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Mass–energy equivalence

Index Mass–energy equivalence

In physics, mass–energy equivalence states that anything having mass has an equivalent amount of energy and vice versa, with these fundamental quantities directly relating to one another by Albert Einstein's famous formula: E. [1]

181 relations: Aether theories, Albert Einstein, Annus Mirabilis papers, Antimatter, Arthur Eddington, Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Atomic nucleus, Augustus Clissold, Baryon asymmetry, Baryon number, Begging the question, Big Bang, Binding energy, Black body, Blueshift, Brady Haran, British thermal unit, Calorie, Center of mass, Center-of-momentum frame, Centimetre–gram–second system of units, Chain reaction, Chemical energy, Chemical reaction, Classical mechanics, Cockcroft–Walton generator, Columbia River, Conservation law, Conservation of energy, Conversion of units, Correspondence principle, Doppler effect, Earth, Einstein–Szilárd letter, Electromagnetic mass, Electromagnetic radiation, Electron–positron annihilation, Emanuel Swedenborg, Energy, Energy density, Energy transformation, Energy–momentum relation, Equivalence principle, Ernest Rutherford, Fat Man, Felix Klein, Field (physics), Frederick Soddy, Friedrich Hasenöhrl, Fritz Rohrlich, ..., Gallon, General relativity, George Frederick Charles Searle, Gerard 't Hooft, Gilbert N. Lewis, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Grand Coulee Dam, Grand Unified Theory, Gravitational field, Gustave Le Bon, Half-life, Hawking radiation, Hendrik Lorentz, Henri Poincaré, Herbert E. Ives, Hydroelectricity, Imperial College London, Index of energy articles, Index of wave articles, Inertial frame of reference, Instanton, International System of Units, Invariant mass, Isaac Newton, Isotope separation, J. J. Thomson, Johannes Stark, John Stachel, Joule, Kilowatt hour, Kinetic energy, Le Sage's theory of gravitation, Light, Lise Meitner, Litre, Lorentz factor, Los Alamos Primer, Magnetic monopole, Manhattan Project, Mass, Mass in special relativity, Max Abraham, Max Jammer, Max Planck, Max von Laue, Mechanical energy, Metre per second, Momentum, Moonshine, Mushroom cloud, NASA, Natural units, Neutron, Nicholas Manton, Nikolay Umov, Norm (mathematics), November 21, Nuclear binding energy, Nuclear fission, Nuclear force, Nuclear power, Nuclear reaction, Nuclear transmutation, Nuclear weapon, Nuclear weapon yield, Nuclide, Olinto De Pretto, Oliver Heaviside, Opticks, Otto Robert Frisch, Outline of energy, Perpetual motion, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, Photon gas, Physical Review Letters, Physical system, Physics, Physics World, Pion, Planck constant, Planet, Positron, Potential energy, Pound–Rebka experiment, Proper time, Proton, Proton decay, Quad (unit), Radiant energy, Radiation, Radiation pressure, Radioactive decay, Radium, Redshift, Relativistic Doppler effect, Richard C. Tolman, Robert Serber, Roberto Torretti, Rotational energy, Samuel Tolver Preston, Scientific American, Series (mathematics), Six degrees of separation, Smyth Report, Solar eclipse of May 29, 1919, Spacetime symmetries, Special relativity, Speed of light, Standard Model, Star, Statistical mechanics, Stephen Hawking, Stress–energy tensor, System of measurement, Taylor series, Theory of relativity, Thermal energy, Thermal radiation, Thought experiment, Time (magazine), TNT equivalent, Trinity (nuclear test), Turbulence, Unit of measurement, University of Nottingham, Velocity, Viscosity, Water turbine, Wilhelm Wien, World War II, 1905. Expand index (131 more) »

Aether theories

Aether theories (also known as ether theories) in physics propose the existence of a medium, the aether (also spelled ether, from the Greek word (αἰθήρ), meaning "upper air" or "pure, fresh air"" ", American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language.), a space-filling substance or field, thought to be necessary as a transmission medium for the propagation of electromagnetic or gravitational forces.

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Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).

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Annus Mirabilis papers

The Annus mirabilis papers (from Latin annus mīrābilis, "extraordinary year") are the papers of Albert Einstein published in the Annalen der Physik scientific journal in 1905.

