary Martyrs' Cemetery, Rosa Luxemburg, Russians, Saint Sebastian, Saint Stephen, San Francisco, Sanjaya, Sayyid Qutb, Sea of Blood, Sectarianism, Seleucid Empire, Shabbat, Sikhism, Socialist state, Socrates, Sophie Scholl, Spartacist uprising, State church of the Roman Empire, State of Palestine, Steve Biko, Taiwan, Ten Martyrs, The Holocaust, Theodosius I, Thomas More, Thomas Sankara, Tongmenghui, University of Tehran, Võ Thị Sáu, Vidura, Vietnam, Warrior, Western culture, William Hugh Clifford Frend, Witness, Word stem, Xinhai Revolution, Zorawar Singh (Sikhism), 1 Maccabees, 2 Maccabees. Expand index (118 more) » « Shrink index
Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865.
Agnes of Rome is a virgin–martyr, venerated as a saint in the Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, the Anglican Communion, and Lutheranism.
Ahimsa (IAST:, Pāli) means 'not to injure' and 'compassion' and refers to a key virtue in Indian religions.
Ajit Singh (26 January 1687 – 7 December 1705), also referred to with honorifics as Sahibzada Ajit Singh or Baba Ajit Singh, was the eldest son of Guru Gobind Singh.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
Saint Anthony or Antony (Ἀντώνιος Antṓnios; Antonius); January 12, 251 – January 17, 356) was a Christian monk from Egypt, revered since his death as a saint. He is distinguished from other saints named Anthony such as, by various epithets of his own:,, and For his importance among the Desert Fathers and to all later Christian monasticism, he is also known as the. His feast day is celebrated on January 17 among the Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches and on Tobi 22 in the Egyptian calendar used by the Coptic Church. The biography of Anthony's life by Athanasius of Alexandria helped to spread the concept of Christian monasticism, particularly in Western Europe via its Latin translations. He is often erroneously considered the first Christian monk, but as his biography and other sources make clear, there were many ascetics before him. Anthony was, however, the first to go into the wilderness (about 270), which seems to have contributed to his renown. Accounts of Anthony enduring supernatural temptation during his sojourn in the Eastern Desert of Egypt inspired the often-repeated subject of the temptation of St. Anthony in Western art and literature. Anthony is appealed to against infectious diseases, particularly skin diseases. In the past, many such afflictions, including ergotism, erysipelas, and shingles, were referred to as St. Anthony's fire.
Apartheid started in 1948 in theUnion of South Africa |year_start.
Arena is a British television documentary series, made and broadcast by the BBC since 1 October 1975.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Arjuna (in Devanagari: अर्जुन) is the main central character of the ancient Indian epic Mahabharata and plays a key role in the Bhagavad Gita alongside Krishna.
Asceticism (from the ἄσκησις áskesis, "exercise, training") is a lifestyle characterized by abstinence from sensual pleasures, often for the purpose of pursuing spiritual goals.
Auschwitz concentration camp was a network of concentration and extermination camps built and operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II.
Few biblical books are the work of a single author, and most have been edited and revised to produce the texts we have today.
The Ñancahuazú Guerrilla or Ejército de Liberación Nacional de Bolivia (National Liberation Army of Bolivia; ELN) was a group of mainly Bolivian and Cuban guerrillas led by the guerrilla leader Che Guevara which was active in the Cordillera Province, Bolivia from 1966 to 1967.
The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.
Bahá'u'lláh (بهاء الله, "Glory of God"; 12 November 1817 – 29 May 1892 and Muharram 2, 1233 - Dhu'l Qa'dah 2, 1309), born Mírzá Ḥusayn-`Alí Núrí (میرزا حسینعلی نوری), was the founder of the Bahá'í Faith.
Bhai Dyala ji (ਭਾਈ ਦਿਆਲਾ ਜੀ, भाई दयाला जी; died 9 November 1675) also known as Bhai Dyal Das, was an early martyr of the Sikh faith who was martyred alongside his companions Bhai Mati Das and Bhai Sati Das and the Ninth Guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur.
