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Abolitionism is a general term which describes the movement to end slavery.
Abolitionism in the United States was the movement before and during the American Civil War to end slavery in the United States.
Academic institution is an educational institution dedicated to education and research, which grants academic degrees.
An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, higher learning, research, or honorary membership.
The Academy of American Poets is a national, member-supported organization that promotes poets and the art of poetry.
The Acela Express (colloquially abbreviated to Acela) is Amtrak's flagship service along the Northeast Corridor (NEC) in the Northeastern United States between Washington, D.C. and Boston via 14 intermediate stops including Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York City.
The Adams family was a prominent political family in the United States from the late 18th through the early 20th centuries.
Aerosmith is an American rock band.
African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.
The African Meeting House, also known variously as First African Baptist Church, First Independent Baptist Church and the Belknap Street Church, was built in 1806 and is now the oldest black church edifice still standing in the United States.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (lit or, Tanẓīm Qā‘idat al-Jihād fī Jazīrat al-‘Arab, "Organization of Jihad's Base in the Arabian Peninsula"), or AQAP, also known as Ansar al-Sharia in Yemen (جماعة أنصار الشريعة, Jamā‘at Anṣār ash-Sharī‘ah, "Group of the Helpers of the Sharia"), is a militant Islamist organization, primarily active in Yemen and Saudi Arabia.
Alaska Natives are indigenous peoples of Alaska, United States and include: Iñupiat, Yupik, Aleut, Eyak, Tlingit, Haida, Tsimshian, and a number of Northern Athabaskan cultures.
Albina Lucy Charlotte Osipowich (February 26, 1911 – June 6, 1964), later known by her married name Albina Van Aken, was an American competition swimmer who won gold medals in the women's 100-meter freestyle and 4×100-meter freestyle relay at the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam, setting world records in both events.
Alexander Graham Bell (March 3, 1847 – August 2, 1922) was a Scottish-born scientist, inventor, engineer, and innovator who is credited with inventing and patenting the first practical telephone.
The Algonquian languages (or; also Algonkian) are a subfamily of Native American languages which includes most of the languages in the Algic language family.
Alice Curwen (c. 1619–1679) was an English Quaker missionary, who wrote an autobiography published, along with correspondence, as part of A Relation of the Labour, Travail and Suffering of that Faithful Servant of the Lord, Alice Curwen(1680).
"All Hail to Massachusetts", with words and music by Arthur J. Marsh, was made the official state song of Massachusetts on September 3, 1966, and codified by an act of the General Court in 1966.
The Alliance for Audited Media (AAM) is a North American non-profit industry organization founded in 1914 by the Association of National Advertisers to help ensure media transparency and trust among advertisers and media companies.
Alternative rock (also called alternative music, alt-rock or simply alternative) is a style of rock music that emerged from the independent music underground of the 1980s and became widely popular in the 1990s.
Alexandra Rose Raisman (born May 25, 1994) is an American gymnast and two-time Olympian.
AM broadcasting is a radio broadcasting technology, which employs amplitude modulation (AM) transmissions.
America's Health Rankings started in 1990 and is the longest-running annual assessment of the nation’s health on a state-by-state basis.
The American black bear (Ursus americanus) is a medium-sized bear native to North America.
"." Houston Business Journal.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
The American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, or ACEEE, is a nonprofit, 501(c)(3) organization.
American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States.
American Experience is a television program airing on Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) television stations in the United States.
The American Hockey League (AHL) is a 31-team professional ice hockey league based in the United States and Canada that serves as the primary developmental league for the National Hockey League (NHL).
The American lobster (Homarus americanus) is a species of lobster found on the Atlantic coast of North America, chiefly from Labrador to New Jersey.
The American Planning Association (APA) is a professional organization representing the field of urban planning in the United States.
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
Amherst College is a private liberal arts college located in Amherst, Massachusetts, United States.
Amherst is a town in Hampshire County, Massachusetts, United States, in the Connecticut River valley.
The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, doing business as Amtrak, is a passenger railroad service that provides medium- and long-distance intercity service in the contiguous United States and to three Canadian cities.
Anne Hutchinson (née Marbury; July 1591 – August 1643) was a Puritan spiritual adviser, mother of 15, and an important participant in the Antinomian Controversy which shook the infant Massachusetts Bay Colony from 1636 to 1638.
Anseriformes is an order of birds that comprise about 180 living species in three families: Anhimidae (the screamers), Anseranatidae (the magpie goose), and Anatidae, the largest family, which includes over 170 species of waterfowl, among them the ducks, geese, and swans.
Anti-Catholicism is hostility towards Catholics or opposition to the Catholic Church, its clergy and its adherents.
Appalachian Mountain Club (AMC) is the oldest outdoor group in the United States.
The Appalachian National Scenic Trail, generally known as the Appalachian Trail or simply the A.T., is a marked hiking trail in the Eastern United States extending between Springer Mountain in Georgia and Mount Katahdin in Maine.
Aquinnah is a town located on the island of Martha's Vineyard in Massachusetts.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Articles of Confederation, formally the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, was an agreement among the 13 original states of the United States of America that served as its first constitution.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
John F. Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States, was assassinated on Friday, November 22, 1963, at 12:30 p.m. in Dallas, Texas, while riding in a presidential motorcade through Dealey Plaza.
On June 5, 1968, presidential candidate Robert F. Kennedy was mortally wounded shortly after midnight PDT at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles.
The Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA) is a free source of online information related to American and international religion.
The Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC) is a collegiate athletic conference in the United States of America in which its fifteen member universities compete in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA)'s Division I, with its football teams competing in the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS), the highest levels for athletic competition in US-based collegiate sports.
The Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is a benthopelagic fish of the family Gadidae, widely consumed by humans.
The Atlantic Flyway is a bird migration route that generally follows the Atlantic Coast of North America and the Appalachian Mountains.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
The Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus) is a distinctively coloured dolphin found in the cool to temperate waters of the North Atlantic Ocean.
The Atlantic World is the history of the interactions among the peoples and empires bordering the Atlantic Ocean rim from the beginning of the Age of Discovery to the early 21st century.
The Austroasiatic languages, formerly known as Mon–Khmer, are a large language family of Mainland Southeast Asia, also scattered throughout India, Bangladesh, Nepal and the southern border of China, with around 117 million speakers.
An auto show, also known as a motor show or car show, is a public exhibition of current automobile models, debuts, concept cars, or out-of-production classics.
Babingtonite is a calcium iron manganese inosilicate mineral with the formula Ca2(Fe,Mn)FeSi5O14(OH).
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
Barnstable County is a county located in the U.S. state of Massachusetts.
Barnstable is a city, referred to as the Town of Barnstable, in the U.S. state of Massachusetts and the county seat of Barnstable County.
Barre is a town in Worcester County, Massachusetts, United States.
Basketball is a team sport played on a rectangular court.
Bass is a name shared by many species of fish.
The Battles of Lexington and Concord were the first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War.
Beacon Hill is a historic neighborhood in Boston, Massachusetts.
Bedford is a town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States.
Benjamin Franklin (April 17, 1790) was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
Berkshire County, pronounced, is a county located on the western edge of the U.S. state of Massachusetts.
Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) in Boston, Massachusetts is a teaching hospital of Harvard Medical School.
The Central Artery/Tunnel Project (CA/T), known unofficially as the Big Dig, was a megaproject in Boston that rerouted the Central Artery of Interstate 93, the chief highway through the heart of the city, into the 1.5-mile (2.4 km) Thomas P. O'Neill Jr. Tunnel.
William Richard Keating (born September 6, 1952) is an American politician who has served as a U.S. Representative from Massachusetts since 2011.
Binge drinking, or heavy episodic drinking, is a modern epithet for drinking alcoholic beverages with an intention of becoming intoxicated by heavy consumption of alcohol over a short period of time.
Biogen, Inc. (previously known as Biogen Idec) is an American multinational biotechnology company based in Cambridge, Massachusetts, specializing in the discovery, development, and delivery of therapies for the treatment of neurodegenerative, hematologic, and autoimmune diseases to patients worldwide.
The Biographical Directory of the United States Congress is a biographical dictionary of all present and former members of the United States Congress and its predecessor, the Continental Congress.
A biome is a community of plants and animals that have common characteristics for the environment they exist in.
Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).
The Black Heritage Trail is a path in Boston, Massachusetts, winding through the Beacon Hill neighborhood and sites important in American black history.
The black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) is a small, nonmigratory, North American songbird that lives in deciduous and mixed forests.
Bloomberg Businessweek is an American weekly business magazine published by Bloomberg L.P. Businessweek was founded in 1929.
Blue Hills Reservation is a state park in Norfolk County, Massachusetts.
BoltBus is an intercity bus common carrier that operates low cost, non-stop and limited-stop, premium level routes in the northeast and western United States and British Columbia, Canada.
Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.
The Boston accent is the local accent of Eastern New England English spoken specifically in the city of Boston, its suburbs, and much of eastern Massachusetts.
The Boston Ballet is an American professional classical ballet company based in Boston, Massachusetts.
The Boston Breakers was an American professional soccer club based in the Boston neighborhood of Allston.
The Boston Bruins are a professional ice hockey team based in Boston.
The desegregation of Boston public schools (1974–1988) was a period in which the Boston Public Schools were under court control to desegregate through a system of busing students.
The Boston Cannons are a Major League Lacrosse (MLL) professional men's field lacrosse team based in Boston, Massachusetts.
The Boston Celtics are an American professional basketball team based in Boston, Massachusetts.
Boston College (also referred to as BC) is a private Jesuit Catholic research university located in the affluent village of Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts, United States, west of downtown Boston.
The Boston cream (pie) doughnut or donut is a round, solid, yeast-risen doughnut with chocolate frosting and a custard filling, a miniature donut version of the Boston cream pie.
A Boston cream pie is a yellow butter cake that is filled with custard or cream and topped with chocolate glaze.
Boston Film Festival (BFF) is an annual film festival held in Boston in the U.S. state of Massachusetts.
The Boston Gazette (1719–1798) was a newspaper published in Boston, Massachusetts, in the British North American colonies.
The Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area is a National Recreation Area situated among the islands of Boston Harbor of Boston, Massachusetts.
The Boston Herald is an American daily newspaper whose primary market is Boston, Massachusetts and its surrounding area.
The Boston International Film Festival is a film festival in the United States held in Boston, Massachusetts which showcases over 90 films annually.
The Boston Latin School is a public exam school in Boston, Massachusetts.
Boston Lyric Opera (BLO) is an American opera company based in Boston, Massachusetts, founded in 1976.
The Boston Marathon is an annual marathon hosted by several cities in greater Boston in eastern Massachusetts, United States.
The Boston Massacre, known as the Incident on King Street by the British, was an incident on March 5, 1770, in which British Army soldiers shot and killed several people while under attack by a mob.
Boston Medical Center (BMC) is a non-profit 567-bed academic medical center in Boston, Massachusetts.
The Boston Pops Orchestra is an American orchestra based in Boston, Massachusetts that specializes in playing light classical and popular music.
