248 relations: Act of Parliament, Acting (law), Acting President of the United States, Age of Liberty, Akim, Al-Andalus, Albury, Alcalde, Alderman, Algonquin Highlands, Antwerp, Archon, Argentina, Arrondissement, Arthur Wade-Evans, At-large, Austrasia, Autonomy, Bailiff, Belgrade, Borough, Borough status in the United Kingdom, Bremen (state), Brussels, Bucharest, Burgomaster, By-election, Cabildo (council), Cabinet of the Netherlands, Callicrates, Canton of Bern, Canton of Fribourg, Canton of Geneva, Canton of Grisons, Canton of Jura, Canton of Neuchâtel, Canton of Ticino, Canton of Valais, Canton of Vaud, Carolingian dynasty, Ceremonial mace, Charles XI of Sweden, Charlotte, North Carolina, Chief administrative officer, Chief magistrate, Chișinău, Cities of Japan, Citizenship of the European Union, City, City council, ..., City manager, City status in Ireland, City treasurer, College van burgemeester en wethouders, Comune, Copenhagen, Council–manager government, Councillor, Counties of Ireland, Crete, Crown of Castile, Cyfraith Hywel, Deme, Demesne, Denmark, Deputy mayor, Direct election, Directly elected mayors in England and Wales, Districts of Germany, Districts of Pakistan, Dominican Republic, Dysart et al, Ontario, Elections in Nepal, Elections in New Zealand, Elections to the European Parliament, England, European Parliament, Ex officio member, Executive (government), Federal Assembly (Russia), Federal Territories (Malaysia), Finland, France, Franks, French Revolution, George Town, Penang, Gmina, Governing Mayor of Berlin, Government of Malaysia, Governor, Greater Dublin Area, Greece, Guelphs and Ghibellines, Gustav I of Sweden, Haliburton County, Highlands East, Ontario, Iberian Peninsula, Incumbent, India, Indonesia, Instrument of Government, Instrument of Government (1809), Intendant, Ioannis Kapodistrias, Ipoh, Iran, Italian city-states, Italy in the Middle Ages, John, King of England, Justice of the peace, Kazan, Kiev, Kingdom of Burgundy, Kuala Lumpur, Latin, Liability (financial accounting), List of cities and municipalities in the Philippines, List of lord mayors of Copenhagen, List of mayors and provosts in the United Kingdom, List of mayors of Bremen, List of mayors of Hamburg, List of mayors of New York City, List of municipalities of Norway, List of towns in Japan, List of villages in Japan, Lists of mayors by country, Livery collar, Local Autonomy Act, Local councils of Malta, Local Government Act 2000, Local Government Act 2001, Local Government Reform Act 2014, London, Lord mayor, Lord Mayor of Cork, Lord Mayor of Dublin, Magistrate, Magistrates' court (England and Wales), Maintenance (technical), Malacca City, Malaysian general election, 2018, Maltese language, Manitoba, Mayor, Mayoralty in the United States, Mayor–council government, Medieval Latin, Merovingian dynasty, Metropolitan municipalities in Turkey, Mexico, Mexico City, Minden Hills, Minister of Federal Territories (Malaysia), Minister-president, Ministry of Federal Territories (Malaysia), Minneapolis, Monarchy of the Netherlands, Montreal, Moscow, Motion of no confidence, Municipal commissioner, Municipal corporation, Municipal Corporations (Ireland) Act 1840, Municipal Corporations Act 1882, Municipal council (Netherlands), Municipal elections in Canada, Municipalities of Denmark, Municipalities of Switzerland, Municipality, Netherlands, Neustria, New England, Nordisk familjebok, Norman conquest of England, Norway, Novosibirsk, Official, Ontario, Pakistan, Paraguay, Parliament, Philippines, Pippinids, Pirkkala, Podestà, Poland, Portreeve, Portugal, Praefectus urbi, Prefectures of Japan, President of Serbia, President of the Municipal Chamber, President of the United States, Prime minister, Prime Minister of Serbia, Primus inter pares, Prison warden, Privy Council of Sweden, Proposed directly elected mayor for the Dublin metropolitan area, Public space, Qadi, Quebec, Queensland, Recall election, Reconquista, Reeve (England), Referendum, Register office (United Kingdom), Republic of Ireland, Romania, Saint Petersburg, Sarpanch, Saskatchewan, Schultheiß, Scotland, Seat of local government, Sectors of Bucharest, Senate (Netherlands), Serbia, Sevastopol, Sharia, Special wards of Tokyo, Stad (Sweden), States and federal territories of Malaysia, States of Germany, Subahdar, Sweden, Taiwan, Tampere, Tehsil, Tokyo, Town, Town council, Township (Canada), Turkish language, Ukraine, Union councils of Pakistan, United Kingdom, Vice President of the United States, Vogt, Wales, Wales in the Early Middle Ages, Warsaw, Waste collection, Welsh language, Winchester, World Mayor, Worship (style). Expand index (198 more) » « Shrink index
Acts of Parliament, also called primary legislation, are statutes passed by a parliament (legislature).
