278 relations: ABC-CLIO, Academia de Lenguas Mayas de Guatemala, Achi language, Adjective, Adverb, Affricate consonant, Agglutinative language, Aguacatán, Akatek language, Alfredo Barrera Vásquez, Alta Verapaz Department, Alveolar consonant, Amate, American Antiquity, Americas, Amerind languages, Annals of the Cakchiquels, Anthropologist, Antipassive voice, Applicative voice, Awakatek language, Back vowel, Baja Verapaz Department, Belize, Benefactive case, Bilabial consonant, Bilingual Review Press, Cambridge University Press, Campeche, Canada, Cariban languages, Cascajal Block, Caste War of Yucatán, Cauque Mayan language, Central America, Central vowel, Ch'olan languages, Ch’ol language, Ch’olti’ language, Ch’orti’ language, Chiapas, Chiapas highlands, Chichicastenango, Chicomuceltec language, Chilam Balam, Chontal Maya language, Christianity, Chuj language, Cigar, Classic Maya language, ..., Classical K'iche' language, Classifier (linguistics), Close vowel, Close-mid vowel, Comparative method, Conquistador, Cuatrillo, Cubulco, Current Anthropology, Dialect, Diego de Landa, Dover Publications, Ejective consonant, El Salvador, Endangered language, English language, Ergative–absolutive language, Ethnic group, Fricative consonant, Front vowel, Genetic relationship (linguistics), Glottal consonant, Glyph, Grammar, Grammatical aspect, Grammatical mood, Grammatical number, Grammatical person, Grammatical tense, Grapheme, Guatemala, Guatemala City, Guatemala–Mexico border, Guatemalan Civil War, Guatemalan Highlands, Gulf Coast of Mexico, Historical linguistics, Hokan languages, Honduras, Huastec language, Huastecan languages, Huave language, Huehuetenango, Humberto Ak'ab'al, Huracan, Implosive consonant, Inalienable possession, Indigenous languages of the Americas, Instituto Nacional de Lenguas Indígenas, International Journal of American Linguistics, Itza’ language, Ixil Community, Ixil language, Izabal Department, Jacaltenango, Jakaltek language, Joseph Greenberg, K'iche' kingdom of Q'umarkaj, K'iche' language, K'iche' people, Kaqchikel language, Karl Sapper, La Democracia, Huehuetenango, La Trinitaria, Chiapas, Lacandon Jungle, Lacandon language, Lake Atitlán, Language family, Language isolate, Languages of Mexico, Latin script, Lenca people, Lencan languages, Linguistic typology, Linguistics, Liquid consonant, List of Maya sites, Loanword, Logogram, Luis Enrique Sam Colop, Lyle Campbell, Macro-Mayan languages, Mam language, Mamean languages, Mapuche language, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Maya civilization, Maya codices, Maya peoples, Maya script, Mayan Sign Language, Mayapan, Mediopassive voice, Mesoamerica, Mesoamerican chronology, Mesoamerican language area, Mesoamerican languages, Mesoamerican literature, Mesoamerican writing systems, Mexico, Mixe–Zoque languages, Mocho’ language, Monolingualism, Mopan language, Morphological derivation, Morphology (linguistics), Morphosyntactic alignment, Municipalities of Guatemala, Municipalities of Mexico, Nasal consonant, National Institute of Statistics and Geography, Nationalism, Nentón, Nojpetén, Noun, Object (grammar), Odense University, Olmecs, Open vowel, Otomi language, Oxford University Press, Paganism, Palatal consonant, Part of speech, PDF, Penutian languages, Petén Basin, Petén Department, Phoneme, Phonetics, Polysynthetic language, Popol Vuh, Poqomam language, Poqomchi' language, Pre-Columbian era, Predicate (grammar), Preposition and postposition, Prestige (sociolinguistics), Proto-language, Proto-Mayan language, Purépecha language, Purulhá, Q'anjobalan languages, Q'eqchi' language, Q'umarkaj, Q’anjob’al language, Quetzaltenango, Quiché Department, Quichean languages, Quintana Roo, Rabinal, Rabinal Achí, Racism, Relación de las cosas de Yucatán, Relational noun, Religious conversion, Robert Wauchope (archaeologist), Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Yucatán, Root (linguistics), Sakapultek language, San Antonio Huista, San Cristóbal Verapaz, San Luis Potosí, San Marcos Department, San Miguel Acatán, San Rafael La Independencia, Santa Ana Huista, Santa Cruz del Quiché, Santa Cruz Verapaz, Semivowel, Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, Sipacapa, Sipakapa language, Songs of Dzitbalche, Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, Spanish conquest of Yucatán, Spanish language, Spanish orthography, Sprachbund, Stephen D. Houston, Stop consonant, Subject (grammar), Subject–verb–object, Syllabary, Syllable, Taíno language, Tabasco, Tactic, Guatemala, Tamahú, Título de Totonicapán, Tektitek language, Tequistlatecan languages, Terrence Kaufman, Thames & Hudson, Tojolab'al language, Totonacan languages, Transitive verb, Tresillo, Tropical cyclone, Tucurú, Tuscarawas County, Ohio, Tz’utujil language, Tzeltal, Tzeltal language, Tzotzil language, United States, University of Minnesota Press, University of Texas Press, Uru–Chipaya languages, Uspantán, Uspantek language, Uvular consonant, Velar consonant, Veracruz, Verb–object–subject, Verb–subject–object, Voice (grammar), Vowel length, William Morrow and Company, Writing system, Xinca people, Xincan languages, Yucatán, Yucatán Peninsula, Yucatec Maya language, Yucatecan languages, Zapotec civilization, Zoque languages. Expand index (228 more) » « Shrink index
ABC-CLIO, LLC is a publishing company for academic reference works and periodicals primarily on topics such as history and social sciences for educational and public library settings.