The Boston Red Sox are an American professional baseball team based in Boston, Massachusetts.
Boston Scientific Corporation (Boston Scientific) is a manufacturer of medical devices used in interventional medical specialties, including interventional radiology, interventional cardiology, peripheral interventions, neuromodulation, neurovascular intervention, electrophysiology, cardiac surgery, vascular surgery, endoscopy, oncology, urology and gynecology.
The Boston Symphony Orchestra (BSO) is an American orchestra based in Boston, Massachusetts.
The Boston Tea Party was a political and mercantile protest by the Sons of Liberty in Boston, Massachusetts, on December 16, 1773.
The Boston Terrier is a breed of dog originating in the United States of America.
Boston University (commonly referred to as BU) is a private, non-profit, research university in Boston, Massachusetts.
The Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) is one of the graduate schools of Boston University.
Boston.com is a regional website that offers news and information about the Boston, Massachusetts region.
Brandeis University is an American private research university in Waltham, Massachusetts, 9 miles (14 km) west of Boston.
Brazilian Americans (brasilo-americanos, norte-americanos de origem brasileira or estadunidenses de origem brasileira) are Americans who are of full or partial Brazilian ancestry.
Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH, "The Brigham") is located adjacent to Harvard Medical School, of which it is the second largest teaching affiliate.
Bristol County is a county in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
The British colonization of the Americas (including colonization by both the English and the Scots) began in 1607 in Jamestown, Virginia, and reached its peak when colonies had been established throughout the Americas.
The British thermal unit (Btu or BTU) is a traditional unit of heat; it is defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit.
The Brownists were a group of English Dissenters or early Separatists from the Church of England.
Brunswick is a town in Cumberland County, Maine, United States.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
The Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) of the United States Department of Commerce is a U.S. government agency that provides official macroeconomic and industry statistics, most notably reports about the gross domestic product (GDP) of the United States and its various units—states, cities/towns/townships/villages/counties and metropolitan areas.
Business Insider is an American financial and business news website that also operates international editions in the UK, Australia, China, Germany, France, South Africa, India, Italy, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Netherlands, Nordics, Poland, Spanish and Singapore.
Richard Andrew "Butch" Johnson (born August 30, 1955 in Worcester, Massachusetts) is an archer from Woodstock, Connecticut in the United States.
Cambodian Americans (ជនជាតិខ្មែរអាមេរិកាំង) are Americans of Khmer descent.
Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and part of the Boston metropolitan area.
Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names, is a psychoactive drug from the ''Cannabis'' plant intended for medical or recreational use.
Canton is a town in Norfolk County, Massachusetts, United States.
The Cantonese language is a variety of Chinese spoken in the city of Guangzhou (historically known as Canton) and its surrounding area in southeastern China.
Cape Cod is a geographic cape extending into the Atlantic Ocean from the southeastern corner of mainland Massachusetts, in the northeastern United States.
The Cape Cod Baseball League (CCBL) is a collegiate summer baseball league located on Cape Cod in the U.S. state of Massachusetts.
The Cape Cod Central Railroad is a heritage railroad located on Cape Cod, Massachusetts.
The Cape Cod National Seashore (CCNS), created on August 7, 1961 by President John F. Kennedy, encompasses on Cape Cod, in Massachusetts.
Cape Cod Regional Transit Authority (CCRTA) operates a bus transit system of fixed and flexible routes, seasonal rail service to Boston, and a paratransit service in the Cape Cod region of Massachusetts.
The Cape Symphony is one of the largest professional orchestras in Massachusetts, located on Cape Cod, Massachusetts.
Cape Verdean Americans are Americans whose ancestors were Cape Verdean.
The CapeFlyer (stylized CapeFLYER) is a passenger rail service in Massachusetts between Boston and Cape Cod that began in 2013.
A capital gains tax (CGT) is a tax on capital gains, the profit realized on the sale of a non-inventory asset that was greater than the amount realized on the sale.
Catfish (or catfishes; order Siluriformes or Nematognathi) are a diverse group of ray-finned fish.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
CBS News is the news division of American television and radio service CBS.
In demographics, the center of population (or population center) of a region is a geographical point that describes a centerpoint of the region's population.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.
The Central Artery (officially the John F. Fitzgerald Expressway) is a section of freeway in downtown Boston, Massachusetts; it is designated as Interstate 93, U.S. Route 1 and Massachusetts Route 3.
Central Massachusetts is the geographically central region of Massachusetts.
The Charles River (sometimes called the River Charles or simply the Charles) is an long river in eastern Massachusetts.
Charles Duane Baker Jr. (born November 13, 1956) is an American businessman and politician serving as the 72nd and current Governor of Massachusetts, having been sworn into office on January 8, 2015.
Chickatawbut was the sachem, or leader, of a large group of indigenous people of what is now eastern Massachusetts, United States known as the Massachusett tribe, during the initial period of English settlement in the region in the early seventeenth century.
Chinatown bus lines are discount intercity bus services, often run by Chinese Americans and Chinese Canadians, that have been established primarily in the Chinatown communities of the East Coast of the United States and Central Canada since 1998, although similar services have cropped up on the West Coast.
Chinatown, Boston is a neighborhood located in downtown Boston, Massachusetts.
Manhattan's Chinatown is a neighborhood in Lower Manhattan, New York City, bordering the Lower East Side to its east, Little Italy to its north, Civic Center to its south, and Tribeca to its west.
The Boston metropolitan area has an active Chinese American community.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
A chocolate chip cookie is a drop cookie that originated in the United States and features chocolate chips (small morsels of sweetened chocolate) as its distinguishing ingredient.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
Christian Science is a set of beliefs and practices belonging to the metaphysical family of new religious movements.
The Christian Science Center is a site on the corner of Massachusetts Avenue and Huntington Avenue in the Fenway neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts.
The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.
Classic rock is a radio format which developed from the album-oriented rock (AOR) format in the early 1980s.
CNBC is an American basic cable, internet and satellite business news television channel that is owned by NBCUniversal News Group, a division of NBCUniversal, with both being ultimately owned by Comcast.
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
A coastal plain is flat, low-lying land adjacent to a sea coast.
Coccinella septempunctata, the seven-spot ladybird (or, in North America, seven-spotted ladybug or "C-7"), is the most common ladybird in Europe.
The College of the Holy Cross or better known simply as Holy Cross is a private, undergraduate, Roman Catholic, Jesuit liberal arts college located in Worcester, Massachusetts, United States.
The colonial colleges are nine institutions of higher education chartered in the Thirteen Colonies before the United States of America became a sovereign nation after the American Revolution.
The Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations was one of the original Thirteen Colonies established on the east coast of North America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean.
The common carp or European carp (Cyprinus carpio) is a widespread freshwater fish of eutrophic waters in lakes and large rivers in Europe and Asia.
The common loon or great northern diver (Gavia immer) is a large member of the loon, or diver, family of birds.
Commonwealth is a designation used by four of the 50 states of the United States in their full official state names: Kentucky, Massachusetts,, Pennsylvania, and Virginia.
Compulsory education refers to a period of education that is required of all people and is imposed by government.
Concord is a town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, in the United States.
A concurrency in a road network is an instance of one physical road bearing two or more different highway, motorway, or other route numbers.
Congregational churches (also Congregationalist churches; Congregationalism) are Protestant churches in the Reformed tradition practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs.
Connecticut is the southernmost state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
The Connecticut Colony or Colony of Connecticut, originally known as the Connecticut River Colony or simply the River Colony, was an English colony in North America that became the U.S. state of Connecticut.
The Connecticut River is the longest river in the New England region of the United States, flowing roughly southward for through four states.
The Constitution of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts is the fundamental governing document of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, one of the 50 individual state governments that make up the United States of America.
The first Constitution of Vermont was drafted in July 1777, almost five months after Vermont declared itself an independent country, now frequently called the Vermont Republic.
The Constitutional Convention (also known as the Philadelphia Convention, the Federal Convention, or the Grand Convention at Philadelphia) took place from May 25 to September 17, 1787, in the old Pennsylvania State House (later known as Independence Hall because of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence there eleven years before) in Philadelphia.
The coyote (Canis latrans); from Nahuatl) is a canine native to North America. It is smaller than its close relative, the gray wolf, and slightly smaller than the closely related eastern wolf and red wolf. It fills much of the same ecological niche as the golden jackal does in Eurasia, though it is larger and more predatory, and is sometimes called the American jackal by zoologists. The coyote is listed as least concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature due to its wide distribution and abundance throughout North America, southwards through Mexico, and into Central America. The species is versatile, able to adapt to and expand into environments modified by humans. It is enlarging its range, with coyotes moving into urban areas in the Eastern U.S., and was sighted in eastern Panama (across the Panama Canal from their home range) for the first time in 2013., 19 coyote subspecies are recognized. The average male weighs and the average female. Their fur color is predominantly light gray and red or fulvous interspersed with black and white, though it varies somewhat with geography. It is highly flexible in social organization, living either in a family unit or in loosely knit packs of unrelated individuals. It has a varied diet consisting primarily of animal meat, including deer, rabbits, hares, rodents, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and invertebrates, though it may also eat fruits and vegetables on occasion. Its characteristic vocalization is a howl made by solitary individuals. Humans are the coyote's greatest threat, followed by cougars and gray wolves. In spite of this, coyotes sometimes mate with gray, eastern, or red wolves, producing "coywolf" hybrids. In the northeastern United States and eastern Canada, the eastern coyote (a larger subspecies, though still smaller than wolves) is the result of various historical and recent matings with various types of wolves. Genetic studies show that most North American wolves contain some level of coyote DNA. The coyote is a prominent character in Native American folklore, mainly in the Southwestern United States and Mexico, usually depicted as a trickster that alternately assumes the form of an actual coyote or a man. As with other trickster figures, the coyote uses deception and humor to rebel against social conventions. The animal was especially respected in Mesoamerican cosmology as a symbol of military might. After the European colonization of the Americas, it was reviled in Anglo-American culture as a cowardly and untrustworthy animal. Unlike wolves (gray, eastern, or red), which have undergone an improvement of their public image, attitudes towards the coyote remain largely negative.
Cranberries are a group of evergreen dwarf shrubs or trailing vines in the subgenus Oxycoccus of the genus Vaccinium.
Cranberry juice is the juice of the cranberry.
CSX Transportation is a Class I railroad operating in the eastern United States and the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec.
Cucurbita (Latin for gourd) is a genus of herbaceous vines in the gourd family, Cucurbitaceae, also known as cucurbits, native to the Andes and Mesoamerica.
Dana–Farber Cancer Institute is a comprehensive cancer treatment and research center in Boston, Massachusetts.
Daniel Shays (1747 – September 29, 1825) was an American soldier, revolutionary, and farmer famous for being one of the leaders of Shays' Rebellion, a populist uprising against controversial debt collection and tax policies in Massachusetts in 1786 and 1787.
Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections is a web site that provides tables, graphs, and maps for presidential (1789–present), senatorial (1990 and onwards), and gubernatorial (1990 and onwards) elections.
DeCordova Sculpture Park and Museum is a 30-acre sculpture park and contemporary art museum on the shore of Flint's Pond in Lincoln, Massachusetts.
Dell EMC (formerly EMC Corporation until 2016) is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Hopkinton, Massachusetts, United States.
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party (nicknamed the GOP for Grand Old Party).
The Department of Conservation and Recreation (DCR) is a state agency of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, situated in the Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs.
Dinosaur Footprints in Holyoke, Massachusetts, USA is an wilderness reservation purchased for the public in 1935 by The Trustees of Reservations.
Dominican Americans (domínico-americanos, norteamericanos de origen dominicano or estadounidenses de origen dominicano) are Americans who trace their ancestry to the Dominican Republic.
The Dominion of New England in America (1686–89) was an administrative union of English colonies covering New England and the Mid-Atlantic Colonies (except for the Colony of Pennsylvania).
Theodor Seuss Geisel (March 2, 1904 – September 24, 1991) was an American author, political cartoonist, poet, animator, book publisher, and artist, best known for authoring more than 60 children's books under the pen name Doctor Seuss (abbreviated Dr. Seuss).
Dukes County is a county located in the U.S. state of Massachusetts.
Dzhokhar Anzorovich "Jahar" Tsarnaev (Kyrgyz: Джохар Царнаев) (born July 22, 1993)Джоха́р Анзо́рович Царна́ев; Царнаев Анзор-кIант ДжовхӀар or ЖовхӀар Carnayev Anzor-khant Dƶovhar is a Kyrgyzstani-American convicted terrorist of Chechen descent May 23, 2013 (New York Times) who was convicted of planting bombs at the Boston Marathon on April 15, 2013, along with his brother Tamerlan Tsarnaev.
Edward Estlin "E.
Sciurus carolinensis, common name eastern gray squirrel or grey squirrel depending on region, is a tree squirrel in the genus Sciurus.
Eastern Sprints refers to the annual rowing championship for the men's Eastern Association of Rowing Colleges (EARC).
The Eastern Time Zone (ET) is a time zone encompassing 17 U.S. states in the eastern part of the contiguous United States, parts of eastern Canada, the state of Quintana Roo in Mexico, Panama in Central America, and the Caribbean Islands.
Ecclesiastical separatism is the withdrawal of people and churches from Christian denominations, usually to form new denominations.
The economy of the United States is a highly developed mixed economy.
Edward John Markey (born July 11, 1946) is an American politician of the Democratic Party serving as the junior United States Senator from Massachusetts since 2013.
Edgar Allan Poe (born Edgar Poe; January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American writer, editor, and literary critic.
Edward William Brooke III (October 26, 1919 – January 3, 2015) was an American Republican politician.
Effie M. Morrissey (now Ernestina-Morrissey) was a schooner skippered by Robert Bartlett that made many scientific expeditions to the Arctic, sponsored by American museums, the Explorers Club and the National Geographic Society.
Elaine Noble (born January 22, 1944) is an American politician and LGBT activist who served in the Massachusetts House of Representatives for two terms starting in January 1975.
The United States Electoral College is the mechanism established by the United States Constitution for the election of the president and vice president of the United States by small groups of appointed representatives, electors, from each state and the District of Columbia.
Electricity generation is the process of generating electric power from sources of primary energy.
Elizabeth Freeman (1744December 28, 1829), also known as Bet or MumBet, was the first enslaved African American to file and win a freedom suit in Massachusetts.
Elizabeth Ann Warren (née Herring, born June 22, 1949) is an American politician and academic serving as the senior United States Senator from Massachusetts, a seat she was elected to in 2012.
Emily Elizabeth Dickinson (December 10, 1830 – May 15, 1886) was an American poet.
An endangered species is a species which has been categorized as very likely to become extinct.
The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System responsible for collecting, analyzing, and disseminating energy information to promote sound policymaking, efficient markets, and public understanding of energy and its interaction with the economy and the environment.
Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.
English Americans, also referred to as Anglo-Americans, are Americans whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in England, a country that is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
English Dissenters or English Separatists were Protestant Christians who separated from the Church of England in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Ense petit placidam sub libertate quietem is a Latin passage and the official motto of the U.S. Commonwealth of Massachusetts and the University of Massachusetts Amherst.
Entrepreneurship is the process of designing, launching and running a new business, which is often initially a small business.
Epigaea repens – known as mayflower or trailing arbutus – is a low, spreading shrub in the Ericaceae family.
The Episcopal Church is the United States-based member church of the worldwide Anglican Communion.
ESPN (originally an acronym for Entertainment and Sports Programming Network) is a U.S.-based global cable and satellite sports television channel owned by ESPN Inc., a joint venture owned by The Walt Disney Company (80%) and Hearst Communications (20%).
Essex County is a county in the northeastern part of the U.S. state of Massachusetts.
Dame Eunice Mary Kennedy Shriver, DSG (July 10, 1921 – August 11, 2009) was a member of the Kennedy family; she was the sister of President John F. Kennedy and senators Robert F. Kennedy and Ted Kennedy.
European emigration can be defined as subsequent emigration waves from the European continent to other continents.
Evacuation Day is a holiday observed on March 17 in Suffolk County, Massachusetts (which includes the cities of Boston, Chelsea, and Revere, and the town of Winthrop)List of Massachusetts holidays and also by the public schools in Somerville, Massachusetts.
Eversource Energy (formerly known as Northeast Utilities) is a publicly traded, Fortune 500 energy company headquartered in Hartford, Connecticut and Boston, Massachusetts, with several regulated subsidiaries offering retail electricity, natural gas service and water service to approximately 4 million customers in Connecticut, Massachusetts and New Hampshire.
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) of the United States is a national authority with powers to regulate all aspects of civil aviation.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), formerly the Bureau of Investigation (BOI), is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, and its principal federal law enforcement agency.
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is an independent agency of the United States government created by statute (and) to regulate interstate communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable.
The Federal Election Commission (FEC) is an independent regulatory agency whose purpose is to enforce campaign finance law in United States federal elections.
Fidelity Investments Inc., commonly referred to as Fidelity, is a multinational financial services corporation based in Boston, Massachusetts.
The fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), also known as finback whale or common rorqual and formerly known as herring whale or razorback whale, is a marine mammal belonging to the parvorder of baleen whales.
Finance is a field that is concerned with the allocation (investment) of assets and liabilities (known as elements of the balance statement) over space and time, often under conditions of risk or uncertainty.
A financial endowment is a donation of money or property to a nonprofit organization for the ongoing support of that organization.
The First Great Awakening (sometimes Great Awakening) or the Evangelical Revival was a series of Christian revivals that swept Britain and its Thirteen Colonies between the 1730s and 1740s.
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish.
The flag of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts is the subnational flag of Massachusetts.
FM broadcasting is a method of radio broadcasting using frequency modulation (FM) technology.
The Fortune 500 is an annual list compiled and published by Fortune magazine that ranks 500 of the largest United States corporations by total revenue for their respective fiscal years.
Framingham is a city in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.
Francis Williams Sargent (July 29, 1915 – October 22, 1998) was an American politician who served as the 64th Governor of Massachusetts from 1969-75.
Franklin County is a nongovernmental county located in the U.S. state of Massachusetts.
Frederic Michael Scherer (born 1932 in Ottawa, Illinois) is an American economist and expert on industrial organization.
Frederick Douglass (born Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey; – February 20, 1895) was an African-American social reformer, abolitionist, orator, writer, and statesman.
The Freedom Trail is a path through downtown Boston, Massachusetts, that passes by 16 locations significant to the history of the United States.
French Americans (French: Franco-Américains) are citizens or nationals of the United States who identify themselves with having full or partial French or French Canadian heritage, ethnicity, and/or ancestral ties.
The French and Indian War (1754–63) comprised the North American theater of the worldwide Seven Years' War of 1756–63.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
A French creole, or French-based creole language, is a creole language (contact language with native speakers) for which French is the lexifier.
Frontline (styled by the program as FRONTLINE) is the flagship investigative journalism series of the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), producing in-depth documentaries on a variety of domestic and international stories and issues, and broadcasting them on air and online.
Garter snake (in addition to ribbon snake) is a common name for the nearly harmless, small to medium-sized snakes belonging to the genus Thamnophis.
A gay village (also known as a gay neighborhood, gay enclave, gayvenue, gay ghetto, gaytto, gay district, gay mecca, gaytown or gayborhood) is a geographical area with generally recognized boundaries, inhabited or frequented by a large number of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people.
General American (abbreviated as GA or GenAm) is the umbrella variety of American English—the continuum of accents—spoken by a majority of Americans and popularly perceived, among Americans, as lacking any distinctly regional, ethnic, or socioeconomic characteristics.
George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 41st President of the United States from 1989 to 1993.
George Washington (February 22, 1732 –, 1799), known as the "Father of His Country," was an American soldier and statesman who served from 1789 to 1797 as the first President of the United States.
Gerry Eastman Studds (May 12, 1937 – October 14, 2006) was an American Democratic Congressman from Massachusetts who served from 1973 until 1997.
Global Partners LP is an American energy supply company ranked 146 in the Fortune 500.
Goodridge v. Dept.
The form of Massachusetts government is provided by the Constitution of the Commonwealth.
The Governor of Massachusetts is the head of the executive branch of the Government of Massachusetts and serves as commander-in-chief of the Commonwealth's military forces.
Grafton is a town in Worcester County, Massachusetts, United States.
Great Blue Hill (called Massachusett by Native Americans) is a hill of 635 feet (194 m) located within the Blue Hills Reservation in Milton and Canton, Massachusetts 10 miles (15 km) southwest of downtown Boston.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
The Great Migration was the movement of 6 million African-Americans out of the rural Southern United States to the urban Northeast, Midwest, and West that occurred between 1916 and 1970.
Greater Boston is the metropolitan region of New England encompassing the municipality of Boston, the capital of the U.S. state of Massachusetts, and the most populous city in New England, as well as its surrounding areas.
Greater Lowell is the name given to the city of Lowell, Massachusetts and its suburbs which are found in Northern Middlesex County, Massachusetts, the Merrimack Valley, and Southern New Hampshire.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.
The grey seal (Halichoerus grypus, meaning "hooked-nosed sea pig") is found on both shores of the North Atlantic Ocean.
Greyhound Lines, Inc., usually shortened to Greyhound, is an intercity bus common carrier serving over 3,800 destinations across North America.
Gross regional domestic product (GRDP) or gross domestic product of region (GDPR) is a subnational gross domestic product for measuring the size of that region's economy.
Howard Phillips Lovecraft (August 20, 1890 – March 15, 1937) was an American writer who achieved posthumous fame through his influential works of horror fiction.
The haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) is a saltwater fish from the family Gadidae, the true cods, it is the only species in the monotypic genus Melanogrammus.
Haitian Americans (haïtien américain; ayisyen ameriken) are Americans of Haitian descent.
