179 relations: Age of Enlightenment, Ajita Kesakambali, Al-Andalus, Anaxagoras, Ancient Greek philosophy, Anomalous monism, Antimaterialism, Atheism, Atomism, Axial Age, Baron d'Holbach, Biochemistry, Brahman, Brill Publishers, Buddhist atomism, Bundle theory, By-product, Catholic Encyclopedia, Chaos theory, Charvaka, Christian materialism, Confucianism, Consciousness, Critical realism (philosophy of the social sciences), Critique of Pure Reason, Cultural materialism (anthropology), Curvature, Daniel Dennett, Dark energy, Dark matter, De rerum natura, Democritus, Denis Diderot, Determinism, Dialectical materialism, Digital physics, Doctrine and Covenants, Donald Davidson (philosopher), Double-aspect theory, Early Islamic philosophy, Economic materialism, Eliminative materialism, Emergence, Empedocles, Energy, Energy level, Epicurus, Epiphenomenalism, Eurasia, Existence, ..., Field (physics), Folk psychology, Force, French materialism, Friedrich Engels, Functionalism (philosophy of mind), Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, George Berkeley, Gilles Deleuze, Grotesque body, Hayy ibn Yaqdhan, Herbert Feigl, Hinduism, Historical materialism, History of India, Holism, Humanism, Hyle, Hylomorphism, Ibn Tufail, Idealism, Immanuel Kant, Incorporeality, Indian philosophy, Institution, Introspection illusion, Ipso facto, Jainism, Jane Bennett (political theorist), Jayarāśi Bhaṭṭa, Jean Meslier, Jerry Fodor, John Gribbin, John Polkinghorne, Joseph Smith, Julien Offray de La Mettrie, Kanada (philosopher), Karl Jaspers, Karl Marx, Lambda-CDM model, Latter Day Saint movement, Leon Trotsky, Lucretius, Ludwig Feuerbach, Madhyamaka, Man a Machine, Manuel DeLanda, Marxist philosophy, Marxist philosophy of nature, Mary Midgley, Material feminism, Materialism and Empirio-criticism, Matter, Max Planck, Maya (religion), Mechanism (philosophy), Metaphysical naturalism, Middle Way, Mind, Mind–body dualism, Mind–body problem, Model-dependent realism, Monism, Moral, Natural science, Naturalism (philosophy), Nature, Neutral monism, Noam Chomsky, Nyaya, Nyāya Sūtras, Ontology, Particle physics, Patricia Churchland, Paul Churchland, Paul Davies, Payasi, Penguin Books, Perception, Phenomenalism, Philosophical fiction, Philosophy of mind, Physicalism, Pierre Gassendi, Pluralism (philosophy), Post-materialism, Post-structuralism, Postmodernism, Pre-Socratic philosophy, Prima materia, Process philosophy, Property (philosophy), Quantum field theory, Quantum mechanics, Rational egoism, Reality in Buddhism, Reductionism, René Descartes, Revisionary materialism, Scientific socialism, Self-refuting idea, Spacetime, Special relativity, Spiritualism (philosophy), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Subjective idealism, Substance theory, Synonym, Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith (book), Thales of Miletus, The Essence of Christianity, The World as Will and Representation, Theology, Transcendence (religion), Transcendentalism, Type physicalism, University of Waterloo, Vaisheshika, Vidyaranya, Vitalism, Vladimir Lenin, Walking Stewart, Wang Chong, Werner Heisenberg, Willard Van Orman Quine, William James, William Wordsworth, Xun Kuang, Yang Xiong (author). Expand index (129 more) » « Shrink index
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Ajita Kesakambali (अजित केशकंबली) was an ancient Indian philosopher in the 6th century BC.
Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.
Anaxagoras (Ἀναξαγόρας, Anaxagoras, "lord of the assembly"; BC) was a Pre-Socratic Greek philosopher.
Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC and continued throughout the Hellenistic period and the period in which Ancient Greece was part of the Roman Empire.
Anomalous monism is a philosophical thesis about the mind–body relationship.
