313 relations: A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy, Aesthetics, ALBA, Alex Callinicos, American Sociological Association, Analytical Marxism, Anarchism, Anatoly Lunacharsky, Anne Robert Jacques Turgot, Anthropology, Anti-authoritarianism, Anti-Dühring, Anti-Stalinist left, Antonie Pannekoek, Antonio Gramsci, Antonio Labriola, Archaeological theory, Art history, Austrian School, Austromarxism, Émile Durkheim, Barracks, Barracks communism, Base and superstructure, Bertolt Brecht, Bolivarian missions, Bolsheviks, Bourgeoisie, Business cycle, C. L. R. James, Capital (economics), Capital accumulation, Capitalism, Capitalist mode of production (Marxist theory), Carl Grünberg, Carl Menger, Cedric Robinson, Central Intelligence Agency, Che Guevara, Christopher Hill (historian), Class conflict, Class consciousness, Classical Marxism, Cologne, Commodity (Marxism), Common ownership, Commonwealth, Communist Party of Great Britain, Communist society, Communist state, ..., Conflict theories, Conscription, Council communism, Creative destruction, Crisis theory, Critical psychology, Critical theory, Cuban Revolution, Cultural Revolution, Cultural studies, D. N. Jha, Damodar Dharmananda Kosambi, Daniel Ortega, Das Kapital, Democracy in Marxism, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Democratic socialism, Deng Xiaoping, Dialectic, Dialectical materialism, Dictatorship of the proletariat, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, E. P. Thompson, Economic calculation problem, Economic system, Economy, Eduard Bernstein, Education, Empirical evidence, Eric Hobsbawm, Ernest Mandel, Ethnic nationalism, Eugen Böhm von Bawerk, Evo Morales, Evolutionary economics, Explanatory power, Exploitation of labour, False consciousness, Falsifiability, Farmer, Feminist theory, Feudalism, Fidel Castro, Frankfurt School, Franz Mehring, Frédéric Bastiat, Fredric Jameson, Freedom of speech, Freudo-Marxism, Friedrich Engels, From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs, German Peasants' War, German philosophy, Gottfried Haberler, Grundrisse, György Lukács, Hal Draper, Herbert Marcuse, Herman Gorter, Hermeneutic Communism, Heterodox economics, Historical materialism, Historicism, Historiography, History and Class Consciousness, History of sociology, Hugo Chávez, Hungarian Revolution of 1956, Institution, Instrumental Marxism, Intellectual, Irfan Habib, Jacques Rancière, Jean-Baptiste Say, John Cassidy (journalist), John Russell, 1st Earl Russell, Jon Elster, Joseph Stalin, Jules Guesde, K. N. Panikkar, Karl Kautsky, Karl Marx, Karl Marx House, Karl Marx in film, Karl Marx's Theory of History: A Defence, Karl Popper, Labor theory of value, Labour power, Ladislaus Bortkiewicz, Landlord, Left communism, Legal Marxism, Leninism, Leszek Kołakowski, Libertarian Marxism, Libertarian socialism, Literary criticism, Living Marxism, Louis Althusser, Ludwig von Mises, Lumpenproletariat, Manuel Alvarado, Mao Zedong, Maoism, Margaret Thatcher, Marriage, Marx Memorial Library, Marx's notebooks on the history of technology, Marx's theory of alienation, Marx's theory of human nature, Marxian class theory, Marxian economics, Marxism and Freedom: From 1776 Until Today, Marxism and religion, Marxism and the U.S.A., Marxism Today, Marxism–Leninism, Marxist aesthetics, Marxist archaeology, Marxist criminology, Marxist ethics, Marxist feminism, Marxist film theory, Marxist geography, Marxist historiography, Marxist international relations theory, Marxist literary criticism, Marxist philosophy, Marxist schools of thought, Marxist sociology, Marxist Workers' League (US), Marxists Internet Archive, Materialism, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Max Weber, Means of production, Media studies, Mensheviks, Methodology, Mikhail Bakhtin, Mikhail Bakunin, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mikhail Lifshitz, Milorad M. Drachkovitch, Mises Institute, Mode of production, Monogamy, Narcissus (mythology), Natural science, Neo-Marxism, Neoliberalism, Neue Rheinische Zeitung, New Right, Nicolae Ceaușescu, Noam Chomsky, Okishio's theorem, Open Marxism, Orthodox Marxism, Paul Lafargue, Peasant, Penguin Classics, People's history, Petite bourgeoisie, Philosophy of science, Pink tide, Political consciousness, Political economy, Political philosophy, Political positions of Noam Chomsky, Political radicalism, Political science, Positivism, Post-communism, Post-Marxism, Praxeology, Pre-industrial society, Pre-Marx socialists, Primitive communism, Private property, Production for use, Productive forces, Profit (economics), Profit motive, Proletarian revolution, Proletariat, Pseudoscience, Pushpa Kamal Dahal, Rafael Correa, Ram Sharan Sharma, Raymond Williams, Reformism, Reification (Marxism), Relations of production, Rethinking Marxism, Revisionism (Marxism), Revolution, Revolutionary, Revolutionary Marxist League, Revolutionary socialism, Richard Cantillon, Romila Thapar, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Luxemburg, Routledge, Rudolph Rummel, Ruling class, Russian Revolution, Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, Slavery, Social change, Social class, Social conflict, Social democracy, Social ownership, Social phenomenon, Social stratification, Social theory, Socialism, Socialist mode of production, Society, Socioeconomics, Sociology, Sociology in China, Sociology in Poland, Soviet Union, Specters of Marx, Stalinism, State (polity), Surplus labour, Surplus product, Surplus value, Sylvia Pankhurst, Technology, Tendency of the rate of profit to fall, Terry Eagleton, The Black Jacobins, The Civil War in France, The Communist Manifesto, The Condition of the Working Class in England, The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon, The German Ideology, The Holy Family (book), The Making of the English Working Class, The Marxism of Che Guevara, The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State, The Poverty of Historicism, Theatre, Theodor W. Adorno, To each according to his contribution, Trotskyism, V. Gordon Childe, Validity, Value (economics), Value theory, Vladimir Karpovich Dmitriev, Vladimir Lenin, Wage, Walter Benjamin, Western Marxism, William Morris, Withering away of the state, Working class, 26th of July Movement. Expand index (263 more) » « Shrink index
A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy (Zur Kritik der Politischen Ökonomie) is a book by Karl Marx, first published in 1859.
