532 relations: A Hidden Treasure, A History of Western Philosophy, A priori and a posteriori, Abiogenesis, Absurdism, Absurdity, Achintya Bheda Abheda, Acts of the Apostles, Adalah, Adam and Eve, Adam Smith, Adaptation, Afterlife, Age of Enlightenment, Ahimsa, Ahimsa in Jainism, Ahmadiyya, Ahura Mazda, Albert Camus, Allah, Always Look on the Bright Side of Life, Andrei Linde, Angels in Islam, Angst, Anomie, Anthropic principle, Antibiotic, Antinatalism, Antisthenes, Antithesis, Anxiety, Apatheia, Aponia, Areopagus, Aristippus, Aristotle, Art, Artha, Arthur Schopenhauer, Asceticism, Asha, Astrobiology, Ataraxia, Athens, Atonement in Christianity, Awareness, Ātman (Hinduism), Bahá'í Faith, Baltimore Catechism, Basil Fawlty, ..., Beauty, Being, Bertrand Russell, Bhajan, Bhakti, Bhakti yoga, Bible, Big Bang, Big Crunch, Big Rip, Bill & Ted's Excellent Adventure, Binding problem, Biocentrism (ethics), Bioethics, Biological naturalism, Biosemiotics, Black hole, Bodhisattva, Book of Exodus, Born again, Brahman, Buddha-nature, C. A. J. Coady, Caodaism, Categorical imperative, Catholic Church, Celebrity, Charles Darwin, Charter for Compassion, Cheondoism, Christianity, Classical liberalism, Cognitive neuropsychology, Cognitive science, Colonialism, Common good, Conceptions of God, Confucianism, Consciousness, Consciousness Explained, Contingency (philosophy), Convention (norm), Cornelis Tiele, Cosmic Consciousness, Cosmogony, Cosmology, Covenant (biblical), Crates of Thebes, Critical thinking, Crucifixion of Jesus, Culture, Culture of life, David Haig (biologist), Deconstruction, Deity, Deontological ethics, Destiny, Determinism, Deva (Hinduism), Dharma, Dhāraṇā, Dialogue, Douglas Adams, Dualistic cosmology, Dukkha, Duty, Electromagnetic field, Electromagnetic theories of consciousness, Eliminative materialism, Embodied cognition, Emotion, Empiricism, Endosymbiont, Energy, Enlightened self-interest, Entropy, Epicurus, Epistemology, Epistle to the Ephesians, Epistle to the Romans, Essence, Ethical living, Ethics, Eudaimonia, Evolution, Evolutionary biology, Existence, Existence of God, Existence precedes essence, Existential therapy, Experimental philosophy, Explanatory gap, Extrasensory perception, Fact, Fall of man, Fantastic Voyage: Live Long Enough to Live Forever, Fasting in Islam, Fawlty Towers, Fear, Five Pillars of Islam, Flow (psychology), Form of the Good, Four Noble Truths, FOXP2, Frashokereti, Free will, Friedrich Nietzsche, Future of an expanding universe, Garbage in, garbage out, Gaudiya Vaishnavism, Gene, Gene-centered view of evolution, George C. Williams (biologist), George Lakoff, God in Judaism, God is dead, Golden Rule, Good and evil, Gospel, Gospel of John, Gurmat, Guru Granth Sahib, Guru Nanak, Hadith, Hajj, Happiness, Hard problem of consciousness, Harold Finch (Person of Interest), Hasidic Judaism, Health, Hedonism, Higher consciousness, Hillel the Elder, Hinduism, Hoʻoponopono, Homeostasis, Homer the Heretic, Human, Human brain, Human condition, Human extinction, Humanism, Hygiene, Ibn Arabi, Idealism, Ideology, Ignatius of Loyola, Ignorance, Image of God, Immanence, Immanuel Kant, Immortality, Incorporeality, Indefinite lifespan, Individual and group rights, Individualism, Infinite regress, Instrumental and intrinsic value, Intentional living, Internalisation (sociology), Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Interpersonal relationship, Interpersonal ties, Iron Age in India, Irvin D. Yalom, Ishvara, Islam, J. O. Urmson, Jahannam, Jainism, James Mill, James Watson, Jannah, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Jean-Paul Sartre, Jeremy Bentham, Jeremy Griffith, Jesus, Jewish eschatology, Jewish ethics, Jewish philosophy, Jewish religious movements, Jiva, John Dalberg-Acton, 1st Baron Acton, John Locke, John Stuart Mill, Jonathan Rée, Joyous Life, Judaism, Kabbalah, Kalam, Kama, Kami, Kantianism, Karen Armstrong, Karma, Karma in Jainism, Knowledge, Krishna, Leap of faith, Lesson, Liberty, Life, Life extension, Life stance, Light Unto the Nations, Limbic system, Linguistic turn, List of Christian denominations, List of root vegetables, Logic programming, Logical positivism, Logos, Love, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Lurianic Kabbalah, Mahāvākyas, Maimonides, Man's Search for Meaning, Manifestation of God, Martin Heidegger, Mass media, Maxim (philosophy), Meaning (linguistics), Meaning-making, Meaningful life, Means to an end, Mecca, Meditation, Messiah in Judaism, Metabolism, Metaphysical naturalism, Metaphysics, Michael Palin, Mind, Mindfulness, Mitzvah, Moksha, Moksha (Jainism), Monism, Monotheism, Monty Python's The Meaning of Life, Moral universalism, Mormonism, Motivation, Mount Sinai, Muhammad, Multiple drafts model, Multiverse, Mutation, Narayana, National Health Service, Natural law, Natural selection, Naturalistic pantheism, Nature, Negentropy, Neural circuit, Neuroethics, Neuron, Neuroscience, Neuroscience of free will, Neuroscience of religion, New American Standard Bible, New King James Version, New religious movement, New Testament, Nick Lane, Nicomachean Ethics, Nihilism, Nimbarka, Nirvana, Noble Eightfold Path, Nonviolence, Normative ethics, Objectivity (philosophy), Omnipresence, On the Origin of Species, Ontology, Oppression, Oral Torah, Organism, Original sin, Pacifism, Pali, Pancharatra, Panentheism, Pantheism, Paranormal, Parapsychology, Parasitism, Passion of Jesus, Paul T. P. Wong, Penguin Books, Perception, Perennial philosophy, Person of Interest (TV series), Perspectivism, Peter Harrison (historian), Philosophical Explanations, Philosophy, Philosophy Now, Philosophy of life, Philosophy of mind, Philosophy of science, Phrases from The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, Plato, Platonic idealism, Platonic realism, Pleasure, Popular culture, Positive psychology, Positivism, Post-structuralism, Posthumanism, Power (social and political), Power, Sex, Suicide, Pragmatism, Predestination in Islam, Problem of universals, Prophets and messengers in Islam, Propitiation, Psychic, Puja (Hinduism), Pure land, Puruṣārtha, Qiyamah, Qliphoth, Quality of life, Quantum, Quantum gravity, Quantum mechanics, Quantum mind, Quran, Ramadan, Rationalism, Ray Kurzweil, Reality, Reason, Rebirth (Buddhism), Recursion, Red vs. Blue, Redistribution of income and wealth, Reductionism, Regeneration (theology), Reincarnation, Religion, Renaissance humanism, Reproduction, Republic (Plato), Resurrection of Jesus, Reward system, Richard Dawkins, River Out of Eden, RNA world, Saṃsāra, Sahih al-Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Salah, Salvation in Christianity, Samhita, Satya, Søren Kierkegaard, Science, Science of morality, Scientific community, Scientific method, Secular humanism, Sefirot, Seicho-no-Ie, Self-organization, Seven Laws of Noah, Sex, Death and the Meaning of Life, Shahada, Shekhinah, Shia Islam, Shinto, Siddur, Sikh gurus, Sikhism, Simeon the Just, Simulated reality, Social contract, Social equality, Social psychology, Society, Sociology, Socrates, Soul, Spirituality, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, State of nature, Suffering, Sufism, Suicide, Summum bonum, Sunni Islam, Supercomputer, Sutra, Svayam Bhagavan, Taiji (philosophy), Talmud, Tantras, Tanya, Tao, Taoism, Tat Tvam Asi, Tawhid, Technoscience, Teleology, Tenrikyo, Terror management theory, The arts, The Guide for the Perplexed, The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy (novel), The Myth of Sisyphus, The Selfish Gene, The Sickness Unto Death, The Simpsons, The Stranger (Camus novel), Theism, Theology, Theoretical physics, Theory, Theory of everything, Theory of forms, Theravada, Tikkun olam, Tirthankara, Torah, Tradition, Transcendence (religion), Transhumanism, Trolley problem, Truth, Tu Weiming, Ultimate fate of the universe, Universe, University of Helsinki, University of Oxford, Upanishads, Utilitarianism, Vaccination, Vaishnavism, Vajrayana, Vale of tears, Vallabha, Value (ethics), Value of life, Vedas, Veganism, Vegetarianism, Ventral tegmental area, Vibhajyavāda, Viktor Frankl, Virtue, Virus, Vishnu, Waheguru, Wealth, Well-being, Western esotericism, Westminster Shorter Catechism, White hole, Will to power, William James, Wisdom, World, World riddle, World view, Yoga, Z'ev ben Shimon Halevi, Zakat, Zen, Zeno of Citium, Zoroaster, Zoroastrianism, `Abdu'l-Bahá, 14th Dalai Lama, 42 (number), 613 commandments. 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Hidden Treasure (کنزاً مخفیاً) is a Hadith Qudsi that has a very prominent role in Islamic mysticism and Islamic philosophy.
A History of Western Philosophy is a 1945 book by philosopher Bertrand Russell.
The Latin phrases a priori ("from the earlier") and a posteriori ("from the latter") are philosophical terms of art popularized by Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason (first published in 1781, second edition in 1787), one of the most influential works in the history of philosophy.
Abiogenesis, or informally the origin of life,Compare: Also occasionally called biopoiesis.
