121 relations: Abitur, Abrahamic religions, Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, Afrikan Spir, All Souls College, Oxford, Ancient Greek, Anhalt-Dessau, Arabic, Arthur Schopenhauer, Aryan, Baruch Spinoza, Bavarian Maximilian Order for Science and Art, Berlin, Boden Professor of Sanskrit election, 1860, Bodleian Library, Brahmo Samaj, Carl Maria von Weber, Charles Godfrey Leland, Christ Church, Oxford, Classical antiquity, Comparative religion, Critique of Pure Reason, Culture of India, Darwinism, Der Freischütz, Dessau, Die schöne Müllerin, Diebold Professor of Comparative Philology, Dover Beach, Duchy of Anhalt, Dyaus (deity), East India Company, Ethics (Spinoza), Eugène Burnouf, Fable, Felix Mendelssohn, Filologicheskie Zapiski, Finnic languages, Franz Bopp, Franz Schubert, Friedrich Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, George Campbell, 8th Duke of Argyll, German Confederation, Gifford Lectures, Godparent, Goethe-Institut, Gymnasium (school), Helena Blavatsky, Henotheism, ..., Hitopadesha, Holywell Cemetery, Hungarian Turanism, Immanuel Kant, India, Indo-European languages, Indology, John Ruskin, Jupiter (mythology), Latin, Latitudinarian, Leipzig, Leipzig University, List of Sahitya Akademi Award winners for English, Lutheranism, Lyric poetry, Mahabharata, Mary Fraser Tytler, Matthew Arnold, Mongolic languages, Monier Monier-Williams, Nature worship, New Delhi, Nirad C. Chaudhuri, Oriental Institute, Oxford, Oriental studies, Oxford, Paganism, Persian language, Philology, Pour le Mérite, Presbytery of Glasgow, Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany, Privy Council of the United Kingdom, Protoscience, Racism, Ram Mohan Roy, Ramakrishna, Review of Reviews, Rigveda, Romanticism, Sacred Books of the East, Sahitya Akademi, Samoyedic languages, Sanskrit, Secretary of State for India, Soul, St Andrew's Cathedral, Glasgow, Stephen G. Alter, Supernatural, Swami Vivekananda, Taylor Institution, The Journal of Religion, Thomas Gaisford, Transcendental idealism, Tungusic languages, Turanian languages, Turkic languages, University of Glasgow, University of Oxford, Upanishads, Vedanta, Vedas, Wilhelm Max Müller, Wilhelm Müller, William Dwight Whitney, Williams and Norgate, Windsor Castle, Winterreise, Zerbst, Zeus. Expand index (71 more) » « Shrink index
Abitur is a qualification granted by university-preparatory schools in Germany, Lithuania, and Estonia.
The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as Abrahamism, are a group of Semitic-originated religious communities of faith that claim descent from the practices of the ancient Israelites and the worship of the God of Abraham.
The Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres is a French learned society devoted to the humanities, founded in February 1663 as one of the five academies of the Institut de France.
Afrikan Aleksandrovich Spir (Russian: Африка́н Алекса́ндрович Спир; German: Afrikan (von) Spir, French: African (de) Spir, Italian: Africano Spir) (15 November 1837 – 26 March 1890) was a Russian Neo-Kantian philosopher of Greek-German descent who wrote primarily in German.
All Souls College (official name: College of the souls of all the faithful departed) is a constituent college of the University of Oxford in England.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Anhalt-Dessau was a principality of the Holy Roman Empire and later a duchy of the German Confederation.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arthur Schopenhauer (22 February 1788 – 21 September 1860) was a German philosopher.
"Aryan" is a term that was used as a self-designation by Indo-Iranian people.
Baruch Spinoza (born Benedito de Espinosa,; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677, later Benedict de Spinoza) was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi/Portuguese origin.
The Bavarian Maximilian Order for Science and Art (German: Bayerischer Maximiliansorden für Wissenschaft und Kunst) was first established on 28 November 1853 by King Maximilian II. von Bayern.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
The election in 1860 for the position of Boden Professor of Sanskrit at the University of Oxford was a hotly contested affair between two rival candidates offering different approaches to Sanskrit scholarship.
The Bodleian Library is the main research library of the University of Oxford, and is one of the oldest libraries in Europe.
Brahmo Samaj (Bengali: ব্রাহ্ম সমাজ Bramho Shômaj) is the societal component of Brahmoism, which began as a monotheistic reformist movement of the Hindu religion that appeared during the Bengal Renaissance.
Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst von Weber (18 or 19 November 1786 5 June 1826) was a German composer, conductor, pianist, guitarist and critic, and was one of the first significant composers of the Romantic school.