Bhai Mati Das (Punjabi: ਭਾਈ ਮਤੀ ਦਾਸ; died 1675) along with his younger brother Bhai Sati Das were martyrs of early Sikh history.
Bhai Sati Das (Punjabi: ਭਾਈ ਸਤੀ ਦਾਸ; died 1675) along with his elder brother Bhai Mati Das were martyrs of early Sikh history.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
Black nationalism is a type of nationalism which espouses the belief that black people are a nation and seeks to develop and maintain a black identity.
Robert Gerard Sands (Roibeárd Gearóid Ó Seachnasaigh; 9 March 19545 May 1981) was a member of the Provisional Irish Republican Army who died on hunger strike while imprisoned at HM Prison Maze after being sentenced for firearms possession.
Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
The Book of Revelation, often called the Revelation to John, the Apocalypse of John, The Revelation, or simply Revelation or Apocalypse (and often misquoted as Revelations), is a book of the New Testament that occupies a central place in Christian eschatology.
The brit milah (בְּרִית מִילָה,; Ashkenazi pronunciation:, "covenant of circumcision"; Yiddish pronunciation: bris) is a Jewish religious male circumcision ceremony performed by a mohel ("circumciser") on the eighth day of the infant's life.
Burkina Faso is a landlocked country in West Africa.
In the biblical Book of Genesis, Cain and Abel are the first two sons of Adam and Eve.
Marie-Anne Charlotte de Corday d'Armont (27 July 1768 – 17 July 1793), known as Charlotte Corday, was a figure of the French Revolution.
Ernesto "Che" Guevara (June 14, 1928 – October 9, 1967)The date of birth recorded on was June 14, 1928, although one tertiary source, (Julia Constenla, quoted by Jon Lee Anderson), asserts that he was actually born on May 14 of that year.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
The civil rights movement (also known as the African-American civil rights movement, American civil rights movement and other terms) was a decades-long movement with the goal of securing legal rights for African Americans that other Americans already held.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian and Greek origin from 306 to 337 AD.
The crucifixion of Jesus occurred in 1st-century Judea, most likely between AD 30 and 33.
The contemporary culture of North Korea is based on traditional Korean culture, but developed since the establishment of the Democratic People's Republic in 1948.
Daniel James White (September 2, 1946 – October 21, 1985) was a member of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors who murdered San Francisco Mayor George Moscone and Supervisor Harvey Milk, on Monday, November 27, 1978, at City Hall.
Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.
Dharma (dharma,; dhamma, translit. dhamma) is a key concept with multiple meanings in the Indian religions – Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism.
Early Christianity, defined as the period of Christianity preceding the First Council of Nicaea in 325, typically divides historically into the Apostolic Age and the Ante-Nicene Period (from the Apostolic Age until Nicea).
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Eusebius of Caesarea (Εὐσέβιος τῆς Καισαρείας, Eusébios tés Kaisareías; 260/265 – 339/340), also known as Eusebius Pamphili (from the Εὐσέβιος τοῦ Παμϕίλου), was a historian of Christianity, exegete, and Christian polemicist. He became the bishop of Caesarea Maritima about 314 AD. Together with Pamphilus, he was a scholar of the Biblical canon and is regarded as an extremely learned Christian of his time. He wrote Demonstrations of the Gospel, Preparations for the Gospel, and On Discrepancies between the Gospels, studies of the Biblical text. As "Father of Church History" (not to be confused with the title of Church Father), he produced the Ecclesiastical History, On the Life of Pamphilus, the Chronicle and On the Martyrs. During the Council of Antiochia (325) he was excommunicated for subscribing to the heresy of Arius, and thus withdrawn during the First Council of Nicaea where he accepted that the Homoousion referred to the Logos. Never recognized as a Saint, he became counselor of Constantine the Great, and with the bishop of Nicomedia he continued to polemicize against Saint Athanasius of Alexandria, Church Fathers, since he was condemned in the First Council of Tyre in 335.