In law, when someone is said to be acting in a position it can mean one of three things.
The Acting President of the United States is a post that was created after the adoption of the Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution on January 23, 1933, but it was further defined by the Twenty-fifth Amendment on February 10, 1967.
In Swedish and Finnish history, the Age of Liberty (Age of Freedom) (Frihetstiden) is a half-century-long period of parliamentary governance and increasing civil rights, beginning with Charles XII's death in 1718 and ending with Gustav III's self-coup in 1772.
An akim (әкім; аким; аким) is the head of a local government in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.
Albury is a major regional city in New South Wales, Australia, is located on the Hume Highway and the northern side of the Murray River.
Alcalde, or Alcalde ordinario, is the traditional Spanish municipal magistrate, who had both judicial and administrative functions.
An alderman is a member of a municipal assembly or council in many jurisdictions founded upon English law.
Algonquin Highlands is a township located in Haliburton County, Ontario, Canada.
Antwerp (Antwerpen, Anvers) is a city in Belgium, and is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders.
Archon (ἄρχων, árchon, plural: ἄρχοντες, árchontes) is a Greek word that means "ruler", frequently used as the title of a specific public office.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
An arrondissement is any of various administrative divisions of France, Belgium, Haiti, certain other Francophone countries, and the Netherlands.
Arthur Wade Wade-Evans (born Arthur Wade Evans) (31 August 1875 – 4 January 1964) was a Welsh clergyman and historian.
At-large is a designation for members of a governing body who are elected or appointed to represent the whole membership of the body (for example, a city, state or province, nation, club or association), rather than a subset of that membership.
Austrasia was a territory which formed the northeastern section of the Merovingian Kingdom of the Franks during the 6th to 8th centuries.
In development or moral, political, and bioethical philosophy, autonomy is the capacity to make an informed, un-coerced decision.
A bailiff (from Middle English baillif, Old French baillis, bail "custody, charge, office"; cf. bail, based on the adjectival form, baiulivus, of Latin bajulus, carrier, manager) is a manager, overseer or custodian; a legal officer to whom some degree of authority or jurisdiction is given.
Belgrade (Beograd / Београд, meaning "White city",; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Serbia.
A borough is an administrative division in various English-speaking countries.
Borough status in the United Kingdom is granted by royal charter to local government districts in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.
The Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (Freie Hansestadt Bremen) is the smallest and least populous of Germany's 16 states.
Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.
Bucharest (București) is the capital and largest city of Romania, as well as its cultural, industrial, and financial centre.
Burgomaster (alternatively spelled burgermeister, literally master of the town, master of the borough, master of the fortress, or master of the citizens) is the English form of various terms in or derived from Germanic languages for the chief magistrate or chairman of the executive council, usually of a sub-national level of administration such as a city or a similar entity.