Hampden County is a non-governmental county located in the Pioneer Valley of the state of Massachusetts, in the United States.
Hampshire County is a historical and judicial county located in the U.S. state of Massachusetts.
Hanscom Field (Laurence G. Hanscom Field) is a public use airport operated by the Massachusetts Port Authority, located 6 miles from the central business district of Bedford, a town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States.
The harbor (or harbour) seal (Phoca vitulina), also known as the common seal, is a true seal found along temperate and Arctic marine coastlines of the Northern Hemisphere.
w The Hartford Line is a commuter rail service between New Haven, Connecticut, and Springfield, Massachusetts.
Harvard Business School (HBS) is the graduate business school of Harvard University in Boston, Massachusetts.
The Harvard Crimson are the athletic teams of Harvard University.
Harvard Law School (also known as Harvard Law or HLS) is one of the professional graduate schools of Harvard University located in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Harvard Medical School (HMS) is the graduate medical school of Harvard University.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
The Head Of The Charles Regatta, also known as HOCR, is a rowing head race held on the penultimate complete weekend of October (i.e., on the Saturday that falls between the 17th and the 23rd of the month, and on the Sunday immediately afterwards) each year on the Charles River, which separates Boston and Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Headlands and bays are two related coastal features.
Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. (July 5, 1902 – February 27, 1985), sometimes referred to as Henry Cabot Lodge II, was a Republican United States Senator from Massachusetts and a United States ambassador.
Henry David Thoreau (see name pronunciation; July 12, 1817 – May 6, 1862) was an American essayist, poet, philosopher, abolitionist, naturalist, tax resister, development critic, surveyor, and historian.
Henry Knox (July 25, 1750 – October 25, 1806) was a military officer of the Continental Army and later the United States Army, who also served as the first United States Secretary of War from 1789 to 1794.
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (February 27, 1807 – March 24, 1882) was an American poet and educator whose works include "Paul Revere's Ride", The Song of Hiawatha, and Evangeline.
A heritage railway is a railway operated as living history to re-create or preserve railway scenes of the past.
High technology, often abbreviated to high tech (adjective forms high-technology, high-tech or hi-tech) is technology that is at the cutting edge: the most advanced technology available.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
Hispanic Americans and Latino Americans (Estadounidenses hispanos) are people in the United States who are descendants of people from countries of Latin America and Spain.
The history of the United States began with the settlement of Indigenous people before 15,000 BC.
The Hockey Hall of Fame (Temple de la renommée du hockey) is an ice hockey museum located in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
(), formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is the second largest island of Japan, and the largest and northernmost prefecture.
Holyoke is a city in Hampden County, Massachusetts, United States, that lies between the western bank of the Connecticut River and the Mount Tom Range.
Horace Mann (May 4, 1796August 2, 1859) was an American educational reformer and Whig politician dedicated to promoting public education.
A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold in the northern areas) winters.
The humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) is a species of baleen whale.
Immigration to the United States is the international movement of individuals who are not natives or do not possess citizenship in order to settle, reside, study, or work in the country.
Independence Day, also referred to as the Fourth of July or July Fourth, is a federal holiday in the United States commemorating the adoption of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776.
In English church history, Independents advocated local congregational control of religious and church matters, without any wider geographical hierarchy, either ecclesiastical or political.
The following is an alphabetical list of articles related to the United States Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
Infant mortality refers to deaths of young children, typically those less than one year of age.
Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.
Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.
A tax paid by a person who inherits money or property or a levy on the estate (money and property) of a person who has died.
Inspire is an English language online magazine reported to be published by the organization al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP).
The Institute of Contemporary Art (ICA) is an art museum and exhibition space located in Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.
Inter-city rail services are express passenger train services that cover longer distances than commuter or regional trains.
Interchangeable parts are parts (components) that are, for practical purposes, identical.
Interstate 190 (I-190) is an auxiliary Interstate Highway in the U.S. state of Massachusetts, maintained by the Massachusetts Department of Transportation (MassDOT).
Interstate 195 (I-195) is an Interstate Highway running a combined in the U.S. states of Rhode Island and Massachusetts.
Interstate 290 (abbreviated I-290) is an auxiliary Interstate Highway in the U.S. state of Massachusetts, maintained by the Massachusetts Department of Transportation (MassDOT).
Interstate 291 (abbreviated I-291, formerly known as the Springfield Expressway) is a connector highway in Massachusetts that links Interstate 91 in downtown Springfield with Interstate 90 (the Massachusetts Turnpike) in Chicopee.
Interstate 391 (abbreviated I-391) is an Auxiliary Interstate Highway located entirely within the U.S. State of Massachusetts.
Interstate 395 (I-395) is an auxiliary Interstate Highway in the U.S. states of Connecticut and Massachusetts; it is maintained by the Connecticut Department of Transportation (ConnDOT) and the Massachusetts Department of Transportation (MassDOT).
Interstate 495 (I-495) is an auxiliary route of I-95 in Massachusetts, maintained by the Massachusetts Department of Transportation (MassDOT).
Interstate 84 (I-84) in Massachusetts is the eastern-most segment of the eastern I-84 highway originating in Dunmore, Pennsylvania, (near Scranton).
Interstate 91 (I-91) is an Interstate Highway in the New England region of the United States.
Interstate 93 (I-93) is an Interstate Highway in the New England region of the United States.
Interstate 95 (I-95) is a part of the Interstate Highway System that parallels the East Coast of the United States from Houlton, Maine in the north to Miami, Florida in the south.
The Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, commonly known as the Interstate Highway System, is a network of controlled-access highways that forms part of the National Highway System in the United States.
The Intolerable Acts was the term invented by 19th century historians to refer to a series of punitive laws passed by the British Parliament in 1774 after the Boston Tea Party.
Irish Americans (Gael-Mheiriceánaigh) are an ethnic group comprising Americans who have full or partial ancestry from Ireland, especially those who identify with that ancestry, along with their cultural characteristics.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.
Italian Americans (italoamericani or italo-americani) are an ethnic group consisting of Americans who have ancestry from Italy.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
The Ivy League is a collegiate athletic conference comprising sports teams from eight private universities in the Northeastern United States.
Jamaica Plain is a neighborhood of in Boston, Massachusetts, US.
The Jamestown settlement in the Colony of Virginia was the first permanent English settlement in the Americas.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
James Patrick McGovern (born November 20, 1959) is a member of the United States House of Representatives, representing.
Joseph Patrick Kennedy III (born October 4, 1980), is an American lawyer and politician serving as the U.S. Representative from since 2013.
John Adams (October 30 [O.S. October 19] 1735 – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the first Vice President (1789–1797) and second President of the United States (1797–1801).
John Brown (May 9, 1800 – December 2, 1859) was an American abolitionist who believed in and advocated armed insurrection as the only way to overthrow the institution of slavery in the United States.
John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.
John Hancock (October 8, 1793) was an American merchant, statesman, and prominent Patriot of the American Revolution.
John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is an American politician who served as the 68th United States Secretary of State from 2013 to 2017.
John Quincy Adams (July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848) was an American statesman who served as a diplomat, minister and ambassador to foreign nations, and treaty negotiator, United States Senator, U.S. Representative (Congressman) from Massachusetts, and the sixth President of the United States from 1825 to 1829.
John Hoyer Updike (March 18, 1932 – January 27, 2009) was an American novelist, poet, short story writer, art critic, and literary critic.
Jonathan Edwards (October 5, 1703 – March 22, 1758) was an American revivalist preacher, philosopher, and Congregationalist Protestant theologian.
Joseph Patrick Kennedy Sr. (September 6, 1888 – November 18, 1969) was an American businessman, investor, and politician known for his high-profile positions in United States politics.
Karyn Polito (born November 11, 1966) is an American politician currently serving as the 72nd Lieutenant Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, since 2015.
Katherine Marlea Clark (born July 17, 1963) is an American politician who has served as the United States Representative for Massachusetts's 5th congressional district since 2013.
Kendall Square is a neighborhood in Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S., with the square itself at the intersection of Main Street and Broadway.
The Kennedy family is an American political family that has long been prominent in American politics, public service, and business.
Khmer or Cambodian (natively ភាសាខ្មែរ phiəsaa khmae, or more formally ខេមរភាសា kheemaʾraʾ phiəsaa) is the language of the Khmer people and the official language of Cambodia.
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.
The Native American Party, renamed the American Party in 1855 and commonly known as the Know Nothing movement, was an American nativist political party that operated nationally in the mid-1850s.
The Kraft Group, LLC, is a group of privately held companies in the professional sports, manufacturing, and real estate development industries doing business in 90 countries.
The Kripalu Center for Yoga & Health is a non-profit organization that operates a health and yoga retreat in Stockbridge, Massachusetts.
Lake Quinsigamond (also Long Pond) is a body of water situated between the city of Worcester and the town of Shrewsbury in Worcester County, Massachusetts, United States.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The League of Women Voters (LWV) is an American civic organization that was formed to help women take a larger role in public affairs after they won the right to vote.
In the United States, the use and possession of cannabis is illegal under federal law for any purpose, by way of the Controlled Substances Act of 1970.
Lenox is a town in Berkshire County, Massachusetts, United States.
Leptospirosis is an infection caused by corkscrew-shaped bacteria called Leptospira.
A letter of marque and reprisal (lettre de marque; lettre de course) was a government license in the Age of Sail that authorized a person, known as a privateer or corsair, to attack and capture enemy vessels.
The Libertarian Party of Massachusetts is the Massachusetts affiliate of the Libertarian Party.
Liberty Mutual Group, more commonly known by the name of its primary line of business, Liberty Mutual Insurance, is an American diversified global insurer, and the fourth-largest property and casualty insurer in the United States.
A lieutenant governor, lieutenant-governor, or vice governor is a high officer of state, whose precise role and rank vary by jurisdiction.
Lincoln is a town in the historic area of Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States.
What follows is a List of American Indian Reservations in Massachusetts.
This list of areas in the National Park System in Massachusetts describes the regions and properties of the state of Massachusetts in which the United States National Park Service (NPS) has an interest.
There are one hundred and fourteen colleges and universities in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts that are listed under the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education.
This is a list of the 14 counties in Massachusetts.
This list of Massachusetts State Parks contains the state parks and recreation areas in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts managed by the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation as of 2015.
Massachusetts is a state located in the Northeastern United States.
This is a list of political offices which have been held by a lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender person, with details of the first holder of each office.
This is a complete list of the states of the United States and its major territories ordered by total area, land area, and water area.
This article includes a sortable table listing the 50 states, the territories, and the District of Columbia by population density, population rank, and land area.
A state of the United States is one of the 50 constituent entities that shares its sovereignty with the federal government.
Logan International Airport, officially known as General Edward Lawrence Logan International Airport and also commonly known as Boston Logan International Airport, is an international airport in the East Boston neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts, United States (and partly in the town of Winthrop, Massachusetts).
The long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis), once known as oldsquaw, is a medium-sized sea duck.
