250 relations: Aadhaar, Abnormality (behavior), AdSense, Albert Einstein, American Civil Liberties Union, Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights, Automatic number-plate recognition, Bahrain, Biometrics, Black Chamber, Blue Coat Systems, Broken windows theory, Carnivore (software), Central Bureau of Investigation, China, China Unicom, Civil and political rights, Click wrap, Closed-circuit television, CNN, COINTELPRO, Communication, Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act, Communist Party of China, Communist Party of Vietnam, Computer and Internet Protocol Address Verifier, Computer and network surveillance, Constitution of Russia, Convenience store, Copyright, Cory Doctorow, Court of Justice of the European Union, Crime, Cryptanalysis, Cryptography, Dan Brown, Data Protection Act 1998, Data Protection Directive, Data retention, Data Retention and Investigatory Powers Act 2014, Data Retention Directive, Database, David Anderson (barrister), Davos, Deep packet inspection, Digital Fortress, Digital Revolution, Directorate of Revenue Intelligence, Discipline and Punish, DNA profiling, ..., Dystopia, East Germany, ECHELON, Edward Snowden, Electronic Frontier Foundation, Enforcement Directorate, Ericsson, Ethics, European Commission, European Convention on Human Rights, European Court of Human Rights, European Court of Justice, European Parliament, European Union, European Union legislative procedure, Facebook, Facial recognition system, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Federal government of the United States, Federal Intelligence Service (Germany), Financial transaction, Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 Amendments Act of 2008, Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development, Freedom House, Freedom of Information Act 2000, Gait (human), General Data Protection Regulation, Geolocation, George Orwell, Glenn Greenwald, Global issue, Global surveillance, Global surveillance disclosures (2013–present), Gmail, Google, Google I/O, Government Communications Headquarters, Government database, Great Firewall, Greece, Groupe Bull, Gurudas Kamat, Habeas corpus, Hemisphere Project, Housing and Development Board, HTML5, Huawei, Human Rights Act 1998, Identity document, INDECT, Independent Reviewer of Terrorism Legislation, Information Age, Information privacy, Information Technology Act, 2000, Intelligence agency, Intelligence and Security Committee of Parliament, Intelligence Bureau (India), Interception of Communications Commissioner, International Safe Harbor Privacy Principles, Investigatory Powers Act 2016, Investigatory Powers Tribunal, Iran, James Bamford, Landline, Lawful interception, List of government mass surveillance projects, Little Brother (Doctorow novel), Location-based service, Loyalty program, Magic Lantern (software), Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Mail cover, Mail Isolation Control and Tracking, MAINWAY, Malaysia, Malware, Man-in-the-middle attack, Manuel Castells, Martin Luther King Jr., Metadata, Michel Foucault, Microsoft, Minister of Defence (Sweden), Ministry of Communications and Information Technology (India), Ministry of Defence (Vietnam), Mobile phone, Mobinnet, MTN Irancell, Myspace, Narcotics Control Bureau, Narus (company), NATGRID, National Defence Radio Establishment, National Investigation Agency, National security, National Security Agency, Network theory, New York City Police Department, Nineteen Eighty-Four, Nokia Networks, Nothing to hide argument, OpenNet Initiative, OpenSocial, Parliament of the United Kingdom, Pattern recognition, Pen register, Phishing, Phone surveillance, Police state, Press Information Bureau, PRISM (surveillance program), Privacy, Privacy International, Project SHAMROCK, Protection of Freedoms Act 2012, Radio-frequency identification, Rajya Sabha, Rebellion, Rediff.com, Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000, Reporters Without Borders, Research and Analysis Wing, Reuters, Right to privacy, Russia, Secret police, Secretary of State (United Kingdom), Security, Self-censorship, September 11 attacks, Signals intelligence, Singapore, Singapore Police Force, Singtel, Skype, Smart Nation, SMS, Social engineering (security), Social network analysis, SORM, Sousveillance, Soviet Union, Special Relationship, Speech recognition, Stasi, State (polity), Statewatch, Sten Tolgfors, Surveillance, Surveillance capitalism, Suzanne Collins, Svenska Dagbladet, Sveriges Radio, Syria, Syrian Civil War, Taiwan, Targeted surveillance, Telecommunication, Telecommunication Company of Iran, Telephone tapping, Telephone tapping in the Eastern Bloc, Telepolis, Tempora, Terrorism, Thailand, The Hunger Games, The Lives of Others, The New York Times, The Shadow Factory, The Times of India, The Wall Street Journal, Time (magazine), TOM Group, Totalitarianism, Tracking system, Traffic analysis, Traffic enforcement camera, Twitter, UKUSA Agreement, United Kingdom, United States, United States Department of Homeland Security, Unmanned aerial vehicle, Upstream collection, USA Today, Vietnam, Vietnam Posts and Telecommunications Group, Viettel, We (novel), Wen Jiabao, West Germany, Western Union, World Economic Forum, World Wide Web, Yarovaya law, Yevgeny Zamyatin, Zakharov v. Russia, ZTE, 2004 Republican National Convention, 2009 Iranian presidential election protests. Expand index (200 more) » « Shrink index
Aadhaar (English: Foundation) is a 12-digit unique identity number that can be obtained by residents of India, based on their biometric and demographic data.