Sahibzada Fateh Singh Ji (25 February 1699 – 26 December 1705) was the fourth and youngest son of Guru Gobind Singh.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein (جمال عبد الناصر حسين,; 15 January 1918 – 28 September 1970) was the second President of Egypt, serving from 1956 until his death in 1970.
The Gaza Strip (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p.761 "Gaza Strip /'gɑːzə/ a strip of territory under the control of the Palestinian National Authority and Hamas, on the SE Mediterranean coast including the town of Gaza...". قطاع غزة), or simply Gaza, is a self-governing Palestinian territory on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, that borders Egypt on the southwest for and Israel on the east and north along a border.
The Girondins, Girondists or Gironde were members of a loosely knit political faction during the French Revolution.
Gospel is the Old English translation of Greek εὐαγγέλιον, evangelion, meaning "good news".
Guru Arjan (ਗੁਰੂ ਅਰਜੁਨ Guru Arjan) 15 April 1563 – 30 May 1606) was the first of the two Gurus martyred in the Sikh faith and the fifth of the ten total Sikh Gurus. He compiled the first official edition of the Sikh scripture called the Adi Granth, which later expanded into the Guru Granth Sahib. He was born in Goindval, in the Punjab, the youngest son of Bhai Jetha, who later became Guru Ram Das, and Mata Bhani, the daughter of Guru Amar Das. He was the first Guru in Sikhism to be born into a Sikh family. Guru Arjan led Sikhism for a quarter of a century. He completed the construction of Darbar Sahib at Amritsar, after the fourth Sikh Guru founded the town and built a pool. Guru Arjan compiled the hymns of previous Gurus and of other saints into Adi Granth, the first edition of the Sikh scripture, and installed it in the Harimandir Sahib. Guru Arjan reorganized the Masands system initiated by Guru Ram Das, by suggesting that the Sikhs donate, if possible, one tenth of their income, goods or service to the Sikh organization (dasvand). The Masand not only collected these funds but also taught tenets of Sikhism and settled civil disputes in their region. The dasvand financed the building of gurdwaras and langars (shared communal kitchens). Guru Arjan was arrested under the orders of the Mughal Emperor Jahangir and asked to convert to Islam. He refused, was tortured and executed in 1606 CE. Historical records and the Sikh tradition are unclear whether Guru Arjan was executed by drowning or died during torture. His martyrdom is considered a watershed event in the history of Sikhism. It is remembered as Shaheedi Divas of Guru Arjan in May or June according to the Nanakshahi calendar released by the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee in 2003.
Guru Radha Kishan (1925-1996) was an Indian Independence activist and Communist politician.
Guru Tegh Bahadur (1 April 1621 – 24 November 1675), revered as the ninth Nanak, was the ninth of ten Gurus of the Sikh religion.
Harvey Bernard Milk (May 22, 1930 – November 27, 1978) was an American politician and the first openly gay elected official in the history of California, where he was elected to the San Francisco Board of Supervisors.
Hellenistic Judaism was a form of Judaism in the ancient world that combined Jewish religious tradition with elements of Greek culture.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
Hellenization or Hellenisation is the historical spread of ancient Greek culture, religion and, to a lesser extent, language, over foreign peoples conquered by Greeks or brought into their sphere of influence, particularly during the Hellenistic period following the campaigns of Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC.
Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 1509 until his death.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
An honor killing or shame killing is the murder of a member of a family, due to the perpetrators' belief that the victim has brought shame or dishonor upon the family, or has violated the principles of a community or a religion, usually for reasons such as refusing to enter an arranged marriage, being in a relationship that is disapproved by their family, having sex outside marriage, becoming the victim of rape, dressing in ways which are deemed inappropriate, engaging in non-heterosexual relations or renouncing a faith.