Charles Godfrey Leland (August 15, 1824 – March 20, 1903) was an American humorist, writer, and folklorist, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Christ Church (Ædes Christi, the temple or house, ædēs, of Christ, and thus sometimes known as "The House") is a constituent college of the University of Oxford in England.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Comparative religion is the branch of the study of religions concerned with the systematic comparison of the doctrines and practices of the world's religions.
The Critique of Pure Reason (Kritik der reinen Vernunft, KrV) (1781, Riga; second edition 1787) is a book by Immanuel Kant that has exerted an enduring influence on Western philosophy.
The culture of India refers collectively to the thousands of distinct and unique cultures of all religions and communities present in India.
Darwinism is a theory of biological evolution developed by the English naturalist Charles Darwin (1809–1882) and others, stating that all species of organisms arise and develop through the natural selection of small, inherited variations that increase the individual's ability to compete, survive, and reproduce.
, Op. 77, J. 277, (usually translated as The Marksman or The Freeshooter) is a German opera with spoken dialogue in three acts by Carl Maria von Weber with a libretto by Friedrich Kind.
Dessau is a town and former municipality in Germany on the junction of the rivers Mulde and Elbe, in the Bundesland (Federal State) of Saxony-Anhalt.
(Op. 25, D. 795), is a song cycle by Franz Schubert based on poems by Wilhelm Müller.
The position of Diebold Professor of Comparative Philology (designated the Professor of Comparative Philology 1868–82 and 1925–2003, and known as the Corpus Christi Professor of Comparative Philology 1882–1925) is a professorship in comparative philology at the University of Oxford.
"Dover Beach" is a lyric poem by the English poet Matthew Arnold.
The Duchy of Anhalt (Herzogtum Anhalt) was a historical German duchy.
(द्यौष्पितृ /, literally "Sky Father") is the "Father Heaven" deity of the Vedic pantheon, who appears in hymns with Prithvi Mata "Mother Earth" in the ancient scriptures of Hinduism.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
Ethics, Demonstrated in Geometrical Order (Ethica, ordine geometrico demonstrata), usually known as the Ethics, is a philosophical treatise written by Benedict de Spinoza.
Eugène Burnouf (April 8, 1801 – May 28, 1852) was an eminent French scholar and orientalist who made significant contributions to the deciphering of Old Persian cuneiform.
Fable is a literary genre: a succinct fictional story, in prose or verse, that features animals, legendary creatures, plants, inanimate objects, or forces of nature that are anthropomorphized (given human qualities, such as the ability to speak human language) and that illustrates or leads to a particular moral lesson (a "moral"), which may at the end be added explicitly as a pithy maxim or saying.
Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy (3 February 1809 4 November 1847), born and widely known as Felix Mendelssohn, was a German composer, pianist, organist and conductor of the early romantic period.
Filologicheskie Zapiski (Филологические записки, i.e., "Annals of the Philologia", "Philological Notes") was the oldest Russian scientific journal "dedicated to research and development of various issues in language and literature in general - and comparative linguistics, Russian language and literature in particular - and Slavic dialects", published in Voronezh on an every second month basis between 1860 and 1917.
The Finnic languages (Fennic), or Baltic Finnic languages (Balto-Finnic, Balto-Fennic), are a branch of the Uralic language family spoken around the Baltic Sea by Finnic peoples, mainly in Finland and Estonia, by about 7 million people.
Franz Bopp (14 September 1791 – 23 October 1867) was a German linguist known for extensive and pioneering comparative work on Indo-European languages.
Franz Peter Schubert (31 January 179719 November 1828) was an Austrian composer of the late Classical and early Romantic eras.
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist and a Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.
Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (27 January 1775 – 20 August 1854), later (after 1812) von Schelling, was a German philosopher.
George John Douglas Campbell, 8th Duke of Argyll, (30 April 1823 – 24 April 1900), styled Marquess of Lorne until 1847, was a Scottish peer and Liberal politician as well as a writer on science, religion, and the politics of the 19th century.
The German Confederation (Deutscher Bund) was an association of 39 German-speaking states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries and to replace the former Holy Roman Empire, which had been dissolved in 1806.
The Gifford Lectures are an annual series of lectures which were established by the will of Adam Lord Gifford (died 1887).
A godparent (also known as a sponsor), in many denominations of Christianity, is someone who bears witness to a child's baptism and then aids in their catechesis, as well as their lifelong spiritual formation.
The Goethe-Institut (GI, "Goethe Institute") is a non-profit German cultural association operational worldwide with 159 institutes, promoting the study of the German language abroad and encouraging international cultural exchange and relations.
