242 relations: Absolute monarchy, Achaemenid Empire, Adi Shankara, Aelian, Afghanistan, Ahimsa, Alain Daniélou, Alexander, Alexander II of Epirus, Alexander the Great, Amaravathi (village), Andhra Pradesh, Ancient Greece, Ancient history, Andhra Pradesh, Angelos Chaniotis, Antigonus I Monophthalmus, Antigonus II Gonatas, Antiochus I Soter, Antiochus II Theos, Antiochus III the Great, Aphrodisiac, Appian, Arabian Sea, Arachosia, Aramaic language, Aria (region), Aristophanes, Arrian, Arthashastra, Ashoka, Ashokavadana, Asia, Assam, Athenaeus, Étienne Lamotte, Ājīvika, Babylon, Bactria, Bahlikas, Balochistan, Balochistan, Pakistan, Battle of Ipsus, Bay of Bengal, Beas River, Bhadrabahu, Bharhut, Bihar, Bindusara, Bodh Gaya, Brahmin, ..., Brihadratha, Brihadratha Maurya, Buddhism, Buddhism in Southeast Asia, Buddhist councils, Buddhist texts, Chanakya, Chandragupta Maurya, Chera dynasty, Chola dynasty, Claudius Aelianus, Coinage of India, Conservation (ethic), Corporation, Dasharatha Maurya, Deccan Plateau, Deimachus, Deipnosophistae, Demetrius I of Bactria, Dhana Nanda, Dharma, Dharmaraksita, Diadochi, Dietmar Rothermund, Diodorus Siculus, Dionysius (ambassador), Dipavamsa, Durdhara, Ecbatana, Edicts of Ashoka, Emblem, Epigamia, Espionage, Eudemus (general), Eusebeia, Euthydemus II, Fitzedward Hall, Gandhara, Gedrosia, Greater India, Greco-Bactrian Kingdom, Greece, Greek language, Gupta Empire, Harvard University Press, Hegesander (historian), Hellenistic period, Hemachandra, Herat, Herbalism, Hermann Kulke, Himalayas, Hindu Kush, Hinduism, History of India, Horace Hayman Wilson, Iambulus, Ilamchetchenni, India, Indian subcontinent, Indo-Gangetic Plain, Indo-Greek Kingdom, Indo-Scythians, Indus River, Iran, Iron Age, Jain temple, Jainism, John Marshall (archaeologist), Justin (historian), Kalinga (historical region), Kalinga War, Kambojas, Kanakagiri, Kandahar, Karnataka, Kerala, Khyber Pass, Kirata, Kumhrar, Kunala, Lion Capital of Ashoka, List of ancient great powers, List of largest empires, List of largest empires in India, London, Magadha, Magadha Empire, Magadhi Prakrit, Magas of Cyrene, Mahabodhi Temple, Mahaparinibbana Sutta, Mahavamsa, Mahinda (Buddhist monk), Maladministration, Malay Peninsula, Mathura, Maurya Empire, Megasthenes, Memnon (mythology), Menander I, Merutunga, Middle East, Motilal Banarsidass, Mudrarakshasa, Nagarjunakonda, Nanda Empire, Nellore district, North Africa, North Asia, Northern Black Polished Ware, Odisha, Outline of ancient India, Oxford University Press, Pakistan, Pali, Pandyan dynasty, Parishishtaparvan, Paropamisadae, Pataliputra, Patna, Peithon (son of Agenor), Persian people, Phyllis Granoff, Piety, Pillars of Ashoka, Pliny the Elder, Plutarch, Porus, Pradyota dynasty, Prakrit, Ptolemaic Kingdom, Ptolemy II Philadelphus, Puranas, Pushyamitra Shunga, Rajendralal Mitra, Ramanuja, Romila Thapar, Routledge, Saka, Sallekhana, Samprati, Sanchi, Sangam literature, Sangam period, Sanghamitta, Sanskrit, Sarnath, Satavahana dynasty, Satrap, Seleucid Empire, Seleucid–Mauryan war, Seleucus I Nicator, Shalishuka, Shravanabelagola, Shunga Empire, Sialkot, Siberia, Sibyrtius, Sophagasenus, Sophist, South Asia, South India, Southeast Asia, Southern Europe, Sri Lanka, Sri Lankan Tamils, Strabo, Stupa, Subhadrangi, Susa, Susima, Tamil Nadu, Tamils, Tamraparni, Taxila, Thailand, The Anabasis of Alexander, Tissa of Upatissa Nuwara, Tosali, Ujjain, University of Michigan, Vayu Purana, Vincent Arthur Smith, Vishakhadatta, Vishnu Purana, Walter Eugene Clark, War elephant, Western Asia, William Woodthorpe Tarn, Yojana, Yona. Expand index (192 more) » « Shrink index
Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
Adi Shankara (pronounced) or Shankara, was an early 8th century Indian philosopher and theologian who consolidated the doctrine of Advaita Vedanta.