Abnormality (or dysfunctional behavior) is a behavioral characteristic assigned to those with conditions regarded as rare or dysfunctional.
Google AdSense is a program run by Google that allows publishers in the Google Network of content sites to serve automatic text, image, video, or interactive media advertisements, that are targeted to site content and audience.
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) is a nonprofit organization whose stated mission is "to defend and preserve the individual rights and liberties guaranteed to every person in this country by the Constitution and laws of the United States." Officially nonpartisan, the organization has been supported and criticized by liberal and conservative organizations alike.
Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights provides a right to respect for one's "private and family life, his home and his correspondence", subject to certain restrictions that are "in accordance with law" and "necessary in a democratic society".
Automatic number-plate recognition (ANPR; see also other names below) is a technology that uses optical character recognition on images to read vehicle registration plates to create vehicle location data.
Bahrain (البحرين), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain (مملكة البحرين), is an Arab constitutional monarchy in the Persian Gulf.
Biometrics is the technical term for body measurements and calculations.
The Black Chamber, also known as The Cipher Bureau, was the United States' first peacetime cryptanalytic organization, and a forerunner of the National Security Agency.
Blue Coat Systems was a company that provided hardware, software, and services designed for cybersecurity and network management.
The broken windows theory is a criminological theory that visible signs of crime, anti-social behavior and civil disorder create an urban environment that encourages further crime and disorder, including serious crimes.
Carnivore, later renamed DCS1000, was a system implemented by the Federal Bureau of Investigation that was designed to monitor email and electronic communications.
The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) is the premier investigating agency of India.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
China United Network Communications Group Co., Ltd. or China Unicom is a Chinese state-owned telecommunications operator of China.
Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals.
A clickwrap or clickthrough agreement or license is a common type of agreement for software licenses where the user electronically indicates their acceptance in order to use the software.
Closed-circuit television (CCTV), also known as video surveillance, is the use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place, on a limited set of monitors.
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
COINTELPRO (Portmanteau derived from '''CO'''unter '''INTEL'''ligence PROgram) (1956-1971) was a series of covert, and at times illegal, projects conducted by the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) aimed at surveilling, infiltrating, discrediting, and disrupting domestic political organizations.
Communication (from Latin commūnicāre, meaning "to share") is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules.
The Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (CALEA) is a United States wiretapping law passed in 1994, during the presidency of Bill Clinton (Pub. L. No. 103-414, 108 Stat. 4279, codified at 47 USC 1001-1010).
The Communist Party of China (CPC), also referred to as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China.
The Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV) is the founding and ruling communist party of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
The Computer and Internet Protocol Address Verifier (CIPAV) is a data gathering tool that the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) uses to track and gather location data on suspects under electronic surveillance.
Computer and network surveillance is the monitoring of computer activity and data stored on a hard drive, or data being transferred over computer networks such as the Internet.
The current Constitution of the Russian Federation (Конституция Российской Федерации, Konstitutsiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii) was adopted by national referendum on.
A convenience store or convenience shop is a small retail business that stocks a range of everyday items such as groceries, snack foods, confectionery, soft drinks, tobacco products, over-the-counter drugs, toiletries, newspapers, and magazines.
Copyright is a legal right, existing globally in many countries, that basically grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights to determine and decide whether, and under what conditions, this original work may be used by others.
Cory Efram Doctorow (born July 17, 1971) is a Canadian-British on his wife, Alice Taylor's Twitter stream, 12 August 2011 blogger, journalist, and science fiction author who serves as co-editor of the blog Boing Boing.
The Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) (Cour de justice de l'Union européenne) is the institution of the European Union (EU) that encompasses the whole judiciary.
In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority.
Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós, "hidden", and analýein, "to loosen" or "to untie") is the study of analyzing information systems in order to study the hidden aspects of the systems.
