Get it on Google Play
New! Download Unionpedia on your Android™ device!
Faster access than browser!

Mass surveillance

+ Save concept

Mass surveillance is the intricate surveillance of an entire or a substantial fraction of a population in order to monitor that group of citizens. [1]

250 relations: Aadhaar, Abnormality (behavior), AdSense, Albert Einstein, American Civil Liberties Union, Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights, Automatic number-plate recognition, Bahrain, Biometrics, Black Chamber, Blue Coat Systems, Broken windows theory, Carnivore (software), Central Bureau of Investigation, China, China Unicom, Civil and political rights, Click wrap, Closed-circuit television, CNN, COINTELPRO, Communication, Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act, Communist Party of China, Communist Party of Vietnam, Computer and Internet Protocol Address Verifier, Computer and network surveillance, Constitution of Russia, Convenience store, Copyright, Cory Doctorow, Court of Justice of the European Union, Crime, Cryptanalysis, Cryptography, Dan Brown, Data Protection Act 1998, Data Protection Directive, Data retention, Data Retention and Investigatory Powers Act 2014, Data Retention Directive, Database, David Anderson (barrister), Davos, Deep packet inspection, Digital Fortress, Digital Revolution, Directorate of Revenue Intelligence, Discipline and Punish, DNA profiling, ..., Dystopia, East Germany, ECHELON, Edward Snowden, Electronic Frontier Foundation, Enforcement Directorate, Ericsson, Ethics, European Commission, European Convention on Human Rights, European Court of Human Rights, European Court of Justice, European Parliament, European Union, European Union legislative procedure, Facebook, Facial recognition system, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Federal government of the United States, Federal Intelligence Service (Germany), Financial transaction, Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 Amendments Act of 2008, Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development, Freedom House, Freedom of Information Act 2000, Gait (human), General Data Protection Regulation, Geolocation, George Orwell, Glenn Greenwald, Global issue, Global surveillance, Global surveillance disclosures (2013–present), Gmail, Google, Google I/O, Government Communications Headquarters, Government database, Great Firewall, Greece, Groupe Bull, Gurudas Kamat, Habeas corpus, Hemisphere Project, Housing and Development Board, HTML5, Huawei, Human Rights Act 1998, Identity document, INDECT, Independent Reviewer of Terrorism Legislation, Information Age, Information privacy, Information Technology Act, 2000, Intelligence agency, Intelligence and Security Committee of Parliament, Intelligence Bureau (India), Interception of Communications Commissioner, International Safe Harbor Privacy Principles, Investigatory Powers Act 2016, Investigatory Powers Tribunal, Iran, James Bamford, Landline, Lawful interception, List of government mass surveillance projects, Little Brother (Doctorow novel), Location-based service, Loyalty program, Magic Lantern (software), Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Mail cover, Mail Isolation Control and Tracking, MAINWAY, Malaysia, Malware, Man-in-the-middle attack, Manuel Castells, Martin Luther King Jr., Metadata, Michel Foucault, Microsoft, Minister of Defence (Sweden), Ministry of Communications and Information Technology (India), Ministry of Defence (Vietnam), Mobile phone, Mobinnet, MTN Irancell, Myspace, Narcotics Control Bureau, Narus (company), NATGRID, National Defence Radio Establishment, National Investigation Agency, National security, National Security Agency, Network theory, New York City Police Department, Nineteen Eighty-Four, Nokia Networks, Nothing to hide argument, OpenNet Initiative, OpenSocial, Parliament of the United Kingdom, Pattern recognition, Pen register, Phishing, Phone surveillance, Police state, Press Information Bureau, PRISM (surveillance program), Privacy, Privacy International, Project SHAMROCK, Protection of Freedoms Act 2012, Radio-frequency identification, Rajya Sabha, Rebellion, Rediff.com, Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000, Reporters Without Borders, Research and Analysis Wing, Reuters, Right to privacy, Russia, Secret police, Secretary of State (United Kingdom), Security, Self-censorship, September 11 attacks, Signals intelligence, Singapore, Singapore Police Force, Singtel, Skype, Smart Nation, SMS, Social engineering (security), Social network analysis, SORM, Sousveillance, Soviet Union, Special Relationship, Speech recognition, Stasi, State (polity), Statewatch, Sten Tolgfors, Surveillance, Surveillance capitalism, Suzanne Collins, Svenska Dagbladet, Sveriges Radio, Syria, Syrian Civil War, Taiwan, Targeted surveillance, Telecommunication, Telecommunication Company of Iran, Telephone tapping, Telephone tapping in the Eastern Bloc, Telepolis, Tempora, Terrorism, Thailand, The Hunger Games, The Lives of Others, The New York Times, The Shadow Factory, The Times of India, The Wall Street Journal, Time (magazine), TOM Group, Totalitarianism, Tracking system, Traffic analysis, Traffic enforcement camera, Twitter, UKUSA Agreement, United Kingdom, United States, United States Department of Homeland Security, Unmanned aerial vehicle, Upstream collection, USA Today, Vietnam, Vietnam Posts and Telecommunications Group, Viettel, We (novel), Wen Jiabao, West Germany, Western Union, World Economic Forum, World Wide Web, Yarovaya law, Yevgeny Zamyatin, Zakharov v. Russia, ZTE, 2004 Republican National Convention, 2009 Iranian presidential election protests. Expand index (200 more) »


Aadhaar (English: Foundation) is a 12-digit unique identity number that can be obtained by residents of India, based on their biometric and demographic data.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Aadhaar · See more »

Abnormality (behavior)

Abnormality (or dysfunctional behavior) is a behavioral characteristic assigned to those with conditions regarded as rare or dysfunctional.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Abnormality (behavior) · See more »


Google AdSense is a program run by Google that allows publishers in the Google Network of content sites to serve automatic text, image, video, or interactive media advertisements, that are targeted to site content and audience.

New!!: Mass surveillance and AdSense · See more »

Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).

New!!: Mass surveillance and Albert Einstein · See more »

American Civil Liberties Union

The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) is a nonprofit organization whose stated mission is "to defend and preserve the individual rights and liberties guaranteed to every person in this country by the Constitution and laws of the United States." Officially nonpartisan, the organization has been supported and criticized by liberal and conservative organizations alike.