Hujum (Худжум; in Turkic languages, storming or assault, from Arabic: هجوم) was a series of policies and actions taken by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, initiated by Joseph Stalin, to try to have women in the Muslim majority areas of the Soviet Union remove their veils.
The Hungarian Revolution of 1956, or Hungarian Uprising of 1956 (1956-os forradalom or 1956-os felkelés), was a nationwide revolt against the Marxist-Leninist government of the Hungarian People's Republic and its Soviet-imposed policies, lasting from 23 October until 10 November 1956.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
Al-Ḥusayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (الحسين ابن علي ابن أبي طالب; 10 October 625 – 10 October 680) (3 Sha'aban AH 4 (in the ancient (intercalated) Arabic calendar) – 10 Muharram AH 61) (his name is also transliterated as Husayn ibn 'Alī, Husain, Hussain and Hussein), was a grandson of the Islamic ''Nabi'' (نَـبِي, Prophet) Muhammad, and son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam), and Muhammad's daughter, Fatimah.
Imre Nagy (7 June 1896 – 16 June 1958) was a Hungarian communist politician who was appointed Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Hungarian People's Republic on two occasions.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indian nationalism developed as a concept during the Indian independence movement fought against the colonial British Raj.
The Indochina Wars (Chiến tranh Đông Dương) were a series of wars fought in Southeast Asia from 1946 until 1989, between communist Indochinese forces against mainly French, South Vietnamese, American, Cambodian, Laotian and Chinese forces.
Iqbal Masih (اقبال مسیح) was a Pakistani boy who became a symbol of abusive child labour in the developing world.
The Israel Defense Forces (IDF; צְבָא הַהֲגָנָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, lit. "The Army of Defense for Israel"; جيش الدفاع الإسرائيلي), commonly known in Israel by the Hebrew acronym Tzahal, are the military forces of the State of Israel.
The Society of the Friends of the Constitution (Société des amis de la Constitution), after 1792 renamed Society of the Jacobins, Friends of Freedom and Equality (Société des Jacobins, amis de la liberté et de l'égalité), commonly known as the Jacobin Club (Club des Jacobins) or simply the Jacobins, was the most influential political club during the French Revolution.
Jan Hus (– 6 July 1415), sometimes Anglicized as John Hus or John Huss, also referred to in historical texts as Iohannes Hus or Johannes Huss) was a Czech theologian, Roman Catholic priest, philosopher, master, dean, and rectorhttps://www.britannica.com/biography/Jan-Hus Encyclopedia Britannica - Jan Hus of the Charles University in Prague who became a church reformer, an inspirer of Hussitism, a key predecessor to Protestantism and a seminal figure in the Bohemian Reformation. After John Wycliffe, the theorist of ecclesiastical reform, Hus is considered the first church reformer, as he lived before Luther, Calvin, and Zwingli. His teachings had a strong influence on the states of Western Europe, most immediately in the approval of a reformed Bohemian religious denomination, and, more than a century later, on Martin Luther himself. He was burned at the stake for heresy against the doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church, including those on ecclesiology, the Eucharist, and other theological topics. After Hus was executed in 1415, the followers of his religious teachings (known as Hussites) rebelled against their Roman Catholic rulers and defeated five consecutive papal crusades between 1420 and 1431 in what became known as the Hussite Wars. Both the Bohemian and the Moravian populations remained majority Hussite until the 1620s, when a Protestant defeat in the Battle of the White Mountain resulted in the Lands of the Bohemian Crown coming under Habsburg dominion for the next 300 years and being subject to immediate and forced conversion in an intense campaign of return to Roman Catholicism.
Jean-Paul Marat (24 May 1743 – 13 July 1793) was a French political theorist, physician, and scientist who became best known for his role as a radical journalist and politician during the French Revolution.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
Jesus Freaks is a 1999 book by dc Talk and The Voice of the Martyrs.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Jihad (جهاد) is an Arabic word which literally means striving or struggling, especially with a praiseworthy aim.