The Academia de Lenguas Mayas de Guatemala, or ALMG (may be translated into English as Guatemalan Academy of Mayan Languages) is a Guatemalan organisation that regulates the use of the 22 Mayan languages spoken within the borders of the republic.
Achi (Achí in Spanish) is a Mayan language very closely related to K'iche' (Quiché in the older orthography).
In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.
An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, adjective, another adverb, determiner, noun phrase, clause, or sentence.
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
An agglutinative language is a type of synthetic language with morphology that primarily uses agglutination.
Aguacatán is a municipality in the Guatemalan department of Huehuetenango.
Akatek (Acateco) is a Mayan language spoken by the Akatek people primarily in the Huehuetenango Department, Guatemala in and around the municipalities of Concepción Huista, Nentón, San Miguel Acatán, San Rafael La Independencia and San Sebastián Coatán.
Alfredo Barrera Vázquez (1900—December 28, 1980) was a Mexican anthropologist, linguist, academic and Mayanist scholar.
Alta Verapaz is a department in the north central part of Guatemala.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
Amate (amate from āmatl) is a type of bark paper that has been manufactured in Mexico since the precontact times.
The professional journal American Antiquity is published by the Society for American Archaeology, the largest organization of professional archaeologists of the Americas in the world.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
Amerind is a hypothetical higher-level language family proposed by Joseph Greenberg in 1960 and elaborated by his student Merritt Ruhlen.
The Annals of the Cakchiquels (in Anales de los Cakchiqueles, also known by the alternative Spanish titles, Anales de los Xahil, Memorial de Tecpán-Atitlán or Memorial de Sololá) is a manuscript written in Kaqchikel by Francisco Hernández Arana Xajilá in 1571, and completed by his grandson, Francisco Rojas, in 1604.
An anthropologist is a person engaged in the practice of anthropology.
The antipassive voice (abbreviated or) is a type of grammatical voice that either does not include the object or includes the object in an oblique case.
The applicative voice (abbreviated or) is a grammatical voice that promotes an oblique argument of a verb to the (core) object argument, and indicates the oblique role within the meaning of the verb.
Awakatek is a Mayan language spoken in Guatemala, primarily in Huehuetenango and around Aguacatán.
A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.
Baja Verapaz is a department in Guatemala.
Belize, formerly British Honduras, is an independent Commonwealth realm on the eastern coast of Central America.
The benefactive case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used where English would use "for", "for the benefit of", or "intended for", e.g. "She opened the door for Tom" or "This book is for Bob".
In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips.
Bilingual Review Press is an American publishing house specialising in the publication of scholarly and literary works by Hispanic and Latino American authors and researchers.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Campeche, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Campeche (Estado Libre y Soberano de Campeche), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Cariban languages are an indigenous language family of South America.
The Cascajal Block is a tablet-sized writing slab in Mexico, made of serpentinite, which has been dated to the early first millennium BCE, incised with hitherto unknown characters that may represent the earliest writing system in the New World.
The Caste War of Yucatán (1847–1901) began with the revolt of native Maya people of Yucatán, Mexico against the European-descended population, called Yucatecos.
Cauque Mayan is a mixed language, a K’iche’ (Quiché) base relexified by Kaqchikel (Cakchiquel).
Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.
A central vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
The Ch’olan Cholan–Tzeltalan languages are a branch of the Mayan family of Mexico.
The Ch'ol (Chol) language is a member of the western branch of the Mayan language family used by the Ch'ol people in the Mexican state of Chiapas.