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In modern physics, antimatter is defined as a material composed of the antiparticle (or "partners") to the corresponding particles of ordinary matter.

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Arthur Eddington

Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington (28 December 1882 – 22 November 1944) was an English astronomer, physicist, and mathematician of the early 20th century who did his greatest work in astrophysics.

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Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

During the final stage of World War II, the United States detonated two nuclear weapons over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1945, respectively.

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Atomic nucleus

The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.

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Augustus Clissold

Augustus Clissold (c.1797–1882) was an English Anglican priest, known as a Swedenborgian active in later life in publishing on behalf of his views.

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Baryon asymmetry

In physics, the baryon asymmetry problem, also known as the matter asymmetry problem or the matter-antimatter asymmetry problem, is the observed imbalance in baryonic matter (the type of matter experienced in everyday life) and antibaryonic matter in the observable universe.

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Baryon number

In particle physics, the baryon number is a strictly conserved additive quantum number of a system.

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Begging the question

Begging the question is a logical fallacy which occurs when an argument's premises assume the truth of the conclusion, instead of supporting it.

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Big Bang

The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.

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Binding energy

Binding energy (also called separation energy) is the minimum energy required to disassemble a system of particles into separate parts.

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Black body

A black body is an idealized physical body that absorbs all incident electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or angle of incidence.

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A blueshift is any decrease in wavelength, with a corresponding increase in frequency, of an electromagnetic wave; the opposite effect is referred to as redshift.

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Brady Haran

Brady John Haran (born 18 June 1976) is an Australian-born British independent filmmaker and video journalist who is known for his educational videos and documentary films produced for BBC News and his YouTube channels, the most notable being Periodic Videos and Numberphile.

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British thermal unit

The British thermal unit (Btu or BTU) is a traditional unit of heat; it is defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit.

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A calorie is a unit of energy.

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Center of mass

In physics, the center of mass of a distribution of mass in space is the unique point where the weighted relative position of the distributed mass sums to zero, or the point where if a force is applied it moves in the direction of the force without rotating.

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Center-of-momentum frame

In physics, the center-of-momentum frame (also zero-momentum frame or COM frame) of a system is the unique (up to velocity but not origin) inertial frame in which the total momentum of the system vanishes.

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Centimetre–gram–second system of units

The centimetre–gram–second system of units (abbreviated CGS or cgs) is a variant of the metric system based on the centimetre as the unit of length, the gram as the unit of mass, and the second as the unit of time.

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Chain reaction

A chain reaction is a sequence of reactions where a reactive product or by-product causes additional reactions to take place.

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Chemical energy

In chemistry, chemical energy is the potential of a chemical substance to undergo a transformation through a chemical reaction to transform other chemical substances.

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Chemical reaction

A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.

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Classical mechanics

Classical mechanics describes the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, and astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars and galaxies.

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Cockcroft–Walton generator

The Cockcroft–Walton (CW) generator, or multiplier, is an electric circuit that generates a high DC voltage from a low-voltage AC or pulsing DC input.

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Columbia River

The Columbia River is the largest river in the Pacific Northwest region of North America.

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Conservation law

In physics, a conservation law states that a particular measurable property of an isolated physical system does not change as the system evolves over time.

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Conservation of energy

In physics, the law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system remains constant, it is said to be ''conserved'' over time.

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Conversion of units

Conversion of units is the conversion between different units of measurement for the same quantity, typically through multiplicative conversion factors.

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Correspondence principle

In physics, the correspondence principle states that the behavior of systems described by the theory of quantum mechanics (or by the old quantum theory) reproduces classical physics in the limit of large quantum numbers.

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Doppler effect

The Doppler effect (or the Doppler shift) is the change in frequency or wavelength of a wave in relation to observer who is moving relative to the wave source.

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Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

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Einstein–Szilárd letter

The Einstein–Szilárd letter was a letter written by Leó Szilárd and signed by Albert Einstein that was sent to the United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt on August 2, 1939.

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Electromagnetic mass

Electromagnetic mass was initially a concept of classical mechanics, denoting as to how much the electromagnetic field, or the self-energy, is contributing to the mass of charged particles.