Aelian or Aelianus may refer to.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Ahimsa (IAST:, Pāli) means 'not to injure' and 'compassion' and refers to a key virtue in Indian religions.
Alain Daniélou (4 October 1907 – 27 January 1994) was a French historian, intellectual, musicologist, Indologist, and a noted Western convert to and expert on Shaivite Hinduism.
Alexander is a common male given name, and a less common surname.
Alexander II was a king of Epirus, and the son of Pyrrhus and Lanassa, the daughter of the Sicilian tyrant Agathocles.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Amaravathi is a village in Guntur district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Ancient history is the aggregate of past events, "History" from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the post-classical history.
Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India.
Angelos Chaniotis (Άγγελος Χανιώτης, born November 8, 1959) is a Greek historian and Classics scholar, known for original and wide-ranging research in the cultural, religious, legal and economic history of the Hellenistic period and the Roman East.
Antigonus I Monophthalmus (Antigonos ho Monophthalmos, Antigonus the One-eyed, 382–301 BC), son of Philip from Elimeia, was a Macedonian nobleman, general, and satrap under Alexander the Great.
Antigonus II Gonatas (Ἀντίγονος B΄ Γονατᾶς) (c. 319–239 BC) was a powerful ruler who solidified the position of the Antigonid dynasty in Macedon after a long period defined by anarchy and chaos and acquired fame for his victory over the Gauls who had invaded the Balkans.
Antiochus I Soter (Ἀντίοχος Α΄ ὁ Σωτήρ; epithet means "the Saviour"; c. 324/3261 BC), was a king of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire.
Antiochus II Theos (Greek: Ἀντίοχος Β΄ ὁ Θεός; 286–246 BC) was a Greek king of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire who reigned from 261 to 246 BC.
Antiochus III the Great (Greek: Ἀντίoχoς Μέγας; c. 241187 BC, ruled 222–187 BC) was a Hellenistic Greek king and the 6th ruler of the Seleucid Empire.
An aphrodisiac or love drug is a substance that increases libido when consumed.
Appian of Alexandria (Ἀππιανὸς Ἀλεξανδρεύς Appianòs Alexandreús; Appianus Alexandrinus) was a Greek historian with Roman citizenship who flourished during the reigns of Emperors of Rome Trajan, Hadrian, and Antoninus Pius.
The Arabian Sea, also known as Sea of Oman, is a region of the northern Indian Ocean bounded on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Gulf of Aden, Guardafui Channel and the Arabian Peninsula, and on the east by India.
Arachosia is the Hellenized name of an ancient satrapy in the eastern part of the Achaemenid, Seleucid, Parthian, Greco-Bactrian, and Indo-Scythian empires.
Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.
Aria (Ἀρ(ε)ία Ar(e)ía, آريا; Latin Aria, representing Old Persian. Haraiva, Avestan Haraeuua) is the name of an Achaemenid region centered on the Herat city of present-day western Afghanistan.
Aristophanes (Ἀριστοφάνης,; c. 446 – c. 386 BC), son of Philippus, of the deme Kydathenaion (Cydathenaeum), was a comic playwright of ancient Athens.
Arrian of Nicomedia (Greek: Ἀρριανός Arrianos; Lucius Flavius Arrianus) was a Greek historian, public servant, military commander and philosopher of the Roman period.
The Arthashastra is an ancient Indian treatise on statecraft, economic policy and military strategy, written in Sanskrit.
Ashoka (died 232 BCE), or Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty, who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from to 232 BCE.
The Ashokavadana (अशोकावदान;; "Narrative of Ashoka") is an Indian Sanskrit-language text that describes the birth and reign of the Maurya Emperor Ashoka.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Assam is a state in Northeast India, situated south of the eastern Himalayas along the Brahmaputra and Barak River valleys.
Athenaeus of Naucratis (Ἀθήναιος Nαυκρατίτης or Nαυκράτιος, Athēnaios Naukratitēs or Naukratios; Athenaeus Naucratita) was a Greek rhetorician and grammarian, flourishing about the end of the 2nd and beginning of the 3rd century AD.
Étienne Paul Marie Lamotte (November 21, 1903 – May 5, 1983) was a Belgian priest and Professor of Greek at the Catholic University of Louvain, but was better known as an Indologist and the greatest authority on Buddhism in the West in his time.