Aesthetics (also spelled esthetics) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.
ALBA or ALBA-TCP, formally the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (Alianza Bolivariana para los Pueblos de Nuestra América) or the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America - Peoples’ Trade Treaty (Alianza Bolivariana para los Pueblos de Nuestra América - Tratado de Comercio de los Pueblos), is an intergovernmental organization based on the idea of the social, political and economic integration of the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean.
Alexander Theodore Callinicos (born 24 July 1950) is a Zimbabwean-born British political theorist and activist.
The American Sociological Association (ASA), founded in 1905 as the American Sociological Society, is a non-profit organization dedicated to advancing the discipline and profession of sociology.
Analytical Marxism is an approach to Marxist theory that was prominent amongst English-speaking philosophers and social scientists during the 1980s.
Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions.
Anatoly Vasilyevich Lunacharsky, – 26 December 1933) was a Russian Marxist revolutionary and the first Bolshevik Soviet People's Commissar ("Narkompros"), responsible for Ministry and Education, as well as active playwright, critic, essayist, and journalist throughout his career.
Anne Robert Jacques Turgot, Baron de l'Aulne (10 May 172718 March 1781), commonly known as Turgot, was a French economist and statesman.
Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.
Anti-authoritarianism is opposition to authoritarianism, which is defined as "a form of social organisation characterised by submission to authority", "favoring complete obedience or subjection to authority as opposed to individual freedom" and to authoritarian government.
Anti-Dühring (Herrn Eugen Dührings Umwälzung der Wissenschaft, "Herr Eugen Dühring's Revolution in Science") is a book by Friedrich Engels, first published in German in 1878.
The anti-Stalinist left comprises various kinds of left-wing politics critical of Joseph Stalin, of Stalinism as a political philosophy, and of the actual system of governance Stalin implemented as dictator of the Soviet Union.
Antonie (Anton) Pannekoek (2 January 1873 – 28 April 1960) was a Dutch astronomer, Marxist theorist, and social revolutionary.
Antonio Francesco Gramsci (22 January 1891 – 27 April 1937) was an Italian Marxist philosopher and politician.
Antonio Labriola (2 July 1843 – 12 February 1904) was an Italian Marxist theoretician.
Archaeological theory refers to the various intellectual frameworks through which archaeologists interpret archaeological data.
Art history is the study of objects of art in their historical development and stylistic contexts; that is genre, design, format, and style.
The Austrian School is a school of economic thought that is based on methodological individualism—the concept that social phenomena result from the motivations and actions of individuals.
Austro-Marxism was a Marxist theoretical current, led by Victor Adler, Otto Bauer, Karl Renner and Max Adler, members of the Social Democratic Workers' Party of Austria in Austria-Hungary and the First Austrian Republic (1918–1934).
David Émile Durkheim (or; April 15, 1858 – November 15, 1917) was a French sociologist.
A barrack or barracks is a building or group of buildings built to house soldiers.
Barracks communism, in the Great Soviet Encyclopedia) (Kasernenkommunismus) is the term coined by Karl Marx to refer to a "crude", authoritarian, forced collectivism and communism, where all aspects of life are bureaucratically regimented and communal. Originally, Marx used the expression to criticise the vision of Sergey Nechayev, outlined in the Fundamentals of the Future Social System. The term barracks here does not refer to military barracks, but to the workers' barracks-type primitive dormitories in which industrial workers lived in many places in the Russian Empire of the time.Alexander Busgalin, Günter Mayer, "" in: Historisch-kritisches Wörterbuch des Marxismus, vol. 7/I, 2008, Spalten, 407–411 Later, political theorists of the Soviet Union applied this term to the People's Republic of China under Mao Zedong (1950s–1970s). Still later during the Soviet Perestroika period, the term was used to apply to the history of the Soviet Union itself.
In Marxist theory, human society consists of two parts: the base (or substructure) and superstructure.
Eugen Berthold Friedrich Brecht (10 February 1898 – 14 August 1956), known professionally as Bertolt Brecht, was a German theatre practitioner, playwright, and poet.
The Bolivarian missions are a series of social programs implemented under the administration of former Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez and continued by Chávez's successor, Nicolás Maduro; with the programs focusing on social justice, social welfare, anti-poverty, educational, and military recruiting.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.
The business cycle, also known as the economic cycle or trade cycle, is the downward and upward movement of gross domestic product (GDP) around its long-term growth trend.
Cyril Lionel Robert James (4 January 1901 – 31 May 1989), who sometimes wrote under the pen-name J. R. Johnson, was an Afro-Trinidadian historian, journalist and socialist.
In economics, capital consists of an asset that can enhance one's power to perform economically useful work.
Capital accumulation (also termed the accumulation of capital) is the dynamic that motivates the pursuit of profit, involving the investment of money or any financial asset with the goal of increasing the initial monetary value of said asset as a financial return whether in the form of profit, rent, interest, royalties or capital gains.
Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
In Karl Marx's critique of political economy and subsequent Marxian analyses, the capitalist mode of production refers to the systems of organizing production and distribution within capitalist societies.
Carl Grünberg (February 10, 1861 – February 2, 1940) was a German Marxist philosopher of law and history.
Carl Menger (February 23, 1840 – February 26, 1921) was an Austrian economist and the founder of the Austrian School of economics.
Cedric Robinson (November 5, 1940 – June 5, 2016) was a professor in the Department of Black Studies and the Department of Political Science at the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB).