In philosophy, "the Absurd" refers to the conflict between the human tendency to seek inherent value and meaning in life and the human inability to find any.
An absurdity is a thing that is extremely unreasonable, so as to be foolish or not taken seriously, or the state of being so.
Achintya-Bheda-Abheda (अचिन्त्यभेदाभेद, in IAST) is a school of Vedanta representing the philosophy of inconceivable one-ness and difference.
Acts of the Apostles (Πράξεις τῶν Ἀποστόλων, Práxeis tôn Apostólōn; Actūs Apostolōrum), often referred to simply as Acts, is the fifth book of the New Testament; it tells of the founding of the Christian church and the spread of its message to the Roman Empire.
Adalah (عدالة) means justice and denotes The Justice of God.
Adam and Eve, according to the creation myth of the Abrahamic religions, were the first man and woman.
Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era.
In biology, adaptation has three related meanings.
Afterlife (also referred to as life after death or the hereafter) is the belief that an essential part of an individual's identity or the stream of consciousness continues to manifest after the death of the physical body.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Ahimsa (IAST:, Pāli) means 'not to injure' and 'compassion' and refers to a key virtue in Indian religions.
Ahimsā in Jainism is a fundamental principle forming the cornerstone of its ethics and doctrine.
Ahmadiyya (officially, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community or the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama'at; الجماعة الإسلامية الأحمدية, transliterated: al-Jamā'ah al-Islāmiyyah al-Aḥmadiyyah; احمدیہ مسلم جماعت) is an Islamic religious movement founded in Punjab, British India, in the late 19th century.
Ahura Mazda (also known as Ohrmazd, Ahuramazda, Hourmazd, Hormazd, Harzoo and Hurmuz) is the Avestan name for the creator and sole God of Zoroastrianism, the old Iranian religion that spread across the Middle East, before ultimately being relegated to small minorities after the Muslim conquest of Iran.
Albert Camus (7 November 1913 – 4 January 1960) was a French philosopher, author, and journalist.
Allah (translit) is the Arabic word for God in Abrahamic religions.
"Always Look on the Bright Side of Life" is a comedy song written by Monty Python member Eric Idle that was first featured in the film Monty Python's Life of Brian and has gone on to become a common singalong at public events such as football matches as well as funerals.
Andrei Dmitriyevich Linde (Андре́й Дми́триевич Ли́нде; born March 2, 1948) is a Russian-American theoretical physicist and the Harald Trap Friis Professor of Physics at Stanford University.
In Islam, Angels (Arabic: ملاك; plural: ملاًئِكة mala'ikah) are celestial beings, created from a luminious origin by God to perform certain tasks he has given them.
Angst means fear or anxiety (anguish is its Latinate equivalent, and anxious, anxiety are of similar origin).
Anomie is a "condition in which society provides little moral guidance to individuals".
The anthropic principle is a philosophical consideration that observations of the universe must be compatible with the conscious and sapient life that observes it.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
Antinatalism, or anti-natalism, is a philosophical position that assigns a negative value to birth.
Antisthenes (Ἀντισθένης; c. 445c. 365 BC) was a Greek philosopher and a pupil of Socrates.
Antithesis (Greek for "setting opposite", from ἀντί "against" and θέσις "placing") is used in writing or speech either as a proposition that contrasts with or reverses some previously mentioned proposition, or when two opposites are introduced together for contrasting effect.
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
Apatheia (ἀπάθεια; from a- "without" and pathos "suffering" or "passion"), in Stoicism, refers to a state of mind in which one is not disturbed by the passions.
"Aponia" (ἀπονία) means the absence of pain, and was regarded by the Epicureans to be the height of bodily pleasure.
The Areopagus is a prominent rock outcropping located northwest of the Acropolis in Athens, Greece.
Aristippus of Cyrene (Ἀρίστιππος ὁ Κυρηναῖος; c. 435 – c. 356 BCE) was the founder of the Cyrenaic school of Philosophy.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts (artworks), expressing the author's imaginative, conceptual idea, or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power.
Artha (अर्थ) is one of the four aims of human life in Indian philosophy.
Arthur Schopenhauer (22 February 1788 – 21 September 1860) was a German philosopher.
Asceticism (from the ἄσκησις áskesis, "exercise, training") is a lifestyle characterized by abstinence from sensual pleasures, often for the purpose of pursuing spiritual goals.
Asha (also arta; Avestan: aša/arta) is a concept of cardinal importance.
Astrobiology is a branch of biology concerned with the origins, early evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe.
Ataraxia (ἀταραξία, literally, "not perturbed", generally translated as "imperturbability", "equanimity", or "tranquillity") is a Greek philosophy term used to describe a lucid state of robust equanimity that was characterized by ongoing freedom from distress and worry.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
In western Christian theology, atonement describes how human beings can be reconciled to God through Christ's sacrificial suffering and death.
Awareness is the ability to directly know and perceive, to feel, or to be cognizant of events.
Ātma is a Sanskrit word that means inner self or soul.
The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.
A Catechism of Christian Doctrine, Prepared and Enjoined by Order of the Third Council of Baltimore, or simply the Baltimore Catechism, was the official national catechism for children in the United States of America, based on Robert Bellarmine's 1614 Small Catechism.
Basil Fawlty is the main character of the British sitcom Fawlty Towers, played by John Cleese.
Beauty is a characteristic of an animal, idea, object, person or place that provides a perceptual experience of pleasure or satisfaction.
Being is the general concept encompassing objective and subjective features of reality and existence.
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate.
A bhajan literally means "sharing".
Bhakti (भक्ति) literally means "attachment, participation, fondness for, homage, faith, love, devotion, worship, purity".
Bhakti yoga, also called Bhakti marga (literally the path of Bhakti), is a spiritual path or spiritual practice within Hinduism focused on loving devotion towards a personal god.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.
The Big Crunch is one possible scenario for the ultimate fate of the universe, in which the metric expansion of space eventually reverses and the universe recollapses, ultimately causing the cosmic scale factor to reach zero or causing a reformation of the universe starting with another Big Bang.
In physical cosmology, the Big Rip is a hypothetical cosmological model concerning the ultimate fate of the universe, in which the matter of the universe, from stars and galaxies to atoms and subatomic particles, and even spacetime itself, is progressively torn apart by the expansion of the universe at a certain time in the future.
Bill & Ted's Excellent Adventure is a 1989 American science fiction comedy film directed by Stephen Herek and written by Chris Matheson and Ed Solomon.
The binding problem is a term used at the interface between neuroscience, cognitive science and philosophy of mind that has multiple meanings.
Biocentrism (from Greek βίος bios, "life" and κέντρον kentron, "center"), in a political and ecological sense, as well as literally, is an ethical point of view that extends inherent value to all living things.
Bioethics is the study of the ethical issues emerging from advances in biology and medicine.
Biological naturalism is a theory about, among other things, the relationship between consciousness and body (i.e. brain), and hence an approach to the mind–body problem.
Biosemiotics (from the Greek βίος bios, "life" and σημειωτικός sēmeiōtikos, "observant of signs) is a field of semiotics and biology that studies the prelinguistic meaning-making, or production and interpretation of signs and codes in the biological realm.
A black hole is a region of spacetime exhibiting such strong gravitational effects that nothing—not even particles and electromagnetic radiation such as light—can escape from inside it.
In Buddhism, Bodhisattva is the Sanskrit term for anyone who has generated Bodhicitta, a spontaneous wish and compassionate mind to attain Buddhahood for the benefit of all sentient beings. Bodhisattvas are a popular subject in Buddhist art.
The Book of Exodus or, simply, Exodus (from ἔξοδος, éxodos, meaning "going out"; וְאֵלֶּה שְׁמוֹת, we'elleh shəmōṯ, "These are the names", the beginning words of the text: "These are the names of the sons of Israel" וְאֵלֶּה שְׁמֹות בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל), is the second book of the Torah and the Hebrew Bible (the Old Testament) immediately following Genesis.
In some Christian movements, particularly in Evangelicalism, to be born again, or to experience the new birth, is a popular phrase referring to "spiritual rebirth", or a regeneration of the human spirit from the Holy Spirit, contrasted with physical birth.
In Hinduism, Brahman connotes the highest Universal Principle, the Ultimate Reality in the universe.P. T. Raju (2006), Idealistic Thought of India, Routledge,, page 426 and Conclusion chapter part XII In major schools of Hindu philosophy, it is the material, efficient, formal and final cause of all that exists.For dualism school of Hinduism, see: Francis X. Clooney (2010), Hindu God, Christian God: How Reason Helps Break Down the Boundaries between Religions, Oxford University Press,, pages 51–58, 111–115;For monist school of Hinduism, see: B. Martinez-Bedard (2006), Types of Causes in Aristotle and Sankara, Thesis – Department of Religious Studies (Advisors: Kathryn McClymond and Sandra Dwyer), Georgia State University, pages 18–35 It is the pervasive, genderless, infinite, eternal truth and bliss which does not change, yet is the cause of all changes. Brahman as a metaphysical concept is the single binding unity behind diversity in all that exists in the universe. Brahman is a Vedic Sanskrit word, and it is conceptualized in Hinduism, states Paul Deussen, as the "creative principle which lies realized in the whole world". Brahman is a key concept found in the Vedas, and it is extensively discussed in the early Upanishads.Stephen Philips (1998), Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Brahman to Derrida (Editor; Edward Craig), Routledge,, pages 1–4 The Vedas conceptualize Brahman as the Cosmic Principle. In the Upanishads, it has been variously described as Sat-cit-ānanda (truth-consciousness-bliss) and as the unchanging, permanent, highest reality. Brahman is discussed in Hindu texts with the concept of Atman (Soul, Self), personal, impersonal or Para Brahman, or in various combinations of these qualities depending on the philosophical school. In dualistic schools of Hinduism such as the theistic Dvaita Vedanta, Brahman is different from Atman (soul) in each being.Michael Myers (2000), Brahman: A Comparative Theology, Routledge,, pages 124–127 In non-dual schools such as the Advaita Vedanta, Brahman is identical to the Atman, is everywhere and inside each living being, and there is connected spiritual oneness in all existence.Arvind Sharma (2007), Advaita Vedānta: An Introduction, Motilal Banarsidass,, pages 19–40, 53–58, 79–86.