Ajivika (IAST) is one of the nāstika or "heterodox" schools of Indian philosophy.
Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.
Bactria or Bactriana was the name of a historical region in Central Asia.
The Bahlikas (बाह्लिक; Bāhlika) were the inhabitants of Balikha, mentioned in Atharvaveda, Mahabharata, Ramayana, Puranas, Vartikka of Katyayana, Brhatsamhita, Amarkosha etc.
Balōchistān (بلوچستان; also Balūchistān or Balūchestān, often interpreted as the Land of the Baloch) is an arid desert and mountainous region in south-western Asia.
Balochistan (bəloːt͡ʃɪs't̪ɑːn) (بلوچِستان), is one of the five provinces of Pakistan.
The Battle of Ipsus (Ἱψός) was fought between some of the Diadochi (the successors of Alexander the Great) in 301 BC near the village of that name in Phrygia.
The Bay of Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গোপসাগর) is the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean, bounded on the west and north by India and Bangladesh, and on the east by Myanmar and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India).
The Beas River also known as the Biás or Bias, (Sanskrit: विपाशा Vipāśā; Hyphasis), is a river in north India.
Bhadrabahu was, according to the Digambara sect of Jainism, the last Shruta Kevalin (all knowing by hearsay, that is indirectly) in Jainism (the other sect, Śvētāmbara, believes the last Shruta Kevalin was Acharya Sthulabhadra, but was forbade by Bhadrabahu from disclosing it).
Bharhut (Hindi: भरहुत) is a village located in the Satna district of Madhya Pradesh, central India.
Bihar is an Indian state considered to be a part of Eastern as well as Northern India.
Bindusara was the second Mauryan emperor of India.
Bodh Gaya is a religious site and place of pilgrimage associated with the Mahabodhi Temple Complex in Gaya district in the Indian state of Bihar.
Brahmin (Sanskrit: ब्राह्मण) is a varna (class) in Hinduism specialising as priests, teachers (acharya) and protectors of sacred learning across generations.
Brihadratha (बृहद्रथ; IAST: Bṛhadratha), also known as Maharatha, was the founder of the Barhadratha dynasty, the earliest ruling dynasty of Magadha.
Brihadratha Maurya was the last ruler of the Maurya Empire.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Buddhism in Southeast Asia includes a variety of traditions of Buddhism including two main traditions: Mahāyāna Buddhism and Theravāda Buddhism.
Since the death of the historical Buddha, Siddhartha Gautama, Buddhist monastic communities have periodically convened to settle doctrinal and disciplinary disputes and to revise and correct the contents of the sutras.
Buddhist texts were initially passed on orally by monks, but were later written down and composed as manuscripts in various Indo-Aryan languages which were then translated into other local languages as Buddhism spread.
Chanakya (IAST:,; fl. c. 4th century BCE) was an Indian teacher, philosopher, economist, jurist and royal advisor.
Chandragupta Maurya (reign: 321–297 BCE) was the founder of the Maurya Empire in ancient India.
The Cheras were the ruling dynasty of the present-day state of Kerala and to a lesser extent, parts of Tamil Nadu in South India.
The Chola dynasty was one of the longest-ruling dynasties in the history of southern India.
Claudius Aelianus (Κλαύδιος Αἰλιανός; c. 175c. 235 AD), commonly Aelian, born at Praeneste, was a Roman author and teacher of rhetoric who flourished under Septimius Severus and probably outlived Elagabalus, who died in 222.
Coinage of India, issued by imperial dynasties and middle kingdoms, began anywhere between the 1st millennium BCE to the 6th century BCE, and consisted mainly of copper and silver coins in its initial stage.
Conservation is an ethic of resource use, allocation, and protection.
A corporation is a company or group of people or an organisation authorized to act as a single entity (legally a person) and recognized as such in law.
Dasharatha was a Mauryan emperor from 232 to 224 BCE.
The Deccan PlateauPage 46, is a large plateau in western and southern India.
Deimachus (Greek Δηίμαχος) was a Greek of the Seleucid Empire who lived during the third-century BCE.
The Deipnosophistae is an early 3rd-century AD Greek work (Δειπνοσοφισταί, Deipnosophistaí, lit. "The Dinner Sophists/Philosophers/Experts") by the Greco-Egyptian author Athenaeus of Naucratis.
Demetrius I (Greek: Δημήτριος Α΄) was a Greek king (reigned c. 200–180 BC) of Gandhara.
According to Mahabodhivamsa, Dhana Nanda was the last ruler of the Nanda dynasty.
Dharma (dharma,; dhamma, translit. dhamma) is a key concept with multiple meanings in the Indian religions – Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism.