In philosophy, antimaterialism can mean one of several metaphysical or religious beliefs that are specifically opposed to materialism, the notion that only matter exists.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
Atomism (from Greek ἄτομον, atomon, i.e. "uncuttable", "indivisible") is a natural philosophy that developed in several ancient traditions.
Axial Age (also Axis Age, from Achsenzeit) is a term coined by German philosopher Karl Jaspers in the sense of a "pivotal age" characterizing the period of ancient history from about the 8th to the 3rd century BCE.
Paul-Henri Thiry, Baron d'Holbach, was a French-German author, philosopher, encyclopedist and prominent figure in the French Enlightenment.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
In Hinduism, Brahman connotes the highest Universal Principle, the Ultimate Reality in the universe.P. T. Raju (2006), Idealistic Thought of India, Routledge,, page 426 and Conclusion chapter part XII In major schools of Hindu philosophy, it is the material, efficient, formal and final cause of all that exists.For dualism school of Hinduism, see: Francis X. Clooney (2010), Hindu God, Christian God: How Reason Helps Break Down the Boundaries between Religions, Oxford University Press,, pages 51–58, 111–115;For monist school of Hinduism, see: B. Martinez-Bedard (2006), Types of Causes in Aristotle and Sankara, Thesis – Department of Religious Studies (Advisors: Kathryn McClymond and Sandra Dwyer), Georgia State University, pages 18–35 It is the pervasive, genderless, infinite, eternal truth and bliss which does not change, yet is the cause of all changes. Brahman as a metaphysical concept is the single binding unity behind diversity in all that exists in the universe. Brahman is a Vedic Sanskrit word, and it is conceptualized in Hinduism, states Paul Deussen, as the "creative principle which lies realized in the whole world". Brahman is a key concept found in the Vedas, and it is extensively discussed in the early Upanishads.Stephen Philips (1998), Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Brahman to Derrida (Editor; Edward Craig), Routledge,, pages 1–4 The Vedas conceptualize Brahman as the Cosmic Principle. In the Upanishads, it has been variously described as Sat-cit-ānanda (truth-consciousness-bliss) and as the unchanging, permanent, highest reality. Brahman is discussed in Hindu texts with the concept of Atman (Soul, Self), personal, impersonal or Para Brahman, or in various combinations of these qualities depending on the philosophical school. In dualistic schools of Hinduism such as the theistic Dvaita Vedanta, Brahman is different from Atman (soul) in each being.Michael Myers (2000), Brahman: A Comparative Theology, Routledge,, pages 124–127 In non-dual schools such as the Advaita Vedanta, Brahman is identical to the Atman, is everywhere and inside each living being, and there is connected spiritual oneness in all existence.Arvind Sharma (2007), Advaita Vedānta: An Introduction, Motilal Banarsidass,, pages 19–40, 53–58, 79–86.
Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.
Buddhist atomism is a school of atomistic Buddhist philosophy that flourished on the Indian subcontinent during two major periods.
Bundle theory, originated by the 18th century Scottish philosopher David Hume, is the ontological theory about objecthood in which an object consists only of a collection (bundle) of properties, relations or tropes.
A by-product is a secondary product derived from a manufacturing process or chemical reaction.
The Catholic Encyclopedia: An International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church, also referred to as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia and the Original Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language encyclopedia published in the United States and designed to serve the Roman Catholic Church.
Chaos theory is a branch of mathematics focusing on the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions.
Charvaka (IAST: Cārvāka), originally known as Lokāyata and Bṛhaspatya, is the ancient school of Indian materialism.
Christian materialism is the combination of Christian theology with the ideas of (ontological) materialism, which says that matter is a fundamental substance of the world and mental phenomenon are part of it.
Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.
Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.
Critical realism, a philosophical approach associated with Roy Bhaskar (1944–2014), combines a general philosophy of science (transcendental realism) with a philosophy of social science (critical naturalism) to describe an interface between the natural and social worlds.
The Critique of Pure Reason (Kritik der reinen Vernunft, KrV) (1781, Riga; second edition 1787) is a book by Immanuel Kant that has exerted an enduring influence on Western philosophy.
Cultural materialism is an anthropological research orientation first introduced by Marvin Harris in his 1968 book The Rise of Anthropological Theory, Paperback as a theoretical paradigm and research strategy.
