227 relations: Aether (classical element), Albert Einstein, Anaximander, Anaximenes of Miletus, Annihilation, Antihydrogen, Antimatter, Antiparticle, Antiproton, Apeiron, Aristotle, Astrophysics, Asymmetry, Atom, Atomic nucleus, Atomic theory, Atomism, Axion, Baryogenesis, Baryon, Baryon asymmetry, Baryon number, Big Bang, Binding energy, Black hole, Bose–Einstein condensate, Bosonic field, Bottom quark, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Cambridge University Press, Cathode ray tube, Charm quark, Chemical compound, Chemistry, Classical element, Classical physics, Color charge, Color superconductivity, Condensed matter physics, Conservation law, Cosmic ray, Cosmological constant, Cosmology, CP violation, CRC Press, Dark energy, Dark matter, Degenerate matter, Demarcation problem, Democritus, ..., Density, DNA, Down quark, Electric charge, Electrolyte, Electromagnetism, Electron, Electron neutrino, Electron–positron annihilation, Electronvolt, Elementary charge, Elementary particle, Empedocles, Energy, Ernan McMullin, European Physical Journal C, Excited state, Expansion of the universe, Femtometre, Fermi energy, Fermi–Dirac statistics, Fermion, Fermionic condensate, Ferromagnetism, Fluid, Force carrier, Friedmann equations, Fundamental interaction, Gamma ray, Gas, Gauge theory, Geiger–Marsden experiment, General relativity, Generation (particle physics), Gluon, Graviton, Gravity, Greenwood Publishing Group, Hadron, Hannes Alfvén, Heat capacity, Heraclitus, Higgs boson, Hyle, Invariant mass, Isaac Newton, J. J. Thomson, James Clerk Maxwell, Jones & Bartlett Learning, Joseph Priestley, Lee Smolin, Leptogenesis (physics), Lepton, Lepton number, Lerner Publishing Group, Leucippus, Light, Lightning, Liquid, List of particles, List of unsolved problems in physics, Magnet, Mass, Mass in special relativity, Mass–energy equivalence, Massless particle, Materialism, Mechanism (philosophy), Meson, Metastability, Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, Molecule, Muon, Muon neutrino, Nanomaterials, Natural science, Nature (journal), Negative mass, Neutralino, Neutron, Neutron star, Newton's laws of motion, Nickel-62, Nitrogen dioxide, Noam Chomsky, Nuclear binding energy, Nuclear matter, Nucleon, Observable universe, Oxford University Press, Paramagnetism, Parmenides, Particle, Particle accelerator, Particle Data Group, Particle physics, Parton (particle physics), Pattern formation, Pauli exclusion principle, Pentaquark, Periodic systems of small molecules, Periodic table, Phase (matter), Phase transition, Photon, Physical Review, Physicalism, Physics, Physics (Aristotle), Physics Letters, Planck–Einstein relation, Plasma (physics), Plasma cosmology, Plasma globe, Point particle, Positron, Pre-Socratic philosophy, Pressure, Proton, QCD matter, Quantum, Quantum chemistry, Quantum chromodynamics binding energy, Quantum gravity, Quantum mechanics, Quark, Quark star, Quark–gluon plasma, Quartz, Radioactive decay, Refractive index, René Descartes, Scalar field dark matter, Science, Science fiction, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, Solid, Sound, Space, Speed of light, Spinor field, Standard Model, State of matter, Strange matter, Strange quark, Strangelet, Stress–energy tensor, Strong interaction, Subatomic particle, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Substance theory, Superfluidity, Supersolid, Supersymmetry, Tau (particle), Tau neutrino, Taylor & Francis, Telescope, Temperature, Thales of Miletus, Theory of relativity, Thermodynamics, Top quark, Tungsten, Universe, University of Chicago Press, Up quark, Vacuum, Volume, W and Z bosons, Water, Wave, Wave–particle duality, Weak interaction, White dwarf, Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. Expand index (177 more) » « Shrink index
According to ancient and medieval science, aether (αἰθήρ aithēr), also spelled æther or ether and also called quintessence, is the material that fills the region of the universe above the terrestrial sphere.
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
Anaximander (Ἀναξίμανδρος Anaximandros; was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher who lived in Miletus,"Anaximander" in Chambers's Encyclopædia.
Anaximenes of Miletus (Ἀναξιμένης ὁ Μιλήσιος; c. 585 – c. 528 BC) was an Ancient Greek Pre-Socratic philosopher active in the latter half of the 6th century BC.