John the Baptist (יוחנן המטביל Yokhanan HaMatbil, Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτιστής, Iōánnēs ho baptistḗs or Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτίζων, Iōánnēs ho baptízōn,Lang, Bernhard (2009) International Review of Biblical Studies Brill Academic Pub p. 380 – "33/34 CE Herod Antipas's marriage to Herodias (and beginning of the ministry of Jesus in a sabbatical year); 35 CE – death of John the Baptist" ⲓⲱⲁⲛⲛⲏⲥ ⲡⲓⲡⲣⲟⲇⲣⲟⲙⲟⲥ or ⲓⲱ̅ⲁ ⲡⲓⲣϥϯⲱⲙⲥ, يوحنا المعمدان) was a Jewish itinerant preacherCross, F. L. (ed.) (2005) Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, 3rd ed.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Titus Flavius Josephus (Φλάβιος Ἰώσηπος; 37 – 100), born Yosef ben Matityahu (יוסף בן מתתיהו, Yosef ben Matityahu; Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς), was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Sahibzada Jujhar Singh (14 March 1691 – 7 December 1705), the second son of Guru Gobind Singh, was born to Mata Jito at Anandpur Sahib.
Karl Liebknecht (13 August 1871 – 15 January 1919) was a German socialist and a co-founder with Rosa Luxemburg of the Spartacist League and the Communist Party of Germany.
Kashrut (also kashruth or kashrus) is a set of Jewish religious dietary laws.
Kenule Beeson "Ken" Saro-Wiwa (10 October 1941 – 10 November 1995) was a Nigerian writer, television producer, environmental activist, and winner of the Right Livelihood Award and the Goldman Environmental Prize.
Kiddush HaShem (קידוש השם "sanctification of the Name") is a precept of Judaism.
Krishna (Kṛṣṇa) is a major deity in Hinduism.
The Kuomintang of China (KMT; often translated as the Nationalist Party of China) is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei and is currently the opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
Leon Trotsky (born Lev Davidovich Bronstein; – 21 August 1940) was a Russian revolutionary, theorist, and Soviet politician.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
The Maccabees, also spelled Machabees (מכבים or, Maqabim; or Maccabaei; Μακκαβαῖοι, Makkabaioi), were a group of Jewish rebel warriors who took control of Judea, which at the time was part of the Seleucid Empire.
The Mahābhārata (महाभारतम्) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Rāmāyaṇa.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule.
Malcolm X (19251965) was an African-American Muslim minister and human rights activist.
Martin Luther King Jr. (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an American Baptist minister and activist who became the most visible spokesperson and leader in the civil rights movement from 1954 until his death in 1968.
In politics, a martyr is someone who suffers persecution and/or death for advocating, renouncing, refusing to renounce, and/or refusing to advocate a political belief or cause.
In psychology a person who has a martyr complex, sometimes associated with the term victim complex, desires the feeling of being a martyr for his/her own sake, seeking out suffering or persecution because it either feeds a psychological need, or a desire to avoid responsibility.
A martyrology is a catalogue or list of martyrs and other saints and beati arranged in the calendar order of their anniversaries or feasts.
Martyrs Mirror or The Bloody Theater, first published in Holland in 1660 in Dutch by Thieleman J. van Braght, documents the stories and testimonies of Christian martyrs, especially Anabaptists.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
Saint Maximilian Maria Kolbe (Maksymilian Maria Kolbe; 8 January 1894 – 14 August 1941) was a Polish Conventual Franciscan friar who volunteered to die in place of a stranger in the German death camp of Auschwitz, located in German-occupied Poland during World War II.
Medgar Wiley Evers (July 2, 1925June 12, 1963) was an African American civil rights activist in Mississippi and the state's field secretary of the NAACP.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Nathuram Vinayak Godse (19 May 1910 – 15 November 1949) was a right-wing advocate of Hindu nationalism who assassinated Mahatma Gandhi in New Delhi on 30 January 1948.