The Ch'olti' language is an extinct Mayan language which was spoken by the Manche Ch'ol people of eastern Guatemala and southern Belize.
The Ch'orti' language (sometimes also Chorti) is a Mayan language, spoken by the indigenous Maya people who are also known as the Ch'orti' or Ch'orti' Maya.
Chiapas, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Chiapas (Estado Libre y Soberano de Chiapas), is one of the 31 states that with Mexico City make up the 32 federal entities of Mexico.
The Chiapas Highlands or the Central Highlands of Chiapas (Spanish: Los Altos), is a geographic, sociocultural, historic, and administrative region located in Chiapas, the southernmost state of Mexico.
Chichicastenango, also known as Santo Tomás Chichicastenango, is a town in the El Quiché department of Guatemala, and is the municipal seat for the surrounding municipality of the same name.
Chicomuceltec (also Chikomuselteko or Chicomucelteco; archaically, Cotoque) is a Mayan language formerly spoken in the region defined by the municipios of Chicomuselo, Mazapa de Madero, and Amatenango de la Frontera in Chiapas, Mexico, as well as some nearby areas of Guatemala.
The Books of Chilam Balam are handwritten, chiefly 17th and 18th-centuries Maya miscellanies, named after the small Yucatec towns where they were originally kept, and preserving important traditional knowledge in which indigenous Maya and early Spanish traditions have coalesced.
Chontal Maya, also known as Yoko ochoco and Acalan, is a Maya language of the Cholan family spoken by the Chontal Maya people of the Mexican state of Tabasco.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Chuj is a Mayan language spoken by around 40,000 members of the Chuj people in Guatemala and around 3,000 members in Mexico.
A cigar is a rolled bundle of dried and fermented tobacco leaves made to be smoked.
Classic Maya is the oldest historically attested member of the Mayan language family.
Classical K'iche' was an ancestral form of the modern-day K'iche' language (Quiché in the older Spanish-based orthography), which was spoken in the highland regions of Guatemala around the time of the 16th century Spanish conquest of Guatemala.
A classifier (abbreviated or), sometimes called a measure word or counter word, is a word or affix that is used to accompany nouns and can be considered to "classify" a noun depending on the type of its referent.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
A close-mid vowel (also mid-close vowel, high-mid vowel, mid-high vowel or half-close vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
In linguistics, the comparative method is a technique for studying the development of languages by performing a feature-by-feature comparison of two or more languages with common descent from a shared ancestor, in order to extrapolate back to infer the properties of that ancestor.
Conquistadors (from Spanish or Portuguese conquistadores "conquerors") is a term used to refer to the soldiers and explorers of the Spanish Empire or the Portuguese Empire in a general sense.
Cuatrillo (capital: Ꜭ, small: ꜭ) (Spanish for "little four") is a letter of several colonial Mayan alphabets in the Latin script that is based on the digit 4.
Cubulco is a small town located in the Guatemalan department of Baja Verapaz, at.
Current Anthropology is a peer-reviewed anthropology academic journal published by the University of Chicago Press and sponsored by the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research.
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
Diego de Landa Calderón, O.F.M. (12 November, 1524 – 29 April, 1579) was a Spanish bishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Yucatán.
Dover Publications, also known as Dover Books, is an American book publisher founded in 1941 by Hayward Cirker and his wife, Blanche.
In phonetics, ejective consonants are usually voiceless consonants that are pronounced with a glottalic egressive airstream.
El Salvador, officially the Republic of El Salvador (República de El Salvador, literally "Republic of The Savior"), is the smallest and the most densely populated country in Central America.
An endangered language, or moribund language, is a language that is at risk of falling out of use as its speakers die out or shift to speaking another language.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Ergative–absolutive languages, or ergative languages are languages that share a certain distinctive pattern relating to the subjects (technically, arguments) of verbs.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
In linguistics, genetic relationship is the usual term for the relationship which exists between languages that are members of the same language family.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
In typography, a glyph is an elemental symbol within an agreed set of symbols, intended to represent a readable character for the purposes of writing.
In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.
Aspect is a grammatical category that expresses how an action, event, or state, denoted by a verb, extends over time.
In linguistics, grammatical mood (also mode) is a grammatical feature of verbs, used for signaling modality.
In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").
Grammatical person, in linguistics, is the grammatical distinction between deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the distinction is between the speaker (first person), the addressee (second person), and others (third person).
In grammar, tense is a category that expresses time reference with reference to the moment of speaking.
In linguistics, a grapheme is the smallest unit of a writing system of any given language.
Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala (República de Guatemala), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, Honduras to the east and El Salvador to the southeast.