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
Ernesto "Che" Guevara (June 14, 1928 – October 9, 1967)The date of birth recorded on was June 14, 1928, although one tertiary source, (Julia Constenla, quoted by Jon Lee Anderson), asserts that he was actually born on May 14 of that year.
John Edward Christopher Hill (6 February 1912 – 23 February 2003) was an English Marxist historian and academic, specialising in 17th-century English history.
Class conflict, frequently referred to as class warfare or class struggle, is the tension or antagonism which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes.
In political theory and particularly Marxism, class consciousness is the set of beliefs that a person holds regarding their social class or economic rank in society, the structure of their class, and their class interests.
Classical Marxism refers to the economic, philosophical and sociological theories expounded by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels as contrasted with later developments in Marxism, especially Leninism and Marxism–Leninism.
Cologne (Köln,, Kölle) is the largest city in the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the fourth most populated city in Germany (after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich).
In classical political economy and especially Karl Marx's critique of political economy, a commodity is any good or service ("products" or "activities") produced by human labour and offered as a product for general sale on the market.
Common ownership refers to holding the assets of an organization, enterprise or community indivisibly rather than in the names of the individual members or groups of members as common property.
A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good.
The Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB) was a British communist party which was the largest communist party in Great Britain, although it never became a mass party like those in France and Italy.
In Marxist thought, communist society or the communist system is the type of society and economic system postulated to emerge from technological advances in the productive forces, representing the ultimate goal of the political ideology of Communism.
A Communist state (sometimes referred to as workers' state) is a state that is administered and governed by a single party, guided by Marxist–Leninist philosophy, with the aim of achieving communism.
Conflict theories are perspectives in sociology and social psychology that emphasize a materialist interpretation of history, dialectical method of analysis, a critical stance toward existing social arrangements, and political program of revolution or, at least, reform.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
Council communism (also councilism) is a current of socialist thought that emerged in the 1920s.
Creative destruction (German: schöpferische Zerstörung), sometimes known as Schumpeter's gale, is a concept in economics which since the 1950s has become most readily identified with the Austrian-American economist Joseph Schumpeter who derived it from the work of Karl Marx and popularized it as a theory of economic innovation and the business cycle.
Crisis theory, concerning the causes and consequences of the tendency for the rate of profit to fall in a capitalist system, is now generally associated with Marxian economics.
Critical psychology is a perspective on psychology that draws extensively on critical theory.
Critical theory is a school of thought that stresses the reflective assessment and critique of society and culture by applying knowledge from the social sciences and the humanities.
The Cuban Revolution (Revolución cubana) was an armed revolt conducted by Fidel Castro's revolutionary 26th of July Movement and its allies against the authoritarian government of Cuban President Fulgencio Batista.
The Cultural Revolution, formally the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement in China from 1966 until 1976.
Cultural studies is a field of theoretically, politically, and empirically engaged cultural analysis that concentrates upon the political dynamics of contemporary culture, its historical foundations, defining traits, conflicts, and contingencies.
Dwijendra Narayan Jha is an Indian historian, specialising in ancient and medieval India.
Damodar Dharmananda Kosambi (31 July 1907 – 29 June 1966) was an Indian mathematician, statistician, philologist, historian and polymath who contributed to genetics by introducing Kosambi map function.
José Daniel Ortega Saavedra (born November 11, 1945) is a Nicaraguan politician serving as President of Nicaragua since 2007; previously he was leader of Nicaragua from 1979 to 1990, first as Coordinator of the Junta of National Reconstruction (1979–1985) and then as President (1985–1990).
Das Kapital, also known as Capital.
In Marxist theory a new democratic society will arise through the organised actions of an international working class, enfranchising the entire population, freeing up humans to act without being bound by the labour market.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo), also known as DR Congo, the DRC, Congo-Kinshasa or simply the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa.
Democratic socialism is a political philosophy that advocates political democracy alongside social ownership of the means of production with an emphasis on self-management and/or democratic management of economic institutions within a market socialist, participatory or decentralized planned economy.
Deng Xiaoping (22 August 1904 – 19 February 1997), courtesy name Xixian (希贤), was a Chinese politician.
Dialectic or dialectics (διαλεκτική, dialektikḗ; related to dialogue), also known as the dialectical method, is at base a discourse between two or more people holding different points of view about a subject but wishing to establish the truth through reasoned arguments.
Dialectical materialism (sometimes abbreviated diamat) is a philosophy of science and nature developed in Europe and based on the writings of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
In Marxist sociopolitical thought, the dictatorship of the proletariat refers to a state in which the proletariat, or the working class, has control of political power.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
Edward Palmer Thompson (3 February 1924 – 28 August 1993), usually cited as E. P.
The economic calculation problem is a criticism of using economic planning as a substitute for market-based allocation of the factors of production.
An economic system is a system of production, resource allocation and distribution of goods and services within a society or a given geographic area.
An economy (from Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the production, distribution, or trade, and consumption of goods and services by different agents.
Eduard Bernstein (6 January 185018 December 1932) was a German social-democratic Marxist theorist and politician.
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.
Empirical evidence, also known as sensory experience, is the information received by means of the senses, particularly by observation and documentation of patterns and behavior through experimentation.
Eric John Ernest Hobsbawm (9 June 1917 – 1 October 2012) was a British historian of the rise of industrial capitalism, socialism and nationalism.
Ernest Ezra Mandel (also known by various pseudonyms such as Ernest Germain, Pierre Gousset, Henri Vallin, Walter; 5 April 1923 – 20 July 1995), was a Marxist economist and a Trotskyist activist and theorist.
Ethnic nationalism, also known as ethno-nationalism, is a form of nationalism wherein the nation is defined in terms of ethnicity.
Eugen Böhm Ritter von Bawerk (born Eugen Böhm, 12 February 1851 – 27 August 1914) was an Austrian economist who made important contributions to the development of the Austrian School of Economics.
Juan Evo Morales Ayma (born October 26, 1959), popularly known as Evo, is a Bolivian politician and cocalero activist who has served as President of Bolivia since 2006.