Dharmarakṣita (Sanskrit "Protected by the Dharma", Pali Dhammarakkhita), was one of the missionaries sent by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka to proselytize Buddhism.
The Diadochi (plural of Latin Diadochus, from Διάδοχοι, Diádokhoi, "successors") were the rival generals, families, and friends of Alexander the Great who fought for control over his empire after his death in 323 BC.
Dietmar Rothermund is a German historian best known for his research in the economy of India.
Diodorus Siculus (Διόδωρος Σικελιώτης Diodoros Sikeliotes) (1st century BC) or Diodorus of Sicily was a Greek historian.
Dionysius (Διονύσιος) was a Greek of the 3rd century BCE, who was sent as ambassador to the court of the Indian emperor Ashoka, by Ptolemy Philadelphus.
The Dipavamsa or Deepavamsa (i.e., "Chronicle of the Island"; in Pali: Dīpavaṃsa), is the oldest historical record of Sri Lanka.
Durdhara was the wife of Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the 4th-century BCE Maurya Empire of ancient India, according to the 12th century CE Jain text Parishishtaparvan by Hemachandra.
Ecbatana (𐏃𐎥𐎶𐎫𐎠𐎴 Hagmatāna or Haŋmatāna, literally "the place of gathering", אַחְמְתָא, Ἀγβάτανα in Aeschylus and Herodotus,Ἐκβάτανα, Akkadian: kura-gam-ta-nu in the Nabonidus Chronicle) was an ancient city in Media in western Iran.
The Edicts of Ashoka are a collection of 33 inscriptions on the Pillars of Ashoka as well as boulders and cave walls made by the Emperor Ashoka of the Mauryan Empire during his reign from 269 BCE to 232 BCE.
An emblem is an abstract or representational pictorial image that represents a concept, like a moral truth, or an allegory, or a person, like a king or saint.
In ancient Athens "epigamia" (ἐπιγαμία) designated the legal right to contract a marriage.
Espionage or spying, is the act of obtaining secret or confidential information without the permission of the holder of the information.
Eudemus (Εὔδημος; died 316 BC) was one of Alexander the Great's generals.
Eusebeia (Greek: εὐσέβεια from εὐσεβής "pious" from εὖ eu meaning "well", and σέβας sebas meaning "reverence", itself formed from seb- meaning sacred awe and reverence especially in actions) is a Greek word abundantly used in Greek philosophy as well as in the New Testament, meaning to perform the actions appropriate to the gods.
Euthydemus II (Greek: Εὐθύδημος Β΄) was Graeco-Bactrian king; the son of Demetrius I of Bactria, he became king in the 180s BCE, either after his father's death or as a sub-king to him.
Fitzedward Hall (March 21, 1825 - February 1, 1901) was an American Orientalist, and philologist.
Gandhāra was an ancient kingdom situated along the Kabul and Swat rivers of Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Gedrosia (Γεδρωσία) is the Hellenized name of the part of coastal Baluchistan that roughly corresponds to today's Makran.
The term Greater India is most commonly used to encompass the historical and geographic extent of all political entities of the Indian subcontinent, and the regions which are culturally linked to India or received significant Indian cultural influence.
The Greco-Bactrian Kingdom was – along with the Indo-Greek Kingdom – the easternmost part of the Hellenistic world, covering Bactria and Sogdiana in Central Asia from 250 to 125 BC.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire, existing from approximately 240 to 590 CE.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
Hegesander (Ἡγήσανδρος) was an ancient Greek historian, and a citizen of Delphi.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
Acharya Hemachandra was a Jain scholar, poet, and polymath who wrote on grammar, philosophy, prosody, and contemporary history.
Herat (هرات,Harât,Herât; هرات; Ἀλεξάνδρεια ἡ ἐν Ἀρίοις, Alexándreia hē en Aríois; Alexandria Ariorum) is the third-largest city of Afghanistan.
Herbalism (also herbal medicine or phytotherapy) is the study of botany and use of plants intended for medicinal purposes or for supplementing a diet.
Hermann Kulke (born 1938 in Berlin) is a German historian and Indologist, who was professor of South and Southeast Asian history at the Department of History, Kiel University (1988–2003).
The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.
The Hindu Kush, also known in Ancient Greek as the Caucasus Indicus (Καύκασος Ινδικός) or Paropamisadae (Παροπαμισάδαι), in Pashto and Persian as, Hindu Kush is an mountain range that stretches near the Afghan-Pakistan border,, Quote: "The Hindu Kush mountains run along the Afghan border with the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan".