Buddha-nature or Buddha Principle refers to several related terms, most notably tathāgatagarbha and buddhadhātu.
Cecil Anthony John Coady, usually referred to as C. A. J. Coady or informally as Tony Coady (born 18 April 1936), is an Australian philosopher with an international reputation for his research in both epistemology and political and applied philosophy.
Caodaism (Chữ nôm: 道高臺) is a monotheistic religion officially established in the city of Tây Ninh in southern Vietnam in 1926.
The categorical imperative (kategorischer Imperativ) is the central philosophical concept in the deontological moral philosophy of Immanuel Kant.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Celebrity refers to the fame and public attention accorded by the mass media to individuals or groups or, occasionally, animals, but is usually applied to the persons or groups of people (celebrity couples, families, etc.) themselves who receive such a status of fame and attention.
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
The Charter for Compassion is a document that urges the peoples and religions of the world to embrace the core value of compassion.
Cheondoism (spelled Chondoism in North Korean sources) (Korean: Cheondogyo; hanja 天道教; hangul 천도교; literally "Religion of the Heavenly Way") is a 20th-century Korean religious ideology, based on the 19th-century Donghak religious movement founded by Ch'oe Che-u and codified under Son Pyŏng-Hi.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom.
Cognitive neuropsychology is a branch of cognitive psychology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relates to specific psychological processes.
Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes.
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
In philosophy, economics, and political science, the common good (also commonwealth, common weal or general welfare) refers to either what is shared and beneficial for all or most members of a given community, or alternatively, what is achieved by citizenship, collective action, and active participation in the realm of politics and public service.
Conceptions of God in monotheist, pantheist, and panentheist religions – or of the supreme deity in henotheistic religions – can extend to various levels of abstraction.
Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.
Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.
Consciousness Explained is a 1991 book by the American philosopher Daniel Dennett, in which the author offers an account of how consciousness arises from interaction of physical and cognitive processes in the brain.
In philosophy and logic, contingency is the status of propositions that are neither true under every possible valuation (i.e. tautologies) nor false under every possible valuation (i.e. contradictions).
A convention is a set of agreed, stipulated, or generally accepted standards, norms, social norms, or criteria, often taking the form of a custom.
Cornelis Petrus Tiele, (16 December 1830–11 January 1902) was a Dutch theologian and scholar.
Cosmic Consciousness: A Study in the Evolution of the Human Mind is a 1901 book by Richard Maurice Bucke, a Canadian psychiatrist.
Cosmogony is any model concerning the origin of either the cosmos or universe.
Cosmology (from the Greek κόσμος, kosmos "world" and -λογία, -logia "study of") is the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe.
A biblical covenant is a religious covenant that is described in the Bible.
Crates (Κράτης ὁ Θηβαῖος; c. 365 – c. 285 BC) of Thebes was a Cynic philosopher.
Critical thinking is the objective analysis of facts to form a judgment.
The crucifixion of Jesus occurred in 1st-century Judea, most likely between AD 30 and 33.
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.
The phrase "culture of life" is a term used in discussion of moral theology, especially that of the Catholic Church.
David Addison Haig (born 28 June 1958) is an Australian evolutionary biologist and geneticist, professor in Harvard Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology.
Deconstruction is a critique of the relationship between text and meaning originated by the philosopher Jacques Derrida.
A deity is a supernatural being considered divine or sacred.
In moral philosophy, deontological ethics or deontology (from Greek δέον, deon, "obligation, duty") is the normative ethical position that judges the morality of an action based on rules.
Destiny, sometimes referred to as fate (from Latin fatum – destiny), is a predetermined course of events.
Determinism is the philosophical theory that all events, including moral choices, are completely determined by previously existing causes.
Deva (Sanskrit: देव) means "heavenly, divine, anything of excellence", and is also one of the terms for a deity in Hinduism.
Dharma (dharma,; dhamma, translit. dhamma) is a key concept with multiple meanings in the Indian religions – Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism.
Dhāraṇā (from Sanskrit धारणा) is translated as "collection or concentration of the mind (joined with the retention of breath)", or "the act of holding, bearing, wearing, supporting, maintaining, retaining, keeping back (in remembrance), a good memory", or "firmness, steadfastness,...
Dialogue (sometimes spelled dialog in American English) is a written or spoken conversational exchange between two or more people, and a literary and theatrical form that depicts such an exchange.
Douglas Noel Adams (11 March 1952 – 11 May 2001) was an English author, scriptwriter, essayist, humorist, satirist and dramatist.
Dualism in cosmology is the moral or spiritual belief that two fundamental concepts exist, which often oppose each other.
Dukkha (Pāli; Sanskrit: duḥkha; Tibetan: སྡུག་བསྔལ་ sdug bsngal, pr. "duk-ngel") is an important Buddhist concept, commonly translated as "suffering", "pain", "unsatisfactoriness" or "stress".
A duty (from "due" meaning "that which is owing"; deu, did, past participle of devoir; debere, debitum, whence "debt") is a commitment or expectation to perform some action in general or if certain circumstances arise.
An electromagnetic field (also EMF or EM field) is a physical field produced by electrically charged objects.
The electromagnetic theories of consciousness propose that consciousness can be understood as an electromagnetic phenomenon.
Eliminative materialism (also called eliminativism) is the claim that people's common-sense understanding of the mind (or folk psychology) is false and that certain classes of mental states that most people believe in do not exist.
Embodied cognition is the theory that many features of cognition, whether human or otherwise, are shaped by aspects of the entire body of the organism.
Emotion is any conscious experience characterized by intense mental activity and a certain degree of pleasure or displeasure.
In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.
An endosymbiont or endobiont is any organism that lives within the body or cells of another organism in a symbiotic relationship with the host body or cell, often but not always to mutual benefit.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
Enlightened self-interest is a philosophy in ethics which states that persons who act to further the interests of others (or the interests of the group or groups to which they belong), ultimately serve their own self-interest.
In statistical mechanics, entropy is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system.
Epicurus (Ἐπίκουρος, Epíkouros, "ally, comrade"; 341–270 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher who founded a school of philosophy now called Epicureanism.
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.
The Epistle to the Ephesians, also called the Letter to the Ephesians and often shortened to Ephesians, is the tenth book of the New Testament.
The Epistle to the Romans or Letter to the Romans, often shortened to Romans, is the sixth book in the New Testament.
In philosophy, essence is the property or set of properties that make an entity or substance what it fundamentally is, and which it has by necessity, and without which it loses its identity.
Ethical living is the philosophy of making decisions for daily life which take into account ethics and moral values, particularly with regard to consumerism, sustainability, environmentalism, wildlife and animal welfare.
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
Eudaimonia (Greek: εὐδαιμονία), sometimes anglicized as eudaemonia or eudemonia, is a Greek word commonly translated as happiness or welfare; however, "human flourishing or prosperity" has been proposed as a more accurate translation.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth, starting from a single common ancestor.
Existence, in its most generic terms, is the ability to, directly or indirectly, interact with reality or, in more specific cases, the universe.
The existence of God is a subject of debate in the philosophy of religion and popular culture.
The proposition that existence precedes essence (l'existence précède l'essence) is a central claim of existentialism, which reverses the traditional philosophical view that the essence (the nature) of a thing is more fundamental and immutable than its existence (the mere fact of its being).
Existential psychotherapy is a form of psychotherapy that, like the existential philosophy which underlies it, is founded upon the belief that human existence is best understood through an in-depth examination of our own experiences.
Experimental philosophy is an emerging field of philosophical inquiryEdmonds, David and Warburton, Nigel.
In philosophy of mind and consciousness, the explanatory gap is the difficulty that physicalist theories have in explaining how physical properties give rise to the way things feel when they are experienced.
Extrasensory perception or ESP, also called sixth sense or second sight, includes claimed reception of information not gained through the recognized physical senses, but sensed with the mind.
A fact is a statement that is consistent with reality or can be proven with evidence.
The fall of man, or the fall, is a term used in Christianity to describe the transition of the first man and woman from a state of innocent obedience to God to a state of guilty disobedience.
Fantastic Voyage: Live Long Enough to Live Forever (Rodale Books), published in 2004, is a book authored by Ray Kurzweil and Terry Grossman.
Fasting in Islam, known as Sawm (صَوْم) or Siyām (صِيَام), the Arabic words for fasting, also commonly known as Rūzeh or Rōzah (روزه) in some Muslim countries, is the practice of abstaining, usually from food and drink.
Fawlty Towers is a British television sitcom broadcast on BBC2 in 1975 and 1979.
Fear is a feeling induced by perceived danger or threat that occurs in certain types of organisms, which causes a change in metabolic and organ functions and ultimately a change in behavior, such as fleeing, hiding, or freezing from perceived traumatic events.
The Five Pillars of Islam (أركان الإسلام; also أركان الدين "pillars of the religion") are five basic acts in Islam, considered mandatory by believers and are the foundation of Muslim life.
In positive psychology, flow, also known colloquially as being in the zone, is the mental state of operation in which a person performing an activity is fully immersed in a feeling of energized focus, full involvement, and enjoyment in the process of the activity.
Plato describes the "Form of the Good", or more literally "the idea of the good" (ἡ τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ ἰδέα), in his dialogue the Republic (508e2–3), speaking through the character of Socrates.
The Four Noble Truths refer to and express the basic orientation of Buddhism in a short expression: we crave and cling to impermanent states and things, which are dukkha, "incapable of satisfying" and painful.
Forkhead box protein P2 (FOXP2) is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the FOXP2 gene, also known as CAGH44, SPCH1 or TNRC10, and is required for proper development of speech and language.