Evolutionary economics is part of mainstream economics as well as a heterodox school of economic thought that is inspired by evolutionary biology.
Explanatory power is the ability of a hypothesis or theory to effectively explain the subject matter it pertains to.
Exploitation of labour is the act of treating one's workers unfairly for one's own benefit.
False consciousness is a term used by sociologists and expounded by some Marxists for the way in which material, ideological, and institutional processes in capitalist society mislead members of the proletariat and other class actors.
A statement, hypothesis, or theory has falsifiability (or is falsifiable) if it can logically be proven false by contradicting it with a basic statement.
A farmer (also called an agriculturer) is a person engaged in agriculture, raising living organisms for food or raw materials.
Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, fictional, or philosophical discourse.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (August 13, 1926 – November 25, 2016) was a Cuban communist revolutionary and politician who governed the Republic of Cuba as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and then as President from 1976 to 2008.
The Frankfurt School (Frankfurter Schule) is a school of social theory and philosophy associated in part with the Institute for Social Research at the Goethe University Frankfurt.
Franz Erdmann Mehring (27 February 1846 – 28 January 1919), was a German Communist and a Revolutionary Socialist Politician who was a senior member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany during the German Revolution in 1918–19.
Claude-Frédéric Bastiat (29 June 1801 – 24 December 1850) was a French economist and writer who was a prominent member of the French Liberal School.
Fredric Jameson (born April 14, 1934) is an American literary critic and Marxist political theorist.
Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.
Freudo-Marxism is a loose designation for philosophies that have been informed by or have attempted to synthesize the works of Karl Marx and the psychoanalytic theory of Sigmund Freud.
Friedrich Engels (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.;, sometimes anglicised Frederick Engels; 28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895) was a German philosopher, social scientist, journalist and businessman.
"From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs" is a slogan popularised by Karl Marx in his 1875 Critique of the Gotha Program.
The German Peasants' War, Great Peasants' War or Great Peasants' Revolt (Deutscher Bauernkrieg) was a widespread popular revolt in some German-speaking areas in Central Europe from 1524 to 1525.
German philosophy, here taken to mean either (1) philosophy in the German language or (2) philosophy by Germans, has been extremely diverse, and central to both the analytic and continental traditions in philosophy for centuries, from Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz through Immanuel Kant, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Arthur Schopenhauer, Karl Marx, Friedrich Nietzsche, Martin Heidegger and Ludwig Wittgenstein to contemporary philosophers.
Gottfried von Haberler (July 20, 1900 – May 6, 1995) was an Austrian-American economist.
The Grundrisse der Kritik der Politischen Ökonomie (Fundamentals of Political Economy Criticism) is a lengthy, unfinished manuscript by the German philosopher Karl Marx.
György Lukács (also Georg Lukács; born György Bernát Löwinger; 13 April 1885 – 4 June 1971) was a Hungarian Marxist philosopher, aesthetician, literary historian, and critic.
Hal Draper (born Harold Dubinsky; September 19, 1914 – January 26, 1990) was an American socialist activist and author who played a significant role in the Berkeley, California Free Speech Movement.
Herbert Marcuse (July 19, 1898 – July 29, 1979) was a German-American philosopher, sociologist, and political theorist, associated with the Frankfurt School of Critical Theory.
Herman Gorter (26 November 1864, Wormerveer – 15 September 1927, Sint-Joost-ten-Node, Brussels) was a Dutch poet and socialist.
Hermeneutic Communism: from Heidegger to Marx is a 2011 book of political philosophy and Marxist hermeneutics by Gianni Vattimo and Santiago Zabala.
Heterodoxy is a term that may be used in contrast with orthodoxy in schools of economic thought or methodologies, that may be beyond neoclassical economics.
Historical materialism is the methodological approach of Marxist historiography that focuses on human societies and their development over time, claiming that they follow a number of observable tendencies.
Historicism is the idea of attributing meaningful significance to space and time, such as historical period, geographical place, and local culture.
Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject.
History and Class Consciousness: Studies in Marxist Dialectics (Geschichte und Klassenbewußtsein – Studien über marxistische Dialektik) is a 1923 book by the Hungarian philosopher György Lukács, in which the author re-emphasizes Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's influence on Karl Marx, analyses the concept of class consciousness, and attempts a philosophical justification of Bolshevism.
Sociology as a scholarly discipline emerged primarily out of enlightenment thought, shortly after the French Revolution, as a positivist science of society.
Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (28 July 1954 – 5 March 2013) was a Venezuelan politician who was President of Venezuela from 1999 to 2013.
The Hungarian Revolution of 1956, or Hungarian Uprising of 1956 (1956-os forradalom or 1956-os felkelés), was a nationwide revolt against the Marxist-Leninist government of the Hungarian People's Republic and its Soviet-imposed policies, lasting from 23 October until 10 November 1956.
Institutions are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior".
Instrumental Marxism, or elite model, is a theory which reasons that policy makers in government and positions of power tend to "share a common business or class background, and that their decisions will reflect their business or class interests".
An intellectual is a person who engages in critical thinking, research, and reflection about society and proposes solutions for its normative problems.
Irfan Habib (born 1931) is an Indian historian of ancient and medieval India, following the approach of Marxist historiography.
Jacques Rancière (born 1940) is a French philosopher, Professor of Philosophy at European Graduate School in Saas-Fee and Emeritus Professor of Philosophy at the University of Paris VIII: Vincennes—Saint-Denis who came to prominence when he co-authored Reading Capital (1968), with the structuralist Marxist philosopher Louis Althusser.
Jean-Baptiste Say (5 January 1767 – 15 November 1832) was a French economist and businessman who had classically liberal views and argued in favor of competition, free trade and lifting restraints on business.
__notoc__ John Joseph Cassidy (born 1963) is an American journalist and British expat who is a staff writer at The New Yorker and a contributor to The New York Review of Books, having previously been an editor at The Sunday Times of London and a deputy editor at the New York Post.