Guatemala City (Ciudad de Guatemala), locally known as Guatemala or Guate, officially Nueva Guatemala de la Asunción (New Guatemala of the Assumption), is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Guatemala, and the most populous in Central America.
The Guatemala–Mexico border is the international border between Guatemala and Mexico.
The Guatemalan Civil War ran from 1960 to 1996.
The Guatemalan Highlands is an upland region in southern Guatemala, lying between the Sierra Madre de Chiapas to the south and the Petén lowlands to the north.
The Gulf Coast of Mexico or East Coast of Mexico stretches along the Gulf of Mexico from the border between Mexico and the United States at Matamoros, Tamaulipas all the way to the tip of the Yucatán Peninsula at Cancún.
Historical linguistics, also called diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change over time.
The Hokan language family is a hypothetical grouping of a dozen small language families that were spoken mainly in California, Arizona and Baja California.
Honduras, officially the Republic of Honduras (República de Honduras), is a republic in Central America.
The Wasteko (Huasteco) language is a Mayan language of Mexico, spoken by the Huastecos living in rural areas of San Luis Potosí and northern Veracruz.
The Huastecan languages of Mexico are the most divergent branch of the Mayan language family.
Huave (also spelled Wabe) is a language isolate spoken by the indigenous Huave people on the Pacific coast of the Mexican state of Oaxaca.
Huehuetenango is a city and a municipality in the highlands of western Guatemala.
Humberto Ak'ab'al also Ak'abal or Akabal (born 1952 Momostenango, Totonicapán department) is a K'iche' Maya poet from Guatemala.
Huracan (Huracán; Hunraqan, "one legged"), often referred to as U K'ux Kaj, the "Heart of Sky", is a K'iche' Maya god of wind, storm, fire and one of the creator deities who participated in all three attempts at creating humanity.
Implosive consonants are a group of stop consonants (and possibly also some affricates) with a mixed glottalic ingressive and pulmonic egressive airstream mechanism.
In linguistics, inalienable possession (abbreviated) is a type of possession in which a noun is obligatorily possessed by its possessor.
Indigenous languages of the Americas are spoken by indigenous peoples from Alaska and Greenland to the southern tip of South America, encompassing the land masses that constitute the Americas.
The Instituto Nacional de Lenguas Indígenas (National Indigenous Languages Institute, better known by its acronym INALI) is a Mexican federal public agency, created 13 March 2003 by the enactment of the Ley General de Derechos Lingüísticos de los Pueblos Indígenas (General Law of Indigenous Peoples' Linguistic Rights) by the administration of President Vicente Fox Quesada.
The International Journal of American Linguistics (IJAL) is an academic journal devoted to the study of the indigenous languages of the Americas.
Itza' (also known as Itza or Itzaj) is a critically endangered Mayan language spoken by the Itza people near Lake Peten Itza in north-central Guatemala.
The Ixil Community is a name given to three neighbouring towns in the Quiché department in the western highlands of Guatemala.
Ixil (Ixhil) is one of the 21 different Mayan languages spoken in Guatemala.
Izabal is one of the 22 departments of Guatemala.
Jacaltenango is a town situated in the Western Highlands of Guatemala.
The Jakaltek (Jacaltec) language, also known as Jakalteko (Jacalteco) or Popti’, is a Mayan language of Guatemala spoken by 90,000 Jakaltek people in the department of Huehuetenango, and some 500 the adjoining part of Chiapas in southern Mexico.
Joseph Harold Greenberg (May 28, 1915 – May 7, 2001) was an American linguist, known mainly for his work concerning linguistic typology and the genetic classification of languages.
The K'iche' kingdom of Q'umarkaj was a state in the highlands of modern-day Guatemala which was founded by the K'iche' (Quiché) Maya in the thirteenth century, and which expanded through the fifteenth century until it was conquered by Spanish and Nahua forces led by Pedro de Alvarado in 1524.
K’iche’ (also Qatzijob'al "our language" to its speakers), or Quiché, is a Maya language of Guatemala, spoken by the K'iche' people of the central highlands.
K'iche' (pronounced; previous Spanish spelling: Quiché) are indigenous peoples of the Americas and are one of the Maya peoples.
The Kaqchikel, or Kaqchiquel, language (in modern orthography; formerly also spelled Cakchiquel or Cakchiquiel) is an indigenous Mesoamerican language and a member of the Quichean–Mamean branch of the Mayan languages family.
Karl Theodor Sapper (6 February 1866 – 29 March 1945) was a German traveller, explorer, antiquarian and linguist, who is known for his research into the natural history, cultures and languages of Central America around the turn of the 20th century.