In mathematics, curvature is any of a number of loosely related concepts in different areas of geometry.
Daniel Clement Dennett III (born March 28, 1942) is an American philosopher, writer, and cognitive scientist whose research centers on the philosophy of mind, philosophy of science, and philosophy of biology, particularly as those fields relate to evolutionary biology and cognitive science.
In physical cosmology and astronomy, dark energy is an unknown form of energy which is hypothesized to permeate all of space, tending to accelerate the expansion of the universe.
Dark matter is a theorized form of matter that is thought to account for approximately 80% of the matter in the universe, and about a quarter of its total energy density.
De rerum natura (On the Nature of Things) is a first-century BC didactic poem by the Roman poet and philosopher Lucretius (c. 99 BC – c. 55 BC) with the goal of explaining Epicurean philosophy to a Roman audience.
Democritus (Δημόκριτος, Dēmókritos, meaning "chosen of the people") was an Ancient Greek pre-Socratic philosopher primarily remembered today for his formulation of an atomic theory of the universe.
Denis Diderot (5 October 171331 July 1784) was a French philosopher, art critic, and writer, best known for serving as co-founder, chief editor, and contributor to the Encyclopédie along with Jean le Rond d'Alembert.
Determinism is the philosophical theory that all events, including moral choices, are completely determined by previously existing causes.
Dialectical materialism (sometimes abbreviated diamat) is a philosophy of science and nature developed in Europe and based on the writings of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
In physics and cosmology, digital physics (also referred to as digital ontology or digital philosophy) is a collection of theoretical perspectives based on the premise that the universe is describable by information.
The Doctrine and Covenants (sometimes abbreviated and cited as D&C or D. and C.) is a part of the open scriptural canon of several denominations of the Latter Day Saint movement.
Donald Herbert Davidson (March 6, 1917 – August 30, 2003) was an American philosopher.
In the philosophy of mind, double-aspect theory is the view that the mental and the physical are two aspects of, or perspectives on, the same substance.
Early Islamic philosophy or classical Islamic philosophy is a period of intense philosophical development beginning in the 2nd century AH of the Islamic calendar (early 9th century CE) and lasting until the 6th century AH (late 12th century CE).
Materialism is a personal attitude which attaches importance to acquiring and consuming material goods.
Eliminative materialism (also called eliminativism) is the claim that people's common-sense understanding of the mind (or folk psychology) is false and that certain classes of mental states that most people believe in do not exist.
In philosophy, systems theory, science, and art, emergence occurs when "the whole is greater than the sum of the parts," meaning the whole has properties its parts do not have.
Empedocles (Ἐμπεδοκλῆς, Empedoklēs) was a Greek pre-Socratic philosopher and a citizen of Akragas, a Greek city in Sicily.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
A quantum mechanical system or particle that is bound—that is, confined spatially—can only take on certain discrete values of energy.
Epicurus (Ἐπίκουρος, Epíkouros, "ally, comrade"; 341–270 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher who founded a school of philosophy now called Epicureanism.
Epiphenomenalism is a mind–body philosophy marked by the belief that basic physical events (sense organs, neural impulses, and muscle contractions) are causal with respect to mental events (thought, consciousness, and cognition).
Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.
Existence, in its most generic terms, is the ability to, directly or indirectly, interact with reality or, in more specific cases, the universe.
In physics, a field is a physical quantity, represented by a number or tensor, that has a value for each point in space and time.
In philosophy of mind and cognitive science, folk psychology, or commonsense psychology, is a human capacity to explain and predict the behavior and mental state of other people.
In physics, a force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object.
French materialism is the name given to a handful of French 18th-century philosophers during the Age of Enlightenment, many of them clustered around the salon of Baron d'Holbach.
Friedrich Engels (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.;, sometimes anglicised Frederick Engels; 28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895) was a German philosopher, social scientist, journalist and businessman.
Functionalism is a view in the theory of the mind.
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and the most important figure of German idealism.
George Berkeley (12 March 168514 January 1753) — known as Bishop Berkeley (Bishop of Cloyne) — was an Irish philosopher whose primary achievement was the advancement of a theory he called "immaterialism" (later referred to as "subjective idealism" by others).