Frashokereti (frašō.kərəti) is the Avestan-language term (corresponding to Middle Persian frašagird) for the Zoroastrian doctrine of a final renovation of the universe, when evil will be destroyed, and everything else will be then in perfect unity with God (Ahura Mazda).
Free will is the ability to choose between different possible courses of action unimpeded.
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist and a Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.
Observations suggest that the expansion of the universe will continue forever.
In computer science, garbage in, garbage out (GIGO) is where flawed, or nonsense input data produces nonsense output or "garbage".
Gaudiya Vaishnavism (also known as (Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava tradition, Bengali Vaishnavism, or Chaitanya Vaishnavism) is a Vaishnava religious movement inspired by Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (1486–1534) in North India. "Gauḍīya" refers to the Gauḍa region (present day Bengal/Bangladesh) with Vaishnavism meaning "the worship of Vishnu or Krishna". Its theological basis is primarily that of the Bhagavad Gītā and Bhāgavata Purāṇa as interpreted by early disciples of Chaitanya such as Sanātana Gosvāmin, Rūpa Gosvāmin, Jīva Gosvāmin, Gopala Bhaṭṭa Gosvāmin, and others. The focus of Gaudiya Vaishnavism is the devotional worship (bhakti) of Radha and Krishna, and their many divine incarnations as the supreme forms of God, Svayam Bhagavan. Most popularly, this worship takes the form of singing Radha and Krishna's holy names, such as "Hare", "Krishna" and "Rama", most commonly in the form of the Hare Krishna (mantra), also known as kirtan. The movement is sometimes referred to as the Brahma-Madhva-Gaudiya sampradaya, referring to its traditional origins in the succession of spiritual masters (gurus) believed to originate from Brahma. It classifies itself as a monotheistic tradition, seeing the many forms of Vishnu or Krishna as expansions or incarnations of the one Supreme God, adipurusha.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
The gene-centered view of evolution, gene's eye view, gene selection theory, or selfish gene theory holds that adaptive evolution occurs through the differential survival of competing genes, increasing the allele frequency of those alleles whose phenotypic trait effects successfully promote their own propagation, with gene defined as "not just one single physical bit of DNA all replicas of a particular bit of DNA distributed throughout the world".
George Christopher Williams (May 12, 1926 – September 8, 2010) was an American evolutionary biologist.
George P. Lakoff (born May 24, 1941) is an American cognitive linguist and philosopher, best known for his thesis that lives of individuals are significantly influenced by the central metaphors they use to explain complex phenomena.
In Judaism, God has been conceived in a variety of ways.
"God is Dead" (German:; also known as the Death of God) is a widely quoted statement by German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche.
The Golden Rule (which can be considered a law of reciprocity in some religions) is the principle of treating others as one would wish to be treated.
In religion, ethics, philosophy, and psychology "good and evil" is a very common dichotomy.
Gospel is the Old English translation of Greek εὐαγγέλιον, evangelion, meaning "good news".
The Gospel According to John is the fourth of the canonical gospels.
Gurmat (gur-mat, mat, Sanskrit mati, i.e. counsel or tenets of the Guru, more specifically focusing the mind towards the Guru) is a term which may in its essential sense be taken to be synonymous with Sikhism itself.
Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi: ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ) is the religious scripture of Sikhism, regarded by Sikhs as the final, sovereign, and eternal living guru following the lineage of the ten human Sikh gurus of the Sikh religion.
Guru Nanak (IAST: Gurū Nānak) (15 April 1469 – 22 September 1539) was the founder of Sikhism and the first of the ten Sikh Gurus.
Ḥadīth (or; حديث, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث,, also "Traditions") in Islam refers to the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
The Hajj (حَجّ "pilgrimage") is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city for Muslims, and a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and can support their family during their absence.
In psychology, happiness is a mental or emotional state of well-being which can be defined by positive or pleasant emotions ranging from contentment to intense joy.
The hard problem of consciousness is the problem of explaining how and why we have qualia or phenomenal experiences—how sensations acquire characteristics, such as colors and tastes.
Harold Finch is a fictional character from the CBS crime drama television series Person of Interest.
Hasidism, sometimes Hasidic Judaism (hasidut,; originally, "piety"), is a Jewish religious group.
Health is the ability of a biological system to acquire, convert, allocate, distribute, and utilize energy with maximum efficiency.
Hedonism is a school of thought that argues that the pursuit of pleasure and intrinsic goods are the primary or most important goals of human life.
Higher consciousness is the consciousness of a higher Self, transcendental reality, or God.
Hillel (הלל; variously called Hillel HaGadol, or Hillel HaZaken, Hillel HaBavli or HaBavli,. was born according to tradition in Babylon c. 110 BCE, died 10 CE in Jerusalem) was a Jewish religious leader, one of the most important figures in Jewish history.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
Hooponopono (ho-o-pono-pono) is a Hawaiian practice of reconciliation and forgiveness.
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
"Homer the Heretic" is the third episode of The Simpsons' fourth season.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.
The human condition is "the characteristics, key events, and situations which compose the essentials of human existence, such as birth, growth, emotionality, aspiration, conflict, and mortality".
In futures studies, human extinction is the hypothetical end of the human species.
Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.
Hygiene is a set of practices performed to preserve health.
Ibn ʿArabi (full name Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī ibn Muḥammad ibnʿArabī al-Ḥātimī aṭ-Ṭāʾī أبو عبد الله محمد بن علي بن محمد بن عربي الحاتمي الطائي ‎ 26 July 1165 – 16 November 1240), was an Arab Andalusian Sufi scholar of Islam, mystic, poet, and philosopher.
In philosophy, idealism is the group of metaphysical philosophies that assert that reality, or reality as humans can know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally constructed, or otherwise immaterial.
An Ideology is a collection of normative beliefs and values that an individual or group holds for other than purely epistemic reasons.
Saint Ignatius of Loyola (Ignazio Loiolakoa, Ignacio de Loyola; – 31 July 1556) was a Spanish Basque priest and theologian, who founded the religious order called the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) and became its first Superior General.
Ignorance is a lack of knowledge.
The Image of God is a concept and theological doctrine in Judaism, Christianity, and Sufism of Islam, which asserts that human beings are created in the image and likeness of God.
The doctrine or theory of immanence holds that the divine encompasses or is manifested in the material world.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
Immortality is eternal life, being exempt from death, unending existence.
Incorporeal or uncarnate means without a physical body, presence or form.
Indefinite lifespan (also known as indefinite life extension or bio-indefinite) is a term used in the life extension movement and transhumanism to refer to the hypothetical longevity of humans (and other life-forms) under conditions in which ageing is effectively and completely prevented and treated.
Group rights, also known as collective rights, are rights held by a group qua group rather than by its members severally; in contrast, individual rights are rights held by individual people; even if they are group-differentiated, which most rights are, they remain individual rights if the right-holders are the individuals themselves.
Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the moral worth of the individual.
An infinite regress in a series of propositions arises if the truth of proposition P1 requires the support of proposition P2, the truth of proposition P2 requires the support of proposition P3,...
The word "value" is both a verb and a noun, each with multiple meanings.
Intentional living is any lifestyle based on an individual or group's conscious attempts to live according to their values and beliefs.
In sociology and other social sciences, internalisation (or internalization) means an individual's acceptance of a set of norms and values (established by others) through socialisation.
The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (IEP) is a scholarly online encyclopedia, dealing with philosophy, philosophical topics, and philosophers.
An interpersonal relationship is a strong, deep, or close association or acquaintance between two or more people that may range in duration from brief to enduring.
In mathematical sociology, interpersonal ties are defined as information-carrying connections between people.
In the prehistory of the Indian subcontinent, an "Iron Age" is recognized as succeeding the Late Harappan (Cemetery H) culture.
Irvin David Yalom (born 13 June 1931) is an American existential psychiatrist who is emeritus professor of psychiatry at Stanford University, as well as author of both fiction and nonfiction.
Ishvara (Sanskrit: ईश्वर, IAST: Īśvara) is a concept in Hinduism, with a wide range of meanings that depend on the era and the school of Hinduism.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
James Opie Urmson (4 March 1915 – 29 January 2012), usually cited as J. O. Urmson, was a philosopher and classicist who spent most of his professional career at Corpus Christi College, Oxford.
Jahannam (جهنم (etymologically related to Hebrew גיהנום. Gehennom and Greek: γέεννα) refers to an afterlife place of punishment for evildoers. The punishments are carried in accordance with the degree of evil one has done during his life. In Quran, Jahannam is also referred as al-Nar ("The Fire"), Jaheem ("Blazing Fire"), Hatamah ("That which Breaks to Pieces"), Haawiyah ("The Abyss"), Ladthaa, Sa’eer ("The Blaze"), Saqar. and also the names of different gates to hell. Suffering in hell is both physical and spiritual, and varies according to the sins of the condemned. As described in the Quran, Hell has seven levels (each one more severe than the one above it); seven gates (each for a specific group of sinners); a blazing fire, boiling water, and the Tree of Zaqqum. Not all Muslims and scholars agree whether hell is an eternal destination or whether some or even all of the condemned will eventually be forgiven and allowed to enter paradise.
Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.
James Mill (born James Milne, 6 April 1773 – 23 June 1836) was a Scottish historian, economist, political theorist, and philosopher.
James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, geneticist and zoologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA in 1953 with Francis Crick and Rosalind Franklin.
Jannah (جنّة; plural: Jannat), lit.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer.
Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (21 June 1905 – 15 April 1980) was a French philosopher, playwright, novelist, political activist, biographer, and literary critic.
Jeremy Bentham (15 February 1748 – 6 June 1832) was an English philosopher, jurist, and social reformer regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism.
Jeremy Griffith (born 1945) is an Australian biologist and author on the subject of the human condition.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
Jewish eschatology is the area of theology and philosophy concerned with events that will happen in the end of days and related concepts, according to the Hebrew Bible and Jewish thought.
Jewish ethics is the moral philosophy particular to one or both of the Jewish religion and peoples.