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
The history of India includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent; the advancement of civilisation from the Indus Valley Civilisation to the eventual blending of the Indo-Aryan culture to form the Vedic Civilisation; the rise of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism;Sanderson, Alexis (2009), "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo, Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009.
Horace Hayman Wilson (26 September 1786 – 8 May 1860) was an English orientalist.
__notoc__ Iambulus or Jambulus (Ἰάμβουλος, Iamboulos) was an ancient Greek merchant and the likely author of a Utopian novel about the strange forms and figures of the inhabitants of the "Islands of the Sun".
Ilamchetchenni (Iḷamcēṭceṉṉi;; also spelt Ilanchetchenni) was an early Tamil king of the Chola dynasty during the Sangam period.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
The Indo-Gangetic Plain, also known as the Indus-Ganga Plain and the North Indian River Plain, is a 255 million-hectare (630 million-acre) fertile plain encompassing most of northern and eastern India, the eastern parts of Pakistan, virtually all of Bangladesh and southern plains of Nepal.
The Indo-Greek Kingdom or Graeco-Indian Kingdom was an Hellenistic kingdom covering various parts of Afghanistan and the northwest regions of the Indian subcontinent (parts of modern Pakistan and northwestern India), during the last two centuries BC and was ruled by more than thirty kings, often conflicting with one another.
Indo-Scythians is a term used to refer to Scythians (Sakas), who migrated into parts of central, northern and western South Asia (Sogdiana, Bactria, Arachosia, Gandhara, Sindh, Kashmir, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Maharashtra) from the middle of the 2nd century BC to the 4th century AD.
The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
A Jain temple is the place of worship for Jains, the followers of Jainism, Derasar is a word used for a Jain temple in Gujarat and southern Rajasthan.
Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.
Sir John Hubert Marshall, CIE, FBA (19 March 1876, Chester, England – 17 August 1958, Guildford, England) was the Director-General of the Archaeological Survey of India from 1902 to 1928.
Justin (Marcus Junianus Justinus Frontinus; century) was a Latin historian who lived under the Roman Empire.
Kalinga is a historical region of India.
The Kalinga War was fought in what is now India between the Maurya Empire under Ashoka and the state of Kalinga, an independent feudal kingdom located on the east coast, in the present-day state of Odisha and north of Andhra Pradesh.
The Kambojas were a tribe of Iron Age India, frequently mentioned in Sanskrit and Pali literature.
Kanakagiri (also known as Suvarnagiri) is an historical place in India, and new Taluk headquarters situated in Karnataka State, It's new taluk of Koppal district.
Kandahār or Qandahār (کندهار; قندهار; known in older literature as Candahar) is the second-largest city in Afghanistan, with a population of about 557,118.
Karnataka also known Kannada Nadu is a state in the south western region of India.
Kerala is a state in South India on the Malabar Coast.
The Khyber Pass (د خیبر درہ, درۂ خیبر) (elevation) is a mountain pass in the north of Pakistan, close to the border with Afghanistan.
The Kirāta (Kirat) (किरात) is a generic term in Sanskrit literature for people who had territory in the mountains, particularly in the Himalayas and North-East India and who are believed to have been Sino-Tibetan in origin.
Kumhrar or Kumrahar is the name of an area of Patna, where remains of the ancient city of Pataliputra were excavated.
th:เจ้าชายกุนาละ Kunala (IAST) (263 BC - ?) was a son of Emperor Ashoka and Queen Padmavati and the presumptive heir to Ashoka, thus the heir to the Mauryan Empire which once ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent.
The Lion Capital of Ashoka is a sculpture of four Asiatic lions standing back to back, on an elaborate base that includes other animals.
In an European context, recognized great powers came about first in Europe during the post-Napoleonic era.
This is a list of the largest empires in world history, but the list is not and cannot be definitive since the decision about which entities to consider as "empires" is difficult and fraught with controversy.
This is a historical list of the largest empires in India with an area covering more than 1 million square kilometres.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Magadha was an ancient Indian kingdom in southern Bihar, and was counted as one of the sixteen Mahajanapadas (Sanskrit: "Great Countries") of ancient India.
Magadha empire may refer to the following, for a general view of the states based on Magadha, see Magadha.
Magadhi Prakrit (Māgadhī) was a vernacular Middle Indo-Aryan language, replacing earlier Vedic Sanskrit in parts of the Indian subcontinents.
Magas of Cyrene (Μάγας ὁ Κυρηναῖος; born before 317 BC – 250 BC, ruled 276 BC – 250 BC) was a Greek Macedonian nobleman and King of Cyrenaica.