Gilles Deleuze (18 January 1925 – 4 November 1995) was a French philosopher who, from the early 1960s until his death in 1995, wrote on philosophy, literature, film, and fine art.
The grotesque body is a concept, or literary trope, put forward by Russian literary critic Mikhail Bakhtin in his study of François Rabelais' work.
Ḥayy ibn Yaqẓān (ar. حي بن يقظان Alive, son of Awake) is an Arabic philosophical novel and an allegorical tale written by Ibn Tufail in the early 12th century.
Herbert Feigl (December 14, 1902 – June 1, 1988) was an Austrian philosopher and a member of the Vienna Circle.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
Historical materialism is the methodological approach of Marxist historiography that focuses on human societies and their development over time, claiming that they follow a number of observable tendencies.
The history of India includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent; the advancement of civilisation from the Indus Valley Civilisation to the eventual blending of the Indo-Aryan culture to form the Vedic Civilisation; the rise of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism;Sanderson, Alexis (2009), "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo, Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009.
Holism (from Greek ὅλος holos "all, whole, entire") is the idea that systems (physical, biological, chemical, social, economic, mental, linguistic) and their properties should be viewed as wholes, not just as a collection of parts.
Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.
In philosophy, hyle (from ὕλη) refers to matter or stuff.
Hylomorphism (or hylemorphism) is a philosophical theory developed by Aristotle, which conceives being (ousia) as a compound of matter and form.
Ibn Tufail (c. 1105 – 1185) (full Arabic name: أبو بكر محمد بن عبد الملك بن محمد بن طفيل القيسي الأندلسي Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Abd al-Malik ibn Muhammad ibn Tufail al-Qaisi al-Andalusi; Latinized form: Abubacer Aben Tofail; Anglicized form: Abubekar or Abu Jaafar Ebn Tophail) was an Arab Andalusian Muslim polymath: a writer, novelist, Islamic philosopher, Islamic theologian, physician, astronomer, vizier, and court official.
In philosophy, idealism is the group of metaphysical philosophies that assert that reality, or reality as humans can know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally constructed, or otherwise immaterial.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
Incorporeal or uncarnate means without a physical body, presence or form.
Indian philosophy refers to ancient philosophical traditions of the Indian subcontinent.
Institutions are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior".
The introspection illusion is a cognitive bias in which people wrongly think they have direct insight into the origins of their mental states, while treating others' introspections as unreliable.
Ipso facto is a Latin phrase, directly translated as "by the fact itself", which means that a specific phenomenon is a direct consequence, a resultant effect, of the action in question, instead of being brought about by a previous action.
Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.
Jane Bennett (born July 31, 1957) is an American political theorist and philosopher.
(fl. c. 800) was a sceptical (ajñana) Indian philosopher, author of the Tattvopaplavasiṃha (tattva-upa.plava-siṃha "The Lion that Devours All Categories"/"The Upsetting of All Principles").
Jean Meslier (also Mellier; 15 June 1664 – 17 June 1729), was a French Catholic priest (abbé) who was discovered, upon his death, to have written a book-length philosophical essay promoting atheism.
Jerry Alan Fodor (April 22, 1935 – November 29, 2017) was an American philosopher and cognitive scientist.
John R. Gribbin (born 19 March 1946) is a British science writer, an astrophysicist, and a visiting fellow in astronomy at the University of Sussex.
John Charlton Polkinghorne (born 16 October 1930) is an English theoretical physicist, theologian, writer and Anglican priest.
Joseph Smith Jr. (December 23, 1805 – June 27, 1844) was an American religious leader and founder of Mormonism and the Latter Day Saint movement.
Julien Offray de La Mettrie (November 23, 1709 – November 11, 1751) was a French physician and philosopher, and one of the earliest of the French materialists of the Enlightenment.
Kanada (Sanskrit: कणाद, IAST: 'Kaṇāda), also known as Kashyapa, Uluka, Kananda and Kanabhuk, was an ancient Indian natural scientist and philosopher who founded the Vaisheshika school of Indian philosophy.