La Democracia is a municipality in the Guatemalan department of Huehuetenango.
La Trinitaria is a town and one of the 119 Municipalities of Chiapas, in southern Mexico.
The Lacandon Jungle (Spanish: Selva Lacandona) is an area of rainforest which stretches from Chiapas, Mexico, into Guatemala and into the southern part of the Yucatán Peninsula.
Lacandon (Jach-t’aan in the revised orthography of the Instituto Nacional de Lenguas Indigenas) is a Mayan language spoken by all of the 1,000 Lacandon people in the state of Chiapas in Mexico.
Lake Atitlán (Lago de Atitlán) is a lake in the Guatemalan Highlands of the Sierra Madre mountain range.
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family.
A language isolate, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or "genetic") relationship with other languages, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common with any other language.
Many different languages are spoken in Mexico.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
The Lenca are an indigenous people of southwestern Honduras and eastern El Salvador in Central America.
Lencan is a small family of nearly extinct indigenous Mesoamerican languages.
Linguistic typology is a field of linguistics that studies and classifies languages according to their structural and functional features.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
In phonetics, liquids or liquid consonants are a class of consonants consisting of lateral consonants like 'l' together with rhotics like 'r'.
This list of Maya sites is an alphabetical listing of a number of significant archaeological sites associated with the Maya civilization of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
In written language, a logogram or logograph is a written character that represents a word or phrase.
Luis Enrique Sam Colop or Sam-Colop (born in Cantel, 1955, died July 15, 2011) was a Guatemalan/Native American linguist, lawyer, poet, writer, newspaper columnist, promoter of the K'iche' language, and social activist.
Lyle Richard Campbell (born October 22, 1942) is an American scholar and linguist known for his studies of indigenous American languages, especially those of Central America, and on historical linguistics in general.
Macro-Mayan is a proposal linking the clearly established Mayan family with neighboring families that show similarities to Mayan.
Mam is a Mayan language with half a million speakers in the Guatemalan departments of Quetzaltenango, Huehuetenango, San Marcos, and Retalhuleu, and 10,000 in the Mexican state of Chiapas.
The (Greater) Mamean family is a branch of the Eastern Mayan language group.
Mapuche or Mapudungun (from mapu 'land' and dungun 'speak, speech') is a language isolate spoken in south-central Chile and west central Argentina by the Mapuche people (from mapu 'land' and che 'people').
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
The Maya civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, and noted for its hieroglyphic script—the only known fully developed writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system.
Maya codices (singular codex) are folding books written by the pre-Columbian Maya civilization in Maya hieroglyphic script on Mesoamerican bark cloth.
The Maya peoples are a large group of Indigenous peoples of Mesoamerica.
Maya script, also known as Maya glyphs, was the writing system of the Maya civilization of Mesoamerica and is the only Mesoamerican writing system that has been substantially deciphered.
Mayan Sign Language is a sign language used in Mexico and Guatemala by Mayan communities with unusually high numbers of deaf inhabitants.
Mayapan (Màayapáan in Modern Maya), (in Spanish Mayapán) is a Pre-Columbian Maya site a couple of kilometers south of the town of Telchaquillo in Municipality of Tecoh, approximately 40 km south-east of Mérida and 100 km west of Chichen Itza; in the state of Yucatán, Mexico.
The mediopassive voice is a grammatical voice that subsumes the meanings of both the middle voice and the passive voice.
Mesoamerica is an important historical region and cultural area in the Americas, extending from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, and within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.
Mesoamerican chronology divides the history of prehispanic Mesoamerica into several periods: the Paleo-Indian (first human habitation–3500 BCE), the Archaic (before 2600 BCE), the Preclassic or Formative (2000 BCE–250 CE), the Classic (250–900CE), and the Postclassic (900–1521 CE), Colonial (1521–1821), and Postcolonial (1821–present).
The Mesoamerican language area is a sprachbund containing many of the languages natively spoken in the cultural area of Mesoamerica.
Mesoamerican languages are the languages indigenous to the Mesoamerican cultural area, which covers southern Mexico, all of Guatemala and Belize and parts of Honduras and El Salvador and Nicaragua.
The traditions of indigenous Mesoamerican literature extend back to the oldest-attested forms of early writing in the Mesoamerican region, which date from around the mid-1st millennium BCE.
Mesoamerica, along with Mesopotamia and China, is among the three known places in the world where writing has developed independently.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
The Mixe–Zoque languages are a language family whose living members are spoken in and around the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Mexico.
Mocho’ or Motozintleco is a moribund Mayan language spoken by the Motozintleco people of Chiapas, Mexico.