In particle physics, annihilation is the process that occurs when a subatomic particle collides with its respective antiparticle to produce other particles, such as an electron colliding with a positron to produce two photons.
Antihydrogen is the antimatter counterpart of hydrogen.
In modern physics, antimatter is defined as a material composed of the antiparticle (or "partners") to the corresponding particles of ordinary matter.
In particle physics, every type of particle has an associated antiparticle with the same mass but with opposite physical charges (such as electric charge).
The antiproton,, (pronounced p-bar) is the antiparticle of the proton.
Apeiron (ἄπειρον) is a Greek word meaning "(that which is) unlimited," "boundless", "infinite", or "indefinite" from ἀ- a-, "without" and πεῖραρ peirar, "end, limit", "boundary", the Ionic Greek form of πέρας peras, "end, limit, boundary".
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that employs the principles of physics and chemistry "to ascertain the nature of the astronomical objects, rather than their positions or motions in space".
Asymmetry is the absence of, or a violation of, symmetry (the property of an object being invariant to a transformation, such as reflection).
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
In chemistry and physics, atomic theory is a scientific theory of the nature of matter, which states that matter is composed of discrete units called atoms.
Atomism (from Greek ἄτομον, atomon, i.e. "uncuttable", "indivisible") is a natural philosophy that developed in several ancient traditions.
The axion is a hypothetical elementary particle postulated by the Peccei–Quinn theory in 1977 to resolve the strong CP problem in quantum chromodynamics (QCD).
In physical cosmology, baryogenesis is the hypothetical physical process that took place during the early universe that produced baryonic asymmetry, i.e. the imbalance of matter (baryons) and antimatter (antibaryons) in the observed universe.
A baryon is a composite subatomic particle made up of three quarks (a triquark, as distinct from mesons, which are composed of one quark and one antiquark).
In physics, the baryon asymmetry problem, also known as the matter asymmetry problem or the matter-antimatter asymmetry problem, is the observed imbalance in baryonic matter (the type of matter experienced in everyday life) and antibaryonic matter in the observable universe.
In particle physics, the baryon number is a strictly conserved additive quantum number of a system.
The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.
Binding energy (also called separation energy) is the minimum energy required to disassemble a system of particles into separate parts.
A black hole is a region of spacetime exhibiting such strong gravitational effects that nothing—not even particles and electromagnetic radiation such as light—can escape from inside it.
A Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) is a state of matter of a dilute gas of bosons cooled to temperatures very close to absolute zero.
In quantum field theory, a bosonic field is a quantum field whose quanta are bosons; that is, they obey Bose–Einstein statistics.
The bottom quark or b quark, also known as the beauty quark, is a third-generation quark with a charge of − ''e''.
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory located in Upton, New York, on Long Island, and was formally established in 1947 at the site of Camp Upton, a former U.S. Army base.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
The cathode ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube that contains one or more electron guns and a phosphorescent screen, and is used to display images.
The charm quark, charmed quark or c quark (from its symbol, c) is the third most massive of all quarks, a type of elementary particle.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
Classical elements typically refer to the concepts in ancient Greece of earth, water, air, fire, and aether, which were proposed to explain the nature and complexity of all matter in terms of simpler substances.
Classical physics refers to theories of physics that predate modern, more complete, or more widely applicable theories.
Color charge is a property of quarks and gluons that is related to the particles' strong interactions in the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD).
Color superconductivity is a phenomenon predicted to occur in quark matter if the baryon density is sufficiently high (well above nuclear density) and the temperature is not too high (well below 1012 kelvin).
Condensed matter physics is the field of physics that deals with the macroscopic and microscopic physical properties of matter.
In physics, a conservation law states that a particular measurable property of an isolated physical system does not change as the system evolves over time.
Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.
In cosmology, the cosmological constant (usually denoted by the Greek capital letter lambda: Λ) is the value of the energy density of the vacuum of space.
Cosmology (from the Greek κόσμος, kosmos "world" and -λογία, -logia "study of") is the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe.
In particle physics, CP violation is a violation of CP-symmetry (or charge conjugation parity symmetry): the combination of C-symmetry (charge conjugation symmetry) and P-symmetry (parity symmetry).
The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.
In physical cosmology and astronomy, dark energy is an unknown form of energy which is hypothesized to permeate all of space, tending to accelerate the expansion of the universe.
Dark matter is a theorized form of matter that is thought to account for approximately 80% of the matter in the universe, and about a quarter of its total energy density.