Jewish philosophy includes all philosophy carried out by Jews, or in relation to the religion of Judaism.
Jewish religious movements, sometimes called "denominations" or "branches", include different groups which have developed among Jews from ancient times.
In Hinduism and Jainism, a jiva (जीव,, alternative spelling jiwa; जीव,, alternative spelling jeev) is a living being, or any entity imbued with a life force.
John Emerich Edward Dalberg-Acton, 1st Baron Acton, (10 January 1834 – 19 June 1902), was an English Catholic historian, politician, and writer.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
John Stuart Mill, also known as J.S. Mill, (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant.
Jonathan Rée (born 1948) is a British freelance historian and philosopher from Bradford.
In Tenrikyo, the Joyous Life (yōki yusan or yōki gurashi) is the ideal taught by spiritual leaders and pursued through charity and abstention from greed, selfishness, hatred, anger and arrogance.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Kabbalah (קַבָּלָה, literally "parallel/corresponding," or "received tradition") is an esoteric method, discipline, and school of thought that originated in Judaism.
ʿIlm al-Kalām (عِلْم الكَلام, literally "science of discourse"),Winter, Tim J. "Introduction." Introduction.
Kama (Sanskrit, Pali; Devanagari: काम, IAST: kāma) means wish, desire or longing in Hindu literature.
are the spirits or phenomena that are worshipped in the religion of Shinto.
Kantianism is the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, a German philosopher born in Königsberg, Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia).
Karen Armstrong, (born 14 November 1944) is a British author and commentator of Irish Catholic descent known for her books on comparative religion.
Karma (karma,; italic) means action, work or deed; it also refers to the spiritual principle of cause and effect where intent and actions of an individual (cause) influence the future of that individual (effect).
Karma is the basic principle within an overarching psycho-cosmology in Jainism.
Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.
Krishna (Kṛṣṇa) is a major deity in Hinduism.
A leap of faith, in its most commonly used meaning, is the act of believing in or accepting something outside the boundaries of reason.
A lesson is a structured period of time where learning is intended to occur.
Liberty, in politics, consists of the social, political, and economic freedoms to which all community members are entitled.
Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.
Life extension science, also known as anti-aging medicine, indefinite life extension, experimental gerontology, and biomedical gerontology, is the study of slowing down or reversing the processes of aging to extend both the maximum and average lifespan.
A person's life stance, or lifestance, is their relation with what they accept as being of ultimate importance.
Light to the Nations (Hebrew: אור לגויים Or LaGoyim; also Light of the Nations, Light of all Nations, Light for all Nations) is a term originated from the prophet Isaiah which may express the universal designation of God's kingdom of priests as a mentor for spiritual and moral guidance for the entire world.
The limbic system is a set of brain structures located on both sides of the thalamus, immediately beneath the cerebrum.
The linguistic turn was a major development in Western philosophy during the early 20th century, the most important characteristic of which is the focusing of philosophy and the other humanities primarily on the relationship between philosophy and language.
A Christian denomination is a distinct religious body within Christianity, identified by traits such as a name, organisation, leadership and doctrine.
Root vegetables are plant roots and tubers eaten by humans as food.
Logic programming is a type of programming paradigm which is largely based on formal logic.
Logical positivism and logical empiricism, which together formed neopositivism, was a movement in Western philosophy whose central thesis was verificationism, a theory of knowledge which asserted that only statements verifiable through empirical observation are cognitively meaningful.
Logos (lógos; from λέγω) is a term in Western philosophy, psychology, rhetoric, and religion derived from a Greek word variously meaning "ground", "plea", "opinion", "expectation", "word", "speech", "account", "reason", "proportion", and "discourse",Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott,: logos, 1889.
Love encompasses a variety of different emotional and mental states, typically strongly and positively experienced, ranging from the most sublime virtue or good habit, the deepest interpersonal affection and to the simplest pleasure.
Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (26 April 1889 – 29 April 1951) was an Austrian-British philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language.
Lurianic Kabbalah is a school of kabbalah named after the Jewish rabbi who developed it: Isaac Luria (1534–1572; also known as the "ARI'zal", "Ha'ARI" or "Ha'ARI Hakadosh").
The Mahavakyas (sing.: mahāvākyam, महावाक्यम्; plural: mahāvākyāni, महावाक्यानि) are "The Great Sayings" of the Upanishads, as characterized by the Advaita school of Vedanta.
Moses ben Maimon (Mōšeh bēn-Maymūn; موسى بن ميمون Mūsā bin Maymūn), commonly known as Maimonides (Μαϊμωνίδης Maïmōnídēs; Moses Maimonides), and also referred to by the acronym Rambam (for Rabbeinu Mōšeh bēn Maimun, "Our Rabbi Moses son of Maimon"), was a medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher who became one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars of the Middle Ages.
Man's Search for Meaning is a 1946 book by Viktor Frankl chronicling his experiences as an Auschwitz concentration camp inmate during World War II, and describing his psychotherapeutic method, which involved identifying a purpose in life to feel positively about, and then immersively imagining that outcome.
The Manifestation of God is a concept in the Bahá'í Faith that refers to what are commonly called prophets.
Martin Heidegger (26 September 188926 May 1976) was a German philosopher and a seminal thinker in the Continental tradition and philosophical hermeneutics, and is "widely acknowledged to be one of the most original and important philosophers of the 20th century." Heidegger is best known for his contributions to phenomenology and existentialism, though as the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy cautions, "his thinking should be identified as part of such philosophical movements only with extreme care and qualification".
The mass media is a diversified collection of media technologies that reach a large audience via mass communication.
A maxim is a concise expression of a fundamental moral rule or principle, whether considered as objective or subjective contingent on one's philosophy.
In linguistics, meaning is the information or concepts that a sender intends to convey, or does convey, in communication with a receiver.
In psychology, meaning-making is the process of how people construe, understand, or make sense of life events, relationships, and the self.
In positive psychology, a meaningful life is a construct having to do with the purpose, significance, fulfillment, and satisfaction of life.
In philosophy, the term "means to an end" refers to any action (the means) carried out for the sole purpose of achieving something else (an end).
Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.
Meditation can be defined as a practice where an individual uses a technique, such as focusing their mind on a particular object, thought or activity, to achieve a mentally clear and emotionally calm state.
The messiah in Judaism is a savior and liberator of the Jewish people.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Metaphysical naturalism, also called ontological naturalism, philosophical naturalism, and scientific materialism is a philosophical worldview, which holds that there is nothing but natural elements, principles, and relations of the kind studied by the natural sciences.
Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.
Michael Edward Palin (pronounced; born 5 May 1943) is an English comedian, actor, writer and television presenter.
The mind is a set of cognitive faculties including consciousness, perception, thinking, judgement, language and memory.
Mindfulness is the psychological process of bringing one's attention to experiences occurring in the present moment,Mindfulness Training as a Clinical Intervention: A Conceptual and Empirical Review, by Ruth A. Baer, available at http://www.wisebrain.org/papers/MindfulnessPsyTx.pdf which can be developed through the practice of meditation and other training.
In its primary meaning, the Hebrew word (meaning "commandment",,, Biblical:; plural, Biblical:; from "command") refers to precepts and commandments commanded by God.
Moksha (मोक्ष), also called vimoksha, vimukti and mukti, is a term in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism which refers to various forms of emancipation, liberation, and release. In its soteriological and eschatological senses, it refers to freedom from saṃsāra, the cycle of death and rebirth. In its epistemological and psychological senses, moksha refers to freedom from ignorance: self-realization and self-knowledge. In Hindu traditions, moksha is a central concept and the utmost aim to be attained through three paths during human life; these three paths are dharma (virtuous, proper, moral life), artha (material prosperity, income security, means of life), and kama (pleasure, sensuality, emotional fulfillment). Together, these four concepts are called Puruṣārtha in Hinduism. In some schools of Indian religions, moksha is considered equivalent to and used interchangeably with other terms such as vimoksha, vimukti, kaivalya, apavarga, mukti, nihsreyasa and nirvana. However, terms such as moksha and nirvana differ and mean different states between various schools of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism.See.
Sanskrit or Prakrit mokkha refers to the liberation or salvation of a soul from saṃsāra, the cycle of birth and death.
Monism attributes oneness or singleness (Greek: μόνος) to a concept e.g., existence.
Monotheism has been defined as the belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, is all-powerful and intervenes in the world.
Monty Python's The Meaning of Life, also known as The Meaning of Life, is a 1983 British musical sketch comedy film written and performed by the Monty Python troupe, directed by Terry Jones.
Moral universalism (also called moral objectivism or universal morality) is the meta-ethical position that some system of ethics, or a universal ethic, applies universally, that is, for "all similarly situated individuals", regardless of culture, race, sex, religion, nationality, sexual orientation, or any other distinguishing feature.
Mormonism is the predominant religious tradition of the Latter Day Saint movement of Restorationist Christianity started by Joseph Smith in Western New York in the 1820s and 30s.
Motivation is the reason for people's actions, desires, and needs.
Mount Sinai (Ṭūr Sīnāʼ or lit; ܛܘܪܐ ܕܣܝܢܝ or ܛܘܪܐ ܕܡܘܫܐ; הַר סִינַי, Har Sinai; Όρος Σινάι; Mons Sinai), also known as Mount Horeb or Gabal Musa, is a mountain in the Sinai Peninsula of Egypt that is a possible location of the biblical Mount Sinai, which is considered a holy site by the Abrahamic religions.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Daniel Dennett's multiple drafts model of consciousness is a physicalist theory of consciousness based upon cognitivism, which views the mind in terms of information processing.
The multiverse (or meta-universe) is a hypothetical group of multiple separate universes including the universe in which humans live.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
Narayana (Sanskrit: नारायण, IAST: Nārāyaṇa), another name for Vishnu, is the supreme absolute being in Hinduism and is considered as the supreme deity in Vaishnavism.
The National Health Service (NHS) is the name used for each of the public health services in the United Kingdom – the National Health Service in England, NHS Scotland, NHS Wales, and Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland – as well as a term to describe them collectively.