Monoglottism (Greek μόνοσ monos, "alone, solitary", + γλώττα glotta, "tongue, language") or, more commonly, monolingualism or unilingualism, is the condition of being able to speak only a single language, as opposed to multilingualism.
Mopan (or Mopan Maya) is a language that belongs to the Yucatecan branch of the Mayan languages.
Morphological derivation, in linguistics, is the process of forming a new word from an existing word, often by adding a prefix or suffix, such as For example, happiness and unhappy derive from the root word happy.
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.
In linguistics, morphosyntactic alignment is the grammatical relationship between arguments—specifically, between the two arguments (in English, subject and object) of transitive verbs like the dog chased the cat, and the single argument of intransitive verbs like the cat ran away.
The departments of Guatemala are divided into 340 municipalities or municipios.
Municipalities (municipios in Spanish) are the second-level administrative divisions of Mexico, where the first-level administrative division is the state (Spanish: estado).
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
The National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI by its name in Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía) is an autonomous agency of the Mexican Government dedicated to coordinate the National System of Statistical and Geographical Information of the country.
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.
Nentón is a municipality in the Guatemalan department of Huehuetenango.
Nojpetén (also known as Tayasal) was the capital city of the Itza Maya kingdom of Petén Itzá, located on an island in Lake Petén Itzá in the modern department of Petén in northern Guatemala.
A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.
Traditional grammar defines the object in a sentence as the entity that is acted upon by the subject.
Odense University was a university in Odense, Denmark.
The Olmecs were the earliest known major civilization in Mexico following a progressive development in Soconusco.
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.
Otomi (Spanish: Otomí) is a group of closely related indigenous languages of Mexico, spoken by approximately 240,000 indigenous Otomi people in the central ''altiplano'' region of Mexico.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
In traditional grammar, a part of speech (abbreviated form: PoS or POS) is a category of words (or, more generally, of lexical items) which have similar grammatical properties.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
Penutian is a proposed grouping of language families that includes many Native American languages of western North America, predominantly spoken at one time in Washington, Oregon, and California.
The Petén Basin is a geographical subregion of Mesoamerica, primarily located in northern Guatemala within the Department of El Petén, and into Campeche state in southeastern Mexico.
Petén is a department of the Republic of Guatemala.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
Phonetics (pronounced) is the branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.
In linguistic typology, polysynthetic languages are highly synthetic languages, i.e. languages in which words are composed of many morphemes (word parts that have independent meaning but may or may not be able to stand alone).
Popol Vuh (also Popol Wuj) is a cultural narrative that recounts the mythology and history of the K'iche' people who inhabit the Guatemalan Highlands northwest of present-day Guatemala City.
Poqomam is a Mayan language, closely related to Poqomchi’.
Poqomchi’ (Pokomchi, Poqomchii') is a Mayan language spoken by the Poqomchi’ Maya of Guatemala, and is very closely related to Poqomam.
The Pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period.
There are two competing notions of the predicate in theories of grammar.
Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).
Prestige is the level of regard normally accorded a specific language or dialect within a speech community, relative to other languages or dialects.
A proto-language, in the tree model of historical linguistics, is a language, usually hypothetical or reconstructed, and usually unattested, from which a number of attested known languages are believed to have descended by evolution, forming a language family.
Proto-Mayan is the hypothetical common ancestor of the 30 living Mayan languages, as well as the Classic Maya language documented in the Maya inscriptions.
Purépecha P'urhépecha (Phorhé, Phorhépecha), often called Tarascan (Tarasco), is a language isolate or small language family that is spoken by a quarter-million Purépecha in the highlands of Michoacán, Mexico.
Purulhá is a municipality in the Baja Verapaz department of Guatemala.
The Q’anjobalan a.k.a. Kanjobalan–Chujean languages are a branch of the Mayan family of Guatemala.
The Q'eqchi' language, also spelled Kekchi, K'ekchi', or kekchí, is one of the Mayan languages, spoken within Q'eqchi' communities in Guatemala and Belize.
Q'umarkaj, (K'iche') (sometimes rendered as Gumarkaaj, Gumarcaj, Cumarcaj or Kumarcaaj) is an archaeological site in the southwest of the El Quiché department of Guatemala.
Q'anjob'al (also Kanjobal) is a Mayan language spoken primarily in Guatemala and part of Mexico.
Quetzaltenango, also known by its Maya name, Xelajú or Xela, is the second largest city of Guatemala.
Quiché is a department of Guatemala.
The (Greater) Quichean languages are a branch of the Mayan family of Guatemala.
Quintana Roo, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Quintana Roo (Estado Libre y Soberano de Quintana Roo), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, make up the 32 federal entities of Mexico.