Degenerate matter is a highly dense state of matter in which particles must occupy high states of kinetic energy in order to satisfy the Pauli exclusion principle.
The demarcation problem in the philosophy of science is about how to distinguish between science and non-science, including between science, pseudoscience, and other products of human activity, like art and literature, and beliefs.
Democritus (Δημόκριτος, Dēmókritos, meaning "chosen of the people") was an Ancient Greek pre-Socratic philosopher primarily remembered today for his formulation of an atomic theory of the universe.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
The down quark or d quark (symbol: d) is the second-lightest of all quarks, a type of elementary particle, and a major constituent of matter.
Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
The electron neutrino is a subatomic lepton elementary particle which has no net electric charge.
Electron–positron annihilation occurs when an electron and a positron (the electron's antiparticle) collide.
In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV, also written electron-volt and electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately joules (symbol J).
The elementary charge, usually denoted as or sometimes, is the electric charge carried by a single proton, or equivalently, the magnitude of the electric charge carried by a single electron, which has charge.
In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle with no substructure, thus not composed of other particles.
Empedocles (Ἐμπεδοκλῆς, Empedoklēs) was a Greek pre-Socratic philosopher and a citizen of Akragas, a Greek city in Sicily.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
Ernan McMullin (October 13, 1924 – February 8, 2011) was a philosopher who last served as the O’Hara Professor of Philosophy Emeritus at the University of Notre Dame.
The European Physical Journal C (EPJ C) is a biweekly peer-reviewed, open access scientific journal covering theoretical and experimental physics.
In quantum mechanics, an excited state of a system (such as an atom, molecule or nucleus) is any quantum state of the system that has a higher energy than the ground state (that is, more energy than the absolute minimum).
The expansion of the universe is the increase of the distance between two distant parts of the universe with time.
The femtometre (American spelling femtometer, symbol fm derived from the Danish and Norwegian word femten, "fifteen"+Ancient Greek: μέτρον, metrοn, "unit of measurement") is an SI unit of length equal to 10−15 metres, which means a quadrillionth of one.
The Fermi energy is a concept in quantum mechanics usually referring to the energy difference between the highest and lowest occupied single-particle states in a quantum system of non-interacting fermions at absolute zero temperature.
In quantum statistics, a branch of physics, Fermi–Dirac statistics describe a distribution of particles over energy states in systems consisting of many identical particles that obey the Pauli exclusion principle.
In particle physics, a fermion is a particle that follows Fermi–Dirac statistics.
A fermionic condensate is a superfluid phase formed by fermionic particles at low temperatures.
Ferromagnetism is the basic mechanism by which certain materials (such as iron) form permanent magnets, or are attracted to magnets.
In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress.
In particle physics, force carriers or messenger particles or intermediate particles are particles that give rise to forces between other particles.
The Friedmann equations are a set of equations in physical cosmology that govern the expansion of space in homogeneous and isotropic models of the universe within the context of general relativity.
In physics, the fundamental interactions, also known as fundamental forces, are the interactions that do not appear to be reducible to more basic interactions.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).
In physics, a gauge theory is a type of field theory in which the Lagrangian is invariant under certain Lie groups of local transformations.
The Geiger–Marsden experiment(s) (also called the Rutherford gold foil experiment) were a landmark series of experiments by which scientists discovered that every atom contains a nucleus where all of its positive charge and most of its mass are concentrated.
General relativity (GR, also known as the general theory of relativity or GTR) is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.
In particle physics, a generation or family is a division of the elementary particles.
A gluon is an elementary particle that acts as the exchange particle (or gauge boson) for the strong force between quarks.
In theories of quantum gravity, the graviton is the hypothetical elementary particle that mediates the force of gravity.
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.
In particle physics, a hadron (ἁδρός, hadrós, "stout, thick") is a composite particle made of quarks held together by the strong force in a similar way as molecules are held together by the electromagnetic force.
Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén (30 May 1908 – 2 April 1995) was a Swedish electrical engineer, plasma physicist and winner of the 1970 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on magnetohydrodynamics (MHD).
Heat capacity or thermal capacity is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added to (or removed from) an object to the resulting temperature change.
Heraclitus of Ephesus (Hērákleitos ho Ephésios) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, and a native of the city of Ephesus, then part of the Persian Empire.
The Higgs boson is an elementary particle in the Standard Model of particle physics.
In philosophy, hyle (from ὕλη) refers to matter or stuff.