A longhouse or long house is a type of long, proportionately narrow, single-room building built by peoples in various parts of the world including Asia, Europe, and North America.
Lowell National Historical Park is a National Historical Park of the United States located in Lowell, Massachusetts.
Lowell is a city in the U.S. Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
The Mahicans (or Mohicans) are an Eastern Algonquian Native American tribe related to the abutting Delaware people, originally settled in the upper Hudson River Valley (around Albany, New York) and western New England centered on Pittsfield, Massachusetts and lower present-day Vermont.
Maine is a U.S. state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
Major League Lacrosse (MLL) is a semi-professional field lacrosse league consisting of nine teams in the United States.
Major League Soccer (MLS) is a men's professional soccer league sanctioned by U.S. Soccer that represents the sport's highest level in both the United States and Canada.
In law enforcement, a manhunt is an extensive and thorough search for a wanted and dangerous fugitive involving the use of police units, technology, and help from the public.
The Maria Mitchell Association is a private non-profit organization on the island of Nantucket off the coast of Massachusetts.
The Marine Hospital Service was an organization of Marine Hospitals dedicated to the care of ill and disabled seamen in the U.S. Merchant Marine, the U.S. Coast Guard and other federal beneficiaries.
Maritime history is the study of human interaction with and activity at sea.
Martha Mary Coakley (born July 14, 1953) is a former Attorney General of Massachusetts.
Martha's Vineyard (Wampanoag: Noepe; often called just the Vineyard) is an island located south of Cape Cod in Massachusetts that is known for being an affluent summer colony.
Mary Baker Eddy (July 16, 1821 – December 3, 1910) established the Church of Christ, Scientist, as a Christian denomination and worldwide movement of spiritual healers.
Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington, D.C. to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east.
Mashpee is a town in Barnstable County, Massachusetts, United States, on Cape Cod.
In sociology and psychology, mass hysteria (also known as collective hysteria, group hysteria, or collective obsessional behavior) is a phenomenon that transmits collective illusions of threats, whether real or imaginary, through a population in society as a result of rumors and fear (memory acknowledgement).
The Massachusett are a Native American people who historically lived in areas surrounding Massachusetts Bay, as well as northeast and southern Massachusetts in what is now the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, including present-day Greater Boston.
The Massachusett language is an Algonquian language of the Algic language family, formerly spoken by several peoples of eastern coastal and south-eastern Massachusetts and currently, in its revived form, in four communities of Wampanoag people.
Massachusetts Bay is a bay on the Atlantic Ocean that forms part of the central coastline of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
The Massachusetts Bay Colony (1628–1691) was an English settlement on the east coast of North America in the 17th century around the Massachusetts Bay, the northernmost of the several colonies later reorganized as the Province of Massachusetts Bay.
The Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (abbreviated MBTA and known colloquially as "the T") is the public agency responsible for operating most public transportation services in Greater Boston, Massachusetts.
The Massachusetts Democratic Party (MassDems) is the affiliate of the Democratic Party in the U.S. Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
The Massachusetts Department of Transportation (MassDOT) oversees roads, public transit, aeronautics, and transportation licensing and registration in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
The Massachusetts Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs (EOEEA) is a Cabinet level agency under the Governor of Massachusetts.
Massachusetts gateway cities are "midsize urban centers that anchor regional economies around the state," facing "stubborn social and economic challenges" while retaining "many assets with unrealized potential." These communities, which all had a legacy of economic success, have struggled as the state's economy shifted toward skills-centered knowledge sectors (increasingly clustered in and around Boston).
The Massachusetts General Court (formally styled the General Court of Massachusetts) is the state legislature of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
Massachusetts General Hospital (Mass General or MGH) is the original and largest teaching hospital of Harvard Medical School and a biomedical research facility located in the West End neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts.
The 1958 Massachusetts gubernatorial election was held on November 4, 1958.
The 1960 Massachusetts gubernatorial election was held on November 8, 1960.
The 1962 Massachusetts gubernatorial election was held on November 6, 1962.
The 1964 Massachusetts gubernatorial election was held on November 3, 1964.
The 1966 Massachusetts gubernatorial election was held on November 8, 1966.
The 1970 Massachusetts gubernatorial election was held on November 3, 1970.
The 1974 Massachusetts gubernatorial election was held on November 5, 1974.
The 1978 Massachusetts gubernatorial election was held on November 7, 1978.
The 1982 Massachusetts gubernatorial election was held on November 2, 1982.
The 1986 Massachusetts gubernatorial election was held on November 4, 1986.
The 1990 Massachusetts gubernatorial election was held on November 6, 1990.
The 1994 Massachusetts gubernatorial election was held on November 8, 1994.
The 1998 Massachusetts gubernatorial election was held on November 3, 1998.
The Massachusetts gubernatorial election of 2002 was held on November 5, 2002.
The Massachusetts gubernatorial election of 2006 was held on November 7, 2006.
The Massachusetts gubernatorial election of 2010 was held on November 2, 2010.
The 2014 Massachusetts gubernatorial election took place on November 4, 2014, to elect the Governor of Massachusetts, concurrently with the election of Massachusetts' Class II U.S. Senate seat, and other elections to the United States Senate in other states and elections to the United States House of Representatives and various state and local elections.
The Commonwealth of Massachusetts passed a health care reform law in 2006 with the aim of providing health insurance to nearly all of its residents.
The Massachusetts Historical Society is a major historical archive specializing in early American, Massachusetts, and New England history.
The Massachusetts House of Representatives is the lower house of the Massachusetts General Court, the state legislature of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
Massachusetts liberal is a phrase in American politics which is generally used as a pejorative political epithet by Republicans against Democrats who are from the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
Founded in 1851, Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance Company (MassMutual) is an American mutual life insurance company serving five million clients.
The Massachusetts National Guard was founded as the Massachusetts Bay Colonial Militia on December 13, 1636, and contains the oldest units in the United States Army.
Massachusetts Port Authority (Massport) is a port authority in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
The Massachusetts Republican Party (MassGOP) is the Massachusetts branch of the United States Republican Party.
Route 128 (designated as the Yankee Division Highway) is a state highway in the U.S. state of Massachusetts, maintained by the Massachusetts Department of Transportation (MassDOT).
Route 2 is a major east–west state highway in Massachusetts.
Route 24 is a freeway south of I-93 in southeastern Massachusetts, linking Fall River with the Boston metropolitan area.
Route 3 is a southward continuation of U.S. Route 3, connecting Cambridge, Massachusetts with Cape Cod.
The Massachusetts School Laws were three legislative acts of 1642, 1647 and 1648 enacted in the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
The Massachusetts Secretary of the Commonwealth (secretary of state) is the principal public information officer of the state government of the U.S. state of Massachusetts.
The Massachusetts Senate is the upper house of the Massachusetts General Court, the bicameral state legislature of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
The Sensible Marijuana Policy Initiative, also known as Massachusetts Ballot Question 2, was an initiated state statute that replaced prior criminal penalties with new civil penalties on adults possessing an ounce or less of marijuana.
The Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court (SJC) is the highest court in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
The Massachusetts Turnpike (locally called the "Mass Pike" or "the Pike") is a toll road in the U.S. state of Massachusetts, maintained by the Massachusetts Department of Transportation (MassDOT).
The Mayflower was an English ship that famously transported the first English Puritans, known today as the Pilgrims, from Plymouth, England to the New World in 1620.
The Mayflower Compact was the first governing document of Plymouth Colony.
The MBTA Commuter Rail system serves as the commuter rail arm of the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority's transportation coverage of Greater Boston in the United States.
MCPHS University (formerly Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences), is an accredited, private institution located in the Longwood Medical and Academic Area of Boston, Massachusetts.
Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the measles virus.
MediaOne Group, Inc. (Comcast MO Group, Inc.) was created by US WEST Inc, one of the original Baby Bells Regional Bell Operating Companies, acquisition of Boston-based Continental Cable and combined with its previously acquired Atlanta-based Wometco/GTC.
Merrimack College is a private college in the Roman Catholic tradition located in North Andover, Massachusetts.
The Metacomet-Monadnock Trail (M&M Trail) is a hiking trail that traverses the Metacomet Ridge of the Pioneer Valley region of Massachusetts and the central uplands of Massachusetts and southern New Hampshire.
Methuen is a city in Essex County, Massachusetts, United States.
A metropolitan area, sometimes referred to as a metro area or commuter belt, is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing.
A metropolitan planning organization (MPO) is a federally mandated and federally funded transportation policy-making organization in the United States that is made up of representatives from local government and governmental transportation authorities.
Middleborough (frequently written as Middleboro) is a town in Plymouth County, Massachusetts, United States.
Middlesex County is a county in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, in the United States.
The Midstate Trail is a scenic footpath which runs through Worcester County, Massachusetts, from the Rhode Island border to the New Hampshire border, approximately west of Boston.
Michael Everett Capuano (born January 9, 1952) is an American politician who serves as the U.S. Representative for.
Milton is a town in Norfolk County, Massachusetts, United States and an affluent suburb of Boston.
A minimum wage is the lowest remuneration that employers can legally pay their workers.
The minke whale, or lesser rorqual, is a type of baleen whale.
Minute Man National Historical Park commemorates the opening battle in the American Revolutionary War.
The Missouri Compromise is the title generally attached to the legislation passed by the 16th United States Congress on May 9, 1820.
The Modern Language Association of America, often referred to as the Modern Language Association (MLA), is the principal professional association in the United States for scholars of language and literature.
Modern American liberalism is the dominant version of liberalism in the United States.
A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty.
Monomoy Island National Wildlife Refuge is federal wildlife refuge located on Monomoy Island in Massachusetts.
The moose (North America) or elk (Eurasia), Alces alces, is the largest extant species in the deer family.
The Morgan horse is one of the earliest horse breeds developed in the United States.
Mormons are a religious and cultural group related to Mormonism, the principal branch of the Latter Day Saint movement of Restorationist Christianity, initiated by Joseph Smith in upstate New York during the 1820s.
Moswetuset Hummock is a wooded historic place in Quincy, Massachusetts.
Mount Greylock is the highest natural point in Massachusetts at.
Mount Holyoke College is a liberal arts college for women, in South Hadley, Massachusetts, United States.
A muffin is an individual-sized, baked product.
The Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, Massachusetts, is the fifth largest museum in the United States.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Myles Standish (c. 1584 – October 3, 1656) was an English military officer hired by the Pilgrims as military adviser for Plymouth Colony.
The Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame is an American history museum and hall of fame, located at 1000 Hall of Fame Avenue in Springfield, Massachusetts.
Nantucket is an island about by ferry south from Cape Cod, in the U.S. state of Massachusetts.
The Narragansett tribe are an Algonquian American Indian tribe from Rhode Island.
Nathaniel Hawthorne (né Hathorne; July 4, 1804 – May 19, 1864) was an American novelist, dark romantic, and short story writer.
Natick is a town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States.
The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency of the United States government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records and with increasing public access to those documents, which comprise the National Archives.