By-elections, also spelled bye-elections (known as special elections in the United States, and bypolls in India), are used to fill elected offices that have become vacant between general elections.
A cabildo or ayuntamiento was a Spanish colonial, and early post-colonial, administrative council which governed a municipality.
The cabinet of the Netherlands (Nederlandse kabinet) is the main executive body of the Netherlands.
Callicrates (Καλλικράτης, Kallikratēs) was an ancient Greek architect active in the middle of the fifth century BC.
The canton of Bern (Bern, canton de Berne) is the second largest of the 26 Swiss cantons by both surface area and population.
The canton of Fribourg, also canton of Friburg (canton de Fribourg, Freiburg) is located in western Switzerland.
The Republic and Canton of Geneva (République et canton de Genève; Rèpublica et canton de Geneva; Republik und Kanton Genf; Repubblica e Canton di Ginevra; Republica e chantun Genevra) is the French-speaking westernmost canton or state of Switzerland, surrounded on almost all sides by France.
The canton of (the) Grisons, or canton of Graubünden is the largest and easternmost canton of Switzerland.
The Republic and Canton of the Jura (République et canton du Jura), also known as the canton of Jura or canton Jura, is the newest (founded in 1979) of the 26 Swiss cantons, located in the northwestern part of Switzerland.
The Republic and Canton of Neuchâtel (la République et Canton de Neuchâtel) is a canton of French-speaking western Switzerland.
The canton of Ticino, formally the Republic and Canton of Ticino (Repubblica e Cantone Ticino; Canton Tesin; Kanton Tessin; canton du Tessin, chantun dal Tessin) is the southernmost canton of Switzerland.
The canton of Valais (Kanton Wallis) is one of the 26 cantons of Switzerland, situated in the southwestern part of the country, around the valley of the Rhône from its headwaters to Lake Geneva, separating the Pennine Alps from the Bernese Alps.
The canton of Vaud is the third largest of the Swiss cantons by population and fourth by size.
The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolingus, Carolings or Karlings) was a Frankish noble family founded by Charles Martel with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD.
A ceremonial mace is a highly ornamented staff of metal or wood, carried before a sovereign or other high official in civic ceremonies by a mace-bearer, intended to represent the official's authority.
Charles XI, also Carl (Karl XI; 24 November 1655old style – 5 April 1697old style), was King of Sweden from 1660 until his death in a period of Swedish history known as the Swedish Empire (1611–1718).
Charlotte is the most populous city in the U.S. state of North Carolina.
Chief administrative officers are top-tier executives who supervise the daily operations of an organization and are ultimately responsible for its performance.
Chief magistrate is a public official, executive or judicial, whose office is the highest in its class.
Chișinău, also known as Kishinev (r), is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Moldova.
A is a local administrative unit in Japan.
Citizenship of the European Union (EU) is afforded to qualifying citizens of European Union member states.
A city is a large human settlement.
A city council, town council, town board, or board of aldermen is the legislative body that governs a city, town, municipality, or local government area.
A city manager is an official appointed as the administrative manager of a city, in a council–manager form of city government.
In Ireland, the term ''city'' has somewhat differing meanings in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland.
The City Treasurer is a position of responsibility for a city according to the prevailing laws in that city.
The college van burgemeester en wethouders (abbreviated as college van B&W or simply B&W) is the executive board of a municipality in the Netherlands.
The comune (plural: comuni) is a basic administrative division in Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality.
Copenhagen (København; Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark.
The council–manager government form is one of two predominant forms of local government in the United States and Ireland, the other being the mayor–council government form.
A Councillor is a member of a local government council.
The counties of Ireland (contaetha na hÉireann; Ulster-Scots: coonties o Airlann) are sub-national divisions that have been, and in some cases continue to be, used to geographically demarcate areas of local government.
Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.