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Electromagnetic radiation

In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.

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Electron–positron annihilation

Electron–positron annihilation occurs when an electron and a positron (the electron's antiparticle) collide.

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Emanuel Swedenborg

Emanuel Swedenborg ((born Emanuel Swedberg; 29 January 1688 – 29 March 1772) was a Swedish Lutheran theologian, scientist, philosopher, revelator and mystic who inspired Swedenborgianism. He is best known for his book on the afterlife, Heaven and Hell (1758). Swedenborg had a prolific career as an inventor and scientist. In 1741, at 53, he entered into a spiritual phase in which he began to experience dreams and visions, beginning on Easter Weekend, on 6 April 1744. It culminated in a 'spiritual awakening' in which he received a revelation that he was appointed by the Lord Jesus Christ to write The Heavenly Doctrine to reform Christianity. According to The Heavenly Doctrine, the Lord had opened Swedenborg's spiritual eyes so that from then on, he could freely visit heaven and hell and talk with angels, demons and other spirits and the Last Judgment had already occurred the year before, in 1757. For the last 28 years of his life, Swedenborg wrote 18 published theological works—and several more that were unpublished. He termed himself a "Servant of the Lord Jesus Christ" in True Christian Religion, which he published himself. Some followers of The Heavenly Doctrine believe that of his theological works, only those that were published by Swedenborg himself are fully divinely inspired.

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In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.

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Energy density

Energy density is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume.

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Energy transformation

Energy transformation, also termed as energy conversion, is the process of changing energy from one of its forms into another.

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Energy–momentum relation

In physics, the energy–momentum relation, or relativistic dispersion relation, is the relativistic equation relating any object's rest (intrinsic) mass, total energy, and momentum: holds for a system, such as a particle or macroscopic body, having intrinsic rest mass, total energy, and a momentum of magnitude, where the constant is the speed of light, assuming the special relativity case of flat spacetime.

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Equivalence principle

In the theory of general relativity, the equivalence principle is any of several related concepts dealing with the equivalence of gravitational and inertial mass, and to Albert Einstein's observation that the gravitational "force" as experienced locally while standing on a massive body (such as the Earth) is the same as the pseudo-force experienced by an observer in a non-inertial (accelerated) frame of reference.

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Ernest Rutherford

Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, HFRSE LLD (30 August 1871 – 19 October 1937) was a New Zealand-born British physicist who came to be known as the father of nuclear physics.

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Fat Man

"Fat Man" was the codename for the atomic bomb that was detonated over the Japanese city of Nagasaki by the United States on 9 August 1945.

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Felix Klein

Christian Felix Klein (25 April 1849 – 22 June 1925) was a German mathematician and mathematics educator, known for his work with group theory, complex analysis, non-Euclidean geometry, and on the associations between geometry and group theory.

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Field (physics)

In physics, a field is a physical quantity, represented by a number or tensor, that has a value for each point in space and time.

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Frederick Soddy

Frederick Soddy FRS (2 September 1877 – 22 September 1956) was an English radiochemist who explained, with Ernest Rutherford, that radioactivity is due to the transmutation of elements, now known to involve nuclear reactions.

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Friedrich Hasenöhrl

Friedrich Hasenöhrl (30 November 1874 – 7 October 1915), was an Austrian physicist.

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Fritz Rohrlich

Fritz Rohrlich (born May 12, 1921 in Vienna, Austria) is an American theoretical physicist who studied classical electrodynamics and quantum electrodynamics.

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The gallon is a unit of measurement for fluid capacity in both the US customary units and the British imperial systems of measurement.

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General relativity

General relativity (GR, also known as the general theory of relativity or GTR) is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.

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George Frederick Charles Searle

George Frederick Charles Searle FRS (3 December 1864 – 16 December 1954) was a British physicist and teacher.

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Gerard 't Hooft

Gerardus (Gerard) 't Hooft (born July 5, 1946) is a Dutch theoretical physicist and professor at Utrecht University, the Netherlands.

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Gilbert N. Lewis

Gilbert Newton Lewis (October 25 (or 23), 1875 – March 23, 1946) was an American physical chemist known for the discovery of the covalent bond and his concept of electron pairs; his Lewis dot structures and other contributions to valence bond theory have shaped modern theories of chemical bonding.