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
Nguyễn Thái Học (Hán tự: 阮太學; 1902 – 1930) was a Vietnamese revolutionary who was the founding leader of the Việt Nam Quốc Dân Đảng, the Vietnamese Nationalist Party.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
Nurkhon Yuldashkhojayeva (Nurxon Yoʻldoshxoʻjayeva, often anglicized as Nurkhon Yuldasheva) was one of the first Uzbek female dancers to perform without the traditional Islamic veil.
The Ogoni Kingdom (also known as the Ogonis) are one of the many indigenous peoples in the region of southeast Nigeria.
The Order of Friars Minor (also called the Franciscans, the Franciscan Order, or the Seraphic Order; postnominal abbreviation O.F.M.) is a mendicant Catholic religious order, founded in 1209 by Francis of Assisi.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
In Christianity, the Passion (from Late Latin: passionem "suffering, enduring") is the short final period in the life of Jesus covering his entrance visit to Jerusalem and leading to his crucifixion on Mount Calvary, defining the climactic event central to Christian doctrine of salvation history.
The Passion of Saint Perpetua, Saint Felicitas, and their Companions is one of the oldest and most notable early Christian texts.
Paul of Thebes, commonly known as Paul or in Egyptian Arabic as Amba Bola, the First Hermit or Paul the Anchorite,; (d. c. 341) is regarded as the first Christian hermit; who lived alone in the desert from the age of sixteen to one hundred thirteen years of his age.
Paul the Apostle (Paulus; translit, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; c. 5 – c. 64 or 67), commonly known as Saint Paul and also known by his Jewish name Saul of Tarsus (translit; Saũlos Tarseús), was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of the Christ to the first century world.
Persecution is the systematic mistreatment of an individual or group by another individual or group.
Persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire occurred intermittently over a period of over two centuries between the Great Fire of Rome in 64 AD under Nero Caesar and the Edict of Milan in 313 AD, in which the Roman Emperors Constantine the Great and Licinius legalised the Christian religion.
"Political Islam" is a recently developed term used to label the wide-scale activities of individuals or organizations advocating transformation of the state and entire society according to "Islamic" rules.
A politician is a person active in party politics, or a person holding or seeking office in government.
The President of the Arab Republic of Egypt (رئيس جمهورية مصر العربية) is the head of state of Egypt.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
Rachel Aliene Corrie (April 10, 1979 – March 16, 2003) from Olympia, Washington, was an American activist and diarist.
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
Religious persecution is the systematic mistreatment of an individual or group of individuals as a response to their religious beliefs or affiliations or lack thereof.
There are a variety of religious views on suicide.
The Republic of Upper Volta (République de Haute-Volta), now Burkina Faso, was a landlocked West African country established on December 11, 1958, as a self-governing colony within the French Community.
In political science, a revolution (Latin: revolutio, "a turn around") is a fundamental and relatively sudden change in political power and political organization which occurs when the population revolt against the government, typically due to perceived oppression (political, social, economic).
A revolutionary is a person who either participates in, or advocates revolution.
Taesongsan Revolutionary Martyrs' Cemetery is a cemetery and memorial to the North Korean soldiers fighting for freedom and independence against Japanese rule.
Rosa Luxemburg (Róża Luksemburg; also Rozalia Luxenburg; 5 March 1871 – 15 January 1919) was a Polish Marxist theorist, philosopher, economist, anti-war activist, and revolutionary socialist who became a naturalized German citizen at the age of 28.
Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.
Saint Sebastian (died) was an early Christian saint and martyr.
Stephen (Στέφανος Stéphanos, meaning "wreath, crown" and by extension "reward, honor", often given as a title rather than as a name), (c. AD 5 – c. AD 34) traditionally venerated as the protomartyr or first martyr of Christianity,, St.