The invariant mass, rest mass, intrinsic mass, proper mass, or in the case of bound systems simply mass, is the portion of the total mass of an object or system of objects that is independent of the overall motion of the system.
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
Sir Joseph John Thomson (18 December 1856 – 30 August 1940) was an English physicist and Nobel Laureate in Physics, credited with the discovery and identification of the electron; and with the discovery of the first subatomic particle.
James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish scientist in the field of mathematical physics.
Jones & Bartlett Learning, a division of Ascend Learning, is a provider of instructional, assessment and learning-performance management solutions for the secondary, post-secondary, and professional markets.
Joseph Priestley FRS (– 6 February 1804) was an 18th-century English Separatist theologian, natural philosopher, chemist, innovative grammarian, multi-subject educator, and liberal political theorist who published over 150 works.
Lee Smolin (born June 6, 1955) is an American theoretical physicist, a faculty member at the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, an adjunct professor of physics at the University of Waterloo and a member of the graduate faculty of the philosophy department at the University of Toronto.
In physical cosmology, leptogenesis is the generic term for hypothetical physical processes that produced an asymmetry between leptons and antileptons in the very early universe, resulting in the present-day dominance of leptons over antileptons.
In particle physics, a lepton is an elementary particle of half-integer spin (spin) that does not undergo strong interactions.
In particle physics, lepton number (historically also called lepton charge) is a conserved quantum number representing the difference between the number of leptons and the number of antileptons in an elementary particle reaction.
Lerner Publishing Group, based in Minneapolis in the U.S. state of Minnesota since its founding in 1959, is one of the largest independently owned children's book publishers in the United States.
Leucippus (Λεύκιππος, Leúkippos; fl. 5th cent. BCE) is reported in some ancient sources to have been a philosopher who was the earliest Greek to develop the theory of atomism—the idea that everything is composed entirely of various imperishable, indivisible elements called atoms.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Lightning is a sudden electrostatic discharge that occurs typically during a thunderstorm.
A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure.
This article includes a list of the different types of atomic- and sub-atomic particles found or hypothesized to exist in the whole of the universe categorized by type.
Some of the major unsolved problems in physics are theoretical, meaning that existing theories seem incapable of explaining a certain observed phenomenon or experimental result.
A magnet is a material or object that produces a magnetic field.
Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.
Mass in special relativity incorporates the general understandings from the laws of motion of special relativity along with its concept of mass–energy equivalence.
In physics, mass–energy equivalence states that anything having mass has an equivalent amount of energy and vice versa, with these fundamental quantities directly relating to one another by Albert Einstein's famous formula: E.
In particle physics, a massless particle is an elementary particle whose invariant mass is zero.
Materialism is a form of philosophical monism which holds that matter is the fundamental substance in nature, and that all things, including mental aspects and consciousness, are results of material interactions.
Mechanism is the belief that natural wholes (principally living things) are like complicated machines or artifacts, composed of parts lacking any intrinsic relationship to each other.
In particle physics, mesons are hadronic subatomic particles composed of one quark and one antiquark, bound together by strong interactions.
In physics, metastability is a stable state of a dynamical system other than the system's state of least energy.
The Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) is an extension to the Standard Model that realizes supersymmetry.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
The muon (from the Greek letter mu (μ) used to represent it) is an elementary particle similar to the electron, with an electric charge of −1 e and a spin of 1/2, but with a much greater mass.
The muon neutrino is a lepton, an elementary subatomic particle which has the symbol and no net electric charge.
Nanomaterials describe, in principle, materials of which a single unit is sized (in at least one dimension) between 1 to 1000 nanometres (10−9 meter) but usually is 1 to 100 nm (the usual definition of nanoscale).
Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
In theoretical physics, negative mass is matter whose mass is of opposite sign to the mass of normal matter, e.g. −1 kg.
In supersymmetry, the neutralino is a hypothetical particle.
A neutron star is the collapsed core of a large star which before collapse had a total of between 10 and 29 solar masses.
Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that, together, laid the foundation for classical mechanics.
Nickel-62 is an isotope of nickel having 28 protons and 34 neutrons.
Nitrogen dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula.
Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic and political activist.
Nuclear binding energy is the minimum energy that would be required to disassemble the nucleus of an atom into its component parts.
Nuclear matter is an idealized system of interacting nucleons (protons and neutrons) that exists in several phases that as yet are not fully established.