Cryptography or cryptology (from κρυπτός|translit.
Daniel Gerhard Brown (born June 22, 1964) is an American author of thriller novels, most notably the Robert Langdon stories: Angels & Demons (2000), The Da Vinci Code (2003), The Lost Symbol (2009), Inferno (2013) and ''Origin'' (2017).
The Data Protection Act 1998 was a United Kingdom Act of Parliament designed to protect personal data stored on computers or in an organised paper filing system.
The Data Protection Directive (officially Directive 95/46/EC on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data (PII (US)) and on the free movement of such data) was a European Union directive adopted in 1995 which regulates the processing of personal data within the European Union.
Data retention defines the policies of persistent data and records management for meeting legal and business data archival requirements; although sometimes interchangeable, not to be confused with the Data Protection Act 1998.
The Data Retention and Investigatory Powers Act 2014 (DRIPA) was repealed on 31 December 2016 and replaced by the Investigatory Powers Act 2016.
The Data Retention Directive, more formally "Directive 2006/24/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 March 2006 on the retention of data generated or processed in connection with the provision of publicly available electronic communications services or of public communications networks and amending Directive 2002/58/EC" was a Directive issued by the European Union and related to telecommunications data retention.
A database is an organized collection of data, stored and accessed electronically.
Sir David William Kinloch Anderson KBE QC (born 5 July 1961) is a British barrister who was the Independent Reviewer of Terrorism Legislation in the United Kingdom between 2011 and 2017.
Davos (German pronunciation; Tavau, archaic Italian: Tavate) is an Alpine town, and a municipality in the Prättigau/Davos Region in the canton of Graubünden, Switzerland.
Deep packet inspection is a type of data processing that inspects in detail the data being sent over a computer network, and usually takes action by blocking, re-routing, or logging it accordingly.
Digital Fortress is a techno-thriller novel written by American author Dan Brown and published in 1998 by St. Martin's Press.
The Digital Revolution, also known as the Third Industrial Revolution, is the shift from mechanical and analogue electronic technology to digital electronics which began anywhere from the late 1950s to the late 1970s with the adoption and proliferation of digital computers and digital record keeping that continues to the present day.
The Directorate of Revenue Intelligence (DRI) is an Indian intelligence agency.
Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison (Surveiller et punir : Naissance de la prison) is a 1975 book by the French philosopher Michel Foucault.
DNA profiling (also called DNA fingerprinting, DNA testing, or DNA typing) is the process of determining an individual's DNA characteristics, which are as unique as fingerprints.
A dystopia (from the Greek δυσ- "bad" and τόπος "place"; alternatively, cacotopia,Cacotopia (from κακός kakos "bad") was the term used by Jeremy Bentham in his 19th century works kakotopia, or simply anti-utopia) is a community or society that is undesirable or frightening.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
ECHELON, originally a secret government code name, is a surveillance program (signals intelligence/SIGINT collection and analysis network) operated by the US with the aid of four other signatory nations to the UKUSA Security Agreement Given the 5 dialects that use the terms, UKUSA can be pronounced from "You-Q-SA" to "Oo-Coo-SA", AUSCANNZUKUS can be pronounced from "Oz-Can-Zuke-Us" to "Orse-Can-Zoo-Cuss".
Edward Joseph Snowden (born June 21, 1983) is an American computer professional, former Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) employee, and former contractor for the United States government who copied and leaked classified information from the National Security Agency (NSA) in 2013 without authorization.
The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) is an international non-profit digital rights group based in San Francisco, California.
The Directorate of Enforcement (Hindi: प्रवर्तन निदेशालय) is a law enforcement agency and economic intelligence agency responsible for enforcing economic laws and fighting economic crime in India.
Ericsson (Telefonaktiebolaget L. M. Ericsson) is a Swedish multinational networking and telecommunications company headquartered in Stockholm.
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
The European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) (formally the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms) is an international treaty to protect human rights and political freedoms in Europe.
The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR or ECtHR; Cour européenne des droits de l’homme) is a supranational or international court established by the European Convention on Human Rights.
The European Court of Justice (ECJ), officially just the Court of Justice (Cour de Justice), is the supreme court of the European Union in matters of European Union law.
The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The European Union adopts legislation through a variety of legislative procedures.
Facebook is an American online social media and social networking service company based in Menlo Park, California.
A facial recognition system is a technology capable of identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame from a video source.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), formerly the Bureau of Investigation (BOI), is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, and its principal federal law enforcement agency.
The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.