A gymnasium is a type of school with a strong emphasis on academic learning, and providing advanced secondary education in some parts of Europe comparable to British grammar schools, sixth form colleges and US preparatory high schools.
Helena Petrovna Blavatsky (Еле́на Петро́вна Блава́тская, Yelena Petrovna Blavatskaya; 8 May 1891) was a Russian occultist, philosopher, and author who co-founded the Theosophical Society in 1875.
Henotheism is the worship of a single god while not denying the existence or possible existence of other deities.
Hitopadesha (Sanskrit: हितोपदेशः, IAST: Hitopadeśa, "Beneficial Advice") is an Indian text in Sanskrit language consisting of fables with animal and human characters.
Holywell Cemetery is next to St Cross Church in Oxford, England.
Hungarian Turanism (Turánizmus / Turanizmus) is a diverse phenomenon that revolves around an identification or association of Hungarian history and people with the histories and peoples of Central Asia, Inner Asia or the Ural region.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
Indology or South Asian studies is the academic study of the history and cultures, languages, and literature of India and as such is a subset of Asian studies.
John Ruskin (8 February 1819 – 20 January 1900) was the leading English art critic of the Victorian era, as well as an art patron, draughtsman, watercolourist, a prominent social thinker and philanthropist.
Jupiter (from Iūpiter or Iuppiter, *djous “day, sky” + *patēr “father," thus "heavenly father"), also known as Jove gen.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latitudinarians, or latitude men were initially a group of 17th-century English theologiansclerics and academicsfrom the University of Cambridge in Cambridge, England, who were moderate Anglicans (members of the Church of England, which was Protestant).
Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany.
Leipzig University (Universität Leipzig), in Leipzig in the Free State of Saxony, Germany, is one of the world's oldest universities and the second-oldest university (by consecutive years of existence) in Germany.
The Sahitya Akademi Award is the second-highest literary honor in India.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Lyric poetry is a formal type of poetry which expresses personal emotions or feelings, typically spoken in the first person.
The Mahābhārata (महाभारतम्) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Rāmāyaṇa.
Mary Seton Fraser Tytler (married name Mary Seton Watts) (1849–1938) was a symbolist craftswoman, designer and social reformer.
Matthew Arnold (24 December 1822 – 15 April 1888) was an English poet and cultural critic who worked as an inspector of schools.
The Mongolic languages are a group of languages spoken in East-Central Asia, mostly in Mongolia and surrounding areas plus in Kalmykia.
Sir Monier Monier-Williams, KCIE (né Williams; 12 November 1819 – 11 April 1899) was the second Boden Professor of Sanskrit at Oxford University, England.
Nature worship is any of a variety of religious, spiritual and devotional practices that focus on the worship of the nature spirits considered to be behind the natural phenomena visible throughout nature.
New Delhi is an urban district of Delhi which serves as the capital of India and seat of all three branches of Government of India.
Nirad Chandra Chaudhuri (23 November 1897 – 1 August 1999) was an Indian Bengali−English writer and man of letters.
The Oriental Institute (commonly referred to as the O.I.) of the University of Oxford, England, is home to the university's Faculty of Oriental Studies.
Oriental studies is the academic field of study that embraces Near Eastern and Far Eastern societies and cultures, languages, peoples, history and archaeology; in recent years the subject has often been turned into the newer terms of Asian studies and Middle Eastern studies.
Oxford is a city in the South East region of England and the county town of Oxfordshire.
Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.
The Pour le Mérite (French, literally "For Merit") is an order of merit (Verdienstorden) established in 1740 by King Frederick II of Prussia.
The Presbytery of Glasgow one of the 46 Presbyteries of the Church of Scotland.
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany, (Leopold George Duncan Albert; 7 April 185328 March 1884) was the eighth child and youngest son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert.
Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, usually known simply as the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom.
In the philosophy of science, there are several definitions of protoscience.
Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which often results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity.
Raja Ram Mohan Roy (c. 1774 -- 27 September 1833) was a founder of the Brahma Sabha the precursor of the Brahmo Samaj, a socio-religious reform movement in India.
Ramakrishna Paramahansa; 18 February 1836 – 16 August 1886),http://belurmath.org/kids_section/birth-of-sri-ramakrishna/ born Gadadhar Chatterjee or Gadadhar Chattopadhyay, was an Indian mystic and yogi during the 19th century. Ramakrishna was given to spiritual ecstacies from a young age, and was influenced by several religious traditions, including devotion toward the goddess Kali, Tantra, Vaishnava bhakti, and Advaita Vedanta. Reverence and admiration for him amongst Bengali elites led to the formation of the Ramakrishna Mission by his chief disciple Swami Vivekananda. His devotees look upon him as an incarnation or Avatara of the formless Supreme Brahman while some devotees see him as an avatara of Vishnu.