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Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz (or; Leibnitz; – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath and philosopher who occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy.

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Grand Coulee Dam

Grand Coulee Dam is a concrete gravity dam on the Columbia River in the U.S. state of Washington, built to produce hydroelectric power and provide irrigation water.

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Grand Unified Theory

A Grand Unified Theory (GUT) is a model in particle physics in which, at high energy, the three gauge interactions of the Standard Model which define the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, or forces, are merged into one single force.

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Gravitational field

In physics, a gravitational field is a model used to explain the influence that a massive body extends into the space around itself, producing a force on another massive body.

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Gustave Le Bon

Charles-Marie Gustave Le Bon (7 May 1841 – 13 December 1931) was a French polymath whose areas of interest included anthropology, psychology, sociology, medicine, invention, and physics.

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Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.

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Hawking radiation

Hawking radiation is blackbody radiation that is predicted to be released by black holes, due to quantum effects near the event horizon.

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Hendrik Lorentz

Hendrik Antoon Lorentz (18 July 1853 – 4 February 1928) was a Dutch physicist who shared the 1902 Nobel Prize in Physics with Pieter Zeeman for the discovery and theoretical explanation of the Zeeman effect.

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Henri Poincaré

Jules Henri Poincaré (29 April 1854 – 17 July 1912) was a French mathematician, theoretical physicist, engineer, and philosopher of science.

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Herbert E. Ives

Herbert Eugene Ives (July 21, 1882 – November 13, 1953) was a scientist and engineer who headed the development of facsimile and television systems at AT&T in the first half of the twentieth century.

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Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower.

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Imperial College London

Imperial College London (officially Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine) is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom.

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Index of energy articles

This is an index of energy articles.

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Index of wave articles

This is a list of Wave topics.

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Inertial frame of reference

An inertial frame of reference in classical physics and special relativity is a frame of reference in which a body with zero net force acting upon it is not accelerating; that is, such a body is at rest or it is moving at a constant speed in a straight line.

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An instanton (or pseudoparticle) is a notion appearing in theoretical and mathematical physics.

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International System of Units

The International System of Units (SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.

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Invariant mass

The invariant mass, rest mass, intrinsic mass, proper mass, or in the case of bound systems simply mass, is the portion of the total mass of an object or system of objects that is independent of the overall motion of the system.

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Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.

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Isotope separation

Isotope separation is the process of concentrating specific isotopes of a chemical element by removing other isotopes.

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J. J. Thomson

Sir Joseph John Thomson (18 December 1856 – 30 August 1940) was an English physicist and Nobel Laureate in Physics, credited with the discovery and identification of the electron; and with the discovery of the first subatomic particle.

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Johannes Stark

Johannes Stark (15 April 1874 – 21 June 1957) was a German physicist and Physics Nobel Prize laureate.

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John Stachel

John Stachel (born 29 March 1928) is an American physicist and philosopher of science.

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The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.

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Kilowatt hour

The kilowatt hour (symbol kWh, kW⋅h or kW h) is a unit of energy equal to 3.6 megajoules.

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Kinetic energy

In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion.

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Le Sage's theory of gravitation

Le Sage's theory of gravitation is a kinetic theory of gravity originally proposed by Nicolas Fatio de Duillier in 1690 and later by Georges-Louis Le Sage in 1748.

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Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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Lise Meitner

Lise Meitner (7 November 1878 – 27 October 1968) was an Austrian-Swedish physicist who worked on radioactivity and nuclear physics.

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The litre (SI spelling) or liter (American spelling) (symbols L or l, sometimes abbreviated ltr) is an SI accepted metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre (dm3), 1,000 cubic centimetres (cm3) or 1/1,000 cubic metre. A cubic decimetre (or litre) occupies a volume of 10 cm×10 cm×10 cm (see figure) and is thus equal to one-thousandth of a cubic metre. The original French metric system used the litre as a base unit. The word litre is derived from an older French unit, the litron, whose name came from Greek — where it was a unit of weight, not volume — via Latin, and which equalled approximately 0.831 litres. The litre was also used in several subsequent versions of the metric system and is accepted for use with the SI,, p. 124. ("Days" and "hours" are examples of other non-SI units that SI accepts.) although not an SI unit — the SI unit of volume is the cubic metre (m3). The spelling used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures is "litre", a spelling which is shared by almost all English-speaking countries. The spelling "liter" is predominantly used in American English. One litre of liquid water has a mass of almost exactly one kilogram, because the kilogram was originally defined in 1795 as the mass of one cubic decimetre of water at the temperature of melting ice. Subsequent redefinitions of the metre and kilogram mean that this relationship is no longer exact.