The Federal Intelligence Service (German: Bundesnachrichtendienst;, BND) is the foreign intelligence agency of Germany, directly subordinated to the Chancellor's Office.
A financial transaction is an agreement, or communication, carried out between a buyer and a seller to exchange an asset for payment.
The FISA Amendments Act of 2008, also called the FAA and Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 Amendments Act of 2008, is an Act of Congress that amended the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act.
The Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development, also called Framework Programmes or abbreviated FP1 to FP7 with "FP8" being named "Horizon 2020", are funding programmes created by the European Union/European Commission to support and foster research in the European Research Area (ERA).
Freedom House is a U.S.-based 501(c)(3) U.S. government-funded non-governmental organization (NGO) that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom, and human rights.
The Freedom of Information Act 2000 (c.36) is an Act of Parliament of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that creates a public "right of access" to information held by public authorities.
Human gait refers to locomotion achieved through the movement of human limbs.
The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) (EU) 2016/679 is a regulation in EU law on data protection and privacy for all individuals within the European Union (EU) and the European Economic Area (EEA).
Geolocation is the identification or estimation of the real-world geographic location of an object, such as a radar source, mobile phone, or Internet-connected computer terminal.
Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 – 21 January 1950), better known by his pen name George Orwell, was an English novelist, essayist, journalist and critic whose work is marked by lucid prose, awareness of social injustice, opposition to totalitarianism and outspoken support of democratic socialism.
Glenn Edward Greenwald (born March 6, 1967) is an American lawyer, journalist, and author, best known for his role in a series of reports published by The Guardian newspaper beginning in June 2013, detailing the United States and British global surveillance programs, and based on classified documents disclosed by Edward Snowden.
Informally, a global issue is issue that any social, economic, political or environmental problem that adversely affects the global community and our environment, possibly in a catastrophic way.
Global surveillance refers to the mass surveillance of entire populations across national borders.
Ongoing news reports in the international media have revealed operational details about the United States National Security Agency (NSA) and its international partners' global surveillance of foreign nationals and U.S. citizens.
Gmail is a free, advertising-supported email service developed by Google.
Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware.
Google I/O (simply I/O) is an annual developer conference held by Google in Mountain View, California.
The Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) is an intelligence and security organisation responsible for providing signals intelligence (SIGINT) and information assurance to the government and armed forces of the United Kingdom.
A government database collects information for various reasons, including climate monitoring, securities law compliance, geological surveys, patent applications and grants, surveillance, national security, border control, law enforcement, public health, voter registration, vehicle registration, social security, and statistics.
The Great Firewall of China (abbreviated to GFW) is the combination of legislative actions and technologies enforced by the People's Republic of China to regulate the Internet domestically.
Bull SAS (also known as Groupe Bull, Bull Information Systems, or simply Bull) is a French-owned computer company headquartered in Les Clayes-sous-Bois, in the western suburbs of Paris.
Gurudas Kamat (born 5 October 1954) is an Indian politician from the Indian National Congress (INC).
Habeas corpus (Medieval Latin meaning literally "that you have the body") is a recourse in law through which a person can report an unlawful detention or imprisonment to a court and request that the court order the custodian of the person, usually a prison official, to bring the prisoner to court, to determine whether the detention is lawful.
The Hemisphere Project, also called simply Hemisphere, is a mass surveillance program conducted by US telephone company AT&T and paid for by the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy and the Drug Enforcement Administration.
The Housing & Development Board (Abbreviation: HDB; Lembaga Pembangunan dan Perumahan;; வீடமைப்பு வளர்ச்சிக் கழகம்) is the statutory board of the Ministry of National Development responsible for public housing in Singapore.
HTML5 is a markup language used for structuring and presenting content on the World Wide Web.
Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. is a Chinese multinational networking, telecommunications equipment, and services company headquartered in Shenzhen, Guangdong.
The Human Rights Act 1998 (c42) is an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom which received Royal Assent on 9 November 1998, and mostly came into force on 2 October 2000.
An identity document (also called a piece of identification or ID, or colloquially as papers) is any document which may be used to prove a person's identity.
INDECT is a research project in the area of intelligent security systems performed by several European universities since 2009 and funded by the European Union.
The Independent Reviewer of Terrorism Legislation is an independent person, appointed by the Home Secretary and by the Treasury for a renewable three-year term and tasked with reporting to the Home Secretary and to Parliament on the operation of counter-terrorism law in the UK.
The Information Age (also known as the Computer Age, Digital Age, or New Media Age) is a 21st century period in human history characterized by the rapid shift from traditional industry that the Industrial Revolution brought through industrialization, to an economy based on information technology.