The Review of Reviews was a noted family of monthly journals founded in 1890-1893 by British reform journalist William Thomas Stead (1849–1912).
The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद, from "praise" and "knowledge") is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns along with associated commentaries on liturgy, ritual and mystical exegesis.
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
The Sacred Books of the East is a monumental 50-volume set of English translations of Asian religious writings, edited by Max Müller and published by the Oxford University Press between 1879 and 1910.
The Sahitya Akademi, India's National Academy of Letters, is an organisation dedicated to the promotion of literature in the languages of India.
The Samoyedic or Samoyed languages are spoken on both sides of the Ural mountains, in northernmost Eurasia, by approximately 25,000 people altogether.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
The Secretary of State for India or India Secretary was the British Cabinet minister and the political head of the India Office responsible for the governance of the British Raj (India), Aden, and Burma.
In many religious, philosophical, and mythological traditions, there is a belief in the incorporeal essence of a living being called the soul. Soul or psyche (Greek: "psychē", of "psychein", "to breathe") are the mental abilities of a living being: reason, character, feeling, consciousness, memory, perception, thinking, etc.
The Metropolitan Cathedral Church of Saint Andrew or Glasgow Metropolitan Cathedral is a Roman Catholic Cathedral in the city centre of Glasgow, Scotland.
Stephen G. Alter is professor of History at Gordon College, Wenham.
The supernatural (Medieval Latin: supernātūrālis: supra "above" + naturalis "natural", first used: 1520–1530 AD) is that which exists (or is claimed to exist), yet cannot be explained by laws of nature.
Swami Vivekananda (12 January 1863 – 4 July 1902), born Narendranath Datta, was an Indian Hindu monk, a chief disciple of the 19th-century Indian mystic Ramakrishna.
The Taylor Institution (commonly known as the Taylorian) is the Oxford University library dedicated to the study of the European Languages.
The Journal of Religion is an academic journal published by the University of Chicago Press founded in 1882 as The American Journal of Theology.
Thomas Gaisford (22 December 1779 – 2 June 1855) was an English classical scholar and clergyman.
Transcendental idealism is a doctrine founded by German philosopher Immanuel Kant in the 18th century.
The Tungusic languages (also known as Manchu-Tungus, Tungus) form a language family spoken in Eastern Siberia and northeast China by Tungusic peoples.
Turanian is an obsolete language-family proposal subsuming most of the languages of Eurasia not included in Indo-European, Semitic and Chinese.
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).
The University of Glasgow (Oilthigh Ghlaschu; Universitas Glasguensis; abbreviated as Glas. in post-nominals) is the fourth-oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's four ancient universities.
The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
The Upanishads (उपनिषद्), a part of the Vedas, are ancient Sanskrit texts that contain some of the central philosophical concepts and ideas of Hinduism, some of which are shared with religious traditions like Buddhism and Jainism.
Vedanta (Sanskrit: वेदान्त, IAST) or Uttara Mīmāṃsā is one of the six orthodox (''āstika'') schools of Hindu philosophy.
The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.
Wilhelm Max Müller (15 May 1862 – July 1919) was an American orientalist.
Johann Ludwig Wilhelm Müller (7 October 1794 – 30 September 1827) was a German lyric poet, most well known as the author of Die schöne Müllerin and Winterreise, the famous Franz Schubert song cycles.
William Dwight Whitney (February 9, 1827 – June 7, 1894) was an American linguist, philologist, and lexicographer known for his work on Sanskrit grammar and Vedic philology as well as his influential view of language as a social institution.
Williams and Norgate were publishers and book importers in London and Edinburgh.
Windsor Castle is a royal residence at Windsor in the English county of Berkshire.
Winterreise (Winter Journey) is a song cycle for voice and piano by Franz Schubert (D. 911, published as Op. 89 in 1828), a setting of 24 poems by Wilhelm Müller.
Zerbst (Serbišćo in Sorbian) is a town in the district of Anhalt-Bitterfeld, in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
Zeus (Ζεύς, Zeús) is the sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who rules as king of the gods of Mount Olympus.
F. Max Mueller, F. Max Muller, F. Max Müller, F. Max-Mueller, F. Max-Muller, F. Max-Müller, FM Muller, Frederick Maximillian Muller, Friedrich M. Mueller, Friedrich Max Mueller, Friedrich Max Muller, Friedrich Max Müller, Friedrich Max-Mueller, Friedrich Max-Muller, Friedrich Max-Müller, Friedrich Maximilian Mueller, Friedrich Maximilian Muller, Friedrich Maximilian Müller, Friedrich Maximillian Müller, Max Mueller, Max Muller.