John Russell, 1st Earl Russell, (18 August 1792 – 28 May 1878), known by his courtesy title Lord John Russell before 1861, was a leading Whig and Liberal politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom on two occasions during the early Victorian era.
Jon Elster (born 22 February 1940, Oslo) is a Norwegian social and political theorist who has authored works in the philosophy of social science and rational choice theory.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Jules Bazile, known as Jules Guesde (11 November 1845 – 28 July 1922) was a French socialist journalist and politician.
Karl Johann Kautsky (16 October 1854 – 17 October 1938) was a Czech-Austrian philosopher, journalist, and Marxist theoretician.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
The Karl Marx House museum (Karl-Marx-Haus) is a writer's house museum in Trier (Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany).
Karl Marx and his ideas have been represented in film in genres ranging from documentary to fictional drama, art house and comedy.
Karl Marx's Theory of History: A Defence is a 1978 book by Gerald Cohen, the culmination of his attempts to reformulate Karl Marx's doctrines of alienation, exploitation, and historical materialism.
Sir Karl Raimund Popper (28 July 1902 – 17 September 1994) was an Austrian-British philosopher and professor.
The labor theory of value (LTV) is a theory of value that argues that the economic value of a good or service is determined by the total amount of "socially necessary labor" required to produce it, rather than by the use or pleasure its owner gets from it (demand) and its scarcity value (supply).
Labour power (in German: Arbeitskraft; in French: force de travail) is a key concept used by Karl Marx in his critique of capitalist political economy.
Ladislaus Josephovich Bortkiewicz (7 August 1868 – 15 July 1931) was Russian economist and statistician of Polish ancestry, who lived most of his professional life in Germany, where he taught at Strassburg University (Privatdozent, 1895–1897) and Berlin University (1901–1931).
A landlord is the owner of a house, apartment, condominium, land or real estate which is rented or leased to an individual or business, who is called a tenant (also a lessee or renter).
Left communism is the range of communist viewpoints held by the communist left, which criticizes the political ideas and practices espoused—particularly following the series of revolutions which brought the First World War to an end—by Bolsheviks and by social democrats.
Legal Marxism was a Russian Marxist movement based on a particular interpretation of Marxist theory whose proponents were active in socialist circles between 1894 and 1901.
Leninism is the political theory for the organisation of a revolutionary vanguard party and the achievement of a dictatorship of the proletariat as political prelude to the establishment of socialism.
Leszek Kołakowski (23 October 1927 – 17 July 2009) was a Polish philosopher and historian of ideas.
Libertarian Marxism refers to a broad scope of economic and political philosophies that emphasize the anti-authoritarian aspects of Marxism.
Libertarian socialism (or socialist libertarianism) is a group of anti-authoritarian political philosophies inside the socialist movement that rejects socialism as centralized state ownership and control of the economy.
Literary criticism (or literary studies) is the study, evaluation, and interpretation of literature.
Living Marxism was a British magazine, originally launched in 1988 as the journal of the British Revolutionary Communist Party (RCP).
Louis Pierre Althusser (16 October 1918 – 22 October 1990) was a French Marxist philosopher.
Ludwig Heinrich Edler von Mises (29 September 1881 – 10 October 1973) was an Austrian-American theoretical Austrian School economist.
Lumpenproletariat is a term used primarily by Marxist theorists to describe the underclass devoid of class consciousness.
Manuel Bernardo Alvarado Green (15 March 1948 – 30 April 2010) was a Guatemalan-born British academic, who specialized in media studies.
Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), commonly known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.
Maoism, known in China as Mao Zedong Thought, is a political theory derived from the teachings of the Chinese political leader Mao Zedong, whose followers are known as Maoists.
Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, (13 October 19258 April 2013) was a British stateswoman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990.
Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock, is a socially or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity (in-laws and other family through marriage).
The Marx Memorial Library in London holds more than 43,000 books, pamphlets and newspapers on Marxism, Scientific Socialism and Working class history.
Karl Marx wrote a number of notebooks on the history of technology which so far remain unpublished.
Karl Marx's theory of alienation describes the estrangement (Entfremdung) of people from aspects of their Gattungswesen ("species-essence") as a consequence of living in a society of stratified social classes.
Some Marxists posit what they deem to be Karl Marx's theory of human nature, which they accord an important place in his critique of capitalism, his conception of communism, and his 'materialist conception of history'.
In Marxism, Marxian class theory asserts that an individual’s position within a class hierarchy is determined by his or her role in the production process, and argues that political and ideological consciousness is determined by class position.
Marxian economics, or the Marxian school of economics, refers to a school of economic thought tracing its foundations to the critique of classical political economy first expounded upon by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
Marxism and Freedom: from 1776 Until Today is a 1958 book by the philosopher and activist Raya Dunayevskaya, the first volume of her 'Trilogy of Revolution'.
The 19th century German thinker Karl Marx, the founder and primary theorist of Marxism, had an antithetical and complex attitude to religion, viewing it primarily as "the soul of soulless conditions", the "opium of the people" that had been useful to the ruling classes since it gave the working classes false hope for millennia.
Marxism and the U.S.A. is a 2005 book by the British Trotskyist Alan Woods, in which Woods examines American history from a Marxist perspective.
Marxism Today, published between 1957 and 1991, was the theoretical magazine of the Communist Party of Great Britain.
In political science, Marxism–Leninism is the ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, of the Communist International and of Stalinist political parties.
Marxist aesthetics is a theory of aesthetics based on, or derived from, the theories of Karl Marx.
Marxist archaeology is an archaeological theory that interprets archaeological information within the framework of Marxism.
Marxist criminology is one of the schools of criminology.
Marxist ethics is a doctrine of morality, i.e. ethics that is based on, or derived from, Marxist philosophy.
Marxist feminism is feminism focused on investigating and explaining the ways in which women are oppressed through systems of capitalism and private property.
Marxist film theory is one of the oldest forms of film theory.
Marxist geography is a strand of critical geography that uses the theories and philosophy of Marxism to examine the spatial relations of human geography.