New!!: Mass surveillance and American Civil Liberties Union · See more »

Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights

Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights provides a right to respect for one's "private and family life, his home and his correspondence", subject to certain restrictions that are "in accordance with law" and "necessary in a democratic society".

New!!: Mass surveillance and Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights · See more »

Automatic number-plate recognition

Automatic number-plate recognition (ANPR; see also other names below) is a technology that uses optical character recognition on images to read vehicle registration plates to create vehicle location data.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Automatic number-plate recognition · See more »


Bahrain (البحرين), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain (مملكة البحرين), is an Arab constitutional monarchy in the Persian Gulf.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Bahrain · See more »


Biometrics is the technical term for body measurements and calculations.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Biometrics · See more »

Black Chamber

The Black Chamber, also known as The Cipher Bureau, was the United States' first peacetime cryptanalytic organization, and a forerunner of the National Security Agency.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Black Chamber · See more »

Blue Coat Systems

Blue Coat Systems was a company that provided hardware, software, and services designed for cybersecurity and network management.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Blue Coat Systems · See more »

Broken windows theory

The broken windows theory is a criminological theory that visible signs of crime, anti-social behavior and civil disorder create an urban environment that encourages further crime and disorder, including serious crimes.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Broken windows theory · See more »

Carnivore (software)

Carnivore, later renamed DCS1000, was a system implemented by the Federal Bureau of Investigation that was designed to monitor email and electronic communications.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Carnivore (software) · See more »

Central Bureau of Investigation

The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) is the premier investigating agency of India.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Central Bureau of Investigation · See more »


China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

New!!: Mass surveillance and China · See more »

China Unicom

China United Network Communications Group Co., Ltd. or China Unicom is a Chinese state-owned telecommunications operator of China.

New!!: Mass surveillance and China Unicom · See more »

Civil and political rights

Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Civil and political rights · See more »

Click wrap

A clickwrap or clickthrough agreement or license is a common type of agreement for software licenses where the user electronically indicates their acceptance in order to use the software.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Click wrap · See more »

Closed-circuit television

Closed-circuit television (CCTV), also known as video surveillance, is the use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place, on a limited set of monitors.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Closed-circuit television · See more »


Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.

New!!: Mass surveillance and CNN · See more »


COINTELPRO (Portmanteau derived from '''CO'''unter '''INTEL'''ligence PROgram) (1956-1971) was a series of covert, and at times illegal, projects conducted by the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) aimed at surveilling, infiltrating, discrediting, and disrupting domestic political organizations.

New!!: Mass surveillance and COINTELPRO · See more »


Communication (from Latin commūnicāre, meaning "to share") is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Communication · See more »

Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act

The Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (CALEA) is a United States wiretapping law passed in 1994, during the presidency of Bill Clinton (Pub. L. No. 103-414, 108 Stat. 4279, codified at 47 USC 1001-1010).

New!!: Mass surveillance and Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act · See more »

Communist Party of China

The Communist Party of China (CPC), also referred to as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Communist Party of China · See more »

Communist Party of Vietnam

The Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV) is the founding and ruling communist party of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Communist Party of Vietnam · See more »

Computer and Internet Protocol Address Verifier

The Computer and Internet Protocol Address Verifier (CIPAV) is a data gathering tool that the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) uses to track and gather location data on suspects under electronic surveillance.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Computer and Internet Protocol Address Verifier · See more »

Computer and network surveillance

Computer and network surveillance is the monitoring of computer activity and data stored on a hard drive, or data being transferred over computer networks such as the Internet.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Computer and network surveillance · See more »

Constitution of Russia

The current Constitution of the Russian Federation (Конституция Российской Федерации, Konstitutsiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii) was adopted by national referendum on.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Constitution of Russia · See more »

Convenience store

A convenience store or convenience shop is a small retail business that stocks a range of everyday items such as groceries, snack foods, confectionery, soft drinks, tobacco products, over-the-counter drugs, toiletries, newspapers, and magazines.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Convenience store · See more »


Copyright is a legal right, existing globally in many countries, that basically grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights to determine and decide whether, and under what conditions, this original work may be used by others.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Copyright · See more »

Cory Doctorow

Cory Efram Doctorow (born July 17, 1971) is a Canadian-British on his wife, Alice Taylor's Twitter stream, 12 August 2011 blogger, journalist, and science fiction author who serves as co-editor of the blog Boing Boing.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Cory Doctorow · See more »

Court of Justice of the European Union

The Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) (Cour de justice de l'Union européenne) is the institution of the European Union (EU) that encompasses the whole judiciary.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Court of Justice of the European Union · See more »


In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Crime · See more »


Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós, "hidden", and analýein, "to loosen" or "to untie") is the study of analyzing information systems in order to study the hidden aspects of the systems.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Cryptanalysis · See more »


Cryptography or cryptology (from κρυπτός|translit.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Cryptography · See more »

Dan Brown

Daniel Gerhard Brown (born June 22, 1964) is an American author of thriller novels, most notably the Robert Langdon stories: Angels & Demons (2000), The Da Vinci Code (2003), The Lost Symbol (2009), Inferno (2013) and ''Origin'' (2017).

New!!: Mass surveillance and Dan Brown · See more »

Data Protection Act 1998

The Data Protection Act 1998 was a United Kingdom Act of Parliament designed to protect personal data stored on computers or in an organised paper filing system.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Data Protection Act 1998 · See more »

Data Protection Directive

The Data Protection Directive (officially Directive 95/46/EC on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data (PII (US)) and on the free movement of such data) was a European Union directive adopted in 1995 which regulates the processing of personal data within the European Union.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Data Protection Directive · See more »

Data retention

Data retention defines the policies of persistent data and records management for meeting legal and business data archival requirements; although sometimes interchangeable, not to be confused with the Data Protection Act 1998.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Data retention · See more »

Data Retention and Investigatory Powers Act 2014

The Data Retention and Investigatory Powers Act 2014 (DRIPA) was repealed on 31 December 2016 and replaced by the Investigatory Powers Act 2016.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Data Retention and Investigatory Powers Act 2014 · See more »

Data Retention Directive

The Data Retention Directive, more formally "Directive 2006/24/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 March 2006 on the retention of data generated or processed in connection with the provision of publicly available electronic communications services or of public communications networks and amending Directive 2002/58/EC" was a Directive issued by the European Union and related to telecommunications data retention.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Data Retention Directive · See more »


A database is an organized collection of data, stored and accessed electronically.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Database · See more »

David Anderson (barrister)

Sir David William Kinloch Anderson KBE QC (born 5 July 1961) is a British barrister who was the Independent Reviewer of Terrorism Legislation in the United Kingdom between 2011 and 2017.