Information privacy, or data privacy (or data protection), is the relationship between the collection and dissemination of data, technology, the public expectation of privacy, and the legal and political issues surrounding them.
The Information Technology Act, 2000 (also known as ITA-2000, or the IT Act) is an Act of the Indian Parliament (No 21 of 2000) notified on 17 October 2000.
An intelligence agency is a government agency responsible for the collection, analysis, and exploitation of information in support of law enforcement, national security, military, and foreign policy objectives.
The Intelligence and Security Committee of Parliament (ISC) is a committee of Parliament of the United Kingdom appointed to oversee the work of the intelligence machinery of the United Kingdom.
The Intelligence Bureau (IB) (Aasoochana Byooro) is India's internal intelligence agency.
The Interception of Communications Commissioner is a regulatory official in the United Kingdom, appointed under Section 57 of the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000, and previously under Section 8 of the Interception of Communications Act 1985.
The International Safe Harbor Privacy Principles or Safe Harbour Privacy Principles were principles developed between 1998 and 2000 in order to prevent private organizations within the European Union or United States which store customer data from accidentally disclosing or losing personal information.
The Investigatory Powers Act 2016 (nicknamed the Snoopers' Charter) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that has been passed by both Houses of Parliament, and the Queen signified her royal assent to the Investigatory Powers Act 2016 on 29 November 2016.
In the United Kingdom, the Investigatory Powers Tribunal (IPT) is a judicial body, independent of the British government, which hears complaints about surveillance by public bodies—in fact, "the only Tribunal to whom complaints about the Intelligence Services can be directed".
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
A landline telephone (also known as land line, land-line, main line, home phone, landline, fixed-line, and wireline) is a phone that uses a metal wire or optical fiber telephone line for transmission as distinguished from a mobile cellular line, which uses radio waves for transmission.
Lawful interception (LI) refers to the facilities in telecommunications and telephone networks that allow law enforcement agencies with court order or other legal authorization to selectively wiretap individual subscribers.
This is a list of government surveillance projects and related databases throughout the world.
Little Brother is a novel by Cory Doctorow, published by Tor Books.
A location-based service (LBS) is a software-level service that uses location data to control features.
Loyalty programs are structured marketing strategies designed by merchants to encourage customers to continue to shop at or use the services of businesses associated with each program.
Magic Lantern is keystroke logging software developed by the United States' Federal Bureau of Investigation.
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (Mahmūd Ahmadinezhād, born Mahmoud Sabbaghian (Sabbāghyān) on 28 October 1956) is an Iranian politician who was the sixth President of Iran from 2005 to 2013.
Mail cover is a law enforcement investigative technique in which the United States Postal Service, acting at the request of a law enforcement agency, records information from the outside of letters and parcels before they are delivered and then sends the information to the agency that requested it.
Mail Isolation Control and Tracking (MICT) is an imaging system employed by the United States Postal Service (USPS) that takes photographs of the exterior of every piece of mail that is processed in the United States.
MAINWAY is a database maintained by the United States' National Security Agency (NSA) containing metadata for hundreds of billions of telephone calls made through the four largest telephone carriers in the United States: AT&T, SBC, BellSouth (all three now called AT&T), and Verizon.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
Malware (a portmanteau for malicious software) is any software intentionally designed to cause damage to a computer, server or computer network.
In cryptography and computer security, a man-in-the-middle attack (MITM) is an attack where the attacker secretly relays and possibly alters the communication between two parties who believe they are directly communicating with each other.
Manuel Castells Oliván (born 1942) is a Spanish sociologist especially associated with research on the information society, communication and globalization.
Martin Luther King Jr. (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an American Baptist minister and activist who became the most visible spokesperson and leader in the civil rights movement from 1954 until his death in 1968.
Metadata is "data that provides information about other data".
Paul-Michel Foucault (15 October 1926 – 25 June 1984), generally known as Michel Foucault, was a French philosopher, historian of ideas, social theorist, and literary critic.
Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
The Minister for Defence of Sweden (försvarsminister; formal title: statsråd och chef för försvarsdepartementet) is a member of the Government of Sweden (Regeringen).
The Ministry of Communication and Information Technology was an Indian government ministry.
The Ministry of Defence (Bộ Quốc phòng) is the governmental ministry of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam that manages, coordinates and supervises military affairs, including all military units, paramilitary units, and similar agencies in the country.
A mobile phone, known as a cell phone in North America, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area.