Karl Theodor Jaspers (23 February 1883 – 26 February 1969) was a German-Swiss psychiatrist and philosopher who had a strong influence on modern theology, psychiatry, and philosophy.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
The ΛCDM (Lambda cold dark matter) or Lambda-CDM model is a parametrization of the Big Bang cosmological model in which the universe contains a cosmological constant, denoted by Lambda (Greek Λ), associated with dark energy, and cold dark matter (abbreviated CDM).
The Latter Day Saint movement (also called the LDS movement, LDS restorationist movement, or Smith–Rigdon movement) is the collection of independent church groups that trace their origins to a Christian primitivist movement founded by Joseph Smith in the late 1820s.
Leon Trotsky (born Lev Davidovich Bronstein; – 21 August 1940) was a Russian revolutionary, theorist, and Soviet politician.
Titus Lucretius Carus (15 October 99 BC – c. 55 BC) was a Roman poet and philosopher.
Ludwig Andreas von Feuerbach (28 July 1804 – 13 September 1872) was a German philosopher and anthropologist best known for his book The Essence of Christianity, which provided a critique of Christianity which strongly influenced generations of later thinkers, including Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Richard Wagner, and Friedrich Nietzsche.
Madhyamaka (Madhyamaka,; also known as Śūnyavāda) refers primarily to the later schools of Buddhist philosophy founded by Nagarjuna (150 CE to 250 CE).
Man a Machine (French: L'homme Machine) is a work of materialist philosophy by the 18th-century French physician and philosopher Julien Offray de La Mettrie, first published in 1747.
Manuel DeLanda (born 1952) is a Mexican-American writer, artist and philosopher who has lived in New York since 1975.
Marxist philosophy or Marxist theory are works in philosophy that are strongly influenced by Karl Marx's materialist approach to theory, or works written by Marxists.
There is no specific "Marxist philosophy of nature", as Karl Marx didn't conceive of Nature as separate from Society.
Mary Beatrice Midgley (née Scrutton; born 13 September 1919) is a British moral philosopher.
Material feminism highlights capitalism and patriarchy as central in understanding women's oppression.
Materialism and Empirio-criticism (Russian: Материализм и эмпириокритицизм, Materializm i empiriokrititsizm) is a philosophical work by Vladimir Lenin, published in 1909.
In the classical physics observed in everyday life, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume.
Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, FRS (23 April 1858 – 4 October 1947) was a German theoretical physicist whose discovery of energy quanta won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.
Maya (Devanagari: माया, IAST: māyā), literally "illusion" or "magic", has multiple meanings in Indian philosophies depending on the context.
Mechanism is the belief that natural wholes (principally living things) are like complicated machines or artifacts, composed of parts lacking any intrinsic relationship to each other.
Metaphysical naturalism, also called ontological naturalism, philosophical naturalism, and scientific materialism is a philosophical worldview, which holds that there is nothing but natural elements, principles, and relations of the kind studied by the natural sciences.
The Middle Way or Middle Path (Majjhimāpaṭipadā; Madhyamāpratipad;;; มัชฌิมาปฏิปทา) is the term that Gautama Buddha used to describe the character of the Noble Eightfold Path he discovered that leads to liberation.
The mind is a set of cognitive faculties including consciousness, perception, thinking, judgement, language and memory.
Mind–body dualism, or mind–body duality, is a view in the philosophy of mind that mental phenomena are, in some respects, non-physical,Hart, W.D. (1996) "Dualism", in A Companion to the Philosophy of Mind, ed.
The mind–body problem is a philosophical problem concerning the relationship between the human mind and body, although it can also concern animal minds, if any, and animal bodies.
Model-dependent realism is a view of scientific inquiry that focuses on the role of scientific models of phenomena.
Monism attributes oneness or singleness (Greek: μόνος) to a concept e.g., existence.
A moral (from Latin morālis) is a message that is conveyed or a lesson to be learned from a story or event.
Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.
In philosophy, naturalism is the "idea or belief that only natural (as opposed to supernatural or spiritual) laws and forces operate in the world." Adherents of naturalism (i.e., naturalists) assert that natural laws are the rules that govern the structure and behavior of the natural universe, that the changing universe at every stage is a product of these laws.
Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe.
In the philosophy of mind, neutral monism is the view that the mental and the physical are two ways of organizing or describing the same elements, which are themselves "neutral", that is, neither physical nor mental.
Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic and political activist.
(Sanskrit: न्याय, ny-āyá), literally means "rules", "method" or "judgment".
The Nyāya Sūtras is an ancient Indian Sanskrit text composed by, and the foundational text of the Nyaya school of Hindu philosophy.
Ontology (introduced in 1606) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.
Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation.
Patricia Smith Churchland (born July 16, 1943) is a Canadian-American analytical philosopher noted for her contributions to neurophilosophy and the philosophy of mind.
Paul Montgomery Churchland (born October 21, 1942) is a Canadian philosopher known for his studies in neurophilosophy and the philosophy of mind.
Paul Charles William Davies, AM (born 22 April 1946) is an English physicist, writer and broadcaster, a professor at Arizona State University as well as the Director of BEYOND: Center for Fundamental Concepts in Science.
Payasi was a Cārvāka (materialist) philosopher in ancient India and was possibly a contemporary of Buddha.
Penguin Books is a British publishing house.
Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.
Phenomenalism is the view that physical objects cannot justifiably be said to exist in themselves, but only as perceptual phenomena or sensory stimuli (e.g. redness, hardness, softness, sweetness, etc.) situated in time and in space.
Philosophical fiction refers to the class of works of fiction which devote a significant portion of their content to the sort of questions normally addressed in discursive philosophy.
Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the nature of the mind.
In philosophy, physicalism is the ontological thesis that "everything is physical", that there is "nothing over and above" the physical, or that everything supervenes on the physical.
Pierre Gassendi (also Pierre Gassend, Petrus Gassendi; 22 January 1592 – 24 October 1655) was a French philosopher, priest, astronomer, and mathematician.
Pluralism is a term used in philosophy, meaning "doctrine of multiplicity", often used in opposition to monism ("doctrine of unity") and dualism ("doctrine of duality").
In sociology, post-materialism is the transformation of individual values from materialist, physical, and economic to new individual values of autonomy and self-expression.
Post-structuralism is associated with the works of a series of mid-20th-century French, continental philosophers and critical theorists who came to be known internationally in the 1960s and 1970s.
Postmodernism is a broad movement that developed in the mid- to late-20th century across philosophy, the arts, architecture, and criticism and that marked a departure from modernism.
A number of early Greek philosophers active before and during the time of Socrates are collectively known as the Pre-Socratics.
In alchemy, Prima materia, materia prima or first matter, is the ubiquitous starting material required for the alchemical magnum opus and the creation of the philosopher's stone.
Process philosophy — also ontology of becoming, processism, or philosophy of organism — identifies metaphysical reality with change and development.
In philosophy, mathematics, and logic, a property is a characteristic of an object; a red object is said to have the property of redness.
In theoretical physics, quantum field theory (QFT) is the theoretical framework for constructing quantum mechanical models of subatomic particles in particle physics and quasiparticles in condensed matter physics.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
Rational egoism (also called rational selfishness) is the principle that an action is rational if and only if it maximizes one's self-interest.
Reality in Buddhism is called dharma (Sanskrit) or dhamma (Pali).
Reductionism is any of several related philosophical ideas regarding the associations between phenomena which can be described in terms of other simpler or more fundamental phenomena.
René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.
Revisionary materialism is the view that falls between eliminative materialism and reductive materialism when it comes to a particular psychological phenomenon.
Scientific socialism is a term coined in 1840 by Pierre-Joseph Proudhon in his What is Property? to mean a society ruled by a scientific government, i.e. one whose sovereignity rests upon reason, rather than sheer will: Thus, in a given society, the authority of man over man is inversely proportional to the stage of intellectual development which that society has reached; and the probable duration of that authority can be calculated from the more or less general desire for a true government, — that is, for a scientific government.
Self-refuting ideas or self-defeating ideas are ideas or statements whose falsehood is a logical consequence of the act or situation of holding them to be true.