San Francisco (initials SF;, Spanish for 'Saint Francis'), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California.
Sanjaya (Sanskrit: संजय, meaning "victory") or Sanjaya Gavalgani is a character from the ancient Indian poetic epic Mahābhārata.
Sayyid Qutb (or;,; سيد قطب Sayyid Quṭb; also spelled Said, Syed, Seyyid, Sayid, Sayed; Koteb, Qutub, Kotb, Kutb; 9 October 1906 – 29 August 1966) was an Egyptian author, educator, Islamic theorist, poet, and the leading member of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood in the 1950s and 1960s.
Sea of Blood is a North Korean opera credited to Kim Il-sung.
Sectarianism is a form of bigotry, discrimination, or hatred arising from attaching relations of inferiority and superiority to differences between subdivisions within a group.
The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
Shabbat (שַׁבָּת, "rest" or "cessation") or Shabbos (Ashkenazi Hebrew and שבת), or the Sabbath is Judaism's day of rest and seventh day of the week, on which religious Jews, Samaritans and certain Christians (such as Seventh-day Adventists, the 7th Day movement and Seventh Day Baptists) remember the Biblical creation of the heavens and the earth in six days and the Exodus of the Hebrews, and look forward to a future Messianic Age.
Sikhism (ਸਿੱਖੀ), or Sikhi,, from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner"), is a monotheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent about the end of the 15th century. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions, and the fifth-largest. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, divine unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. In the early 21st century there were nearly 25 million Sikhs worldwide, the great majority of them (20 million) living in Punjab, the Sikh homeland in northwest India, and about 2 million living in neighboring Indian states, formerly part of the Punjab. Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru (1469–1539), and the nine Sikh gurus that succeeded him. The Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the eternal, religious spiritual guide for Sikhs.Louis Fenech and WH McLeod (2014),, 3rd Edition, Rowman & Littlefield,, pages 17, 84-85William James (2011), God's Plenty: Religious Diversity in Kingston, McGill Queens University Press,, pages 241–242 Sikhism rejects claims that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly on Absolute Truth. The Sikh scripture opens with Ik Onkar (ੴ), its Mul Mantar and fundamental prayer about One Supreme Being (God). Sikhism emphasizes simran (meditation on the words of the Guru Granth Sahib), that can be expressed musically through kirtan or internally through Nam Japo (repeat God's name) as a means to feel God's presence. It teaches followers to transform the "Five Thieves" (lust, rage, greed, attachment, and ego). Hand in hand, secular life is considered to be intertwined with the spiritual life., page.
A socialist state, socialist republic or socialist country (sometimes workers' state or workers' republic) is a sovereign state constitutionally dedicated to the establishment of socialism.
Socrates (Sōkrátēs,; – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher, of the Western ethical tradition of thought.
Sophia Magdalena Scholl (9 May 1921 – 22 February 1943) was a German student and anti-Nazi political activist, active within the White Rose non-violent resistance group in Nazi Germany.
The Spartacist uprising (Spartakusaufstand), also known as the January uprising (Januaraufstand), was a general strike (and the armed battles accompanying it) in Germany from 4 to 15 January 1919.
Nicene Christianity became the state church of the Roman Empire with the Edict of Thessalonica in 380 AD, when Emperor Theodosius I made it the Empire's sole authorized religion.
Palestine (فلسطين), officially the State of Palestine (دولة فلسطين), is a ''de jure'' sovereign state in the Middle East claiming the West Bank (bordering Israel and Jordan) and Gaza Strip (bordering Israel and Egypt) with East Jerusalem as the designated capital, although its administrative center is currently located in Ramallah.