The Crown of Castile was a medieval state in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some decades later, the parliaments of the kingdoms of Castile and León upon the accession of the then Castilian king, Ferdinand III, to the vacant Leonese throne. It continued to exist as a separate entity after the personal union in 1469 of the crowns of Castile and Aragon with the marriage of the Catholic Monarchs up to the promulgation of the Nueva Planta decrees by Philip V in 1715. The Indies, Islands and Mainland of the Ocean Sea were also a part of the Crown of Castile when transformed from lordships to kingdoms of the heirs of Castile in 1506, with the Treaty of Villafáfila, and upon the death of Ferdinand the Catholic. The title of "King of Castile" remained in use by the Habsburg rulers during the 16th and 17th centuries. Charles I was King of Aragon, Majorca, Valencia, and Sicily, and Count of Barcelona, Roussillon and Cerdagne, as well as King of Castile and León, 1516–1556. In the early 18th century, Philip of Bourbon won the War of the Spanish Succession and imposed unification policies over the Crown of Aragon, supporters of their enemies. This unified the Crown of Aragon and the Crown of Castile into the kingdom of Spain. Even though the Nueva Planta decrees did not formally abolish the Crown of Castile, the country of (Castile and Aragon) was called "Spain" by both contemporaries and historians. "King of Castile" also remains part of the full title of Felipe VI of Spain, the current King of Spain according to the Spanish constitution of 1978, in the sense of titles, not of states.
Cyfraith Hywel (Laws of Hywel), also known as Welsh law (Leges Walliæ), was the system of law practised in medieval Wales before its final conquest by England.
In Ancient Greece, a deme or demos (δῆμος) was a suburb of Athens or a subdivision of Attica, the region of Greece surrounding Athens.
In the feudal system, the demesne was all the land which was retained by a lord of the manor for his own use and support, under his own management, as distinguished from land sub-enfeoffed by him to others as sub-tenants.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
Deputy mayor is an elective or appointive office of the second-ranking official in many local governments.
Direct election is a system of choosing political officeholders in which the voters directly cast ballots for the person, persons, or political party that they desire to see elected.
Directly elected mayors in England and Wales are local government executive leaders who have been directly elected by the people who live in a local authority area.
In most German states, the primary administrative subdivision is a Landkreis ("rural district"); the exceptions are the states of North Rhine-Westphalia and Schleswig-Holstein, where the term is simply Kreis.
The Districts of Pakistan (اِضلاعِ پاكِستان), are the third-order administrative divisions of Pakistan, below provinces and divisions, but form the first-tier of local government.
The Dominican Republic (República Dominicana) is a sovereign state located in the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region.
The United Townships of Dysart, Dudley, Harcourt, Guilford, Harburn, Bruton, Havelock, Eyre and Clyde, commonly known as the Municipality of Dysart et al, is a municipality in Haliburton County in Central Ontario, Canada.
There are three types of elections in Nepal: elections to the Federal Parliament, elections to the state assemblies and elections to the local government.
New Zealand is a representative democracy.
Elections to the European Parliament take place every five years by universal adult suffrage.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).
An ex officio member is a member of a body (a board, committee, council, etc.) who is part of it by virtue of holding another office.
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
The Federal Assembly (p) is the national legislature of the Russian Federation, according to the Constitution of Russian Federation (1993).
The Federal Territories (Wilayah Persekutuan) in Malaysia comprise three territories: Kuala Lumpur, Putrajaya and Labuan, governed directly by the federal government of Malaysia.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
George Town, the capital city of the Malaysian state of Penang, is located at the northeastern tip of Penang Island.
The gmina (Polish pronunciation, plural gminy) is the principal unit of the administrative division of Poland, similar to a municipality.
The Governing Mayor (Regierender Bürgermeister) of Berlin is the head of government, presiding over the Berlin Senate.
Government of Malaysia officially the Federal Government of Malaysia (Kerajaan Persekutuan Malaysia) based in the federal territories of Kuala Lumpur and the federal executive based in Putrajaya.
A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the executive branch of a non-sovereign or sub-national level of government, ranking under the head of state.