Marxist historiography, or historical materialist historiography, is a school of historiography influenced by Marxism.
Marxist and Neo-Marxist international relations theories are paradigms which reject the realist/liberal view of state conflict or cooperation, instead focusing on the economic and material aspects.
Marxist literary criticism is a loose term describing literary criticism based on socialist and dialectic theories.
Marxist philosophy or Marxist theory are works in philosophy that are strongly influenced by Karl Marx's materialist approach to theory, or works written by Marxists.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that frames capitalism through a paradigm of exploitation, analyzes class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
Marxist sociology is the study of sociology from a Marxist perspective.
The Marxist Workers League was the name of two splinter groups from the Revolutionary Workers League in the 1930s.
Marxists Internet Archive (also known as MIA or Marxists.org) is a non-profit website that hosts a multilingual library (created in 1990) of the works of Marxist, communist, socialist, and anarchist writers, such as Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Vladimir Lenin, Leon Trotsky, Rosa Luxemburg, Che Guevara, Mikhail Bakunin, and Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, as well as that of writers of related ideologies, and even unrelated ones (for instance, Sun Tzu and Adam Smith).
Materialism is a form of philosophical monism which holds that matter is the fundamental substance in nature, and that all things, including mental aspects and consciousness, are results of material interactions.
Maurice Merleau-Ponty (14 March 1908 – 3 May 1961) was a French phenomenological philosopher, strongly influenced by Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger.
Maximilian Karl Emil "Max" Weber (21 April 1864 – 14 June 1920) was a German sociologist, philosopher, jurist, and political economist.
In economics and sociology, the means of production (also called capital goods) are physical non-human and non-financial inputs used in the production of economic value.
Media studies is a discipline and field of study that deals with the content, history, and effects of various media; in particular, the mass media.
The Mensheviks (меньшевики) were a faction in the Russian socialist movement, the other being the Bolsheviks.
Methodology is the systematic, theoretical analysis of the methods applied to a field of study.
Mikhail Mikhailovich Bakhtin (Михаи́л Миха́йлович Бахти́н,; – 7 March 1975) was a Russian philosopher, literary critic, semiotician and scholar who worked on literary theory, ethics, and the philosophy of language.
Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (– 1 July 1876) was a Russian revolutionary anarchist and founder of collectivist anarchism.
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, GCL (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician.
Mikhail Aleksandrovich Lifshitz (Михаи́л Алекса́ндрович Ли́фшиц; July 23, 1905, in Melitopol, Tavria (Crimea) – September 28, 1983, in Moscow) was a Soviet Marxian literary critic and philosopher of art who had a long and controversial career in the former Soviet Union.
Milorad M. Drachkovitch (8 November 1921 – 16 June 1996) was the posthumous son of Milorad Drašković, Minister of the Interior in the Former Kingdom of Yugoslavia.
The Mises Institute, short name for Ludwig von Mises Institute for Austrian Economics, is a tax-exempt educative organization located in Auburn, Alabama, United States.
In the writings of Karl Marx and the Marxist theory of historical materialism, a mode of production (in German: Produktionsweise, meaning 'the way of producing') is a specific combination of.
Monogamy is a form of relationship in which an individual has only one partner during their lifetime — alternately, only one partner at any one time (serial monogamy) — as compared to non-monogamy (e.g., polygamy or polyamory).
In Greek mythology, Narcissus (Νάρκισσος, Nárkissos) was a hunter from Thespiae in Boeotia who was known for his beauty.
Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.
Neo-Marxism is a broad term encompasing twentieth-century approaches that amend or extend Marxism and Marxist theory, typically by incorporating elements from other intellectual traditions such as critical theory, psychoanalysis, or existentialism (in the case of Jean-Paul Sartre).
Neoliberalism or neo-liberalism refers primarily to the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with laissez-faire economic liberalism.
The Neue Rheinische Zeitung: Organ der Demokratie ("New Rhenish Newspaper: Organ of Democracy") was a German daily newspaper, published by Karl Marx in Cologne between 1 June 1848 and 19 May 1849.
New Right is used in several countries as a descriptive term for various policies or groups that are right-wing.
Nicolae Ceaușescu (26 January 1918 – 25 December 1989) was a Romanian Communist politician.
Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic and political activist.
Okishio's theorem is a theorem formulated by Japanese economist Nobuo Okishio.
Open Marxism is a school of thought which draws on libertarian socialist critiques of party communism and stresses the need for openness to praxis and history through an anti-positivist (dialectical) method grounded in the "practical reflexivity" of Marx's own concepts.
Orthodox Marxism is the body of Marxist thought that emerged after the death of Karl Marx (1818–1883) and which became the official philosophy of the socialist movement as represented in the Second International until the First World War in 1914.
Paul Lafargue (15 January 1842 – 25 November 1911) was a French revolutionary Marxist socialist journalist, literary critic, political writer and activist; he was Karl Marx's son-in-law having married his second daughter, Laura.
A peasant is a pre-industrial agricultural laborer or farmer, especially one living in the Middle Ages under feudalism and paying rent, tax, fees or services to a landlord.
Penguin Classics is an imprint published by Penguin Books, a subsidiary of Penguin Random House.
A people's history, or history from below, is a type of historical narrative which attempts to account for historical events from the perspective of common people rather than leaders.
Petite bourgeoisie, also petty bourgeoisie (literally small bourgeoisie), is a French term (sometimes derogatory) referring to a social class comprising semi-autonomous peasantry and small-scale merchants whose politico-economic ideological stance in times of socioeconomic stability is determined by reflecting that of a haute ("high") bourgeoisie, with which the petite bourgeoisie seeks to identify itself and whose bourgeois morality it strives to imitate.
Philosophy of science is a sub-field of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science.
"Pink tide" (marea rosa, onda rosa) and "turn to the Left" (Sp.: vuelta hacia la izquierda, Pt.: Guinada à Esquerda) are phrases used in contemporary 21st century political analysis in the media and elsewhere to describe the perception of a turn towards left wing governments in Latin American democracies straying away from the neo-liberal economic model.