The Mahabodhi Temple (literally: "Great Awakening Temple"), a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is an ancient, but much rebuilt and restored, Buddhist temple in Bodh Gaya, marking the location where the Buddha is said to have attained enlightenment.
The Mahāparinibbāṇa Sutta is Sutta 16 in the Digha Nikaya, a scripture belonging the Sutta Pitaka of Theravada Buddhism.
The Mahavamsa ("Great Chronicle", Pali Mahāvaṃsa) (5th century CE) is an epic poem written in the Pali language.
Mahinda (Sanskrit Mahendra; born third century BCE in Ujjain, modern Madhya Pradesh, India) was a Buddhist monk depicted in Buddhist sources as bringing Buddhism to Sri Lanka.
Maladministration is the actions of a government body which can be seen as causing an injustice.
The Malay Peninsula (Tanah Melayu, تانه ملايو; คาบสมุทรมลายู,, မလေး ကျွန်းဆွယ်, 马来半岛 / 馬來半島) is a peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Mathura is a city in the North Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.
The Maurya Empire was a geographically-extensive Iron Age historical power founded by Chandragupta Maurya which dominated ancient India between 322 BCE and 180 BCE.
Megasthenes (Μεγασθένης, c. 350 – c. 290 BC) was an ancient Greek historian, diplomat and Indian ethnographer and explorer in the Hellenistic period.
In Greek mythology, Memnon (Μέμνων) was an Ethiopian king and son of Tithonus and Eos.
Menander I Soter (Μένανδρος Α΄ ὁ Σωτήρ, Ménandros A' ho Sōtḗr, "Menander I the Saviour"; known in Indian Pali sources as Milinda) was an Indo-Greek King of the Indo-Greek Kingdom (165Bopearachchi (1998) and (1991), respectively. The first date is estimated by Osmund Bopearachchi and R. C. Senior, the other Boperachchi/155 –130 BC) who administered a large empire in the Northwestern regions of the Indian Subcontinent from his capital at Sagala.
Merutunga was a 14th century Jain scholar from present-day Gujarat in India.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Motilal Banarsidass (MLBD) is a leading Indian publishing house on Sanskrit and Indology since 1903, located in Delhi, India.
The Mudrarakshasa (The Signet of the Minister) is a historical play in Sanskrit by Vishakhadatta that narrates the ascent of the king Chandragupta Maurya (BCE) to power in India.
Nagarjunakonda (IAST: Nāgārjunikoṇḍa, meaning Nagarjuna Hill) is a historical town, now an island located near Nagarjuna Sagar in Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, India.
The Nanda dynasty originated from the region of Magadha in ancient India during the 4th century BCE and lasted between 345–321 BCE.
Nellore district (officially: Sri Potti Sriramulu Nellore district), located in Coastal Andhra region is one of the 13 districts of Andhra Pradesh.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
North Asia or Northern Asia, sometimes known as Siberia, is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the Russian regions of Siberia, Ural and the Russian Far East – an area east of the Ural Mountains.
The Northern Black Polished Ware culture (abbreviated NBPW or NBP) is an urban Iron Age culture of the Indian Subcontinent, lasting c. 700–200 BCE, succeeding the Painted Grey Ware culture and Black and red ware culture.
Odisha (formerly Orissa) is one of the 29 states of India, located in eastern India.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to ancient India: Ancient India is the Indian Subcontinent from prehistoric times to the start of Medieval India, which is typically dated (when the term is still used) to the end of the Gupta Empire.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Pali, or Magadhan, is a Middle Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian subcontinent.
The Pandyan dynasty was an ancient Tamil dynasty, one of the three Tamil dynasties, the other two being the Chola and the Chera.
The Parishishtaparvan also known as the Sthaviravalicharitra is a 12th-century Sanskrit mahakavya by Hemachandra which details the histories of the earliest Jain teachers.
The Paropamisadae, also known by other names, were a people and district of Gandhara, which stretched along the Hindu Kush range and lying between Kabul Valley of Afghanistan and Peshawar Valley of Pakistan.
Pataliputra (IAST), adjacent to modern-day Patna, was a city in ancient India, originally built by Magadha ruler Udayin in 490 BCE as a small fort near the Ganges river.
Patna is the capital and largest city of the state of Bihar in India.
Peithon, son of Agenor (died 312 BCE) was an officer in the expedition of Alexander the Great to India, who became satrap of the Indus from 325 to 316 BCE, and then satrap of Babylon, from 316 to 312 BCE, until he died at the Battle of Gaza in 312 BCE.
The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.
Phyllis Emily Granoff (born 1947) is a specialist in Indic religions.
In spiritual terminology, piety is a virtue that may include religious devotion, spirituality, or a mixture of both.