Rabinal is a small town located in the Guatemalan department of Baja Verapaz, at.
The Rabinal Achí is a Maya theatrical play written in the K'iche' language and performed annually in Rabinal, Baja Verapaz, Guatemala.
Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which often results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity.
Relación de las cosas de Yucatán was written by Diego de Landa around 1566, shortly after his return from Yucatán to Spain.
Relational nouns or relator nouns are a class of words used in many languages.
Religious conversion is the adoption of a set of beliefs identified with one particular religious denomination to the exclusion of others.
Robert Wauchope (December 10, 1909 – January 20, 1979) was an American archaeologist and anthropologist, whose academic research specialized in the prehistory and archaeology of Latin America, Mesoamerica, and the Southwestern United States.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Yucatán (Archidioecesis Yucatanensis) is the diocese of the Catholic Church based in Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico; the Campeche and the Tabasco are its suffragans.
A root (or root word) is a word that does not have a prefix in front of the word or a suffix at the end of the word.
Sakapultek or Sacapulteco is a Mayan language very closely related to K'iche' (Quiché).
San Antonio Huista is a municipality in the Guatemalan department of Huehuetenango.
San Cristóbal Verapaz is a municipality in the Guatemalan department of Alta Verapaz.
San Luis Potosí, officially the Free and Sovereign State of San Luis Potosí (Estado Libre y Soberano de San Luis Potosí), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
San Marcos is a department in northwestern Guatemala, on the Pacific Ocean and along the western Guatemala-Mexico border.
San Miguel Acatán is a municipality in the Guatemalan department of Huehuetenango.
San Rafael La Independencia is a municipality in the Guatemalan department of Huehuetenango.
Santa Ana Huista is a municipality in the Guatemalan department of Huehuetenango.
Santa Cruz del Quiché is a city in Guatemala.
Santa Cruz Verapaz is a municipality in the Guatemalan department of Alta Verapaz.
In phonetics and phonology, a semivowel or glide, also known as a non-syllabic vocoid, is a sound that is phonetically similar to a vowel sound but functions as the syllable boundary, rather than as the nucleus of a syllable.
The Sierra de los Cuchumatanes is the highest non-volcanic mountain range in Central America.
Sipacapa is a municipality in the San Marcos department, situated in the Western highlands of Guatemala.
Sipakapense is a Mayan language, closely related to K'iche' spoken natively within indigenous Sipakapense communities in Western Guatemala.
The Songs of Dzitbalché (los cantares de Dzitbalché), originally titled The Book of the Dances of the Ancients, is the source of almost all the ancient Mayan lyric poems that have survived, and is closely connected to the Books of Chilam Balam, sacred books of the colonial Yucatec Maya.
The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, or the Spanish–Aztec War (1519–21), was the conquest of the Aztec Empire by the Spanish Empire within the context of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
The Spanish conquest of Yucatán was the campaign undertaken by the Spanish conquistadores against the Late Postclassic Maya states and polities in the Yucatán Peninsula, a vast limestone plain covering south-eastern Mexico, northern Guatemala, and all of Belize.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Spanish orthography is the orthography used in the Spanish language.
A sprachbund ("federation of languages") – also known as a linguistic area, area of linguistic convergence, diffusion area or language crossroads – is a group of languages that have common features resulting from geographical proximity and language contact.
Stephen Douglas Houston (born November 11, 1958) is an American anthropologist, archaeologist, epigrapher and Mayanist scholar, who is particularly renowned for his research into the pre-Columbian Maya civilization of Mesoamerica.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
The subject in a simple English sentence such as John runs, John is a teacher, or John was hit by a car is the person or thing about whom the statement is made, in this case 'John'.
In linguistic typology, subject–verb–object (SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third.
A syllabary is a set of written symbols that represent the syllables or (more frequently) moras which make up words.
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
Taíno is an extinct and poorly-attested Arawakan language that was spoken by the Taíno people of the Caribbean.
Tabasco, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Tabasco (Estado Libre y Soberano de Tabasco), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
Tactic is a municipality in the Guatemalan department of Alta Verapaz.
Tamahú is a municipality in the Guatemalan department of Alta Verapaz.
The Título de Totonicapán (Spanish for "Title of Totonicapán"), sometimes referred to as the Título de los Señores de Totonicapán ("Title of the Lords of Totonicapán") is the name given to a K'iche' language document written around 1554 in Guatemala.
--> Classified under the Mamean branch family of languages, Tektitek (also known as Tectiteco, Teco, Teko, K'onti'l, Qyool, among others) is a Mayan language spoken by the Tektitan people of Huehuetenango, Guatemala.