In chemistry and physics, a nucleon is either a proton or a neutron, considered in its role as a component of an atomic nucleus.
The observable universe is a spherical region of the Universe comprising all matter that can be observed from Earth at the present time, because electromagnetic radiation from these objects has had time to reach Earth since the beginning of the cosmological expansion.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Paramagnetism is a form of magnetism whereby certain materials are weakly attracted by an externally applied magnetic field, and form internal, induced magnetic fields in the direction of the applied magnetic field.
Parmenides of Elea (Παρμενίδης ὁ Ἐλεάτης) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher from Elea in Magna Graecia (Greater Greece, included Southern Italy).
In the physical sciences, a particle (or corpuscule in older texts) is a small localized object to which can be ascribed several physical or chemical properties such as volume, density or mass.
A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to nearly light speed and to contain them in well-defined beams.
The Particle Data Group (or PDG) is an international collaboration of particle physicists that compiles and reanalyzes published results related to the properties of particles and fundamental interactions.
Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation.
In particle physics, the parton model is a model of hadrons, such as protons and neutrons, proposed by Richard Feynman.
The science of pattern formation deals with the visible, (statistically) orderly outcomes of self-organization and the common principles behind similar patterns in nature.
The Pauli exclusion principle is the quantum mechanical principle which states that two or more identical fermions (particles with half-integer spin) cannot occupy the same quantum state within a quantum system simultaneously.
A pentaquark is a subatomic particle consisting of four quarks and one antiquark bound together.
Periodic systems of molecules are charts of molecules similar to the periodic table of the elements.
The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends.
In the physical sciences, a phase is a region of space (a thermodynamic system), throughout which all physical properties of a material are essentially uniform.
The term phase transition (or phase change) is most commonly used to describe transitions between solid, liquid and gaseous states of matter, and, in rare cases, plasma.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
Physical Review is an American peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1893 by Edward Nichols.
In philosophy, physicalism is the ontological thesis that "everything is physical", that there is "nothing over and above" the physical, or that everything supervenes on the physical.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
The Physics (Greek: Φυσικὴ ἀκρόασις Phusike akroasis; Latin: Physica, or Naturalis Auscultationes, possibly meaning "lectures on nature") is a named text, written in ancient Greek, collated from a collection of surviving manuscripts known as the Corpus Aristotelicum because attributed to the 4th-century BC philosopher, teacher, and mentor of Macedonian rulers, Aristotle.
Physics Letters was a scientific journal published from 1962 to 1966, when it split in two series now published by Elsevier.
The Planck–Einstein relationFrench & Taylor (1978), pp.
Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.
Plasma cosmology is a non-standard cosmology whose central postulate is that the dynamics of ionized gases and plasmas play important, if not dominant, roles in the physics of the universe beyond the Solar System.
A plasma globe or plasma lamp (also called plasma ball, dome, sphere, tube or orb, depending on shape) is (usually) a clear glass sphere filled with a mixture of various noble gases with a high-voltage electrode in the center of the sphere.
A point particle (ideal particle or point-like particle, often spelled pointlike particle) is an idealization of particles heavily used in physics.
The positron or antielectron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron.
A number of early Greek philosophers active before and during the time of Socrates are collectively known as the Pre-Socratics.
Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
Quark matter or QCD matter refers to any of a number of theorized phases of matter whose degrees of freedom include quarks and gluons.
In physics, a quantum (plural: quanta) is the minimum amount of any physical entity (physical property) involved in an interaction.
Quantum chemistry is a branch of chemistry whose primary focus is the application of quantum mechanics in physical models and experiments of chemical systems.
The quantum chromodynamics binding energy (QCD binding energy), gluon binding energy or chromodynamic binding energy is the energy binding quarks together into hadrons.
Quantum gravity (QG) is a field of theoretical physics that seeks to describe gravity according to the principles of quantum mechanics, and where quantum effects cannot be ignored, such as near compact astrophysical objects where the effects of gravity are strong.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
A quark is a type of elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter.
A quark star is a hypothetical type of compact exotic star, where extremely high temperature and pressure has forced nuclear particles to form a continuous state of matter that consists primarily of free quarks, which can be modeled using the Calabi–Yau manifold.
A quark–gluon plasma (QGP) or quark soup is a state of matter in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) which exists at extremely high temperature and/or density.
Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.
René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.
In astrophysics and cosmology scalar field dark matter is a classical, minimally coupled, scalar field postulated to account for the inferred dark matter.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
Science fiction (often shortened to Sci-Fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction, typically dealing with imaginative concepts such as advanced science and technology, spaceflight, time travel, and extraterrestrial life.
SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, originally named Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, is a United States Department of Energy National Laboratory operated by Stanford University under the programmatic direction of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science and located in Menlo Park, California.
The Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (SPCK) is the oldest Anglican mission organisation, and the leading publisher of Christian books in the United Kingdom.
Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas, and plasma).
In physics, sound is a vibration that typically propagates as an audible wave of pressure, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid.
Space is the boundless three-dimensional extent in which objects and events have relative position and direction.
The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.
In differential geometry, given a spin structure on an n-dimensional orientable Riemannian manifold (M, g), a section of the spinor bundle S is called a spinor field.
The Standard Model of particle physics is the theory describing three of the four known fundamental forces (the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, and not including the gravitational force) in the universe, as well as classifying all known elementary particles.
In physics, a state of matter is one of the distinct forms in which matter can exist.
Strange matter is a particular form of quark matter, usually thought of as a "liquid" of up, down and strange quarks.
The strange quark or s quark (from its symbol, s) is the third lightest of all quarks, a type of elementary particle.
A strangelet is a hypothetical particle consisting of a bound state of roughly equal numbers of up, down, and strange quarks.
The stress–energy tensor (sometimes stress–energy–momentum tensor or energy–momentum tensor) is a tensor quantity in physics that describes the density and flux of energy and momentum in spacetime, generalizing the stress tensor of Newtonian physics.
In particle physics, the strong interaction is the mechanism responsible for the strong nuclear force (also called the strong force or nuclear strong force), and is one of the four known fundamental interactions, with the others being electromagnetism, the weak interaction, and gravitation.
In the physical sciences, subatomic particles are particles much smaller than atoms.
Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar FRS (19 October 1910 – 21 August 1995) was an Indian American astrophysicist who spent his professional life in the United States.
Substance theory, or substance attribute theory, is an ontological theory about objecthood, positing that a substance is distinct from its properties.
Superfluidity is the characteristic property of a fluid with zero viscosity which therefore flows without loss of kinetic energy.
A supersolid is a spatially ordered material with superfluid properties.
In particle physics, supersymmetry (SUSY) is a theory that proposes a relationship between two basic classes of elementary particles: bosons, which have an integer-valued spin, and fermions, which have a half-integer spin.
The tau (τ), also called the tau lepton, tau particle, or tauon, is an elementary particle similar to the electron, with negative electric charge and a 2.
The tau neutrino or tauon neutrino is a subatomic elementary particle which has the symbol and no net electric charge.
Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.
A telescope is an optical instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light).
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
Thales of Miletus (Θαλῆς (ὁ Μιλήσιος), Thalēs; 624 – c. 546 BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, mathematician, and astronomer from Miletus in Asia Minor (present-day Milet in Turkey).
The theory of relativity usually encompasses two interrelated theories by Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity.
Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.
The top quark, also known as the t quark (symbol: t) or truth quark, is the most massive of all observed elementary particles.
Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.
The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
The up quark or u quark (symbol: u) is the lightest of all quarks, a type of elementary particle, and a major constituent of matter.
Vacuum is space devoid of matter.
Volume is the quantity of three-dimensional space enclosed by a closed surface, for example, the space that a substance (solid, liquid, gas, or plasma) or shape occupies or contains.
The W and Z bosons are together known as the weak or more generally as the intermediate vector bosons. These elementary particles mediate the weak interaction; the respective symbols are,, and.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
In physics, a wave is a disturbance that transfers energy through matter or space, with little or no associated mass transport.
Wave–particle duality is the concept in quantum mechanics that every particle or quantic entity may be partly described in terms not only of particles, but also of waves.
In particle physics, the weak interaction (the weak force or weak nuclear force) is the mechanism of interaction between sub-atomic particles that causes radioactive decay and thus plays an essential role in nuclear fission.
A white dwarf, also called a degenerate dwarf, is a stellar core remnant composed mostly of electron-degenerate matter.
The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), originally known as the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP), was a spacecraft operating from 2001 to 2010 which measured temperature differences across the sky in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) – the radiant heat remaining from the Big Bang.
Chemical matter, Corporeal substance, Dense matter, Hadronic matter, Heterogeneous Matter, Heterogeneous matter, Homogeneous Matter, Homogeneous matter, Koinomatter, Matter (physics), Ordinary matter, Physical substance, Special Properties of Matter, Structure of the matter.