41 relations: Alpha decay, Alpha particle, Atom, Atomic mass, Atomic nucleus, Atomic number, Baryon, Baryon number, Beta decay, Binding energy, Bromine, Carbon, Carbon-12, Carbon-14, Chemical element, Electron, Gamma ray, Ion, Isotope, Isotopes of bromine, Isotopes of chlorine, Isotopes of nitrogen, Isotopes of thorium, Mass excess, Mass–energy equivalence, Metastability, Mole (unit), Neutrino, Neutron, Neutron number, Nuclear binding energy, Nuclear isomer, Nucleon, Proton, Radioactive decay, Radioactive displacement law of Fajans and Soddy, Relative atomic mass, Standard atomic weight, Subscript and superscript, Unified atomic mass unit, Uranium-238.
Alpha decay or α-decay is a type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits an alpha particle (helium nucleus) and thereby transforms or 'decays' into an atom with a mass number that is reduced by four and an atomic number that is reduced by two.
Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium-4 nucleus.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
A baryon is a composite subatomic particle made up of three quarks (a triquark, as distinct from mesons, which are composed of one quark and one antiquark).
In particle physics, the baryon number is a strictly conserved additive quantum number of a system.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
Binding energy (also called separation energy) is the minimum energy required to disassemble a system of particles into separate parts.
Bromine is a chemical element with symbol Br and atomic number 35.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon-12 is the more abundant of the two stable isotopes of carbon (Carbon-13 being the other), amounting to 98.93% of the element carbon; its abundance is due to the triple-alpha process by which it is created in stars.
Carbon-14, 14C, or radiocarbon, is a radioactive isotope of carbon with an atomic nucleus containing 6 protons and 8 neutrons.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Bromine (35Br) has two stable isotopes, 79Br and 81Br, and 30 known radioisotopes, the most stable of which is 77Br, with a half-life of 57.036 hours.
Chlorine (17Cl) has 24 isotopes with mass numbers ranging from 28Cl to 51Cl and 2 isomers (34mCl and 38mCl).
Natural nitrogen (7N) consists of two stable isotopes, nitrogen-14, which makes up the vast majority of naturally occurring nitrogen, and nitrogen-15, which is less common.
Although thorium (90Th) has 6 naturally occurring isotopes, none of these isotopes are stable; however, one isotope, 232Th, is relatively stable, with a half-life of 1.405×1010 years, considerably longer than the age of the Earth, and even slightly longer than the generally accepted age of the universe.
The mass excess of a nuclide is the difference between its actual mass and its mass number in atomic mass units.
In physics, mass–energy equivalence states that anything having mass has an equivalent amount of energy and vice versa, with these fundamental quantities directly relating to one another by Albert Einstein's famous formula: E.
In physics, metastability is a stable state of a dynamical system other than the system's state of least energy.
The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance.
A neutrino (denoted by the Greek letter ν) is a fermion (an elementary particle with half-integer spin) that interacts only via the weak subatomic force and gravity.
The neutron number, symbol N, is the number of neutrons in a nuclide.
Nuclear binding energy is the minimum energy that would be required to disassemble the nucleus of an atom into its component parts.
A nuclear isomer is a metastable state of an atomic nucleus caused by the excitation of one or more of its nucleons (protons or neutrons).
In chemistry and physics, a nucleon is either a proton or a neutron, considered in its role as a component of an atomic nucleus.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
The law of radioactive displacements, also known as Fajans and Soddy law, in radiochemistry and nuclear physics, is a rule governing the transmutation of elements during radioactive decay.
Relative atomic mass (symbol: A) or atomic weight is a dimensionless physical quantity defined as the ratio of the average mass of atoms of a chemical element in a given sample to one unified atomic mass unit.
The standard atomic weight (Ar, standard, a relative atomic mass) is the atomic weight (Ar) of a chemical element, as appearing and met in the earthly environment.
A subscript or superscript is a character (number, letter or symbol) that is (respectively) set slightly below or above the normal line of type.
The unified atomic mass unit or dalton (symbol: u, or Da) is a standard unit of mass that quantifies mass on an atomic or molecular scale (atomic mass).
Uranium-238 (238U or U-238) is the most common isotope of uranium found in nature, with a relative abundance of 99%.