New!!: Mass surveillance and David Anderson (barrister) · See more »


Davos (German pronunciation; Tavau, archaic Italian: Tavate) is an Alpine town, and a municipality in the Prättigau/Davos Region in the canton of Graubünden, Switzerland.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Davos · See more »

Deep packet inspection

Deep packet inspection is a type of data processing that inspects in detail the data being sent over a computer network, and usually takes action by blocking, re-routing, or logging it accordingly.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Deep packet inspection · See more »

Digital Fortress

Digital Fortress is a techno-thriller novel written by American author Dan Brown and published in 1998 by St. Martin's Press.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Digital Fortress · See more »

Digital Revolution

The Digital Revolution, also known as the Third Industrial Revolution, is the shift from mechanical and analogue electronic technology to digital electronics which began anywhere from the late 1950s to the late 1970s with the adoption and proliferation of digital computers and digital record keeping that continues to the present day.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Digital Revolution · See more »

Directorate of Revenue Intelligence

The Directorate of Revenue Intelligence (DRI) is an Indian intelligence agency.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Directorate of Revenue Intelligence · See more »

Discipline and Punish

Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison (Surveiller et punir : Naissance de la prison) is a 1975 book by the French philosopher Michel Foucault.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Discipline and Punish · See more »

DNA profiling

DNA profiling (also called DNA fingerprinting, DNA testing, or DNA typing) is the process of determining an individual's DNA characteristics, which are as unique as fingerprints.

New!!: Mass surveillance and DNA profiling · See more »


A dystopia (from the Greek δυσ- "bad" and τόπος "place"; alternatively, cacotopia,Cacotopia (from κακός kakos "bad") was the term used by Jeremy Bentham in his 19th century works kakotopia, or simply anti-utopia) is a community or society that is undesirable or frightening.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Dystopia · See more »

East Germany

East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.

New!!: Mass surveillance and East Germany · See more »


ECHELON, originally a secret government code name, is a surveillance program (signals intelligence/SIGINT collection and analysis network) operated by the US with the aid of four other signatory nations to the UKUSA Security Agreement Given the 5 dialects that use the terms, UKUSA can be pronounced from "You-Q-SA" to "Oo-Coo-SA", AUSCANNZUKUS can be pronounced from "Oz-Can-Zuke-Us" to "Orse-Can-Zoo-Cuss".

New!!: Mass surveillance and ECHELON · See more »

Edward Snowden

Edward Joseph Snowden (born June 21, 1983) is an American computer professional, former Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) employee, and former contractor for the United States government who copied and leaked classified information from the National Security Agency (NSA) in 2013 without authorization.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Edward Snowden · See more »

Electronic Frontier Foundation

The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) is an international non-profit digital rights group based in San Francisco, California.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Electronic Frontier Foundation · See more »

Enforcement Directorate

The Directorate of Enforcement (Hindi: प्रवर्तन निदेशालय) is a law enforcement agency and economic intelligence agency responsible for enforcing economic laws and fighting economic crime in India.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Enforcement Directorate · See more »


Ericsson (Telefonaktiebolaget L. M. Ericsson) is a Swedish multinational networking and telecommunications company headquartered in Stockholm.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Ericsson · See more »


Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Ethics · See more »

European Commission

The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.

New!!: Mass surveillance and European Commission · See more »

European Convention on Human Rights

The European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) (formally the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms) is an international treaty to protect human rights and political freedoms in Europe.

New!!: Mass surveillance and European Convention on Human Rights · See more »

European Court of Human Rights

The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR or ECtHR; Cour européenne des droits de l’homme) is a supranational or international court established by the European Convention on Human Rights.

New!!: Mass surveillance and European Court of Human Rights · See more »

European Court of Justice

The European Court of Justice (ECJ), officially just the Court of Justice (Cour de Justice), is the supreme court of the European Union in matters of European Union law.

New!!: Mass surveillance and European Court of Justice · See more »

European Parliament

The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).

New!!: Mass surveillance and European Parliament · See more »

European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

New!!: Mass surveillance and European Union · See more »

European Union legislative procedure

The European Union adopts legislation through a variety of legislative procedures.

New!!: Mass surveillance and European Union legislative procedure · See more »


Facebook is an American online social media and social networking service company based in Menlo Park, California.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Facebook · See more »

Facial recognition system

A facial recognition system is a technology capable of identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame from a video source.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Facial recognition system · See more »

Federal Bureau of Investigation

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), formerly the Bureau of Investigation (BOI), is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, and its principal federal law enforcement agency.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Federal Bureau of Investigation · See more »

Federal government of the United States

The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Federal government of the United States · See more »

Federal Intelligence Service (Germany)

The Federal Intelligence Service (German: Bundesnachrichtendienst;, BND) is the foreign intelligence agency of Germany, directly subordinated to the Chancellor's Office.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Federal Intelligence Service (Germany) · See more »

Financial transaction

A financial transaction is an agreement, or communication, carried out between a buyer and a seller to exchange an asset for payment.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Financial transaction · See more »

Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 Amendments Act of 2008

The FISA Amendments Act of 2008, also called the FAA and Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 Amendments Act of 2008, is an Act of Congress that amended the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 Amendments Act of 2008 · See more »

Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development

The Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development, also called Framework Programmes or abbreviated FP1 to FP7 with "FP8" being named "Horizon 2020", are funding programmes created by the European Union/European Commission to support and foster research in the European Research Area (ERA).

New!!: Mass surveillance and Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development · See more »

Freedom House

Freedom House is a U.S.-based 501(c)(3) U.S. government-funded non-governmental organization (NGO) that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom, and human rights.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Freedom House · See more »

Freedom of Information Act 2000

The Freedom of Information Act 2000 (c.36) is an Act of Parliament of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that creates a public "right of access" to information held by public authorities.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Freedom of Information Act 2000 · See more »

Gait (human)

Human gait refers to locomotion achieved through the movement of human limbs.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Gait (human) · See more »

General Data Protection Regulation

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) (EU) 2016/679 is a regulation in EU law on data protection and privacy for all individuals within the European Union (EU) and the European Economic Area (EEA).