Natural law (ius naturale, lex naturalis) is a philosophy asserting that certain rights are inherent by virtue of human nature, endowed by nature—traditionally by God or a transcendent source—and that these can be understood universally through human reason.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
Naturalistic pantheism is a kind of pantheism.
Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe.
The negentropy has different meanings in information theory and theoretical biology.
A neural circuit, is a population of neurons interconnected by synapses to carry out a specific function when activated.
Neuroethics refers to two related fields of study: what the philosopher Adina Roskies has called the ethics of neuroscience, and the neuroscience of ethics.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.
Neuroscience of free will, a part of neurophilosophy, is the study of the interconnections between free will and neuroscience.
The neuroscience of religion, also known as neurotheology and as spiritual neuroscience, attempts to explain religious experience and behaviour in neuroscientific terms.
The New American Standard Bible (NASB) is an English translation of the Bible by the Lockman Foundation.
The New King James Version (NKJV) is an English translation of the Bible first published in 1982 by Thomas Nelson.
A new religious movement (NRM), also known as a new religion or an alternative spirituality, is a religious or spiritual group that has modern origins and which occupies a peripheral place within its society's dominant religious culture.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
Nick Lane (born 1967) is a British biochemist and writer.
The Nicomachean Ethics (Ἠθικὰ Νικομάχεια) is the name normally given to Aristotle's best-known work on ethics.
Nihilism is the philosophical viewpoint that suggests the denial or lack of belief towards the reputedly meaningful aspects of life.
Nimbarka is known for propagating the Vaishnava theology of Dvaitadvaita (dvaita-advaita) or “dualistic non-dualism".
(निर्वाण nirvāṇa; निब्बान nibbāna; णिव्वाण ṇivvāṇa) literally means "blown out", as in an oil lamp.
The Noble Eightfold Path (ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo, āryāṣṭāṅgamārga) is an early summary of the path of Buddhist practices leading to liberation from samsara, the painful cycle of rebirth.
Nonviolence is the personal practice of being harmless to self and others under every condition.
Normative ethics is the study of ethical action.
Objectivity is a central philosophical concept, objective means being independent of the perceptions thus objectivity means the property of being independent from the perceptions, which has been variously defined by sources.
Omnipresence or ubiquity is the property of being present everywhere.
On the Origin of Species (or more completely, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life),The book's full original title was On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life.
Ontology (introduced in 1606) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.
Oppression can refer to an authoritarian regime controlling its citizens via state control of politics, the monetary system, media, and the military; denying people any meaningful human or civil rights; and terrorizing the populace through harsh, unjust punishment, and a hidden network of obsequious informants reporting to a vicious secret police force.
According to Rabbinic Judaism, the Oral Torah or Oral Law (lit. "Torah that is on the mouth") represents those laws, statutes, and legal interpretations that were not recorded in the Five Books of Moses, the "Written Torah" (lit. "Torah that is in writing"), but nonetheless are regarded by Orthodox Jews as prescriptive and co-given.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
Original sin, also called "ancestral sin", is a Christian belief of the state of sin in which humanity exists since the fall of man, stemming from Adam and Eve's rebellion in Eden, namely the sin of disobedience in consuming the forbidden fruit from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.
Pacifism is opposition to war, militarism, or violence.
Pali, or Magadhan, is a Middle Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian subcontinent.
Pancharatra (IAST: Pāñcarātra) was a religious movement in Hinduism that originated in late 1st millennium BCE around the ideas of Narayana considered as an avatar of Vishnu.
Panentheism (meaning "all-in-God", from the Ancient Greek πᾶν pân, "all", ἐν en, "in" and Θεός Theós, "God") is the belief that the divine pervades and interpenetrates every part of the universe and also extends beyond time and space.
Pantheism is the belief that reality is identical with divinity, or that all-things compose an all-encompassing, immanent god.
Paranormal events are phenomena described in popular culture, folk, and other non-scientific bodies of knowledge, whose existence within these contexts is described to lie beyond normal experience or scientific explanation.
Parapsychology is the study of paranormal and psychic phenomena which include telepathy, precognition, clairvoyance, psychokinesis, near-death experiences, reincarnation, apparitional experiences, and other paranormal claims.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
In Christianity, the Passion (from Late Latin: passionem "suffering, enduring") is the short final period in the life of Jesus covering his entrance visit to Jerusalem and leading to his crucifixion on Mount Calvary, defining the climactic event central to Christian doctrine of salvation history.
Paul T. P. Wong is a Canadian clinical psychologist and professor.
Penguin Books is a British publishing house.
Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.
Perennial philosophy (philosophia perennis), also referred to as Perennialism and perennial wisdom, is a perspective in modern spirituality that views each of the world's religious traditions as sharing a single, metaphysical truth or origin from which all esoteric and exoteric knowledge and doctrine has grown.
Person of Interest is an American science fiction crime drama television series that aired on CBS from September 22, 2011, to June 21, 2016, its five seasons comprising 103 episodes.
Perspectivism (Perspektivismus) is the philosophical view (touched upon as far back as Plato's rendition of Protagoras) that all ideations take place from particular perspectives, and that there are many possible conceptual schemes, or perspectives in which judgment of truth or value can be made.
Peter Harrison FAHA (born 1955) is an Australian Laureate Fellow and director of the at the University of Queensland.
Philosophical Explanations is a 1981 metaphysical, epistemological, and ethical treatise by the philosopher Robert Nozick.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Philosophy Now is a bimonthly philosophy magazine sold from news-stands and book stores in the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, and Canada; it is also available on digital devices, and online.
There are at least two senses in which the term philosophy is used: a formal and an informal sense.
Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the nature of the mind.
Philosophy of science is a sub-field of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science.
The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy is a comic science fiction series created by Douglas Adams that has become popular among fans of the genre(s) and members of the scientific community.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Platonic idealism usually refers to Plato's theory of forms or doctrine of ideas.
Platonic realism is a philosophical term usually used to refer to the idea of realism regarding the existence of universals or abstract objects after the Greek philosopher Plato (c. 427–c. 347 BC), a student of Socrates.
Pleasure is a broad class of mental states that humans and other animals experience as positive, enjoyable, or worth seeking.
Popular culture (also called pop culture) is generally recognized as a set of the practices, beliefs, and objects that are dominant or ubiquitous in a society at a given point in time.
Positive psychology is "the scientific study of what makes life most worth living",Christopher Peterson (2008), or "the scientific study of positive human functioning and flourishing on multiple levels that include the biological, personal, relational, institutional, cultural, and global dimensions of life".
Positivism is a philosophical theory stating that certain ("positive") knowledge is based on natural phenomena and their properties and relations.
Post-structuralism is associated with the works of a series of mid-20th-century French, continental philosophers and critical theorists who came to be known internationally in the 1960s and 1970s.
Posthumanism or post-humanism (meaning "after humanism" or "beyond humanism") is a term with at least seven definitions according to philosopher Francesca Ferrando.
In social science and politics, power is the ability to influence or outright control the behaviour of people.
Power, Sex, Suicide: Mitochondria and the Meaning of Life is a 2005 popular science book by Nick Lane of University College London, which argues that mitochondria are central to questions of the evolution of multicellularity, the evolution of sexual reproduction, and to the process of senescence.
Pragmatism is a philosophical tradition that began in the United States around 1870.
Qadar (قدر, transliterated qadar, meaning "fate", "divine fore-ordainment", "predestination", "Yes God Knows where one will lead themselves, either heaven or hell, but the individual is held responsible according to their actions and choices for the outcome".)J.
In metaphysics, the problem of universals refers to the question of whether properties exist, and if so, what they are.
Prophets in Islam (الأنبياء في الإسلام) include "messengers" (rasul, pl. rusul), bringers of a divine revelation via an angel (Arabic: ملائكة, malāʾikah);Shaatri, A. I. (2007).
Propitiation, also called expiation, is the act of appeasing or making well-disposed a deity, thus incurring divine favor or avoiding divine retribution.
A psychic is a person who claims to use extrasensory perception (ESP) to identify information hidden from the normal senses, particularly involving telepathy or clairvoyance, or who performs acts that are apparently inexplicable by natural laws.
Pūjā or Poojan or Poosei (Thamizh) (Devanagari: पूजा) is a prayer ritual performed by Hindus of devotional worship to one or more deities, or to host and honor a guest, or one to spiritually celebrate an event.
A pure land is the celestial realm or pure abode of a buddha or bodhisattva in Mahayana Buddhism.
(Sanskrit: पुरुषार्थ) literally means an "object of human pursuit".
In Islam, Qiyamah (lit) is the belief in the resurrection of the people on the Day of Judgment, whether Muslim or not.
The Qliphoth/Qlippoth/Qlifot or Kelipot (the different English spellings are used in the alternative Kabbalistic traditions of Hermetic Qabalah and Jewish Kabbalah respectively), literally "Peels", "Shells" or "Husks" (from singular: qlippah "Husk"), are the representation of evil or impure spiritual forces in Jewish mysticism, the polar opposites of the holy Sefirot.
Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies, outlining negative and positive features of life.
In physics, a quantum (plural: quanta) is the minimum amount of any physical entity (physical property) involved in an interaction.
Quantum gravity (QG) is a field of theoretical physics that seeks to describe gravity according to the principles of quantum mechanics, and where quantum effects cannot be ignored, such as near compact astrophysical objects where the effects of gravity are strong.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
The quantum mind or quantum consciousness group of hypotheses propose that classical mechanics cannot explain consciousness.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Ramadan (رمضان,;In Arabic phonology, it can be, depending on the region. also known as Ramazan, romanized as Ramzan, Ramadhan, or Ramathan) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and is observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting (Sawm) to commemorate the first revelation of the Quran to Muhammad according to Islamic belief.
In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification".
Raymond Kurzweil (born February 12, 1948) is an American author, computer scientist, inventor and futurist.
Reality is all of physical existence, as opposed to that which is merely imaginary.
Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.
Rebirth in Buddhism refers to its teaching that the actions of a person lead to a new existence after death, in endless cycles called saṃsāra.
Recursion occurs when a thing is defined in terms of itself or of its type.
Redistribution of income and redistribution of wealth are respectively the transfer of income and of wealth (including physical property) from some individuals to others by means of a social mechanism such as taxation, charity, welfare, public services, land reform, monetary policies, confiscation, divorce or tort law.
Reductionism is any of several related philosophical ideas regarding the associations between phenomena which can be described in terms of other simpler or more fundamental phenomena.
Regeneration, while sometimes perceived to be a step in the Ordo salutis ('order of salvation'), is generally understood in Christian theology to be the objective work of God in a believer's life.
Reincarnation is the philosophical or religious concept that an aspect of a living being starts a new life in a different physical body or form after each biological death.
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
Renaissance humanism is the study of classical antiquity, at first in Italy and then spreading across Western Europe in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries.
Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents".
The Republic (Πολιτεία, Politeia; Latin: Res Publica) is a Socratic dialogue, written by Plato around 380 BC, concerning justice (δικαιοσύνη), the order and character of the just, city-state, and the just man.
The resurrection of Jesus or resurrection of Christ is the Christian religious belief that, after being put to death, Jesus rose again from the dead: as the Nicene Creed expresses it, "On the third day he rose again in accordance with the Scriptures".
The reward system is a group of neural structures responsible for incentive salience (i.e., motivation and "wanting", desire, or craving for a reward), associative learning (primarily positive reinforcement and classical conditioning), and positive emotions, particularly ones which involve pleasure as a core component (e.g., joy, euphoria and ecstasy).
Clinton Richard Dawkins (born 26 March 1941) is an English ethologist, evolutionary biologist, and author.
River Out of Eden: A Darwinian View of Life is a 1995 popular science book by Richard Dawkins.
The RNA world is a hypothetical stage in the evolutionary history of life on Earth, in which self-replicating RNA molecules proliferated before the evolution of DNA and proteins.
Saṃsāra is a Sanskrit word that means "wandering" or "world", with the connotation of cyclic, circuitous change.
Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī (صحيح البخاري.), also known as Bukhari Sharif (بخاري شريف), is one of the Kutub al-Sittah (six major hadith collections) of Sunni Islam.
Sahih Muslim (صحيح مسلم, Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim; full title: Al-Musnadu Al-Sahihu bi Naklil Adli) is one of the Kutub al-Sittah (six major hadith collections) in Sunni Islam.
Salah ("worship",; pl.; also salat), or namāz (نَماز) in some languages, is one of the Five Pillars in the faith of Islam and an obligatory religious duty for every Muslim.
Salvation in Christianity, or deliverance, is the saving of the soul from sin and its consequences.
Samhita literally means "put together, joined, union", a "collection", and "a methodically, rule-based combination of text or verses".
Satya is the Sanskrit word for truth.
Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a Danish philosopher, theologian, poet, social critic and religious author who is widely considered to be the first existentialist philosopher.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
The science of morality may refer to various forms of ethical naturalism grounding morality in rational, empirical consideration of the natural world.
The scientific community is a diverse network of interacting scientists.
Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.
Secular humanism is a philosophy or life stance that embraces human reason, ethics, and philosophical naturalism while specifically rejecting religious dogma, supernaturalism, pseudoscience, and superstition as the basis of morality and decision making.
Sefirot (סְפִירוֹת səphîrôṯ), meaning emanations, are the 10 attributes/emanations in Kabbalah, through which Ein Sof (The Infinite) reveals Itself and continuously creates both the physical realm and the chain of higher metaphysical realms (Seder hishtalshelus).
Seichō no Ie, is a syncretic, monotheistic, New Thought Japanese new religion that has spread since the end of World War II.
Self-organization, also called (in the social sciences) spontaneous order, is a process where some form of overall order arises from local interactions between parts of an initially disordered system.
The Seven Laws of Noah (שבע מצוות בני נח Sheva Mitzvot B'nei Noach), also referred to as the Noahide Laws or the Noachide Laws (from the English transliteration of the Hebrew pronunciation of "Noah"), are a set of imperatives which, according to the Talmud, were given by God as a binding set of laws for the "children of Noah" – that is, all of humanity.
Sex, Death and the Meaning of Life is a three-part television documentary presented by Richard Dawkins which explores what reason and science might offer in major events of human lives.
The Shahada (الشهادة,"the testimony").
The Shekhina(h) (also spelled Shekina(h), Schechina(h), or Shechina(h); שכינה) is the English transliteration of a Hebrew word meaning "dwelling" or "settling" and denotes the dwelling or settling of the divine presence of God.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
or kami-no-michi (among other names) is the traditional religion of Japan that focuses on ritual practices to be carried out diligently to establish a connection between present-day Japan and its ancient past.
A siddur (סדור; plural siddurim סדורים) is a Jewish prayer book, containing a set order of daily prayers.
The Sikh gurus established Sikhism over the centuries, beginning in the year 1469.
Sikhism (ਸਿੱਖੀ), or Sikhi,, from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner"), is a monotheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent about the end of the 15th century. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions, and the fifth-largest. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, divine unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. In the early 21st century there were nearly 25 million Sikhs worldwide, the great majority of them (20 million) living in Punjab, the Sikh homeland in northwest India, and about 2 million living in neighboring Indian states, formerly part of the Punjab. Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru (1469–1539), and the nine Sikh gurus that succeeded him. The Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the eternal, religious spiritual guide for Sikhs.Louis Fenech and WH McLeod (2014),, 3rd Edition, Rowman & Littlefield,, pages 17, 84-85William James (2011), God's Plenty: Religious Diversity in Kingston, McGill Queens University Press,, pages 241–242 Sikhism rejects claims that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly on Absolute Truth. The Sikh scripture opens with Ik Onkar (ੴ), its Mul Mantar and fundamental prayer about One Supreme Being (God). Sikhism emphasizes simran (meditation on the words of the Guru Granth Sahib), that can be expressed musically through kirtan or internally through Nam Japo (repeat God's name) as a means to feel God's presence. It teaches followers to transform the "Five Thieves" (lust, rage, greed, attachment, and ego). Hand in hand, secular life is considered to be intertwined with the spiritual life., page.
Simeon the Righteous or Simeon the Just (שמעון הצדיק Shimon HaTzaddik) was a Jewish High Priest during the time of the Second Temple.
Simulated reality is the hypothesis that reality could be simulated—for example by quantum computer simulation—to a degree indistinguishable from "true" reality.
In both moral and political philosophy, the social contract is a theory or model that originated during the Age of Enlightenment.
Social equality is a state of affairs in which all people within a specific society or isolated group have the same status in certain respects, including civil rights, freedom of speech, property rights and equal access to certain social goods and services.
Social psychology is the study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others.
A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.
Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.
Socrates (Sōkrátēs,; – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher, of the Western ethical tradition of thought.
In many religious, philosophical, and mythological traditions, there is a belief in the incorporeal essence of a living being called the soul. Soul or psyche (Greek: "psychē", of "psychein", "to breathe") are the mental abilities of a living being: reason, character, feeling, consciousness, memory, perception, thinking, etc.
Traditionally, spirituality refers to a religious process of re-formation which "aims to recover the original shape of man," oriented at "the image of God" as exemplified by the founders and sacred texts of the religions of the world.
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users.
The state of nature is a concept used in moral and political philosophy, religion, social contract theories and international law to denote the hypothetical conditions of what the lives of people might have been like before societies came into existence.
Suffering, or pain in a broad sense, may be an experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with the perception of harm or threat of harm in an individual.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.
Summum bonum is a Latin expression meaning "the highest good", which was introduced by the Roman philosopher Cicero, to correspond to the Idea of the Good in ancient Greek philosophy.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
A supercomputer is a computer with a high level of performance compared to a general-purpose computer.
A sutra (Sanskrit: IAST: sūtra; Pali: sutta) is a religious discourse (teaching) in text form originating from the spiritual traditions of India, particularly Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism.
Svayam Bhagavān ("The Lord Himself") is a Sanskrit theological term for the concept of absolute representation of God as Bhagavan.
Taiji is a Chinese cosmological term for the "Supreme Ultimate" state of undifferentiated absolute and infinite potential, the oneness before duality, from which Yin and Yang originate, can be compared with the old Wuji (無極, "without ridgepole").
The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד talmūd "instruction, learning", from a root LMD "teach, study") is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law and theology.
Tantras ("Looms" or "Weavings") refers to numerous and varied scriptures pertaining to any of several esoteric traditions rooted in Hindu and Buddhist philosophy.
The Tanya is an early work of Hasidic philosophy, by Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi, the founder of Chabad Hasidism, first published in 1797.
Tao or Dao (from) is a Chinese word signifying 'way', 'path', 'route', 'road' or sometimes more loosely 'doctrine', 'principle' or 'holistic science' Dr Zai, J..
Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').
Tat Tvam Asi (Devanagari: तत्त्वमसि), a Sanskrit phrase, translated variously as "Thou art that," (That thou art, That art thou, You are that, or That you are, or You're it) is one of the Mahāvākyas (Grand Pronouncements) in Vedantic Sanatana Dharma.
Tawhid (توحيد, meaning "oneness " also romanized as tawheed, touheed, or tevhid) is the indivisible oneness concept of monotheism in Islam.
In common usage, technoscience refers to the entire long-standing global human activity of technology combined with the relatively recent scientific method that occurred primarily in Europe during the 17th and 18th centuries.
Teleology or finality is a reason or explanation for something in function of its end, purpose, or goal.
, sometimes rendered as Tenriism, is a Japanese new religion which is neither strictly monotheistic nor pantheistic, originating from the teachings of a 19th-century woman named Nakayama Miki, known to her followers as Oyasama.
In social psychology, terror management theory (TMT) proposes a basic psychological conflict that results from having a self-preservation instinct, whilst realizing that death is inevitable and to some extent unpredictable.