The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) is the largest continuing and nationally representative assessment of what U.S. students know and can do in various subjects.
The National Basketball Association (NBA) is a men's professional basketball league in North America; composed of 30 teams (29 in the United States and 1 in Canada).
The National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) is a bipartisan non-governmental organization (NGO) established in 1975 to serve the members and staff of state legislatures of the United States (states, commonwealths, and territories).
The National Park Service (NPS) is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations.
Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States.
Nativism is the political policy of promoting the interests of native inhabitants against those of immigrants.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
"Nature" is an essay written by Ralph Waldo Emerson, and published by James Munroe and Company in 1836.
The navy bean, haricot, pearl haricot bean, boston bean,Anne Willan white pea bean, or pea bean, is a variety of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) native to the Americas, where it was domesticated.
The NBA Finals is the annual championship series of the National Basketball Association (NBA).
National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Football Bowl Subdivision independent schools are four-year institutions whose football programs are not part of an NCAA-affiliated conference.
Division III (D-III) is a division of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) in the United States.
Neptunea lyrata, also known by the common names New England Neptune, wrinkled whelk, ribbed Neptune, inflated whelk, lyre whelk or lyre Neptune, is a species of large sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Buccinidae.
New Balance Athletics, Inc. (NB), best known as simply New Balance, is an American multinational corporation based in the Brighton neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts.
New Bedford Whaling National Historical Park (NBWNHP) is a United States National Historical Park in New Bedford, Massachusetts, and is maintained by the National Park Service (NPS).
New Bedford is a city in Bristol County, Massachusetts, United States.
New England is a geographical region comprising six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut.
New England Baptist Hospital (NEBH) is a 141-bed adult medical-surgical hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, United States specializing in orthopedic care and complex orthopedic procedures.
New England French (français de Nouvelle-Angleterre) is a variety of Canadian French spoken in the New England region of the United States.
The New England National Scenic Trail (NET) is a National Scenic Trail in southern New England, which includes most of the three single trails Metacomet-Monadnock Trail, Mattabesett Trail and Metacomet Trail.
The New England Patriots are a professional American football team based in the Greater Boston region.
The New England Revolution is an American professional soccer club based in the Greater Boston area that competes in Major League Soccer (MLS), in the Eastern Conference of the league.
The New England Summer Nationals was a popular, annual, four-day-long automotive festival in Worcester, Massachusetts.
The New England town (generally referred to simply as a town in New England) is the basic unit of local government and local division of state authority in each of the six New England states and without a direct counterpart in most other U.S. states.
New Hampshire is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
New Haven is a coastal city in the U.S. state of Connecticut.
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the Northeastern United States.
A new religious movement (NRM), also known as a new religion or an alternative spirituality, is a religious or spiritual group that has modern origins and which occupies a peripheral place within its society's dominant religious culture.
New wave is a genre of rock music popular in the late 1970s and the 1980s with ties to mid-1970s punk rock.
The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).
New York is an American biweekly magazine concerned with life, culture, politics, and style generally, and with a particular emphasis on New York City.
New York is a state in the northeastern United States.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
The New-York Historical Society is an American history museum and library located in New York City at the corner of 77th Street and Central Park West in Manhattan, founded in 1804 as New York's first museum.
Nicola Dickson "Niki" Sauvage Tsongas (born April 26, 1946) is an American politician and the current U.S. Representative for.
The Nipmuc or Nipmuck people are descendants of the indigenous Algonquian peoples of Nippenet, 'the freshwater pond place', which corresponds to central Massachusetts and immediately adjacent portions of Connecticut and Rhode Island.
Non-Hispanic whites or whites not of Hispanic or Latino origin (commonly referred to as Anglo-Americans)Mish, Frederic C., Editor in Chief Webster's Tenth New Collegiate Dictionary Springfield, Massachusetts, U.S.A.:1994--Merriam-Webster See original definition (definition #1) of Anglo in English: It is defined as a synonym for Anglo-American--Page 86 are European Americans who are not of Hispanic or Latino origin/ethnicity, as defined by the United States Census Bureau.
In English church history, a nonconformist was a Protestant who did not "conform" to the governance and usages of the established Church of England.
A nor'easter (also northeaster; see below) is a macro-scale cyclone.
Norfolk County is a county located in the U.S. state of Massachusetts.
Norman Percevel Rockwell (February 3, 1894 – November 8, 1978) was an American author, painter and illustrator.
The Norman Rockwell Museum is an art museum in Stockbridge, Massachusetts, dedicated to the art of Norman Rockwell.
The North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88) is the vertical control datum of orthometric height established for vertical control surveying in the United States of America based upon the General Adjustment of the North American Datum of 1988.
The North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis, which means "good, or true, whale of the ice") is a baleen whale, one of three right whale species belonging to the genus Eubalaena, all of which were formerly classified as a single species.
North Station is a major transportation hub located at Causeway and Nashua Streets in Boston, Massachusetts, United States.
The city of Northampton is the county seat of Hampshire County, Massachusetts, United States.
The Northeastern United States, also referred to as the American Northeast or simply the Northeast, is a geographical region of the United States bordered to the north by Canada, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Southern United States, and to the west by the Midwestern United States.
Northeastern University (NU, formerly NEU) is a private research university in Boston, Massachusetts, established in 1898.
Nova (stylized NOVΛ) is an American popular science television series produced by WGBH Boston.
National Public Radio (usually shortened to NPR, stylized as npr) is an American privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization based in Washington, D.C. It serves as a national syndicator to a network of over 1,000 public radio stations in the United States.
An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.
Old Sturbridge Village (OSV) is a living museum located in Sturbridge, Massachusetts, in the United States, which re-creates life in rural New England during the 1790s through 1830s.
An old-growth forest — also termed primary forest, virgin forest, primeval forest, or late seral forest— is a forest that has attained great age without significant disturbance and thereby exhibits unique ecological features and might be classified as a climax community.
The modern Olympic Games or Olympics (Jeux olympiques) are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions.
An open-air museum (or open air museum) is a museum that exhibits collections of buildings and artifacts out-of-doors.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the U.S. Commonwealth of Massachusetts: Massachusetts – U.S. state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America.
Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).
The Patriot League is a collegiate athletic conference comprising private institutions of higher education and two United States service academies based in the Northeastern United States.
The Patuxet were a Native American band of the Wampanoag tribal confederation.
The Paxton soil series was established in Worcester County, Massachusetts in 1922, and is named for the town of Paxton where it was first described and mapped.
A peninsula (paeninsula from paene "almost” and insula "island") is a piece of land surrounded by water on the majority of its border, while being connected to a mainland from which it extends.
The per capita personal income of the United States is the income that is received by persons from all sources.
The peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), also known as the peregrine, and historically as the duck hawk in North America, is a widespread bird of prey (raptor) in the family Falconidae.
A performance metric measures an organization's behavior, activities, and performance.
Peter Pan Bus Lines is a long-distance/commuter bus carrier headquartered in Springfield, Massachusetts.
The Pilgrims or Pilgrim Fathers were early European settlers of the Plymouth Colony in present-day Plymouth, Massachusetts, United States.
The Pioneer Valley is the colloquial and promotional name for the portion of the Connecticut River Valley that is in Massachusetts in the United States.
The piping plover (Charadrius melodus) is a small sand-colored, sparrow-sized shorebird that nests and feeds along coastal sand and gravel beaches in North America.
The Pixies are an American alternative rock band formed in 1986 in Boston, Massachusetts.
Plimoth Plantation, founded in 1947, is a living history museum in Plymouth, Massachusetts, USA that attempts to replicate the original settlement of the Plymouth Colony established in the 17th century by English colonists who later became known as the Pilgrims.
Plymouth Colony (sometimes New Plymouth) was an English colonial venture in North America from 1620 to 1691.
Plymouth County is a county in the U.S. state of Massachusetts.
Plymouth (historically known as Plimouth and Plimoth) is a town in Plymouth County, Massachusetts, United States.
The Pocumtuc (v. Pocomtuck) or Deerfield Indians were a prominent Native American tribe originally inhabiting western areas of what is now Massachusetts, especially around the confluence of the Deerfield and Connecticut Rivers in today's Franklin County.
Portland is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Maine, with a population of 67,067 as of 2017.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Prentice Hall is a major educational publisher owned by Pearson plc.
A pressure cooker bomb is an improvised explosive device (IED) created by inserting explosive material into a pressure cooker and attaching a blasting cap into the cover of the cooker.
A privateer is a private person or ship that engages in maritime warfare under a commission of war.
The Professional Golfers' Association of America (PGA of America) is an American organization of golf professionals.
Progressivism is the support for or advocacy of improvement of society by reform.
Proposition 2½ is a Massachusetts statute that limits property tax assessments and, secondarily, automobile excise tax levies by Massachusetts municipalities.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Providence is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Rhode Island and is one of the oldest cities in the United States.
The Province of Massachusetts Bay was a crown colony in British North America and one of the thirteen original states of the United States from 1776.
The Province of New York (1664–1776) was a British proprietary colony and later royal colony on the northeast coast of North America.
Provincetown is a New England town located at the extreme tip of Cape Cod in Barnstable County, Massachusetts, in the United States.
A Stateside Puerto Rican, also ambiguously Puerto Rican American (puertorriqueño-americano, puertorriqueño-estadounidense) is a term for residents in the United States who were born in or trace family ancestry to Puerto Rico.
Puerto Rico (Spanish for "Rich Port"), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, "Free Associated State of Puerto Rico") and briefly called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea.
The Puritans were English Reformed Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to "purify" the Church of England from its "Catholic" practices, maintaining that the Church of England was only partially reformed.
Quincy is the largest city in Norfolk County, Massachusetts, United States.
Quock Walker, also known as Kwaku or Quok Walker (b. 1753 - d. unknown), was an American slave who sued for and won his freedom in June 1781 in a case citing language in the new Massachusetts Constitution (1780) that declared all men to be born free and equal.
The raccoon (or, Procyon lotor), sometimes spelled racoon, also known as the common raccoon, North American raccoon, or northern raccoon, is a medium-sized mammal native to North America.
Rail freight transport is the use of railroads and trains to transport cargo as opposed to human passengers.
Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, lecturer, philosopher, and poet who led the transcendentalist movement of the mid-19th century.
The Raytheon Company is a major U.S. defense contractor and industrial corporation with core manufacturing concentrations in weapons and military and commercial electronics.
Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party.
Research comprises "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.
Rhode Island, officially the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, is a state in the New England region of the United States.
Rhodonite is a manganese inosilicate, (Mn, Fe, Mg, Ca)SiO3 and member of the pyroxenoid group of minerals, crystallizing in the triclinic system.
Richard Edmund Neal (born February 14, 1949) is an American politician and the U.S. Representative for.
Right whales or black whales are three species of large baleen whales of the genus Eubalaena: the North Atlantic right whale (E. glacialis), the North Pacific right whale (E. japonica) and the Southern right whale (E. australis).