Bantu Stephen Biko (18 December 1946 – 12 September 1977) was a South African anti-apartheid activist.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
The Ten Martyrs (עשרת הרוגי מלכות Aseret Harugei Malchut) were ten rabbis living during the era of the Mishnah who were martyred by the Romans in the period after the destruction of the second Temple.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
Theodosius I (Flavius Theodosius Augustus; Θεοδόσιος Αʹ; 11 January 347 – 17 January 395), also known as Theodosius the Great, was Roman Emperor from AD 379 to AD 395, as the last emperor to rule over both the eastern and the western halves of the Roman Empire. On accepting his elevation, he campaigned against Goths and other barbarians who had invaded the empire. His resources were not equal to destroy them, and by the treaty which followed his modified victory at the end of the Gothic War, they were established as Foederati, autonomous allies of the Empire, south of the Danube, in Illyricum, within the empire's borders. He was obliged to fight two destructive civil wars, successively defeating the usurpers Magnus Maximus and Eugenius, not without material cost to the power of the empire. He also issued decrees that effectively made Nicene Christianity the official state church of the Roman Empire."Edict of Thessalonica": See Codex Theodosianus XVI.1.2 He neither prevented nor punished the destruction of prominent Hellenistic temples of classical antiquity, including the Temple of Apollo in Delphi and the Serapeum in Alexandria. He dissolved the order of the Vestal Virgins in Rome. In 393, he banned the pagan rituals of the Olympics in Ancient Greece. After his death, Theodosius' young sons Arcadius and Honorius inherited the east and west halves respectively, and the Roman Empire was never again re-united, though Eastern Roman emperors after Zeno would claim the united title after Julius Nepos' death in 480 AD.
Sir Thomas More (7 February 14786 July 1535), venerated in the Catholic Church as Saint Thomas More, was an English lawyer, social philosopher, author, statesman, and noted Renaissance humanist.
Thomas Isidore Noël Sankara (21 December 1949 – 15 October 1987) was a Burkinabé pro-people revolutionary, Marxist, pan-Africanist and President of Burkina Faso from 1983 to 1987.
The Tongmenghui (or T'ung-meng Hui, variously translated Chinese United League, United League, Chinese Revolutionary Alliance, Chinese Alliance, United Allegiance Society) was a secret society and underground resistance movement founded by Sun Yat-sen, Song Jiaoren, and others in Tokyo, Japan, on 20 August 1905.
The University of Tehran (دانشگاه تهران), also known as Tehran University and UT, is Iran's oldest modern university.
Võ Thị Sáu (Đất Đỏ, 1933 – March 13, 1952) was a Vietnamese schoolgirl who fought as a guerilla against the French occupiers of Vietnam.
Vidura (Sanskrit: विदुर, lit. skilled, intelligent or wise) is one of the central characters in the Mahabharata, a major Hindu epic.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
A warrior is a person specializing in combat or warfare, especially within the context of a tribal or clan-based warrior culture society that recognizes a separate warrior class or caste.
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.
William Hugh Clifford Frend (11 January 1916 – 1 August 2005) was an English ecclesiastical historian, archaeologist and Anglican priest.
A witness is someone who has, who claims to have, or is thought, by someone with authority to compel testimony, to have knowledge relevant to an event or other matter of interest.
In linguistics, a stem is a part of a word.
The Xinhai Revolution, also known as the Chinese Revolution or the Revolution of 1911, was a revolution that overthrew China's last imperial dynasty (the Qing dynasty) and established the Republic of China (ROC).
Sahibzada Zorawar Singh (ਸਾਹਿਬਜ਼ਾਦਾ ਜ਼ੋਰਾਵਰ ਸਿੰਘ, 17 November 1696 – 26 December 1705) was the third of Guru Gobind Singh's four sons.
1 Maccabees is a book of the Bible written in Hebrew by a Jewish author after the restoration of an independent Jewish kingdom by the Hasmonean dynasty, about the latter part of the 2nd century BC.
2 Maccabees is a deuterocanonical book which focuses on the Maccabean Revolt against Antiochus IV Epiphanes and concludes with the defeat of the Seleucid empire general Nicanor in 161 BC by Judas Maccabeus, the hero of the hard work.