New!!: Mass surveillance and General Data Protection Regulation · See more »


Geolocation is the identification or estimation of the real-world geographic location of an object, such as a radar source, mobile phone, or Internet-connected computer terminal.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Geolocation · See more »

George Orwell

Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 – 21 January 1950), better known by his pen name George Orwell, was an English novelist, essayist, journalist and critic whose work is marked by lucid prose, awareness of social injustice, opposition to totalitarianism and outspoken support of democratic socialism.

New!!: Mass surveillance and George Orwell · See more »

Glenn Greenwald

Glenn Edward Greenwald (born March 6, 1967) is an American lawyer, journalist, and author, best known for his role in a series of reports published by The Guardian newspaper beginning in June 2013, detailing the United States and British global surveillance programs, and based on classified documents disclosed by Edward Snowden.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Glenn Greenwald · See more »

Global issue

Informally, a global issue is issue that any social, economic, political or environmental problem that adversely affects the global community and our environment, possibly in a catastrophic way.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Global issue · See more »

Global surveillance

Global surveillance refers to the mass surveillance of entire populations across national borders.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Global surveillance · See more »

Global surveillance disclosures (2013–present)

Ongoing news reports in the international media have revealed operational details about the United States National Security Agency (NSA) and its international partners' global surveillance of foreign nationals and U.S. citizens.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Global surveillance disclosures (2013–present) · See more »


Gmail is a free, advertising-supported email service developed by Google.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Gmail · See more »


Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Google · See more »

Google I/O

Google I/O (simply I/O) is an annual developer conference held by Google in Mountain View, California.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Google I/O · See more »

Government Communications Headquarters

The Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) is an intelligence and security organisation responsible for providing signals intelligence (SIGINT) and information assurance to the government and armed forces of the United Kingdom.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Government Communications Headquarters · See more »

Government database

A government database collects information for various reasons, including climate monitoring, securities law compliance, geological surveys, patent applications and grants, surveillance, national security, border control, law enforcement, public health, voter registration, vehicle registration, social security, and statistics.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Government database · See more »

Great Firewall

The Great Firewall of China (abbreviated to GFW) is the combination of legislative actions and technologies enforced by the People's Republic of China to regulate the Internet domestically.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Great Firewall · See more »


No description.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Greece · See more »

Groupe Bull

Bull SAS (also known as Groupe Bull, Bull Information Systems, or simply Bull) is a French-owned computer company headquartered in Les Clayes-sous-Bois, in the western suburbs of Paris.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Groupe Bull · See more »

Gurudas Kamat

Gurudas Kamat (born 5 October 1954) is an Indian politician from the Indian National Congress (INC).

New!!: Mass surveillance and Gurudas Kamat · See more »

Habeas corpus

Habeas corpus (Medieval Latin meaning literally "that you have the body") is a recourse in law through which a person can report an unlawful detention or imprisonment to a court and request that the court order the custodian of the person, usually a prison official, to bring the prisoner to court, to determine whether the detention is lawful.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Habeas corpus · See more »

Hemisphere Project

The Hemisphere Project, also called simply Hemisphere, is a mass surveillance program conducted by US telephone company AT&T and paid for by the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy and the Drug Enforcement Administration.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Hemisphere Project · See more »

Housing and Development Board

The Housing & Development Board (Abbreviation: HDB; Lembaga Pembangunan dan Perumahan;; வீடமைப்பு வளர்ச்சிக் கழகம்) is the statutory board of the Ministry of National Development responsible for public housing in Singapore.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Housing and Development Board · See more »


HTML5 is a markup language used for structuring and presenting content on the World Wide Web.

New!!: Mass surveillance and HTML5 · See more »


Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. is a Chinese multinational networking, telecommunications equipment, and services company headquartered in Shenzhen, Guangdong.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Huawei · See more »

Human Rights Act 1998

The Human Rights Act 1998 (c42) is an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom which received Royal Assent on 9 November 1998, and mostly came into force on 2 October 2000.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Human Rights Act 1998 · See more »

Identity document

An identity document (also called a piece of identification or ID, or colloquially as papers) is any document which may be used to prove a person's identity.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Identity document · See more »


INDECT is a research project in the area of intelligent security systems performed by several European universities since 2009 and funded by the European Union.

New!!: Mass surveillance and INDECT · See more »

Independent Reviewer of Terrorism Legislation

The Independent Reviewer of Terrorism Legislation is an independent person, appointed by the Home Secretary and by the Treasury for a renewable three-year term and tasked with reporting to the Home Secretary and to Parliament on the operation of counter-terrorism law in the UK.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Independent Reviewer of Terrorism Legislation · See more »

Information Age

The Information Age (also known as the Computer Age, Digital Age, or New Media Age) is a 21st century period in human history characterized by the rapid shift from traditional industry that the Industrial Revolution brought through industrialization, to an economy based on information technology.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Information Age · See more »

Information privacy

Information privacy, or data privacy (or data protection), is the relationship between the collection and dissemination of data, technology, the public expectation of privacy, and the legal and political issues surrounding them.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Information privacy · See more »

Information Technology Act, 2000

The Information Technology Act, 2000 (also known as ITA-2000, or the IT Act) is an Act of the Indian Parliament (No 21 of 2000) notified on 17 October 2000.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Information Technology Act, 2000 · See more »

Intelligence agency

An intelligence agency is a government agency responsible for the collection, analysis, and exploitation of information in support of law enforcement, national security, military, and foreign policy objectives.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Intelligence agency · See more »

Intelligence and Security Committee of Parliament

The Intelligence and Security Committee of Parliament (ISC) is a committee of Parliament of the United Kingdom appointed to oversee the work of the intelligence machinery of the United Kingdom.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Intelligence and Security Committee of Parliament · See more »

Intelligence Bureau (India)

The Intelligence Bureau (IB) (Aasoochana Byooro) is India's internal intelligence agency.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Intelligence Bureau (India) · See more »

Interception of Communications Commissioner

The Interception of Communications Commissioner is a regulatory official in the United Kingdom, appointed under Section 57 of the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000, and previously under Section 8 of the Interception of Communications Act 1985.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Interception of Communications Commissioner · See more »

International Safe Harbor Privacy Principles

The International Safe Harbor Privacy Principles or Safe Harbour Privacy Principles were principles developed between 1998 and 2000 in order to prevent private organizations within the European Union or United States which store customer data from accidentally disclosing or losing personal information.