A ring road (also known as beltline, beltway, circumferential (high)way, loop or orbital) is a road or a series of connected roads encircling a town, city, or country.
Robert Francis "Bobby" Kennedy (November 20, 1925 – June 6, 1968) was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 64th United States Attorney General from January 1961 to September 1964, and as a U.S. Senator for New York from January 1965 until his assassination in June 1968.
Roger Williams (c. 21 December 1603 – between 27 January and 15 March 1683) was a Puritan minister, English Reformed theologian, and Reformed Baptist who founded the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
The Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy Greenway is a linear park located in several Downtown Boston neighborhoods.
The roseate tern (Sterna dougallii) is a tern in the family Laridae.
Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group is an independent publishing house founded in 1949.
The Roxbury Latin School, which was founded in Roxbury, Massachusetts, by the Rev.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The Ryder Cup is a biennial men's golf competition between teams from Europe and the United States.
Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were Italian-born American anarchists who were controversially convicted of murdering a guard and a paymaster during the April 15, 1920 armed robbery of the Slater and Morrill Shoe Company in Braintree, Massachusetts, United States.
Sachem and Sagamore refer to paramount chiefs among the Algonquians or other Native American tribes of the northeast.
Saint Patrick's Day, or the Feast of Saint Patrick (Lá Fhéile Pádraig, "the Day of the Festival of Patrick"), is a cultural and religious celebration held on 17 March, the traditional death date of Saint Patrick (AD 385–461), the foremost patron saint of Ireland.
The Salem witch trials were a series of hearings and prosecutions of people accused of witchcraft in colonial Massachusetts between February 1692 and May 1693.
Salem is a historic, coastal city in Essex County, Massachusetts, in the United States, located on Massachusetts' North Shore.
A sales tax is a tax paid to a governing body for the sales of certain goods and services.
Same-sex marriage (also known as gay marriage) is the marriage of a same-sex couple, entered into in a civil or religious ceremony.
Same-sex marriage has been legally recognized in the U.S state of Massachusetts since May 17, 2004, as a result of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court (SJC) ruling in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health that it was unconstitutional under the Massachusetts Constitution to allow only opposite-sex couples to marry.
Same-sex marriage in the United States was initially established on a state-by-state basis, expanding from 1 state in 2004 to 36 states in 2015, when, on June 26, 2015, same-sex marriage was established in all 50 states as a result of the ruling of the Supreme Court of the United States in the landmark civil rights case of Obergefell v. Hodges, in which it was held that the right of same-sex couples to marry on the same terms and conditions as opposite-sex couples, with all the accompanying rights and responsibilities, is guaranteed by both the Due Process Clause and the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
Samuel Adams (– October 2, 1803) was an American statesman, political philosopher, and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
Scott Philip Brown (born September 12, 1959) is an American attorney, diplomat, and politician serving as the United States Ambassador to New Zealand and Samoa, since 2017.
Secularization (or secularisation) is the transformation of a society from close identification and affiliation with religious values and institutions toward nonreligious values and secular institutions.
Seth Wilbur Moulton (born October 24, 1978) is an American politician serving as the U.S. Representative for Massachusetts's 6th congressional district since 2015.
The Seventh-day Adventist Church is a Protestant Christian denomination distinguished by its observance of Saturday, the seventh day of the week in Christian and Jewish calendars, as the Sabbath, and by its emphasis on the imminent Second Coming (advent) of Jesus Christ.
Shakespeare & Company is an American theatre company located in Lenox, Massachusetts in the Berkshire region of western Massachusetts.
Shays Rebellion (sometimes spelled "Shays's") was an armed uprising in Massachusetts (mostly in and around Springfield) during 1786 and 1787.
The Siege of Boston (April 19, 1775 – March 17, 1776) was the opening phase of the American Revolutionary War.
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
Social liberalism (also known as modern liberalism or egalitarian liberalism) is a political ideology and a variety of liberalism that endorses a market economy and the expansion of civil and political rights while also believing that the legitimate role of the government includes addressing economic and social issues such as poverty, health care and education.
Sojourner Truth (born Isabella (Belle) Baumfree; – November 26, 1883) was an African-American abolitionist and women's rights activist.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
South Boston is a densely populated neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts, located south and east of the Fort Point Channel and abutting Dorchester Bay.
The South End is a neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts.
South Station—officially The Governor Michael S. Dukakis Transportation Center at South Station—is the largest railroad station and intercity bus terminal in Greater Boston and New England's second-largest transportation center after Logan International Airport.
The Southwest Corridor or Southwest Expressway was a project designed to bring an eight-lane highway into the City of Boston from a direction southwesterly of downtown.
Southwick is a town in Hampden County, Massachusetts, United States.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
The Special Olympics is the world's largest sports organization for children and adults with intellectual disabilities, providing year-round training and competitions to 5 million athletes and Unified States Sports partners in 172 countries.
The Springfield Armory, located in the city of Springfield, Massachusetts, was the primary center for the manufacture of United States military firearms from 1777 until its closing in 1968, it was one of the first companies dedicated to the manufacture of weapons.
The Springfield metropolitan area is a region that is socio-economically and culturally tied to the City of Springfield, Massachusetts.
The Springfield Symphony Orchestra is an orchestra based in Springfield, Massachusetts.
Springfield is a city in western New England, and the historical seat of Hampden County, Massachusetts, United States.
Tisquantum (1585 (±10 years?) – late November 1622 O.S.), more commonly known by the diminutive variant Squanto, was a member of the Patuxet tribe best known for being an early liaison between the native populations in Southern New England and the Mayflower Pilgrims who made their settlement at the site of Squanto's former summer village.
A square dance is a dance for four couples (eight dancers in total) arranged in a square, with one couple on each side, facing the middle of the square.
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
The Stanley Cup (La Coupe Stanley) is the championship trophy awarded annually to the National Hockey League (NHL) playoff winner.
Staples, Inc. is an American multinational office supply retailing corporation.
A startup company (startup or start-up) is an entrepreneurial venture which is typically a newly emerged business that aims to meet a marketplace need by developing a viable business model around a product, service, process or a platform.
State Street Corporation is a financial services and bank holding company headquartered at One Lincoln Street in Boston with operations worldwide.
A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid.
Stephen Francis Lynch (born March 31, 1955) is an American politician who has served as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Massachusetts since 2001.
Stockbridge is a town in Berkshire County in western Massachusetts, United States.
StudyPoint is a for-profit American company that provides academic and test preparation tutoring to students in grades K-12.
Suffolk County is a county in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, in the United States.
The Super Bowl is the annual championship game of the National Football League (NFL).
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
Susan B. Anthony (February 15, 1820 – March 13, 1906) was an American social reformer and women's rights activist who played a pivotal role in the women's suffrage movement.
Susan Marie Rojcewicz (born May 29, 1953) is an American former basketball player who competed in the 1976 Summer Olympics.
Swampscott is a town in Essex County, Massachusetts, United States located up the coast from Boston in an area known as the North Shore.
Sylvia Plath (October 27, 1932 – February 11, 1963) was an American poet, novelist, and short-story writer.
A tabby is any domestic cat (Felis catus) that has a coat featuring distinctive stripes, dots, lines or swirling patterns, usually together with a mark resembling an 'M' on its forehead.
Tamerlan Anzorovich Tsarnaev (October 21, 1986 – April 19, 2013)Тамерла́н Анзо́рович Царна́ев; Царнаев Анзор-кIант Тамерлан Carnayev Anzor-khant Tamerlan was a Russian-Kyrgyz terrorist of Chechen descent who, with his brother Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, planted bombs at the Boston Marathon on April 15, 2013.
The Tampa Bay Times, previously named the St.
Tanglewood is a music venue in the towns of Lenox and Stockbridge in the Berkshire Hills of western Massachusetts.
The Tanglewood Jazz Festival, was a summer music festival, featuring contemporary jazz artists.
The Tanglewood Music Festival is a music festival held every summer on the Tanglewood estate in Stockbridge and Lenox in the Berkshire Hills in western Massachusetts.
Tax exemption is a monetary exemption which reduces taxable income.
The Tax Foundation is a Washington, D.C.-based think tank, founded in 1937, that collects data and publishes research studies on U.S. tax policies at both the federal and state levels.
Edward Moore "Ted" Kennedy (February 22, 1932 – August 25, 2009) was an American politician who served in the United States Senate from Massachusetts for almost 47 years, from 1962 until his death in 2009.
The Telegram & Gazette (and Sunday Telegram) is Worcester, Massachusetts's only daily newspaper.
A telephone, or phone, is a telecommunications device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be heard directly.
The temperance movement is a social movement against the consumption of alcoholic beverages.
Temperate deciduous or temperate broad-leaf forests are dominated by trees that lose their leaves each year.
Thanksgiving, or Thanksgiving Day, is a public holiday celebrated on the fourth Thursday of November in the United States.
The Berkshires are a highland geologic region located in the western parts of Massachusetts and Connecticut.
The Boston Globe (sometimes abbreviated as The Globe) is an American daily newspaper founded and based in Boston, Massachusetts, since its creation by Charles H. Taylor in 1872.
The Cars were an American rock band that emerged from the new wave scene in the late 1970s.
The Governor's Academy (formerly Governor Dummer Academy) is a co-educational, independent boarding preparatory school for grades 9–12 located on in the village of Byfield, Massachusetts, United States (town of Newbury), north of Boston.
The Mather School is the oldest public elementary school in North America.
The Modern Lovers was an American rock band led by Jonathan Richman in the 1970s and 1980s.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Plain Dealer is the major daily newspaper of Cleveland, Ohio, United States.
The Republican is a newspaper based in Springfield, Massachusetts.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
The Woods Hole, Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket Steamship Authority, referred to colloquially as The Steamship Authority or simply the SSA, is the statutory regulatory body for all ferry operations to and from the islands from the Massachusetts mainland, as well as being an operator of ferry service from the mainland Cape Cod to the islands of Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket, and the only ferry operator to carry automobiles to the island.
Thermo Fisher Scientific is an American multinational biotechnology product development company, created in 2006 by the merger of Thermo Electron and Fisher Scientific.
The Thirteen Colonies were a group of British colonies on the east coast of North America founded in the 17th and 18th centuries that declared independence in 1776 and formed the United States of America.
Thomas A Augustus Watson (January 18, 1854 – December 13, 1934) was an assistant to Alexander Graham Bell, notably in the invention of the telephone in 1876.
The Thomas Crane Public Library (TCPL) is a city library in Quincy, Massachusetts.
The TJX Companies, Inc. is an American multinational off-price department store corporation, headquartered in Framingham, Massachusetts.
Todd Richards (born December 28, 1969) is a snowboarder from Paxton, Massachusetts.
Topography is the study of the shape and features of the surface of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects including planets, moons, and asteroids.
A town meeting is a form of direct democratic rule, used primarily in portions of the United States – principally in New England – since the 17th century, in which most or all the members of a community come together to legislate policy and budgets for local government.
Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money.
Transcendentalism is a philosophical movement that developed in the late 1820s and 1830s in the eastern United States.