The pillars of Ashoka are a series of columns dispersed throughout the Indian subcontinent, erected or at least inscribed with edicts by the Mauryan king Ashoka during his reign from c. 268 to 232 BC.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.
Porus or Poros (from Ancient Πῶρος, Pôros), was a great Indian king from the Punjab region, whose territory spanned the region between the Hydaspes (River of Jhelum) and Acesines (Chenab River), in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent.
Pradyota dynasty is an ancient Indian dynasty, which ruled over Avanti in the present-day Madhya Pradesh state, though most of the Puranas (except a manuscript of the Brahmanda Purana, preserved in the University of Dhaka) say that this dynasty succeeded the Barhadratha dynasty in Magadha.
The Prakrits (प्राकृत; pāuda; pāua) are any of several Middle Indo-Aryan languages formerly spoken in India.
The Ptolemaic Kingdom (Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ basileía) was a Hellenistic kingdom based in Egypt.
Ptolemy II Philadelphus (Πτολεμαῖος Φιλάδελφος, Ptolemaîos Philádelphos "Ptolemy Beloved of his Sibling"; 308/9–246 BCE) was the king of Ptolemaic Egypt from 283 to 246 BCE.
The Puranas (singular: पुराण), are ancient Hindu texts eulogizing various deities, primarily the divine Trimurti God in Hinduism through divine stories.
Pushyamitra Shunga (IAST) was the founder and first ruler of the Shunga Empire in East India.
Raja Rajendralal Mitra (15 February 1824 – 26 July 1891) was the first modern Indologist of Indian origin, and was a key figure in the Bengal Renaissance.
Ramanuja (traditionally, 1017–1137 CE) was a Hindu theologian, philosopher, and one of the most important exponents of the Sri Vaishnavism tradition within Hinduism.
Romila Thapar (born 30 November 1931) is an Indian historian whose principal area of study is ancient India.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
Saka, Śaka, Shaka or Saca mod. ساکا; Śaka; Σάκαι, Sákai; Sacae;, old *Sək, mod. Sāi) is the name used in Middle Persian and Sanskrit sources for the Scythians, a large group of Eurasian nomads on the Eurasian Steppe speaking Eastern Iranian languages.
Sallekhana (IAST), also known as Samlehna, Santhara, Samadhi-marana or Sanyasana-marana; is a supplementary vow to the ethical code of conduct of Jainism.
Samprati was an emperor of the Maurya dynasty.
Sanchi Stupa, also written Sanci, is a Buddhist complex, famous for its Great Stupa, on a hilltop at Sanchi Town in Raisen District of the State of Madhya Pradesh, India.
The Sangam literature (Tamil: சங்க இலக்கியம், Sanga ilakkiyam) is the ancient Tamil literature of the period in the history of ancient southern India (known as the Thamizhagam or the Tamilagam) spanning from c. 300 BCE to 300 CE.
Sangam period is the period of history of ancient Tamil Nadu and Kerala (known as Tamilakam) spanning from c. 3rd century BC to c. 3rd century AD.
Saṅghamittā (Saṅghamitrā in Sanskrit) was the eldest daughter of Emperor Ashoka (304 BC – 232 BC) and his first wife, Devi.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Sarnath is a place located 10 kilometres north-east of Varanasi near the confluence of the Ganges and the Varuna rivers in Uttar Pradesh, India.
The Satavahanas (IAST), also referred to as the Andhras in the Puranas, were an ancient Indian dynasty based in the Deccan region.
Satraps were the governors of the provinces of the ancient Median and Achaemenid Empires and in several of their successors, such as in the Sasanian Empire and the Hellenistic empires.
The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
The Seleucid–Mauryan War was fought between 305 and 303 BCE.
Seleucus I Nicator (Σέλευκος Α΄ Νικάτωρ Séleukos Α΄ Nikátōr; "Seleucus the Victor") was one of the Diadochi.
Shalishuka Maurya was a ruler of the Indian Maurya dynasty.
Shravanabelagola is a town located near Channarayapatna of Hassan district in the Indian state of Karnataka and is 144 km from Bangalore, the capital of the state.
The Shunga Empire (IAST) was an ancient Indian dynasty from Magadha that controlled areas of the central and eastern Indian subcontinent from around 187 to 78 BCE.
Sialkot (سيالكوٹ and سيالكوٹ) is a city in Punjab, Pakistan.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
Sibyrtius (Greek:Σιβύρτιος; lived 4th century BC) was a Greek officer from Crete in the service of Alexander the Great, who was the satrap of Arachosia and Gedrosia shortly after the death of Alexander until about 303 BC.