New!!: Mass surveillance and International Safe Harbor Privacy Principles · See more »

Investigatory Powers Act 2016

The Investigatory Powers Act 2016 (nicknamed the Snoopers' Charter) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that has been passed by both Houses of Parliament, and the Queen signified her royal assent to the Investigatory Powers Act 2016 on 29 November 2016.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Investigatory Powers Act 2016 · See more »

Investigatory Powers Tribunal

In the United Kingdom, the Investigatory Powers Tribunal (IPT) is a judicial body, independent of the British government, which hears complaints about surveillance by public bodies—in fact, "the only Tribunal to whom complaints about the Intelligence Services can be directed".

New!!: Mass surveillance and Investigatory Powers Tribunal · See more »


Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

New!!: Mass surveillance and Iran · See more »

James Bamford


New!!: Mass surveillance and James Bamford · See more »


A landline telephone (also known as land line, land-line, main line, home phone, landline, fixed-line, and wireline) is a phone that uses a metal wire or optical fiber telephone line for transmission as distinguished from a mobile cellular line, which uses radio waves for transmission.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Landline · See more »

Lawful interception

Lawful interception (LI) refers to the facilities in telecommunications and telephone networks that allow law enforcement agencies with court order or other legal authorization to selectively wiretap individual subscribers.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Lawful interception · See more »

List of government mass surveillance projects

This is a list of government surveillance projects and related databases throughout the world.

New!!: Mass surveillance and List of government mass surveillance projects · See more »

Little Brother (Doctorow novel)

Little Brother is a novel by Cory Doctorow, published by Tor Books.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Little Brother (Doctorow novel) · See more »

Location-based service

A location-based service (LBS) is a software-level service that uses location data to control features.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Location-based service · See more »

Loyalty program

Loyalty programs are structured marketing strategies designed by merchants to encourage customers to continue to shop at or use the services of businesses associated with each program.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Loyalty program · See more »

Magic Lantern (software)

Magic Lantern is keystroke logging software developed by the United States' Federal Bureau of Investigation.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Magic Lantern (software) · See more »

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (Mahmūd Ahmadinezhād, born Mahmoud Sabbaghian (Sabbāghyān) on 28 October 1956) is an Iranian politician who was the sixth President of Iran from 2005 to 2013.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Mahmoud Ahmadinejad · See more »

Mail cover

Mail cover is a law enforcement investigative technique in which the United States Postal Service, acting at the request of a law enforcement agency, records information from the outside of letters and parcels before they are delivered and then sends the information to the agency that requested it.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Mail cover · See more »

Mail Isolation Control and Tracking

Mail Isolation Control and Tracking (MICT) is an imaging system employed by the United States Postal Service (USPS) that takes photographs of the exterior of every piece of mail that is processed in the United States.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Mail Isolation Control and Tracking · See more »


MAINWAY is a database maintained by the United States' National Security Agency (NSA) containing metadata for hundreds of billions of telephone calls made through the four largest telephone carriers in the United States: AT&T, SBC, BellSouth (all three now called AT&T), and Verizon.

New!!: Mass surveillance and MAINWAY · See more »


Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Malaysia · See more »


Malware (a portmanteau for malicious software) is any software intentionally designed to cause damage to a computer, server or computer network.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Malware · See more »

Man-in-the-middle attack

In cryptography and computer security, a man-in-the-middle attack (MITM) is an attack where the attacker secretly relays and possibly alters the communication between two parties who believe they are directly communicating with each other.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Man-in-the-middle attack · See more »

Manuel Castells

Manuel Castells Oliván (born 1942) is a Spanish sociologist especially associated with research on the information society, communication and globalization.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Manuel Castells · See more »

Martin Luther King Jr.

Martin Luther King Jr. (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an American Baptist minister and activist who became the most visible spokesperson and leader in the civil rights movement from 1954 until his death in 1968.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Martin Luther King Jr. · See more »


Metadata is "data that provides information about other data".

New!!: Mass surveillance and Metadata · See more »

Michel Foucault

Paul-Michel Foucault (15 October 1926 – 25 June 1984), generally known as Michel Foucault, was a French philosopher, historian of ideas, social theorist, and literary critic.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Michel Foucault · See more »


Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Microsoft · See more »

Minister of Defence (Sweden)

The Minister for Defence of Sweden (försvarsminister; formal title: statsråd och chef för försvarsdepartementet) is a member of the Government of Sweden (Regeringen).

New!!: Mass surveillance and Minister of Defence (Sweden) · See more »

Ministry of Communications and Information Technology (India)

The Ministry of Communication and Information Technology was an Indian government ministry.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Ministry of Communications and Information Technology (India) · See more »

Ministry of Defence (Vietnam)

The Ministry of Defence (Bộ Quốc phòng) is the governmental ministry of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam that manages, coordinates and supervises military affairs, including all military units, paramilitary units, and similar agencies in the country.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Ministry of Defence (Vietnam) · See more »

Mobile phone

A mobile phone, known as a cell phone in North America, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Mobile phone · See more »


Mobin Net (مبین نت) is an Iranian Internet service provider.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Mobinnet · See more »

MTN Irancell

Irancell is an Iranian telecommunications company that operates Iran's second largest 2G-3G-4G-4.5G mobile network, and fixed wireless TD-LTE internet services.

New!!: Mass surveillance and MTN Irancell · See more »


Myspace (stylized as MySpace) is a social networking website offering an interactive, user-submitted network of friends, personal profiles, blogs, groups, photos, music, and videos.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Myspace · See more »

Narcotics Control Bureau

The Narcotics Control Bureau (NCB) is the nodal drug law enforcement and intelligence agency of India responsible for fighting drug trafficking and the abuse of illegal substances.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Narcotics Control Bureau · See more »

Narus (company)

Narus Inc. was a software company and vendor of big data analytics for cybersecurity.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Narus (company) · See more »


The National Intelligence Grid or NATGRID is the integrated intelligence grid connecting databases of core security agencies of the Government of India to collect comprehensive patterns of intelligence that can be readily accessed by intelligence agencies.