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Lorentz factor

The Lorentz factor or Lorentz term is the factor by which time, length, and relativistic mass change for an object while that object is moving.

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Los Alamos Primer

The Los Alamos Primer was a printed version of the first five lectures on the principles of nuclear weapons given to new arrivals at the top-secret Los Alamos laboratory during the Manhattan Project.

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Magnetic monopole

A magnetic monopole is a hypothetical elementary particle in particle physics that is an isolated magnet with only one magnetic pole (a north pole without a south pole or vice versa).

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Manhattan Project

The Manhattan Project was a research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons.

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Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.

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Mass in special relativity

Mass in special relativity incorporates the general understandings from the laws of motion of special relativity along with its concept of mass–energy equivalence.

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Max Abraham

Max Abraham (26 March 1875 – 16 November 1922) was a German physicist.

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Max Jammer

Max Jammer (born Moshe Jammer,; April 13, 1915 – December 18, 2010), was an Israeli physicist and philosopher of physics.

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Max Planck

Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, FRS (23 April 1858 – 4 October 1947) was a German theoretical physicist whose discovery of energy quanta won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.

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Max von Laue

Max Theodor Felix von Laue (9 October 1879 – 24 April 1960) was a German physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1914 for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals.

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Mechanical energy

In physical sciences, mechanical energy is the sum of potential energy and kinetic energy.

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Metre per second

Metre per second (American English: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector quantity which specifies both magnitude and a specific direction), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds.

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In Newtonian mechanics, linear momentum, translational momentum, or simply momentum (pl. momenta) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.

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Moonshine was originally a slang term for high-proof distilled spirits usually produced illicitly, without government authorization.

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Mushroom cloud

A mushroom cloud is a distinctive pyrocumulus mushroom-shaped cloud of debris/smoke and usually condensed water vapor resulting from a large explosion.

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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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Natural units

In physics, natural units are physical units of measurement based only on universal physical constants.

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| magnetic_moment.

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Nicholas Manton

Nicholas Stephen Manton is a British mathematical physicist.

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Nikolay Umov

Nikolay Alekseevich Umov (Никола́й Алексе́евич У́мов; January 23, 1846 – January 15, 1915) was a Russian physicist and mathematician known for discovering the concept of Umov-Poynting vector and Umov effect.

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Norm (mathematics)

In linear algebra, functional analysis, and related areas of mathematics, a norm is a function that assigns a strictly positive length or size to each vector in a vector space—save for the zero vector, which is assigned a length of zero.

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November 21

No description.

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Nuclear binding energy

Nuclear binding energy is the minimum energy that would be required to disassemble the nucleus of an atom into its component parts.

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Nuclear fission

In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).

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Nuclear force

The nuclear force (or nucleon–nucleon interaction or residual strong force) is a force that acts between the protons and neutrons of atoms.

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Nuclear power

Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.

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Nuclear reaction

In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, a nuclear reaction is semantically considered to be the process in which two nuclei, or else a nucleus of an atom and a subatomic particle (such as a proton, neutron, or high energy electron) from outside the atom, collide to produce one or more nuclides that are different from the nuclide(s) that began the process.

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Nuclear transmutation

Nuclear transmutation is the conversion of one chemical element or an isotope into another chemical element.

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Nuclear weapon

A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).

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Nuclear weapon yield

The explosive yield of a nuclear weapon is the amount of energy released when that particular nuclear weapon is detonated, usually expressed as a TNT equivalent (the standardized equivalent mass of trinitrotoluene which, if detonated, would produce the same energy discharge), either in kilotons (kt—thousands of tons of TNT), in megatons (Mt—millions of tons of TNT), or sometimes in terajoules (TJ).