The Greater Dublin Area (GDA; Irish: Mórcheantar Bhaile Átha Cliath), or simply Greater Dublin, is the city of Dublin and its hinterland, with varying definitions as to its extent.
The Guelphs and Ghibellines (guelfi e ghibellini) were factions supporting the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor, respectively, in the Italian city-states of central and northern Italy.
Gustav I, born Gustav Eriksson of the Vasa noble family and later known as Gustav Vasa (12 May 1496 – 29 September 1560), was King of Sweden from 1523 until his death in 1560, previously self-recognised Protector of the Realm (Riksföreståndare) from 1521, during the ongoing Swedish War of Liberation against King Christian II of Denmark, Norway and Sweden.
Haliburton is a county of Ontario, Canada, known as a tourist and cottage area in Central Ontario for its scenery and for its resident artists.
Highlands East is a township located in Haliburton County, Ontario, Canada.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
The incumbent is the current holder of a political office.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
The Instrument of Government was a constitution of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland.
The Instrument of Government (1809 års regeringsform) adopted on 6 June 1809 by the Riksdag of the Estates and King Charles XIII was one of the fundamental laws that made up the constitution of Sweden from 1809 to the end of 1974.
The title of intendant (intendant, Portuguese and intendente) has been used in several countries through history.
Count Ioannis Antonios Kapodistrias (10 or 11 February 1776 – 9 October 1831), sometimes anglicized as John Capodistrias (Κόμης Ιωάννης Αντώνιος Καποδίστριας Komis Ioannis Antonios Kapodistrias; граф Иоанн Каподистрия Graf Ioann Kapodistriya; Giovanni Antonio Capodistria Conte Capo d'Istria), was a Greek statesman who served as the Foreign Minister of the Russian Empire and was one of the most distinguished politicians and diplomats of Europe.
Ipoh is the capital city of the Malaysian state of Perak.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Italian city-states were a political phenomenon of small independent states mostly in the central and northern Italian peninsula between the 9th and the 15th centuries.
The history of the Italian peninsula during the medieval period can be roughly defined as the time between the collapse of the Western Roman Empire and the Italian Renaissance.
John (24 December 1166 – 19 October 1216), also known as John Lackland (Norman French: Johan sanz Terre), was King of England from 1199 until his death in 1216.
A justice of the peace (JP) is a judicial officer, of a lower or puisne court, elected or appointed by means of a commission (letters patent) to keep the peace.
Kazan (p; Казан) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
Kingdom of Burgundy was a name given to various states located in Western Europe during the Middle Ages.
Kuala Lumpur, officially the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur (Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur), or commonly known as KL, is the national capital of Malaysia as well as its largest city in the country.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
In financial accounting, a liability is defined as the future sacrifices of economic benefits that the entity is obliged to make to other entities as a result of past transactions or other past events, the settlement of which may result in the transfer or use of assets, provision of services or other yielding of economic benefits in the future.
The Philippines is administratively divided into 81 provinces (lalawigan).
This is a list of lord mayors of Copenhagen, Denmark (Overborgmester i København) since the first lord mayor was appointed in 1938.
In the United Kingdom, the internal divisions of England, Northern Ireland, Wales and Scotland each have a different system of local government.
The Free Hanseatic City of Bremen, which is one of the states of Germany, is governed by the Senate of the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen.
The following is a chronological list of mayors of Hamburg, a city-state in Germany.
The Mayor of New York City is the chief executive of New York City's government, as stipulated by New York City's charter.
Norway is divided into 18 administrative regions, called counties (fylker in Norwegian, singular: fylke), and 422 municipalities (kommuner/-ar, singular: kommune – cf. communes).
A town (町; chō or machi) is a local administrative unit in Japan.
A is a local administrative unit in Japan.
This is a list of mayors organised by country.
A livery collar or chain of office is a collar or heavy chain, usually of gold, worn as insignia of office or a mark of fealty or other association in Europe from the Middle Ages onwards.