New!!: Mass surveillance and NATGRID · See more »

National Defence Radio Establishment

The National Defence Radio Establishment (Försvarets radioanstalt, FRA) is a Swedish government agency organised under the Ministry of Defence.

New!!: Mass surveillance and National Defence Radio Establishment · See more »

National Investigation Agency

National Investigation Agency (NIA) is a central agency established by the Indian Government to combat terror in India.

New!!: Mass surveillance and National Investigation Agency · See more »

National security

National security refers to the security of a nation state, including its citizens, economy, and institutions, and is regarded as a duty of government.

New!!: Mass surveillance and National security · See more »

National Security Agency

The National Security Agency (NSA) is a national-level intelligence agency of the United States Department of Defense, under the authority of the Director of National Intelligence.

New!!: Mass surveillance and National Security Agency · See more »

Network theory

Network theory is the study of graphs as a representation of either symmetric relations or asymmetric relations between discrete objects.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Network theory · See more »

New York City Police Department

The City of New York Police Department, commonly known as the NYPD, is the primary law enforcement and investigation agency within the five boroughs of New York City.

New!!: Mass surveillance and New York City Police Department · See more »

Nineteen Eighty-Four

Nineteen Eighty-Four, often published as 1984, is a dystopian novel published in 1949 by English author George Orwell.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Nineteen Eighty-Four · See more »

Nokia Networks

Nokia Networks (formerly Nokia Solutions and Networks (NSN) and Nokia Siemens Networks (NSN) is a multinational data networking and telecommunications equipment company headquartered in Espoo, Finland, and wholly owned subsidiary of Nokia Corporation. It started as a joint venture between Nokia of Finland and Siemens of Germany known as Nokia Siemens Networks. Nokia Networks has operations in around 120 countries. In 2013, Nokia acquired 100% of Nokia Networks, buying all of Siemens' shares. In April 2014, NSN name was phased out as part of rebranding process.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Nokia Networks · See more »

Nothing to hide argument

The nothing to hide argument states that government surveillance programs do not threaten privacy unless they uncover illegal activities, and that if they do uncover illegal activities, the person committing these activities does not have the right to keep them private.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Nothing to hide argument · See more »

OpenNet Initiative

The OpenNet Initiative (ONI) was a joint project whose goal was to monitor and report on internet filtering and surveillance practices by nations.

New!!: Mass surveillance and OpenNet Initiative · See more »


OpenSocial is a public specification that defines a component hosting environment (container) and a set of common application programming interfaces (APIs) for Web-based applications.

New!!: Mass surveillance and OpenSocial · See more »

Parliament of the United Kingdom

The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Parliament of the United Kingdom · See more »

Pattern recognition

Pattern recognition is a branch of machine learning that focuses on the recognition of patterns and regularities in data, although it is in some cases considered to be nearly synonymous with machine learning.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Pattern recognition · See more »

Pen register

A pen register, or dialed number recorder (DNR), is an electronic device that records all numbers called from a particular telephone line.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Pen register · See more »


Phishing is the fraudulent attempt to obtain sensitive information such as usernames, passwords, and credit card details (and money), often for malicious reasons, by disguising as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Phishing · See more »

Phone surveillance

Phone surveillance is the act of performing surveillance of phone conversations, location tracking and data monitoring of a phone.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Phone surveillance · See more »

Police state

Police state is a term denoting a government that exercises power arbitrarily through the power of the police force.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Police state · See more »

Press Information Bureau

The Press Information Bureau, commonly abbreviated as PIB, is a nodal agency of the Government of India.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Press Information Bureau · See more »

PRISM (surveillance program)

PRISM is a code name for a program under which the United States National Security Agency (NSA) collects internet communications from various U.S. internet companies.

New!!: Mass surveillance and PRISM (surveillance program) · See more »


Privacy is the ability of an individual or group to seclude themselves, or information about themselves, and thereby express themselves selectively.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Privacy · See more »

Privacy International

Privacy International (PI) is a UK-based registered charity that defends and promotes the right to privacy across the world.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Privacy International · See more »


Project SHAMROCK, considered to be the sister project for Project MINARET, was an espionage exercise, started in August 1945 that involved the accumulation of all telegraphic data entering into or exiting from the United States.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Project SHAMROCK · See more »

Protection of Freedoms Act 2012

The Protection of Freedoms Act 2012 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Protection of Freedoms Act 2012 · See more »

Radio-frequency identification

Radio-frequency identification (RFID) uses electromagnetic fields to automatically identify and track tags attached to objects.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Radio-frequency identification · See more »

Rajya Sabha

The Rajya Sabha or Council of States is the upper house of the Parliament of India.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Rajya Sabha · See more »


Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Rebellion · See more »


Rediff.com is an Indian news, information, entertainment and shopping web portal, founded in 1996 as "Rediff On The NeT".

New!!: Mass surveillance and Rediff.com · See more »

Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000

The Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000 (c.23) (RIP or RIPA) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, regulating the powers of public bodies to carry out surveillance and investigation, and covering the interception of communications.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000 · See more »

Reporters Without Borders

Reporters Without Borders (RWB), or Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF), is an international non-profit, non-governmental organization that promotes and defends freedom of information and freedom of the press.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Reporters Without Borders · See more »

Research and Analysis Wing

The Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW or RAW) (IAST: Anusaṃdhān Aur Viśleṣaṇ Viṃg) is the foreign intelligence agency of India.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Research and Analysis Wing · See more »


Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Reuters · See more »

Right to privacy

The right to privacy is an element of various legal traditions to restrain governmental and private actions that threaten the privacy of individuals.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Right to privacy · See more »


Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Russia · See more »

Secret police

The term secret police (or political police)Ilan Berman & J. Michael Waller, "Introduction: The Centrality of the Secret Police" in Dismantling Tyranny: Transitioning Beyond Totalitarian Regimes (Rowman & Littlefield, 2006), p. xv.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Secret police · See more »

Secretary of State (United Kingdom)

In the United Kingdom, a secretary of state (SofS) is a Cabinet minister in charge of a government department (though not all departments are headed by a secretary of state, e.g. HM Treasury is headed by the Chancellor of the Exchequer).