Mobin Net (مبین نت) is an Iranian Internet service provider.
Irancell is an Iranian telecommunications company that operates Iran's second largest 2G-3G-4G-4.5G mobile network, and fixed wireless TD-LTE internet services.
Myspace (stylized as MySpace) is a social networking website offering an interactive, user-submitted network of friends, personal profiles, blogs, groups, photos, music, and videos.
The Narcotics Control Bureau (NCB) is the nodal drug law enforcement and intelligence agency of India responsible for fighting drug trafficking and the abuse of illegal substances.
Narus Inc. was a software company and vendor of big data analytics for cybersecurity.
The National Intelligence Grid or NATGRID is the integrated intelligence grid connecting databases of core security agencies of the Government of India to collect comprehensive patterns of intelligence that can be readily accessed by intelligence agencies.
The National Defence Radio Establishment (Försvarets radioanstalt, FRA) is a Swedish government agency organised under the Ministry of Defence.
National Investigation Agency (NIA) is a central agency established by the Indian Government to combat terror in India.
National security refers to the security of a nation state, including its citizens, economy, and institutions, and is regarded as a duty of government.
The National Security Agency (NSA) is a national-level intelligence agency of the United States Department of Defense, under the authority of the Director of National Intelligence.
Network theory is the study of graphs as a representation of either symmetric relations or asymmetric relations between discrete objects.
The City of New York Police Department, commonly known as the NYPD, is the primary law enforcement and investigation agency within the five boroughs of New York City.
Nineteen Eighty-Four, often published as 1984, is a dystopian novel published in 1949 by English author George Orwell.
Nokia Networks (formerly Nokia Solutions and Networks (NSN) and Nokia Siemens Networks (NSN) is a multinational data networking and telecommunications equipment company headquartered in Espoo, Finland, and wholly owned subsidiary of Nokia Corporation. It started as a joint venture between Nokia of Finland and Siemens of Germany known as Nokia Siemens Networks. Nokia Networks has operations in around 120 countries. In 2013, Nokia acquired 100% of Nokia Networks, buying all of Siemens' shares. In April 2014, NSN name was phased out as part of rebranding process.
The nothing to hide argument states that government surveillance programs do not threaten privacy unless they uncover illegal activities, and that if they do uncover illegal activities, the person committing these activities does not have the right to keep them private.
The OpenNet Initiative (ONI) was a joint project whose goal was to monitor and report on internet filtering and surveillance practices by nations.
OpenSocial is a public specification that defines a component hosting environment (container) and a set of common application programming interfaces (APIs) for Web-based applications.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.
Pattern recognition is a branch of machine learning that focuses on the recognition of patterns and regularities in data, although it is in some cases considered to be nearly synonymous with machine learning.
A pen register, or dialed number recorder (DNR), is an electronic device that records all numbers called from a particular telephone line.
Phishing is the fraudulent attempt to obtain sensitive information such as usernames, passwords, and credit card details (and money), often for malicious reasons, by disguising as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication.
Phone surveillance is the act of performing surveillance of phone conversations, location tracking and data monitoring of a phone.
Police state is a term denoting a government that exercises power arbitrarily through the power of the police force.
The Press Information Bureau, commonly abbreviated as PIB, is a nodal agency of the Government of India.
PRISM is a code name for a program under which the United States National Security Agency (NSA) collects internet communications from various U.S. internet companies.
Privacy is the ability of an individual or group to seclude themselves, or information about themselves, and thereby express themselves selectively.
Privacy International (PI) is a UK-based registered charity that defends and promotes the right to privacy across the world.
Project SHAMROCK, considered to be the sister project for Project MINARET, was an espionage exercise, started in August 1945 that involved the accumulation of all telegraphic data entering into or exiting from the United States.
The Protection of Freedoms Act 2012 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Radio-frequency identification (RFID) uses electromagnetic fields to automatically identify and track tags attached to objects.
The Rajya Sabha or Council of States is the upper house of the Parliament of India.
Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order.
Rediff.com is an Indian news, information, entertainment and shopping web portal, founded in 1996 as "Rediff On The NeT".
The Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000 (c.23) (RIP or RIPA) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, regulating the powers of public bodies to carry out surveillance and investigation, and covering the interception of communications.
Reporters Without Borders (RWB), or Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF), is an international non-profit, non-governmental organization that promotes and defends freedom of information and freedom of the press.
The Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW or RAW) (IAST: Anusaṃdhān Aur Viśleṣaṇ Viṃg) is the foreign intelligence agency of India.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
The right to privacy is an element of various legal traditions to restrain governmental and private actions that threaten the privacy of individuals.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The term secret police (or political police)Ilan Berman & J. Michael Waller, "Introduction: The Centrality of the Secret Police" in Dismantling Tyranny: Transitioning Beyond Totalitarian Regimes (Rowman & Littlefield, 2006), p. xv.
In the United Kingdom, a secretary of state (SofS) is a Cabinet minister in charge of a government department (though not all departments are headed by a secretary of state, e.g. HM Treasury is headed by the Chancellor of the Exchequer).
Security is freedom from, or resilience against, potential harm (or other unwanted coercive change) from external forces.
Self-censorship is the act of censoring or classifying one's own discourse.
The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
Signals intelligence (SIGINT) is intelligence-gathering by interception of signals, whether communications between people (communications intelligence—abbreviated to COMINT) or from electronic signals not directly used in communication (electronic intelligence—abbreviated to ELINT).
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
The Singapore Police Force (Abbreviation: SPF; Pasukan Polis Singapura;; சிங்கப்பூர் காவல் துறை) is the main government agency tasked with maintaining law and order in the island city-state.
Singapore Telecommunications Limited (commonly abbreviated as Singtel, and previously stylised as SingTel) is a Singaporean telecommunications company.
Skype is a telecommunications application software product that specializes in providing video chat and voice calls between computers, tablets, mobile devices, the Xbox One console, and smartwatches via the Internet and to regular telephones.
Smart Nation is a Singaporean government initiative to harness infocomm technologies, networks and big data to create tech-enabled solutions.
SMS (short message service) is a text messaging service component of most telephone, internet, and mobile-device systems.
Social engineering, in the context of information security, refers to psychological manipulation of people into performing actions or divulging confidential information.
Social network analysis (SNA) is the process of investigating social structures through the use of networks and graph theory.
SORM (lit) is the technical specification for lawful interception interfaces of telecommunications and telephone networks operating in Russia.
Sousveillance is the recording of an activity by a participant in the activity, typically by way of small wearable or portable personal technologies.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Special Relationship is an unofficial term for the political, diplomatic, cultural, economic, military, and historical relations between the United Kingdom and the United States.
Speech recognition is the inter-disciplinary sub-field of computational linguistics that develops methodologies and technologies that enables the recognition and translation of spoken language into text by computers.
The Ministry for State Security (Ministerium für Staatssicherheit, MfS) or State Security Service (Staatssicherheitsdienst, SSD), commonly known as the Stasi, was the official state security service of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany).
A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.
Statewatch is a non-profit organization founded in 1991 that monitors the state, justice and home affairs (JHA), security and civil liberties in the European Union.
Sten Sture Tolgfors (born 17 July 1966 in Forshaga) is the manager and part owner of the business consulting firm Rud Pedersen and a former Swedish politician.
Surveillance is the monitoring of behavior, activities, or other changing information for the purpose of influencing, managing, directing, or protecting people.
Surveillance capitalism is a term first introduced by John Bellamy Foster and Robert W. McChesney in Monthly Review in 2014 and later popularized by academic Shoshana Zuboff that denotes a new genus of capitalism that monetizes data acquired through surveillance.
Suzanne Collins (born August 10, 1962) is an American television writer and author, best known as the author of The New York Times best selling series The Underland Chronicles and ''The Hunger Games'' trilogy (which consists of The Hunger Games, Catching Fire, and Mockingjay).
Svenska Dagbladet ("The Swedish Daily News"), abbreviated SvD, is a daily newspaper published in Stockholm, Sweden.
Sveriges Radio AB ("Swedish Radio") is Sweden's national publicly funded radio broadcaster.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The Syrian Civil War (الحرب الأهلية السورية, Al-ḥarb al-ʼahliyyah as-sūriyyah) is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria fought primarily between the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic led by President Bashar al-Assad, along with its allies, and various forces opposing both the government and each other in varying combinations.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Targeted surveillance (or targeted interception) is a form of surveillance that is targeted on specific persons of interest and distinguished from mass surveillance (or bulk interception).
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.
Telecommunication Company of Iran, or TCI (شرکت مخابرات ایران) is the fixed-line incumbent operator in Iran offering services in fixed telephony, DSL and data services for both residential and business customers, all throughout the country.
Telephone tapping (also wire tapping or wiretapping in American English) is the monitoring of telephone and Internet conversations by a third party, often by covert means.
Telephone tapping in the countries of the Eastern Bloc was a widespread method of the mass surveillance of the population by the secret police.