The, passed by the House of Representatives and the House of Peers on March 28, 1947 and promulgated as Law No.
Since June 30, 1993, Malta has been subdivided into 68 localities, governed by local councils, kunsilli lokali, meaning municipalities or borough.
The Local Government Act 2000 (c.22) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that reformed local government in England and Wales.
The Local Government Act, 2001 (No. 37 of 2001) was enacted by the Oireachtas of Ireland on 21 July 2001.
The Local Government Reform Act 2014 is an act of the Oireachtas providing for a major restructuring of local government in the Republic of Ireland with effect from the 2014 local elections.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
The lord mayor is the title of the mayor of a major city in the United Kingdom or Commonwealth realm, with special recognition bestowed by the sovereign.
The Lord Mayor of Cork (Ard-Mhéara Chathair Chorcaí) is the honorific title of the Chairman (Cathaoirleach) of Cork City Council which is the local government body for the city of Cork in Ireland.
The Lord Mayor of Dublin (Ardmhéara Bhaile Átha Cliath) is the honorific title of the chairman (Cathaoirleach) of Dublin City Council which is the local government body for the city of Dublin, the capital of Ireland.
The term magistrate is used in a variety of systems of governments and laws to refer to a civilian officer who administers the law.
In England and Wales, a magistrates' court is a lower court which holds trials for summary offences and preliminary hearings for more serious ones.
The technical meaning of maintenance involves operational and functional checks, servicing, repairing or replacing of necessary devices, equipment, machinery, building infrastructure, and supporting utilities in industrial, business, governmental, and residential installations.
Malacca City (Malay: Bandaraya Melaka, Jawi:,, Tamil: மலாக்கா மாநகரம்), is the capital city of the Malaysian state of Malacca.
The 2018 Malaysian general election (formally the 14th Malaysian general election) was held on 9 May 2018 to elect members to the Dewan Rakyat of the 14th Parliament of Malaysia.
Maltese (Malti) is the national language of Malta and a co-official language of the country alongside English, while also serving as an official language of the European Union, the only Semitic language so distinguished.
Manitoba is a province at the longitudinal centre of Canada.
In many countries, a mayor (from the Latin maior, meaning "bigger") is the highest-ranking official in a municipal government such as that of a city or a town.
In the United States, there are several distinct types of mayors, depending on the system of local government.
The mayor–council government system is a system of organization of local government.
Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange, as the liturgical language of Chalcedonian Christianity and the Roman Catholic Church, and as a language of science, literature, law, and administration.
The Merovingians were a Salian Frankish dynasty that ruled the Franks for nearly 300 years in a region known as Francia in Latin, beginning in the middle of the 5th century.
There are 81 provinces in Turkey (il).
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Mexico City, or the City of Mexico (Ciudad de México,; abbreviated as CDMX), is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America.
Minden Hills is a township in and the county seat of Haliburton County, Ontario, Canada.
The current Malaysian Minister of Federal Territories is Vacant, since 10 May 2018.
A minister-president or minister president is the head of government in a number of European countries or subnational governments with a parliamentary or semi-presidential system of government where he or she presides over the council of ministers.
The Ministry of Federal Territories (Kementerian Wilayah Persekutuan), abbreviated KWP, is a ministry of the Government of Malaysia that is in charge of overseeing the administration and development of all three federal territories in Malaysia: Kuala Lumpur, Labuan and Putrajaya.
Minneapolis is the county seat of Hennepin County, and the larger of the Twin Cities, the 16th-largest metropolitan area in the United States.
The monarchy of the Netherlands is constitutional and as such, the role and position of the monarch are defined and limited by the Constitution of the Netherlands.
Montreal (officially Montréal) is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
A motion of no confidence (alternatively vote of no confidence, no-confidence motion, or (unsuccessful) confidence motion) is a statement or vote which states that a person(s) in a position of responsibility (government, managerial, etc.) is no longer deemed fit to hold that position, perhaps because they are inadequate in some respect, are failing to carry out obligations, or are making decisions that other members feel are detrimental.