In physics, spacetime is any mathematical model that fuses the three dimensions of space and the one dimension of time into a single four-dimensional continuum.
In physics, special relativity (SR, also known as the special theory of relativity or STR) is the generally accepted and experimentally well-confirmed physical theory regarding the relationship between space and time.
In philosophy, spiritualism is the notion, shared by a wide variety of systems of thought, that there is an immaterial reality that cannot be perceived by the senses.
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users.
Subjective idealism, or empirical idealism, is the monistic metaphysical doctrine that only minds and mental contents exist.
Substance theory, or substance attribute theory, is an ontological theory about objecthood, positing that a substance is distinct from its properties.
A synonym is a word or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word or phrase in the same language.
Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith is a book compiling selected sermons and portions of sermons and sundry teachings of Joseph Smith, the first prophet of the Latter Day Saint movement.
Thales of Miletus (Θαλῆς (ὁ Μιλήσιος), Thalēs; 624 – c. 546 BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, mathematician, and astronomer from Miletus in Asia Minor (present-day Milet in Turkey).
The Essence of Christianity (Das Wesen des Christentums; historical orthography: Das Weſen des Chriſtenthums) is a book by Ludwig Feuerbach first published in 1841.
The World as Will and Representation (WWR; Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung, WWV) is the central work of the German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer.
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.
In religion, transcendence refers to the aspect of a god's nature and power which is wholly independent of the material universe, beyond all known physical laws.
Transcendentalism is a philosophical movement that developed in the late 1820s and 1830s in the eastern United States.
Type physicalism (also known as reductive materialism, type identity theory, mind–brain identity theory and identity theory of mind) is a physicalist theory, in the philosophy of mind.
The University of Waterloo (commonly referred to as Waterloo, UW, or UWaterloo) is a public research university with a main campus in Waterloo, Ontario.
Vaisheshika or (वैशेषिक) is one of the six orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy (Vedic systems) from ancient India.
, (Kannada: ವಿದ್ಯಾರಣ್ಯ) is variously known as a kingmaker, patron saint and high priest to Harihara I (ಹಕ್ಕ ರಾಯ I) and Bukka Raya I (Kannada: ಬುಕ್ಕರಾಯ), the founders of the Vijayanagara Empire.
Vitalism is the belief that "living organisms are fundamentally different from non-living entities because they contain some non-physical element or are governed by different principles than are inanimate things".
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
John "Walking" Stewart (19 February 1747 – 20 February 1822) was an English traveller and philosopher.
Wang Chong (27–c. 100 AD), courtesy name Zhongren (仲任), was a Chinese meteorologist, astronomer, and philosopher active during the Han Dynasty.
Werner Karl Heisenberg (5 December 1901 – 1 February 1976) was a German theoretical physicist and one of the key pioneers of quantum mechanics.
Willard Van Orman Quine (known to intimates as "Van"; June 25, 1908 – December 25, 2000) was an American philosopher and logician in the analytic tradition, recognized as "one of the most influential philosophers of the twentieth century." From 1930 until his death 70 years later, Quine was continually affiliated with Harvard University in one way or another, first as a student, then as a professor of philosophy and a teacher of logic and set theory, and finally as a professor emeritus who published or revised several books in retirement.
William James (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was an American philosopher and psychologist, and the first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States.
William Wordsworth (7 April 1770 – 23 April 1850) was a major English Romantic poet who, with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped to launch the Romantic Age in English literature with their joint publication Lyrical Ballads (1798).
Xun Kuang (c. 310c. 235 BC, alt. c. 314c. 217 BC), also widely known as Xunzi ("Master Xun"), was a Chinese Confucian philosopher who lived during the Warring States period and contributed to the Hundred Schools of Thought.
Yang Xiong (53 BCE–18 CE) was a Chinese poet, philosopher, and politician of the Han dynasty known for his philosophical writings and ''fu'' poetry compositions.
Evolutionary materialists, Fundamental materialism, Hylicism, Materialist, Materialistic, Materialists, Materialized, Militant materialism, New materialism, Non-reductive materialism, Ontological materialism, Philosophical materialism, Philosophical materialist, Secular materialism, Somatism, Ultramaterialism.