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A nuclide (from nucleus, also known as nuclear species) is an atomic species characterized by the specific constitution of its nucleus, i.e., by its number of protons Z, its number of neutrons N, and its nuclear energy state.

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Olinto De Pretto

Olinto De Pretto (26 April 1857 – 16 March 1921) was an Italian industrialist and geologist from Schio, Vicenza.

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Oliver Heaviside

Oliver Heaviside FRS (18 May 1850 – 3 February 1925) was an English self-taught electrical engineer, mathematician, and physicist who adapted complex numbers to the study of electrical circuits, invented mathematical techniques for the solution of differential equations (equivalent to Laplace transforms), reformulated Maxwell's field equations in terms of electric and magnetic forces and energy flux, and independently co-formulated vector analysis.

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Opticks: or, A Treatise of the Reflexions, Refractions, Inflexions and Colours of Light is a book by English natural philosopher Isaac Newton that was published in English in 1704.

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Otto Robert Frisch

Otto Robert Frisch FRS (1 October 1904 – 22 September 1979) was an Austrian-British physicist.

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Outline of energy

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to energy: Energy – in physics, this is an indirectly observed quantity often understood as the ability of a physical system to do work on other physical systems.

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Perpetual motion

Perpetual motion is motion of bodies that continues indefinitely.

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Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences is a fortnightly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Royal Society.

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Photon gas

In physics, a photon gas is a gas-like collection of photons, which has many of the same properties of a conventional gas like hydrogen or neon – including pressure, temperature, and entropy.

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Physical Review Letters

Physical Review Letters (PRL), established in 1958, is a peer-reviewed, scientific journal that is published 52 times per year by the American Physical Society.

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Physical system

In physics, a physical system is a portion of the physical universe chosen for analysis.

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Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

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Physics World

Physics World is the membership magazine of the Institute of Physics, one of the largest physical societies in the world.

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In particle physics, a pion (or a pi meson, denoted with the Greek letter pi) is any of three subatomic particles:,, and.

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Planck constant

The Planck constant (denoted, also called Planck's constant) is a physical constant that is the quantum of action, central in quantum mechanics.

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A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.

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The positron or antielectron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron.

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Potential energy

In physics, potential energy is the energy possessed by an object because of its position relative to other objects, stresses within itself, its electric charge, or other factors.

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Pound–Rebka experiment

The Pound–Rebka experiment is a well known experiment to test Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity.

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Proper time

In relativity, proper time along a timelike world line is defined as the time as measured by a clock following that line.

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| magnetic_moment.

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Proton decay

In particle physics, proton decay is a hypothetical form of radioactive decay in which the proton decays into lighter subatomic particles, such as a neutral pion and a positron.

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Quad (unit)

A quad is a unit of energy equal to 1015 (a short-scale quadrillion) BTU, or 1.055 × 1018 joules (1.055 exajoules or EJ) in SI units.

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Radiant energy

In physics, and in particular as measured by radiometry, radiant energy is the energy of electromagnetic and gravitational radiation.

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In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.

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Radiation pressure

Radiation pressure is the pressure exerted upon any surface due to the exchange of momentum between the object and the electromagnetic field.

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Radioactive decay

Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.

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Radium is a chemical element with symbol Ra and atomic number 88.

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In physics, redshift happens when light or other electromagnetic radiation from an object is increased in wavelength, or shifted to the red end of the spectrum.

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Relativistic Doppler effect

The relativistic Doppler effect is the change in frequency (and wavelength) of light, caused by the relative motion of the source and the observer (as in the classical Doppler effect), when taking into account effects described by the special theory of relativity.

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Richard C. Tolman

Richard Chace Tolman (March 4, 1881 – September 5, 1948) was an American mathematical physicist and physical chemist who was an authority on statistical mechanics.

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Robert Serber

Robert Serber (March 14, 1909 – June 1, 1997) was an American physicist who participated in the Manhattan Project.

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Roberto Torretti

Roberto Torretti (born February 15, 1930 in Santiago, Chile) is a Chilean philosopher, author and academic who is internationally renowned for his contributions to the history of philosophy, physics and mathematics.