New!!: Mass surveillance and Secretary of State (United Kingdom) · See more »


Security is freedom from, or resilience against, potential harm (or other unwanted coercive change) from external forces.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Security · See more »


Self-censorship is the act of censoring or classifying one's own discourse.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Self-censorship · See more »

September 11 attacks

The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.

New!!: Mass surveillance and September 11 attacks · See more »

Signals intelligence

Signals intelligence (SIGINT) is intelligence-gathering by interception of signals, whether communications between people (communications intelligence—abbreviated to COMINT) or from electronic signals not directly used in communication (electronic intelligence—abbreviated to ELINT).

New!!: Mass surveillance and Signals intelligence · See more »


Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Singapore · See more »

Singapore Police Force

The Singapore Police Force (Abbreviation: SPF; Pasukan Polis Singapura;; சிங்கப்பூர் காவல் துறை) is the main government agency tasked with maintaining law and order in the island city-state.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Singapore Police Force · See more »


Singapore Telecommunications Limited (commonly abbreviated as Singtel, and previously stylised as SingTel) is a Singaporean telecommunications company.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Singtel · See more »


Skype is a telecommunications application software product that specializes in providing video chat and voice calls between computers, tablets, mobile devices, the Xbox One console, and smartwatches via the Internet and to regular telephones.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Skype · See more »

Smart Nation

Smart Nation is a Singaporean government initiative to harness infocomm technologies, networks and big data to create tech-enabled solutions.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Smart Nation · See more »


SMS (short message service) is a text messaging service component of most telephone, internet, and mobile-device systems.

New!!: Mass surveillance and SMS · See more »

Social engineering (security)

Social engineering, in the context of information security, refers to psychological manipulation of people into performing actions or divulging confidential information.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Social engineering (security) · See more »

Social network analysis

Social network analysis (SNA) is the process of investigating social structures through the use of networks and graph theory.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Social network analysis · See more »


SORM (lit) is the technical specification for lawful interception interfaces of telecommunications and telephone networks operating in Russia.

New!!: Mass surveillance and SORM · See more »


Sousveillance is the recording of an activity by a participant in the activity, typically by way of small wearable or portable personal technologies.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Sousveillance · See more »

Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Soviet Union · See more »

Special Relationship

The Special Relationship is an unofficial term for the political, diplomatic, cultural, economic, military, and historical relations between the United Kingdom and the United States.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Special Relationship · See more »

Speech recognition

Speech recognition is the inter-disciplinary sub-field of computational linguistics that develops methodologies and technologies that enables the recognition and translation of spoken language into text by computers.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Speech recognition · See more »


The Ministry for State Security (Ministerium für Staatssicherheit, MfS) or State Security Service (Staatssicherheitsdienst, SSD), commonly known as the Stasi, was the official state security service of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany).

New!!: Mass surveillance and Stasi · See more »

State (polity)

A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.

New!!: Mass surveillance and State (polity) · See more »


Statewatch is a non-profit organization founded in 1991 that monitors the state, justice and home affairs (JHA), security and civil liberties in the European Union.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Statewatch · See more »

Sten Tolgfors

Sten Sture Tolgfors (born 17 July 1966 in Forshaga) is the manager and part owner of the business consulting firm Rud Pedersen and a former Swedish politician.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Sten Tolgfors · See more »


Surveillance is the monitoring of behavior, activities, or other changing information for the purpose of influencing, managing, directing, or protecting people.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Surveillance · See more »

Surveillance capitalism

Surveillance capitalism is a term first introduced by John Bellamy Foster and Robert W. McChesney in Monthly Review in 2014 and later popularized by academic Shoshana Zuboff that denotes a new genus of capitalism that monetizes data acquired through surveillance.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Surveillance capitalism · See more »

Suzanne Collins

Suzanne Collins (born August 10, 1962) is an American television writer and author, best known as the author of The New York Times best selling series The Underland Chronicles and ''The Hunger Games'' trilogy (which consists of The Hunger Games, Catching Fire, and Mockingjay).

New!!: Mass surveillance and Suzanne Collins · See more »

Svenska Dagbladet

Svenska Dagbladet ("The Swedish Daily News"), abbreviated SvD, is a daily newspaper published in Stockholm, Sweden.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Svenska Dagbladet · See more »

Sveriges Radio

Sveriges Radio AB ("Swedish Radio") is Sweden's national publicly funded radio broadcaster.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Sveriges Radio · See more »


Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Syria · See more »

Syrian Civil War

The Syrian Civil War (الحرب الأهلية السورية, Al-ḥarb al-ʼahliyyah as-sūriyyah) is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria fought primarily between the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic led by President Bashar al-Assad, along with its allies, and various forces opposing both the government and each other in varying combinations.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Syrian Civil War · See more »


Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Taiwan · See more »

Targeted surveillance

Targeted surveillance (or targeted interception) is a form of surveillance that is targeted on specific persons of interest and distinguished from mass surveillance (or bulk interception).

New!!: Mass surveillance and Targeted surveillance · See more »


Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Telecommunication · See more »

Telecommunication Company of Iran

Telecommunication Company of Iran, or TCI (شرکت مخابرات ایران) is the fixed-line incumbent operator in Iran offering services in fixed telephony, DSL and data services for both residential and business customers, all throughout the country.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Telecommunication Company of Iran · See more »

Telephone tapping

Telephone tapping (also wire tapping or wiretapping in American English) is the monitoring of telephone and Internet conversations by a third party, often by covert means.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Telephone tapping · See more »

Telephone tapping in the Eastern Bloc

Telephone tapping in the countries of the Eastern Bloc was a widespread method of the mass surveillance of the population by the secret police.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Telephone tapping in the Eastern Bloc · See more »


Telepolis is a German Internet magazine, published by the Heinz Heise Verlag since the beginning of 1996.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Telepolis · See more »


Tempora is the codeword for a formerly secret computer system that is used by the British Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ).

New!!: Mass surveillance and Tempora · See more »


Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people; or fear to achieve a financial, political, religious or ideological aim.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Terrorism · See more »


Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Thailand · See more »

The Hunger Games

The Hunger Games is a trilogy of young adult dystopian novels written by American novelist Suzanne Collins.

New!!: Mass surveillance and The Hunger Games · See more »

The Lives of Others

The Lives of Others (Das Leben der Anderen) is a 2006 German drama film, marking the feature film debut of filmmaker Florian Henckel von Donnersmarck, about the monitoring of East Berlin residents by agents of the Stasi, the GDR's secret police.