In many countries, a municipal commissioner is an official in a municipal government such as that of a city or a town.
A municipal corporation is the legal term for a local governing body, including (but not necessarily limited to) cities, counties, towns, townships, charter townships, villages, and boroughs.
The Municipal Corporations Act (Ireland) 1840 (3 & 4 Vict. c. 108), An Act for the Regulation of Municipal Corporations in Ireland, was passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom on 10 August 1840.
The Municipal Corporations Act 1882 (45 & 46 Vict. c.50) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
In the Netherlands the municipal council (Dutch: gemeenteraad) is the elected assembly of the municipality.
Municipal elections in Canada fall within the jurisdiction of the various provinces and territories, who usually hold their municipal elections on the same date every two, three or four years, depending on the location.
Denmark is divided into five regions, which contain 98 municipalities (kommuner, sing.: kommune).
Municipalities (Gemeinden, Einwohnergemeinden or politische Gemeinden; communes; comuni; vischnancas) are the lowest level of administrative division in Switzerland.
A municipality is usually a single urban or administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and state laws to which it is subordinate.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
Neustria, or Neustrasia, (meaning "western land") was the western part of the Kingdom of the Franks.
New England is a geographical region comprising six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut.
Nordisk familjebok (Nordic Family Book) is a Swedish encyclopedia that was published in print form between 1876 and 1957, and that is now fully available in digital form via Project Runeberg at Linköping University.
The Norman conquest of England (in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
Novosibirsk (p) is the third-most populous city in Russia after Moscow and St. Petersburg.
An official is someone who holds an office (function or mandate, regardless whether it carries an actual working space with it) in an organization or government and participates in the exercise of authority (either their own or that of their superior and/or employer, public or legally private).
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Paraguay (Paraguái), officially the Republic of Paraguay (República del Paraguay; Tetã Paraguái), is a landlocked country in central South America, bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest.
In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
The Pippinids or Arnulfings are the members of a family of Frankish nobles in the Pippinid dynasty.
Pirkkala (Birkala) is a municipality of Finland.
Podestà is the name given to certain high officials in many Italian cities beginning in the later Middle Ages.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
A portreeve or port warden is the title of an historical official in England and Wales possessing authority (political, administrative, or fiscal) over a town.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
The praefectus urbanus, also called praefectus urbi or urban prefect in English, was prefect of the city of Rome, and later also of Constantinople.
Japan is divided into 47, forming the first level of jurisdiction and administrative division.
The President of Serbia (Председник Србије / Predsednik Srbije), officially styled as the President of the Republic, is the head of state of Serbia.
President of the Municipal Chamber, or Presidente da Câmara Municipal, in Portuguese, is the title of the Mayor, in Portugal and other Portuguese speaking countries.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
A prime minister is the head of a cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system.
The Prime Minister of Serbia (Премијер Србије / Premijer Srbije), officially the President of the Government of the Republic of Serbia (Председник Владе Републике Србије / Predsednik Vlade Republike Srbije), is the head of the Government of Serbia.
Primus inter pares (Πρῶτος μεταξὺ ἴσων) is a Latin phrase meaning first among equals.
The warden (US, Canada) or governor (UK, Australia), also known as a superintendent (US, South Asia) or director (UK, New Zealand), is the official who is in charge of a prison.
The Council of the Realm, or simply The Council (Riksrådet: sometimes in Senatus Regni Sueciae) was a cabinet of medieval origin, consisting of magnates (stormän) which advised, and at times co-ruled with, the King of Sweden.
There have been several proposals for a directly elected mayor of the Dublin metropolitan area in Ireland.
A public space is a place that is generally open and accessible to people.
A qadi (قاضي; also cadi, kadi or kazi) is the magistrate or judge of the Shariʿa court, who also exercises extrajudicial functions, such as mediation, guardianship over orphans and minors, and supervision and auditing of public works.
Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.