Following the work of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Karl Marx outlined the workings of a political consciousness.
Political economy is the study of production and trade and their relations with law, custom and government; and with the distribution of national income and wealth.
Political philosophy, or political theory, is the study of topics such as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of laws by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever.
Noam Chomsky is an intellectual, political activist, and critic of the foreign policy of the United States and other governments.
The term political radicalism (in political science known as radicalism) denotes political principles focused on altering social structures through revolutionary or other means and changing value systems in fundamental ways.
Political science is a social science which deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts, and political behavior.
Positivism is a philosophical theory stating that certain ("positive") knowledge is based on natural phenomena and their properties and relations.
Post-communism is the period of political and economic transformation or "transition" in former communist states located in parts of Europe and Asia, in which new governments aimed to create free market-oriented capitalist economies.
Post-Marxism (not post-modernism) is a trend in political philosophy and social theory, which deconstructs Karl Marx's writings and Marxism proper, bypassing orthodox Marxism.
Praxeology or praxiology is the study of human action, based on the notion that humans engage in purposeful behavior, as opposed to reflexive behavior like sneezing and unintentional behavior.
Pre-industrial society refers to social attributes and forms of political and cultural organization that were prevalent before the advent of the Industrial Revolution, which occurred from 1750 to 1850.
While Marxism had a significant impact on socialist thought, pre-Marxist thinkers (before Karl Marx wrote on the subject) have advocated socialism in forms both similar and in stark contrast to Marx and Engels' conception of socialism, advocating some form of collective ownership over large-scale production, worker-management within the workplace, or in some cases, a form of planned economy.
Primitive communism is a concept originating from Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels who argued that hunter-gatherer societies were traditionally based on egalitarian social relations and common ownership.
Private property is a legal designation for the ownership of property by non-governmental legal entities.
Production for use is a phrase referring to the principle of economic organization and production taken as a defining criterion for a socialist economy.
"Productive forces", "productive powers", or "forces of production" (in German, Produktivkräfte), is a central idea in Marxism and historical materialism.
In economics, profit in the accounting sense of the excess of revenue over cost is the sum of two components: normal profit and economic profit.
In economics, the profit motive is the motivation of firms that operate so as to maximize their profits.
A proletarian revolution is a social revolution in which the working class attempts to overthrow the bourgeoisie.
The proletariat (from Latin proletarius "producing offspring") is the class of wage-earners in a capitalist society whose only possession of significant material value is their labour-power (their ability to work).
Pseudoscience consists of statements, beliefs, or practices that are claimed to be both scientific and factual, but are incompatible with the scientific method.
Pushpa Kamal Dahal (पुष्पकमल दाहाल; born 11 December 1954), also known as Prachanda, is a Nepalese politician and one of the two chairmen of the Nepal Communist Party, formed by the union of Communist Party of Nepal (United Marxist-Leninist) and Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist-Centre).
Rafael Vicente Correa Delgado (born 6 April 1963) is an Ecuadorian politician and economist who served as President of Ecuador from 2007 to 2017.
Ram Sharan Sharma (26 November 1919 – 20 August 2011), commonly referred to as R. S. Sharma, was an eminent historian and academic of Ancient and early Medieval India.
Raymond Henry Williams (31 August 1921 – 26 January 1988) was a Welsh Marxist theorist, academic, novelist and critic.
Reformism is a political doctrine advocating the reform of an existing system or institution instead of its abolition and replacement.
In Marxism, reification (Verdinglichung, literally: "making into a thing") is the process by which social relations are perceived as inherent attributes of the people involved in them, or attributes of some product of the relation, such as a traded commodity.
Relations of production (German: Produktionsverhältnisse) is a concept frequently used by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in their theory of historical materialism and in Das Kapital.
Rethinking Marxism is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering Marxist analyses of economics, culture, and society.
Within the Marxist movement, the word revisionism is used to refer to various ideas, principles and theories that are based on a significant revision of fundamental Marxist premises.
In political science, a revolution (Latin: revolutio, "a turn around") is a fundamental and relatively sudden change in political power and political organization which occurs when the population revolt against the government, typically due to perceived oppression (political, social, economic).
A revolutionary is a person who either participates in, or advocates revolution.
The Revolutionary Marxist League was a small Communist sect that existed from 1939 - 1940 in New York City.
Revolutionary socialism is the socialist doctrine that social revolution is necessary in order to bring about structural changes to society.
Richard Cantillon (1680s –) was an Irish-French economist and author of Essai sur la Nature du Commerce en Général (Essay on the Nature of Trade in General), a book considered by William Stanley Jevons to be the "cradle of political economy".
Romila Thapar (born 30 November 1931) is an Indian historian whose principal area of study is ancient India.
Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
Rosa Luxemburg (Róża Luksemburg; also Rozalia Luxenburg; 5 March 1871 – 15 January 1919) was a Polish Marxist theorist, philosopher, economist, anti-war activist, and revolutionary socialist who became a naturalized German citizen at the age of 28.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
Rudolph Joseph Rummel (October 21, 1932 – March 2, 2014) was professor of political science who taught at the Indiana University, Yale University, and University of Hawaii.
The ruling class is the social class of a given society that decides upon and sets that society's political agenda.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
The Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP;, Rossiyskaya sotsial-demokraticheskaya rabochaya partiya (RSDRP)), also known as the Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party or the Russian Social Democratic Party, was a revolutionary socialist political party in Minsk, Belarus.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
Social change is an alteration in the social order of a society.
A social class is a set of subjectively defined concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle and lower classes.
Social conflict is the struggle for agency or power in society.
Social democracy is a political, social and economic ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and capitalist economy.
Social ownership is any of various forms of ownership for the means of production in socialist economic systems, encompassing public ownership, employee ownership, cooperative ownership, citizen ownership of equity, common ownership and collective ownership.