Sophagasenos also spelt Sophagasenus or Sophagasenas (Sanskrit: Subhagasena) was a local Indian king ruling in Kabul and Kapisa valley (Paropamisade of the classical writings) during the last decade of 3rd century BCE.
A sophist (σοφιστής, sophistes) was a specific kind of teacher in ancient Greece, in the fifth and fourth centuries BC.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
South India is the area encompassing the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry, occupying 19% of India's area.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
Southern Europe is the southern region of the European continent.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
Sri Lankan Tamils (also) or Ceylon Tamils, also known as Eelam Tamils in Tamil, are members of the Tamil ethnic group native to the South Asian island state of Sri Lanka.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
A stupa (Sanskrit: "heap") is a mound-like or hemispherical structure containing relics (śarīra - typically the remains of Buddhist monks or nuns) that is used as a place of meditation.
Subhadrangi (also known as Dharma or Janapadakalyani) was, according to Buddhist sources, a wife of the Mauryan emperor, Bindusara and the mother of his successor, Ashoka.
Susa (fa Šuš;; שׁוּשָׁן Šušān; Greek: Σοῦσα; ܫܘܫ Šuš; Old Persian Çūšā) was an ancient city of the Proto-Elamite, Elamite, First Persian Empire, Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanian empires of Iran, and one of the most important cities of the Ancient Near East.
Susima (also Sushima or Sushim) was a prince of the Maurya Empire and the eldest son and heir-apparent of the second Mauryan emperor Bindusara.
Tamil Nadu (• tamiḻ nāḍu ? literally 'The Land of Tamils' or 'Tamil Country') is one of the 29 states of India.
The Tamil people, also known as Tamilar, Tamilans, or simply Tamils, are a Dravidian ethnic group who speak Tamil as their mother tongue and trace their ancestry to the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, the Indian Union territory of Puducherry, or the Northern, Eastern Province and Puttalam District of Sri Lanka.
Tamraparni (Tamil/Sanskrit) is an ancient name of a river proximal to Tirunelveli of South India and Puttalam of Western Sri Lanka.
Taxila (from Pāli: Takkasilā, Sanskrit: तक्षशिला,, meaning "City of Cut Stone" or " Rock") is a town and an important archaeological site in the Rawalpindi District of the Punjab, Pakistan, situated about north-west of Islamabad and Rawalpindi, just off the famous Grand Trunk Road.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
The Anabasis of Alexander (Ἀλεξάνδρου Ἀνάβασις, Alexándrou Anábasis; Anabasis Alexandri) was composed by Arrian of Nicomedia in the second century AD, most probably during the reign of Hadrian.
Tissa was king of Upatissa Nuwara (modern-day Sri Lanka) from 454 BC to 437 BC.
Tosali or Toshali was an ancient city in the present day Odisha state in eastern India.
Ujjain is the largest city in Ujjain district of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh.
The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, or UMich), often simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
The Vayu Purana (वायु पुराण) is a Sanskrit text and one of the eighteen major Puranas of Hinduism.
Vincent Arthur Smith,, (1848–1920) was a British Indologist and art historian.
Vishakhadatta (विशाखदत्त) was an Indian Sanskrit poet and playwright. Although Vishakhadatta furnishes the names of his father and grandfather as Maharaja Bhaskaradatta and Maharaja Vateshvaradatta in his political drama Mudrārākṣasa, we know little else about him. Only two of his plays, the Mudrārākṣasa and the Devichandraguptam are known to us.
The 'Vishnu Purana' (IAST: Viṣṇu Purāṇa) is one of the eighteen Mahapuranas, a genre of ancient and medieval texts of Hinduism.
Walter Eugene Clark (September 8, 1881 – September 30, 1960), was an American philologist.
A war elephant is an elephant that is trained and guided by humans for combat.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
Sir William Woodthorpe Tarn (26 February 1869 – 7 November 1957), usually cited as W. W. Tarn, was a British classical scholar and a writer.
A Yojana (Sanskrit: योजन) is a Vedic measure of distance that was used in ancient India.
The word Yona in Pali and the Prakrits, and the analogue "Yavana" in Sanskrit, are words used in Ancient India to designate Greek speakers.
Dynasty of the Mauryas, History of Mauryan Dynasty, Mantriparishad, Mauraya empire, Maurya, Maurya Dynasty, Maurya dynasty, Maurya empire, Maurya era, Maurya period, Mauryan, Mauryan Dynasty, Mauryan Emperor, Mauryan Empire, Mauryan India, Mauryan dynasty, Mauryan empire, Mauryan era, Mauryan period, Mauryans, Mauryas, Mourya, मौर्यसाम्राज्यम्.