A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain.
Trout is the common name for a number of species of freshwater fish belonging to the genera Oncorhynchus, Salmo and Salvelinus, all of the subfamily Salmoninae of the family Salmonidae.
Tufts Medical Center (until 2008 Tufts-New England Medical Center) in Boston, Massachusetts is a downtown Boston hospital occupying space between Chinatown and the Boston Theater District.
Tufts University is a private research university incorporated in the municipality of Medford, Massachusetts, United States.
U.S. News & World Report is an American media company that publishes news, opinion, consumer advice, rankings, and analysis.
The United States Open Championship, commonly known as the U.S. Open, is the annual open national championship of golf in the United States.
In the U.S. state of Massachusetts, U.S. Route 1 (US 1) is a major north–south highway through Boston.
The cross-country U.S. Route 20 runs its easternmost in the U.S. state of Massachusetts.
U.S. Route 3 (US 3) is a United States highway running from Cambridge, Massachusetts, through New Hampshire, to the Canada–US border near Third Connecticut Lake, where it connects to Quebec Route 257.
U.S. Route 6 in Massachusetts (US 6) is a long portion of the cross-country U.S. Route 6 highway connecting Providence, Rhode Island to Fall River, New Bedford, and Cape Cod.
A state is a constituent political entity of the United States.
Ulmus americana, generally known as the American elm or, less commonly, as the white elm or water elm, is a species native to eastern North America, naturally occurring from Nova Scotia west to Alberta and Montana, and south to Florida and central Texas.
Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA) is a liberal religious association of Unitarian Universalist congregations.
The United Church of Christ (UCC) is a mainline Protestant Christian denomination based in the United States, with historical confessional roots in the Reformed, Lutheran, Congregational and evangelical Protestant traditions, and "with over 5,000 churches and nearly one million members".
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Census Bureau (USCB; officially the Bureau of the Census, as defined in Title) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy.
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.
The United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit (in case citations, 1st Cir.) is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts.
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food.
The United States Department of the Interior (DOI) is the United States federal executive department of the U.S. government responsible for the management and conservation of most federal lands and natural resources, and the administration of programs relating to Native Americans, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians, territorial affairs, and insular areas of the United States.
The United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts (in case citations, D. Mass.) is the federal district court whose territorial jurisdiction is the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, United States.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
The United States Golf Association (USGA) is the United States' national association of golf courses, clubs and facilities and the governing body of golf for the U.S. and Mexico.
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber.
The 2008 congressional elections in Massachusetts were held on November 4, 2008 to determine who will represent the U.S. state of Massachusetts in the United States House of Representatives.
The United States Numbered Highway System (often called U.S. Routes or U.S. Highways) is an integrated network of roads and highways numbered within a nationwide grid in the contiguous United States.
The election of President and Vice President of the United States is an indirect election in which citizens of the United States who are registered to vote in one of the 50 U.S. states or in Washington, D.C. cast ballots not directly for those offices, but instead for members of the U.S. Electoral College, known as electors.
The 1952 United States presidential election in Massachusetts took place on November 4, 1952, as part of the 1952 United States presidential election, which was held throughout all contemporary 48 states.
The 1956 United States presidential election in Massachusetts took place on November 6, 1956, as part of the 1956 United States presidential election, which was held throughout all contemporary 48 states.
The 1960 United States presidential election in Massachusetts took place on November 8, 1960, as part of the 1960 United States presidential election, which was held throughout all 50 states.
The 1964 United States presidential election in Massachusetts took place on November 3, 1964, as part of the 1964 United States presidential election, which was held throughout all fifty states and D.C. Voters chose fourteen representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.
The 1972 United States presidential election in Massachusetts took place on November 7, 1972, as part of the 1972 United States presidential election, which was held throughout all 50 states and D.C. Voters chose 14 representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.
The 1984 United States presidential election in Massachusetts took place on November 6, 1984, as part of the 1984 United States presidential election, which was held throughout all 50 states and D.C. Voters chose 13 representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.
The 1996 United States presidential election in Massachusetts took place on November 5, 1996, as part of the 1996 United States presidential election.
The 2000 United States presidential election in Massachusetts took place on November 7, 2000, and was part of the 2000 United States presidential election.
The 2004 United States presidential election in Massachusetts took place on November 2, 2004, and was part of the 2004 United States presidential election.
The 2008 United States presidential election in Massachusetts took place, as in all 50 states and D.C., as part of the 2008 United States presidential election of November 4, 2008.
The 2012 United States presidential election in Massachusetts took place on November 6, 2012, as part of the 2012 General Election in which all fifty states plus The District of Columbia participated.
The 2016 United States presidential election in Massachusetts was held on November 8, 2016, as part of the 2016 General Election in which all 50 states plus The District of Columbia participated.
The United States presidential election of 1980 was the 49th quadrennial presidential election.
The United States presidential election of 1984 was the 50th quadrennial presidential election.
The United States presidential election of 2004, the 55th quadrennial presidential election, was held on Tuesday, November 2, 2004.
The United States presidential election of 2008 was the 56th quadrennial presidential election.
The United States presidential election of 2016 was the 58th quadrennial American presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 2016.
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprise the legislature of the United States.
The United States Senate election of 1952 in Massachusetts was held on November 4, 1952.
The 2012 United States Senate election in Massachusetts took place on November 6, 2012, concurrently with the U.S. presidential election and elections to the U.S. Senate in other states, as well as elections to the House of Representatives and various state and local elections.
The 2010 United States Senate special election in Massachusetts was a special election held on January 19, 2010, in order to fill the Massachusetts Class I United States Senate seat for the remainder of the term ending January 3, 2013.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of Massachusetts is the five-campus public university system and the only public research system in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
The University of Massachusetts Amherst (abbreviated UMass Amherst and colloquially referred to as UMass or Massachusetts) is a public research and land-grant university in Amherst, Massachusetts, United States, and the flagship campus of the University of Massachusetts system.
The University of Massachusetts Lowell (also known as UMass Lowell) is a nationally ranked, public research institution located in Lowell, Massachusetts with a small satellite campus in Haverhill, Massachusetts.
The University of Massachusetts Medical School (UMMS) is one of five campuses of the University of Massachusetts (UMass) system.
The University of Massachusetts Press is a university press that is part of the University of Massachusetts Amherst.
USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company.
A use tax is a type of tax levied in the United States by numerous state governments.
USS Constitution is a wooden-hulled, three-masted heavy frigate of the United States Navy named by President George Washington after the United States Constitution.
Venture capital (VC) is a type of private equity, a form of financing that is provided by firms or funds to small, early-stage, emerging firms that are deemed to have high growth potential, or which have demonstrated high growth (in terms of number of employees, annual revenue, or both).
Vermont is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language.
Virgin soil epidemic is a term coined by Alfred Crosby, defining it as epidemics "in which the populations at risk have had no previous contact with the diseases that strike them and are therefore immunologically almost defenseless".
Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net.
The International Volleyball Hall of Fame (IVHF) was founded to honor extraordinary players, coaches, officials, and leaders who have made significant contributions to the game of volleyball.
Walden (first published as Walden; or, Life in the Woods) is a book by noted transcendentalist Henry David Thoreau.
Walden Pond is a lake in Concord, Massachusetts, in the United States.
The Wampanoag, also rendered Wôpanâak, are an American Indian people in North America.
The Town of Watertown is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States.
WBUR-FM (90.9 FM) is a public radio station located in Boston, Massachusetts, owned by Boston University.
WCVB-TV, channel 5, is an ABC-affiliated television station located in Boston, Massachusetts, United States.
Wellesley College is a private women's liberal arts college located west of Boston in the town of Wellesley, Massachusetts, United States.
West Stockbridge is a town in Berkshire County, Massachusetts, United States.
Western Massachusetts is a region in Massachusetts, one of the six U.S. states that make up the New England region of the United States.
The Western United States, commonly referred to as the American West, the Far West, or simply the West, traditionally refers to the region comprising the westernmost states of the United States.
WGBH-TV, virtual channel 2 (UHF digital channel 19), is a PBS member television station located in Boston, Massachusetts, United States.
Whale watching is the practice of observing whales and dolphins (cetaceans) in their natural habitat.
White people is a racial classification specifier, used mostly for people of European descent; depending on context, nationality, and point of view, the term has at times been expanded to encompass certain persons of North African, Middle Eastern, and South Asian descent, persons who are often considered non-white in other contexts.
The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), also known as the whitetail or Virginia deer, is a medium-sized deer native to the United States, Canada, Mexico, Central America, and South America as far south as Peru and Bolivia.
Whiz Kids was a name given to a group of experts from RAND Corporation with which Robert McNamara surrounded himself in order to turn around the management of the United States Department of Defense (DoD) in the 1960s.
A wigwam, wickiup or wetu is a domed dwelling formerly used by certain Native American and First Nations tribes, and still used for ceremonial purposes.
The wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) is an upland ground bird native to North America and is the heaviest member of the diverse Galliformes.
William Cushing (March 1, 1732 – September 13, 1810) was one of the original six associate justices of the United States Supreme Court, from September 27, 1789, until his death.
Sir William Phips (or Phipps; February 2, 1651 – February 18, 1695) was a shepherd boy born in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, a shipwright, ship's captain, treasure hunter, a major general, and the first royally appointed governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay.
Williams College is a private liberal arts college in Williamstown, Massachusetts, United States.
Winslow Homer (February 24, 1836 – September 29, 1910) was an American landscape painter and printmaker, best known for his marine subjects.
Wisconsin is a U.S. state located in the north-central United States, in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions.
Witchcraft or witchery broadly means the practice of and belief in magical skills and abilities exercised by solitary practitioners and groups.
Women's Professional Soccer (WPS) was the top level professional women's soccer league in the United States.
Worcester County is a county located in the U.S. state of Massachusetts.
Worcester Regional Airport is a public commercial airport located three miles (5 km) west of the central business district of Worcester, a city in Worcester County, Massachusetts, United States.
Worcester is a city and the county seat of Worcester County, Massachusetts, United States.
The Works Progress Administration (WPA; renamed in 1939 as the Work Projects Administration) was the largest and most ambitious American New Deal agency, employing millions of people (mostly unskilled men) to carry out public works projects, including the construction of public buildings and roads.
The World Series is the annual championship series of Major League Baseball (MLB) in North America, contested since 1903 between the American League (AL) champion team and the National League (NL) champion team.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
WZBC (90.3 FM) is a radio station broadcasting an Alternative format.
The term "Yankee" and its contracted form "Yank" have several interrelated meanings, all referring to people from the United States; its various senses depend on the context.
The 1755 Cape Ann earthquake took place off the coast of the British Province of Massachusetts Bay (present-day Massachusetts) on November 18.
A large number of religious denominations emerged during the early-to-mid-17th century in England.
The 2010 United States Census (commonly referred to as the 2010 Census) is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census.
The 54th Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry was an infantry regiment that saw extensive service in the Union Army during the American Civil War.
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