Social phenomena include all behavior that influences or is influenced by organisms sufficiently alive to respond to one another.
Social stratification is a kind of social differentiation whereby a society groups people into socioeconomic strata, based upon their occupation and income, wealth and social status, or derived power (social and political).
Social theories are analytical frameworks, or paradigms, that are used to study and interpret social phenomena.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
In Marxist theory, socialism (also called the socialist mode of production) refers to a specific historical phase of economic development and its corresponding set of social relations that supersede capitalism in the schema of historical materialism.
A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.
Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes.
Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.
In the People's Republic of China, the study of sociology has been developing steadily since its reestablishment in 1979 (it had been previously banned by communist authorities as a bourgeois pseudoscience).
Sociology in Poland has been developing, as has sociology throughout Europe, since the mid-19th century.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Specters of Marx: The State of the Debt, the Work of Mourning and the New International (Spectres de Marx: l'état de la dette, le travail du deuil et la nouvelle Internationale) is a 1993 book by French philosopher Jacques Derrida.
Stalinism is the means of governing and related policies implemented from the 1920s to 1953 by Joseph Stalin (1878–1953).
A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.
Surplus labour (German: Mehrarbeit) is a concept used by Karl Marx in his critique of political economy.
Surplus product (German: Mehrprodukt) is an economic concept explicitly theorised by Karl Marx in his critique of political economy.
Surplus value is a central concept in Karl Marx's critique of political economy.
Estelle Sylvia Pankhurst (5 May 1882 – 27 September 1960) was an English campaigner for the suffragette movement, a prominent left communist and, later, an activist in the cause of anti-fascism.
Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is first robustly defined by Jacob Bigelow in 1829 as: "...principles, processes, and nomenclatures of the more conspicuous arts, particularly those which involve applications of science, and which may be considered useful, by promoting the benefit of society, together with the emolument of those who pursue them".
The tendency of the rate of profit to fall (TRPF) is a hypothesis in economics and political economy, most famously expounded by Karl Marx in chapter 13 of Capital, Volume III.
Terence Francis "Terry" Eagleton FBA (born 22 February 1943) is a British literary theorist, critic and public intellectual.
The Black Jacobins: Toussaint L'Ouverture and the San Domingo Revolution is a 1938 book by Afro-Trinidadian historian C. L. R. James, a history of the Haitian Revolution of 1791–1804.
"The Civil War in France" (German: "Der Bürgerkrieg in Frankreich") was a pamphlet written by Karl Marx, as an official statement of the General Council of the International on the character and significance of the struggle of the Communards in the Paris Commune.
The Communist Manifesto (originally Manifesto of the Communist Party) is an 1848 political pamphlet by German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
The Condition of the Working Class in England (German: Die Lage der arbeitenden Klasse in England) is an 1845 book by the German philosopher Friedrich Engels, a study of the industrial working class in Victorian England.
The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon (Der 18te Brumaire des Louis Napoleon) is an essay written by Karl Marx between December 1851 and March 1852, and originally published in 1852 in Die Revolution, a German monthly magazine published in New York City and established by Joseph Weydemeyer.
The German Ideology (German: Die deutsche Ideologie) is a set of manuscripts written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels around April or early May 1846.
The Holy Family (Die heilige Familie) is a book written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in November 1844.
The Making of the English Working Class is a work of English social history, written by E. P. Thompson, a 'New Left' historian.
The Marxism of Che Guevara: Philosophy, Economics, and Revolutionary Warfare (La pensée de Che Guevara) is a 1970 book by Michael Löwy.
The Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State: in the Light of the Researches of Lewis H. Morgan (Der Ursprung der Familie, des Privateigenthums und des Staats) is an 1884 historical materialist treatise by Friedrich Engels.
The Poverty of Historicism is a 1957 book by philosopher Karl Popper, in which the author argues that the idea of historicism is dangerous and bankrupt.
Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of fine art that uses live performers, typically actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a specific place, often a stage.
Theodor W. Adorno (born Theodor Ludwig Wiesengrund; September 11, 1903 – August 6, 1969) was a German philosopher, sociologist, and composer known for his critical theory of society.
"To each according to his contribution" is a principle of distribution considered to be one of the defining features of socialism.
Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky.
Vere Gordon Childe (14 April 1892 – 19 October 1957), better known as V. Gordon Childe, was an Australian archaeologist and philologist who specialized in the study of European prehistory.
In logic, an argument is valid if and only if it takes a form that makes it impossible for the premises to be true and the conclusion nevertheless to be false.
Economic value is a measure of the benefit provided by a good or service to an economic agent.
Value theory is a range of approaches to understanding how, why, and to what degree persons value things; whether the object or subject of valuing is a person, idea, object, or anything else.
Vladimir Karpovich Dmitriev (Влади́мир Ка́рпович Дми́триев; November 24, 1868, Smolensk Governorate – September 30, 1913, Gatchina) was a Russian mathematical economist and statistician.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
A wage is monetary compensation (or remuneration, personnel expenses, labor) paid by an employer to an employee in exchange for work done.
Walter Bendix Schönflies Benjamin (15 July 1892 – 26 September 1940) was a German Jewish philosopher, cultural critic and essayist.
Western Marxism is Marxist theory arising from Western and Central Europe in the aftermath of the 1917 October Revolution in Russia and the ascent of Leninism.
William Morris (24 March 1834 – 3 October 1896) was an English textile designer, poet, novelist, translator, and socialist activist.
"Withering away of the state" is a Marxist concept coined by Friedrich Engels referring to the idea that, with realization of the ideals of socialism, the social institution of a state will eventually become obsolete and disappear, as the society will be able to govern itself without the state and its coercive enforcement of the law.
The working class (also labouring class) are the people employed for wages, especially in manual-labour occupations and industrial work.
The 26th of July Movement (Movimiento 26 de Julio; M-26-7) was a vanguard revolutionary organization then a party led by Fidel Castro that in 1959 overthrew the Fulgencio Batista dictatorship in Cuba.
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