New!!: Mass surveillance and The Lives of Others · See more »

The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

New!!: Mass surveillance and The New York Times · See more »

The Shadow Factory

The Shadow Factory: The Ultra-Secret NSA from 9/11 to the Eavesdropping on America is a book on the National Security Agency by author James Bamford.

New!!: Mass surveillance and The Shadow Factory · See more »

The Times of India

The Times of India (TOI) is an Indian English-language daily newspaper owned by The Times Group.

New!!: Mass surveillance and The Times of India · See more »

The Wall Street Journal

The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.

New!!: Mass surveillance and The Wall Street Journal · See more »

Time (magazine)

Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Time (magazine) · See more »

TOM Group

TOM Group Limited is a Chinese-language media company in the Greater China region, with business interests across markets in Mainland China, Taiwan and Hong Kong.

New!!: Mass surveillance and TOM Group · See more »


Benito Mussolini Totalitarianism is a political concept where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to control every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Totalitarianism · See more »

Tracking system

A tracking system is used for the observing of persons or objects on the move and supplying a timely ordered sequence of location data for further processing.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Tracking system · See more »

Traffic analysis

Traffic analysis is the process of intercepting and examining messages in order to deduce information from patterns in communication, which can be performed even when the messages are encrypted.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Traffic analysis · See more »

Traffic enforcement camera

A traffic enforcement camera (also red light camera, road safety camera, road rule camera, photo radar, photo enforcement, speed camera, Gatso, safety camera, bus lane camera, flash for cash, Safe-T-Cam, depending on use) is a camera which may be mounted beside or over a road or installed in an enforcement vehicle to detect traffic regulation violations, including speeding, vehicles going through a red traffic light, vehicles going through a toll booth without paying, unauthorized use of a bus lane, or for recording vehicles inside a congestion charge area.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Traffic enforcement camera · See more »


Twitter is an online news and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets".

New!!: Mass surveillance and Twitter · See more »

UKUSA Agreement

The United Kingdom – United States of America Agreement (UKUSA) is a multilateral agreement for cooperation in signals intelligence between Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

New!!: Mass surveillance and UKUSA Agreement · See more »

United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

New!!: Mass surveillance and United Kingdom · See more »

United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

New!!: Mass surveillance and United States · See more »

United States Department of Homeland Security

The United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is a cabinet department of the United States federal government with responsibilities in public security, roughly comparable to the interior or home ministries of other countries.

New!!: Mass surveillance and United States Department of Homeland Security · See more »

Unmanned aerial vehicle

An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), commonly known as a drone, is an aircraft without a human pilot aboard.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Unmanned aerial vehicle · See more »

Upstream collection

Upstream collection is a term used by the National Security Agency (NSA) of the United States for intercepting telephone and Internet traffic from the Internet backbone, i.e. major Internet cables and switches, both domestic and foreign.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Upstream collection · See more »

USA Today

USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company.

New!!: Mass surveillance and USA Today · See more »


Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Vietnam · See more »

Vietnam Posts and Telecommunications Group

Vietnam Posts and Telecommunications Group, commonly abbreviated as VNPT, is a telecommunications company, owned by the Vietnamese Government, and the national post office of Vietnam.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Vietnam Posts and Telecommunications Group · See more »


Viettel Group (full name in Tập đoàn Công nghiệp Viễn thông Quân đội) is Vietnam's largest mobile network operator.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Viettel · See more »

We (novel)

We (translit) is a dystopian novel by Russian writer Yevgeny Zamyatin, completed in 1921.

New!!: Mass surveillance and We (novel) · See more »

Wen Jiabao

Wen Jiabao (born 15 September 1942) was the sixth Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, serving as China's head of government for a decade between 2003 and 2013.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Wen Jiabao · See more »

West Germany

West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.

New!!: Mass surveillance and West Germany · See more »

Western Union

The Western Union Company is an American financial services and communications company.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Western Union · See more »

World Economic Forum

The World Economic Forum (WEF) is a Swiss nonprofit foundation, based in Cologny, Geneva, Switzerland.

New!!: Mass surveillance and World Economic Forum · See more »

World Wide Web

The World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or the Web) is an information space where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators (URLs), interlinked by hypertext links, and accessible via the Internet.

New!!: Mass surveillance and World Wide Web · See more »

Yarovaya law

The Yarovaya law (rus. Закон Яровой), also Yarovaya package, refers to a pair of Russian federal bills, 374-FZ and 375-FZ, passed in 2016.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Yarovaya law · See more »

Yevgeny Zamyatin

Yevgeny Ivanovich Zamyatin (p; 20 January (Julian) / 1 February (Gregorian), 1884 – 10 March 1937), sometimes anglicized as Eugene Zamyatin, was a Russian author of science fiction and political satire.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Yevgeny Zamyatin · See more »

Zakharov v. Russia

Zakharov v. Russia was a 2015 court case before the European Court of Human Rights involving Roman Zakharov and the Russian Federation.

New!!: Mass surveillance and Zakharov v. Russia · See more »


ZTE Corporation is a Chinese multinational telecommunications equipment and systems company headquartered in Shenzhen, Guangdong, China.

New!!: Mass surveillance and ZTE · See more »

2004 Republican National Convention

The 2004 Republican National Convention, the presidential nominating convention of the Republican Party of the United States, took place from August 30 to September 2, 2004 at Madison Square Garden in New York City, New York.

New!!: Mass surveillance and 2004 Republican National Convention · See more »

2009 Iranian presidential election protests

Protests against the 2009 Iranian presidential election results (اعتراضات علیه نتایج انتخابات ریاست جمهوری سال ۱۳۸۸) (a disputed victory by Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad), in support of opposition candidates Mir-Hossein Mousavi and Mehdi Karroubi, occurred in major cities nationwide from 2009 into early 2010.

New!!: Mass surveillance and 2009 Iranian presidential election protests · See more »

Redirects here:

Bulk surveillance, Commercial mass surveillance, Electronic Police State, Electronic police state, Mass Surveillance, Mass surveillance in Iran, Mass surveillance in the European Union, Surveillance culture, Surveillance societies, Surveillance society, Surveillance state, Surveillance-industrial complex, Surveillence society.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass_surveillance

Hey! We are on Facebook now! »