The arts refers to the theory and physical expression of creativity found in human societies and cultures.
The Guide for the Perplexed (מורה נבוכים, Moreh Nevukhim; دلالة الحائرين, dalālat al-ḥā’irīn, דלאל̈ת אלחאירין) is one of the three major works of Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, primarily known either as Maimonides or RAMBAM (רמב"ם).
The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy (sometimes referred to as HG2G, HHGTTG or H2G2) is a comedy science fiction series created by Douglas Adams.
The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy is the first of five books in the Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy comedy science fiction "trilogy" by Douglas Adams.
The Myth of Sisyphus (Le Mythe de Sisyphe) is a 1942 philosophical essay by Albert Camus.
The Selfish Gene is a 1976 book on evolution by Richard Dawkins, in which the author builds upon the principal theory of George C. Williams's Adaptation and Natural Selection (1966).
The Sickness Unto Death (Sygdommen til Døden) is a book written by Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard in 1849 under the pseudonym Anti-Climacus.
The Simpsons is an American animated sitcom created by Matt Groening for the Fox Broadcasting Company.
L’Étranger (The Outsider, or The Stranger) is a 1942 novel by French author Albert Camus.
Theism is broadly defined as the belief in the existence of the Supreme Being or deities.
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.
Theoretical physics is a branch of physics that employs mathematical models and abstractions of physical objects and systems to rationalize, explain and predict natural phenomena.
A theory is a contemplative and rational type of abstract or generalizing thinking, or the results of such thinking.
A theory of everything (ToE), final theory, ultimate theory, or master theory is a hypothetical single, all-encompassing, coherent theoretical framework of physics that fully explains and links together all physical aspects of the universe.
The theory of Forms or theory of Ideas is Plato's argument that non-physical (but substantial) forms (or ideas) represent the most accurate reality.
Theravāda (Pali, literally "school of the elder monks") is a branch of Buddhism that uses the Buddha's teaching preserved in the Pāli Canon as its doctrinal core.
Tikkun olam (תיקון עולם (literally, "repair of the world", alternatively, "construction for eternity") is a concept in Judaism, interpreted in Orthodox Judaism as the prospect of overcoming all forms of idolatry, and by other Jewish denominations as an aspiration to behave and act constructively and beneficially. Documented use of the term dates back to the Mishnaic period. Since medieval times, kabbalistic literature has broadened use of the term. In the modern era, among the post Haskalah Ashkenazi movements, tikkun olam is the idea that Jews bear responsibility not only for their own moral, spiritual, and material welfare, but also for the welfare of society at large. To the ears of contemporary pluralistic Rabbis, the term connotes "the establishment of Godly qualities throughout the world".
In Jainism, a tirthankara (Sanskrit:; English: literally a 'ford-maker') is a saviour and spiritual teacher of the dharma (righteous path).
Torah (תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings.
A tradition is a belief or behavior passed down within a group or society with symbolic meaning or special significance with origins in the past.
In religion, transcendence refers to the aspect of a god's nature and power which is wholly independent of the material universe, beyond all known physical laws.
Transhumanism (abbreviated as H+ or h+) is an international intellectual movement that aims to transform the human condition by developing and making widely available sophisticated technologies to greatly enhance human intellect and physiology.
The trolley problem is a thought experiment in ethics.
Truth is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an original or standard.
Tu Weiming (born February 26, 1940) is an ethicist and a New Confucian.
The ultimate fate of the universe is a topic in physical cosmology, whose theoretical restrictions allow possible scenarios for the evolution and ultimate fate of the universe to be described and evaluated.
The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.
The University of Helsinki (Helsingin yliopisto, Helsingfors universitet, Universitas Helsingiensis, abbreviated UH) is a university located in Helsinki, Finland since 1829, but was founded in the city of Turku (in Swedish Åbo) in 1640 as the Royal Academy of Åbo, at that time part of the Swedish Empire.
The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
The Upanishads (उपनिषद्), a part of the Vedas, are ancient Sanskrit texts that contain some of the central philosophical concepts and ideas of Hinduism, some of which are shared with religious traditions like Buddhism and Jainism.
Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that states that the best action is the one that maximizes utility.
Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen.
Vaishnavism (Vaishnava dharma) is one of the major traditions within Hinduism along with Shaivism, Shaktism, and Smartism.
Vajrayāna, Mantrayāna, Tantrayāna, Tantric Buddhism and Esoteric Buddhism are the various Buddhist traditions of Tantra and "Secret Mantra", which developed in medieval India and spread to Tibet and East Asia.
The phrase vale of tears (Latin vallis lacrimarum) is a Christian phrase referring to the tribulations of life that Christian doctrine says are left behind only when one leaves the world and enters Heaven.
Vallabhacharya (1479–1531 CE), also known as Vallabha, was a devotional philosopher, who founded the Krishna-centered Pushti sect of Vaishnavism in the Braj region of India, and the philosophy of Shuddha advaita (Pure Nondualism).
In ethics, value denotes the degree of importance of some thing or action, with the aim of determining what actions are best to do or what way is best to live (normative ethics), or to describe the significance of different actions.
The value of life is an economic value used to quantify the benefit of avoiding a fatality.
The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.
Veganism is the practice of abstaining from the use of animal products, particularly in diet, and an associated philosophy that rejects the commodity status of animals.
Vegetarianism is the practice of abstaining from the consumption of meat (red meat, poultry, seafood, and the flesh of any other animal), and may also include abstention from by-products of animal slaughter.
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) (tegmentum is Latin for covering), also known as the ventral tegmental area of Tsai, or simply ventral tegmentum, is a group of neurons located close to the midline on the floor of the midbrain.
Vibhajyavāda (Sanskrit; Pāli: Vibhajjavāda) was a group of Sthavira Buddhist schools of early Buddhism, who rejected the Sarvastivada teachings at the Third Buddhist council (ca. 250 BCE).
Viktor Emil Frankl (26 March 1905 – 2 September 1997) was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist as well as a Holocaust survivor.
Virtue (virtus, ἀρετή "arete") is moral excellence.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
Vishnu (Sanskrit: विष्णु, IAST) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism, and the Supreme Being in its Vaishnavism tradition.
Waheguru (ਵਾਹਿਗੁਰੂ) is a name given to God in Sikhism.
Wealth is the abundance of valuable resources or valuable material possessions.
Well-being, wellbeing, or wellness is a general term for the condition of an individual or group.
Western esotericism (also called esotericism and esoterism), also known as the Western mystery tradition, is a term under which scholars have categorised a wide range of loosely related ideas and movements which have developed within Western society.
The Westminster Shorter Catechism is a catechism written in 1646 and 1647 by the Westminster Assembly, a synod of English and Scottish theologians and laymen intended to bring the Church of England into greater conformity with the Church of Scotland.
In general relativity, a white hole is a hypothetical region of spacetime which cannot be entered from the outside, although matter and light can escape from it.
The will to power (der Wille zur Macht) is a prominent concept in the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche.
William James (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was an American philosopher and psychologist, and the first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States.
Wisdom or sapience is the ability to think and act using knowledge, experience, understanding, common sense, and insight, especially in a mature or utilitarian manner.
The world is the planet Earth and all life upon it, including human civilization.
The term "world riddle" or "world-riddle" has been associated, for over 100 years, with Friedrich Nietzsche (who mentioned Welträthsel in several of his writings) and with the biologist-philosopher Ernst Haeckel, who, as a professor of zoology at the University of Jena, wrote the book Die Welträthsel in 1895–1899, in modern spelling Die Welträtsel (German "The World-riddles"), with the English version published under the title The Riddle of the Universe, 1901.
A world view or worldview is the fundamental cognitive orientation of an individual or society encompassing the whole of the individual's or society's knowledge and point of view.
Yoga (Sanskrit, योगः) is a group of physical, mental, and spiritual practices or disciplines which originated in ancient India.
Z'ev ben Shimon Halevi (English name, Warren Kenton) is an author of books on the Toledano Tradition of Kabbalah, a teacher of the discipline, with a worldwide following, and a founder member of the Kabbalah Society.
Zakat (زكاة., "that which purifies", also Zakat al-mal زكاة المال, "zakat on wealth", or Zakah) is a form of alms-giving treated in Islam as a religious obligation or tax, which, by Quranic ranking, is next after prayer (salat) in importance.
Zen (p; translit) is a school of Mahayana Buddhism that originated in China during the Tang dynasty as Chan Buddhism.
Zeno of Citium (Ζήνων ὁ Κιτιεύς, Zēnōn ho Kitieus; c. 334 – c. 262 BC) was a Hellenistic thinker from Citium (Κίτιον, Kition), Cyprus, and probably of Phoenician descent.
Zoroaster (from Greek Ζωροάστρης Zōroastrēs), also known as Zarathustra (𐬰𐬀𐬭𐬀𐬚𐬎𐬱𐬙𐬭𐬀 Zaraθuštra), Zarathushtra Spitama or Ashu Zarathushtra, was an ancient Iranian-speaking prophet whose teachings and innovations on the religious traditions of ancient Iranian-speaking peoples developed into the religion of Zoroastrianism.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.
`Abdu’l-Bahá' (Persian: عبد البهاء‎, 23 May 1844 – 28 November 1921), born `Abbás (عباس), was the eldest son of Bahá'u'lláh and served as head of the Bahá'í Faith from 1892 until 1921.
The 14th Dalai Lama (religious name: Tenzin Gyatso, shortened from Jetsun Jamphel Ngawang Lobsang Yeshe Tenzin Gyatso; born Lhamo Thondup, 6 July 1935) is the current Dalai Lama.
42 (forty-two) is the natural number that succeeds 41 and precedes 43.
The tradition that 613 commandments (תרי"ג מצוות, taryag mitzvot, "613 mitzvot") is the number of mitzvot in the Torah, began in the 3rd century CE, when Rabbi Simlai mentioned it in a sermon that is recorded in Talmud Makkot 23b.
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