Queensland (abbreviated as Qld) is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia.
A recall election (also called a recall referendum or representative recall) is a procedure by which voters can remove an elected official from office through a direct vote before that official's term has ended.
The Reconquista (Spanish and Portuguese for the "reconquest") is a name used to describe the period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 780 years between the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711 and the fall of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada to the expanding Christian kingdoms in 1492.
Originally in Anglo-Saxon England the reeve was a senior official with local responsibilities under the Crown, e.g., as the chief magistrate of a town or district.
A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal.
A register office, much more commonly registry office (except in official use), is a British government office where births, deaths and marriages are officially recorded and civil marriages take place.
Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
A sarpanch is an elected head of the village-level constitutional body of local self-government called the panchayat (village government) in India (gram panchayat).
Saskatchewan is a prairie and boreal province in western Canada, the only province without natural borders.
In medieval Germany, the Schultheiß was the head of a municipality (akin to today's office of mayor), a Vogt or an executive official of the ruler.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
In local government, a city hall, town hall, civic centre, (in the UK or Australia) a guildhall, a Rathaus (German), or (more rarely) a municipal building, is the chief administrative building of a city, town, or other municipality.
The Municipality of Bucharest (the capital of Romania) is divided into six administrative units, named sectors (sectoare in Romanian), each of which has their own mayor and council, and has responsibility over local affairs, such as secondary streets, parks, schools and the cleaning services.
The Senate (or simply, literally "First Chamber", or sometimes) is the upper house of the States General, the legislature of the Netherlands.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
Sevastopol (Севастополь; Севасто́поль; Акъяр, Aqyar), traditionally Sebastopol, is the largest city on the Crimean Peninsula and a major Black Sea port.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
The are 23 municipalities that together make up the core and the most populous part of Tokyo, Japan.
Stad (Swedish: "town; city"; plural städer) is a Swedish term that historically has used for urban centers of various sizes.
The states and federal territories of Malaysia are the principal administrative divisions of Malaysia.
Germany is a federal republic consisting of sixteen states (Land, plural Länder; informally and very commonly Bundesland, plural Bundesländer).
Subahdar (صُوبہ دار) (also known as Nazim or in English as a "Subah") was one of the designations of a governor of a Subah (province) during the Mughal era of India who was alternately designated as Sahib-i-Subah or Nazim.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Tampere (Swedish: Tammerfors) is a city in Pirkanmaa, southern Finland.
A tehsil (also known as a mandal, taluk, taluq or taluka) is an administrative division of some countries of South Asia.
, officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and has been the capital since 1869.
A town is a human settlement.
A town council, village council or rural council is a form of local government for small municipalities.
The term township generally means the district or area associated with a town.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
A Union Council (شیروان, Sherwan) forms the second-tier of local government and fifth administrative division in Pakistan.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The Vice President of the United States (informally referred to as VPOTUS, or Veep) is a constitutional officer in the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States as the President of the Senate under Article I, Section 3, Clause 4, of the United States Constitution, as well as the second highest executive branch officer, after the President of the United States.
A Vogt (from the Old High German, also Voigt or Fauth; plural Vögte; Dutch (land-) voogd; Danish foged; Norwegian fogd; Swedish fogde; wójt; Finnish vouti; Romanian voit; ultimately from Latin vocatus) in the Holy Roman Empire was a title of a reeve or advocate, an overlord (mostly of nobility) exerting guardianship or military protection as well as secular justice (Blutgericht) over a certain territory (Landgericht).
Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.
Wales in the early Middle Ages covers the time between the Roman departure from Wales c. 383 and the rise of Merfyn Frych to the throne of Gwynedd c. 825.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
Waste collection is a part of the process of waste management.
Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.
Winchester is a city and the county town of Hampshire, England.
World Mayor is a biennial award organized by The City Mayors Foundation since 2004.
His or Her Worship is an honorific prefix for mayors, Justices of the Peace and magistrates in present or former Commonwealth realms.