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Rotational energy

Rotational energy or angular kinetic energy is kinetic energy due to the rotation of an object and is part of its total kinetic energy.

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Samuel Tolver Preston

Samuel Tolver Preston (8 July 1844 – 1917) was an English engineer and physicist.

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Scientific American

Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.

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Series (mathematics)

In mathematics, a series is, roughly speaking, a description of the operation of adding infinitely many quantities, one after the other, to a given starting quantity.

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Six degrees of separation

Six degrees of separation is the idea that all living things and everything else in the world are Six or fewer steps away from each other so that a chain of "a friend of a friend" statements can be made to connect any two people in a maximum of Six steps.

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Smyth Report

The Smyth Report is the common name of an administrative history written by American physicist Henry DeWolf Smyth about the Manhattan Project, the Allied effort to develop atomic bombs during World War II.

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Solar eclipse of May 29, 1919

A total solar eclipse occurred on May 29, 1919.

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Spacetime symmetries

Spacetime symmetries are features of spacetime that can be described as exhibiting some form of symmetry.

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Special relativity

In physics, special relativity (SR, also known as the special theory of relativity or STR) is the generally accepted and experimentally well-confirmed physical theory regarding the relationship between space and time.

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Speed of light

The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.

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Standard Model

The Standard Model of particle physics is the theory describing three of the four known fundamental forces (the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, and not including the gravitational force) in the universe, as well as classifying all known elementary particles.

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A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.

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Statistical mechanics

Statistical mechanics is one of the pillars of modern physics.

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Stephen Hawking

Stephen William Hawking (8 January 1942 – 14 March 2018) was an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, and author, who was director of research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology at the University of Cambridge at the time of his death.

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Stress–energy tensor

The stress–energy tensor (sometimes stress–energy–momentum tensor or energy–momentum tensor) is a tensor quantity in physics that describes the density and flux of energy and momentum in spacetime, generalizing the stress tensor of Newtonian physics.

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System of measurement

A system of measurement is a collection of units of measurement and rules relating them to each other.

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Taylor series

In mathematics, a Taylor series is a representation of a function as an infinite sum of terms that are calculated from the values of the function's derivatives at a single point.

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Theory of relativity

The theory of relativity usually encompasses two interrelated theories by Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity.

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Thermal energy

Thermal energy is a term used loosely as a synonym for more rigorously-defined thermodynamic quantities such as the internal energy of a system; heat or sensible heat, which are defined as types of transfer of energy (as is work); or for the characteristic energy of a degree of freedom in a thermal system kT, where T is temperature and k is the Boltzmann constant.

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Thermal radiation

Thermal radiation is electromagnetic radiation generated by the thermal motion of charged particles in matter.

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Thought experiment

A thought experiment (Gedankenexperiment, Gedanken-Experiment or Gedankenerfahrung) considers some hypothesis, theory, or principle for the purpose of thinking through its consequences.

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Time (magazine)

Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.

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TNT equivalent

TNT equivalent is a convention for expressing energy, typically used to describe the energy released in an explosion.

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Trinity (nuclear test)

Trinity was the code name of the first detonation of a nuclear weapon.

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In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is any pattern of fluid motion characterized by chaotic changes in pressure and flow velocity.

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Unit of measurement

A unit of measurement is a definite magnitude of a quantity, defined and adopted by convention or by law, that is used as a standard for measurement of the same kind of quantity.

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University of Nottingham

The University of Nottingham is a public research university in Nottingham, United Kingdom.

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The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position with respect to a frame of reference, and is a function of time.

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The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.

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Water turbine

A water turbine is a rotary machine that converts kinetic energy and potential energy of water into mechanical work.

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Wilhelm Wien

Wilhelm Carl Werner Otto Fritz Franz Wien (13 January 1864 – 30 August 1928) was a German physicist who, in 1893, used theories about heat and electromagnetism to deduce Wien's displacement law, which calculates the emission of a blackbody at any temperature from the emission at any one reference temperature.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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As the second year of the massive Russo-Japanese War began, more than 100,000 died in the largest world battles of that era, and the war chaos lead to a revolution against the Tsar (Shostakovich's 11th Symphony is subtitled The Year 1905 to commemorate this).

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass–energy_equivalence

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