The Tequistlatecan languages, also called Chontal of Oaxaca, are three close but distinct languages spoken or once spoken by the Chontal people of Oaxaca State, Mexico.
Terrence Kaufman (born 1937) is an American linguist specializing in documentation of unwritten languages, lexicography, Mesoamerican historical linguistics and language contact phenomena.
Thames & Hudson (also Thames and Hudson and sometimes T&H for brevity) is a publisher of illustrated books on art, architecture, design, and visual culture.
Tojolabal is a Mayan language spoken in Chiapas, Mexico.
The Totonacan languages (also known as Totonac–Tepehua languages) are a family of closely related languages spoken by approximately 290,000 Totonac (approx. 280,000) and Tepehua (approx. 10,000) people in the states of Veracruz, Puebla, and Hidalgo in Mexico.
A transitive verb is a verb that requires one or more objects.
Tresillo (capital: Ꜫ, small: ꜫ; Spanish for "little three") is a letter of several colonial Mayan alphabets in the Latin script that is based on the digit 3.
A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain.
Tucurú is a municipality in the Guatemalan department of Alta Verapaz.
Tuscarawas County is a county located in the eastern part of the U.S. state of Ohio.
Tz'utujil is a Mayan language spoken by the Tz'utujil people in the region to the south of Lake Atitlán in Guatemala.
The Tzeltal are a Maya people of Mexico, who chiefly reside in the highlands of Chiapas.
Tzeltal or Ts'eltal is a Mayan language spoken in the Mexican state of Chiapas, mostly in the municipalities of Ocosingo, Altamirano, Huixtán, Tenejapa, Yajalón, Chanal, Sitalá, Amatenango del Valle, Socoltenango, Villa las Rosas, Chilón, San Juan Cancun, San Cristóbal de las Casas and Oxchuc.
Tzotzil (Bats'i k'op) is a Maya language spoken by the indigenous Tzotzil Maya people in the Mexican state of Chiapas.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of Minnesota Press is a university press that is part of the University of Minnesota.
The University of Texas Press (or UT Press) is a university press that is part of the University of Texas at Austin.
The Uru–Chipaya family is an indigenous language family of Bolivia.
Uspantán is a municipality in the Guatemalan department of El Quiché.
The Uspanteko (Uspanteco, Uspanteko, Uspantec) is a Mayan language of Guatemala, closely related to K'iche'.
Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
Veracruz, formally Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave,In isolation, Veracruz, de and Llave are pronounced, respectively,, and.
In linguistic typology, a Verb–object–subject or Verb–object–agent language – commonly abbreviated VOS or VOA – is one in which the most-typical sentences arrange their elements in that order which would (in English) equate to something like "Ate oranges Sam.".
In linguistic typology, a verb–subject–object (VSO) language is one in which the most typical sentences arrange their elements in that order, as in Ate Sam oranges (Sam ate oranges).
In grammar, the voice of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc.). When the subject is the agent or doer of the action, the verb is in the active voice.
In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.
William Morrow and Company is an American publishing company founded by William Morrow in 1926.
A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication.
The Xinca, or Xinka, are a non-Mayan indigenous people of Mesoamerica, with communities in the southern portion of Guatemala, near its border with El Salvador, and in the mountainous region to the north.
Xinca (Szinca) is a small extinct family of Mesoamerican languages, formerly regarded as a single language isolate, once spoken by the indigenous Xinca people in southeastern Guatemala, much of El Salvador, and parts of Honduras.
Yucatán, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Yucatán (Estado Libre y Soberano de Yucatán), is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
The Yucatán Peninsula (Península de Yucatán), in southeastern Mexico, separates the Caribbean Sea from the Gulf of Mexico, with the northern coastline on the Yucatán Channel.
Yucatec Maya (endonym: Maya; Yukatek Maya in the revised orthography of the Academia de Lenguas Mayas de Guatemala), called Màaya t'àan (lit. "Maya speech") by its speakers, is a Mayan language spoken in the Yucatán Peninsula and northern Belize.
The Yucatecan languages are a branch of the Mayan family of Mexico, Belize, and Guatemala.
The Zapotec civilization was an indigenous pre-Columbian civilization that flourished in the Valley of Oaxaca in Mesoamerica.
The Zoque languages form a primary branch of the Mixe–Zoquean language family indigenous to southern Mexico.
Colonial Mayan alphabet, Eastern Mayan, Eastern Mayan languages, ISO 639:myn, Maya language, Maya languages, Mayan (language), Mayan Languages, Mayan language, Mayance langages, Parra letter, Parra letters, Western Mayan, Western Mayan languages, Ꜩ, ꜩ.