Telepolis is a German Internet magazine, published by the Heinz Heise Verlag since the beginning of 1996.
Tempora is the codeword for a formerly secret computer system that is used by the British Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ).
Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people; or fear to achieve a financial, political, religious or ideological aim.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
The Hunger Games is a trilogy of young adult dystopian novels written by American novelist Suzanne Collins.
The Lives of Others (Das Leben der Anderen) is a 2006 German drama film, marking the feature film debut of filmmaker Florian Henckel von Donnersmarck, about the monitoring of East Berlin residents by agents of the Stasi, the GDR's secret police.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Shadow Factory: The Ultra-Secret NSA from 9/11 to the Eavesdropping on America is a book on the National Security Agency by author James Bamford.
The Times of India (TOI) is an Indian English-language daily newspaper owned by The Times Group.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
TOM Group Limited is a Chinese-language media company in the Greater China region, with business interests across markets in Mainland China, Taiwan and Hong Kong.
Benito Mussolini Totalitarianism is a political concept where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to control every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.
A tracking system is used for the observing of persons or objects on the move and supplying a timely ordered sequence of location data for further processing.
Traffic analysis is the process of intercepting and examining messages in order to deduce information from patterns in communication, which can be performed even when the messages are encrypted.
A traffic enforcement camera (also red light camera, road safety camera, road rule camera, photo radar, photo enforcement, speed camera, Gatso, safety camera, bus lane camera, flash for cash, Safe-T-Cam, depending on use) is a camera which may be mounted beside or over a road or installed in an enforcement vehicle to detect traffic regulation violations, including speeding, vehicles going through a red traffic light, vehicles going through a toll booth without paying, unauthorized use of a bus lane, or for recording vehicles inside a congestion charge area.
Twitter is an online news and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets".
The United Kingdom – United States of America Agreement (UKUSA) is a multilateral agreement for cooperation in signals intelligence between Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is a cabinet department of the United States federal government with responsibilities in public security, roughly comparable to the interior or home ministries of other countries.
An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), commonly known as a drone, is an aircraft without a human pilot aboard.
Upstream collection is a term used by the National Security Agency (NSA) of the United States for intercepting telephone and Internet traffic from the Internet backbone, i.e. major Internet cables and switches, both domestic and foreign.
USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Vietnam Posts and Telecommunications Group, commonly abbreviated as VNPT, is a telecommunications company, owned by the Vietnamese Government, and the national post office of Vietnam.
Viettel Group (full name in Tập đoàn Công nghiệp Viễn thông Quân đội) is Vietnam's largest mobile network operator.
We (translit) is a dystopian novel by Russian writer Yevgeny Zamyatin, completed in 1921.
Wen Jiabao (born 15 September 1942) was the sixth Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, serving as China's head of government for a decade between 2003 and 2013.
West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.
The Western Union Company is an American financial services and communications company.
The World Economic Forum (WEF) is a Swiss nonprofit foundation, based in Cologny, Geneva, Switzerland.
The World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or the Web) is an information space where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators (URLs), interlinked by hypertext links, and accessible via the Internet.
The Yarovaya law (rus. Закон Яровой), also Yarovaya package, refers to a pair of Russian federal bills, 374-FZ and 375-FZ, passed in 2016.
Yevgeny Ivanovich Zamyatin (p; 20 January (Julian) / 1 February (Gregorian), 1884 – 10 March 1937), sometimes anglicized as Eugene Zamyatin, was a Russian author of science fiction and political satire.
Zakharov v. Russia was a 2015 court case before the European Court of Human Rights involving Roman Zakharov and the Russian Federation.
ZTE Corporation is a Chinese multinational telecommunications equipment and systems company headquartered in Shenzhen, Guangdong, China.
The 2004 Republican National Convention, the presidential nominating convention of the Republican Party of the United States, took place from August 30 to September 2, 2004 at Madison Square Garden in New York City, New York.
Protests against the 2009 Iranian presidential election results (اعتراضات علیه نتایج انتخابات ریاست جمهوری سال ۱۳۸۸) (a disputed victory by Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad), in support of opposition candidates Mir-Hossein Mousavi and Mehdi Karroubi, occurred in major cities nationwide from 2009 into early 2010.
Bulk surveillance, Commercial mass surveillance, Electronic Police State, Electronic police state, Mass Surveillance, Mass surveillance in Iran, Mass surveillance in the European Union, Surveillance culture, Surveillance societies, Surveillance society, Surveillance state, Surveillance-industrial complex, Surveillence society.