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Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city. [1]

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Marr, Jordan, Juhayman al-Otaybi, Jurhum, Jurhum (Mecca neighborhood), Kaaba, Kabsa, Kebab, Khadija (name), Khalid bin Faisal Al Saud, Khedive, Khosrow I, King Abdul Aziz Stadium, King Abdulaziz International Airport, King Abdullah Economic City, Kingdom of Aksum, Kingdom of Hejaz, Kofta, Kufa, Lakhmids, Lebanese cuisine, Leuke Kome, Library of Congress Country Studies, List of cities and towns in Saudi Arabia, List of expeditions of Muhammad, List of largest buildings, London, Lonely Planet, Ludovico di Varthema, Mada'in Saleh, Makkah Region, Mandi (food), Mayor, Mecca Gate, Mecca Metro, Mecca Time, Meccan surah, Medina, Merv, Middle East, Midrash, Millenarianism, Mina, Saudi Arabia, Misfalah, Monotheism, Mosque, Mount Arafat, Muhajirun, Muhammad, Muhammad Ali of Egypt, Muhammad in Medina, Muhammad's first revelation, Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources, Muslim, Muslim world, Muzdalifah, Nabataean Kingdom, Najd, National Geographic, Nebaioth, Negus, Okaz, Old South Arabian, Old Testament, Old World monkey, One Thousand Roads to Mecca, Osman Nuri Pasha, Ottoman Caliphate, Ottoman Empire, Oxford University Press, Paganism, Pakistan Armed Forces, Paleontology, Palmyra, Pandemic, Patricia Crone, Persian Gulf, Petra, Pilgrimage, Piracy, Politics of Saudi Arabia, Primate, Private school, Procopius, Prophets and messengers in Islam, Psalm 84, Ptolemy, Qadiriyya, Qarmatians, Qibla, Qishla of Mecca, Quran, Quraysh, Rabigh, Railway Gazette International, Ramadan (calendar month), Rapid transit, Rashidun Caliphate, Red Sea, Regions of Saudi Arabia, Religion, Religion in pre-Islamic Arabia, Revelation, Richard Francis Burton, Riyadh, Roman–Persian Wars, Saadanius, Safa and Marwa, Salafi movement, Salah, Samosa, Sana'a, Sasanian Empire, Saudi 1, Saudi 2, Saudi Arabia, Saudi Gazette, Saudia, Second Fitna, Second language, Shar Mansur, Sharif of Mecca, Shawarma, Siege of Kut, Siege of Mecca (683), Siege of Mecca (692), Smallpox, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Spain, Spice trade, State school, Succession to Muhammad, Sufism, Suq Al Lail, Surah, Syria (region), Syrian cuisine, T. 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Abbasid Caliphate

The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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ABC-CLIO

ABC-CLIO, LLC is a publishing company for academic reference works and periodicals primarily on topics such as history and social sciences for educational and public library settings.

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Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr

`Abd Allah al-Zubayr or ibn Zubayr (عبد الله بن الزبير ‘Abdallāh ibn az-Zubayr; 624–692) was an Arab sahabi whose father was Zubayr ibn al-Awwam, and whose mother was Asma bint Abi Bakr, daughter of the first Caliph Abu Bakr.

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Abdul Majeed bin Abdulaziz Al Saud

Abdul Majeed bin Abdul Aziz (Arabic: عبد المجيد بن عبد العزيز آل سعود) (1942 – 5 May 2007) was a prominent member of House of Saud.

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Abdul-Muttalib

Shaybah ibn Hāshim c. 497 – 578), better known as ‘Abdul-Muṭṭalib, since he was raised by his uncle Muṭṭalib, was the grandfather of Islamic prophet Muḥammad.

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Abraha

Abraha (also spelled Abreha, died after AD 553;Stuart Munro-Hay (2003) "Abraha" in Siegbert Uhlig (ed.) Encyclopaedia Aethiopica: A-C. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag. r. 525–at least 553S. C. Munro-Hay (1991) Aksum: An African Civilization of Late Antiquity. Edinburgh: University Press. p. 87.), also known as Abraha al-Ashram (Arabic: أبرهة الأشرم), was an Aksumite army general, then the viceroy of southern Arabia for the Kingdom of Aksum, and later declared himself an independent King of Himyar.

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Abraham

Abraham (Arabic: إبراهيم Ibrahim), originally Abram, is the common patriarch of the three Abrahamic religions.

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Abraham in Islam

Ibrahim (ʾIbrāhīm), known as Abraham in the Hebrew Bible, is recognized as a prophet and messenger in Islam of God.

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Abrahamic religions

The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as Abrahamism, are a group of Semitic-originated religious communities of faith that claim descent from the practices of the ancient Israelites and the worship of the God of Abraham.

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Abraj Al Bait

The Abraj Al-Bait (Translated as "The Towers of the House") is a government-owned megatall complex of seven skyscraper hotels in Mecca, Saudi Arabia.

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Abu Bakr

Abū Bakr aṣ-Ṣiddīq ‘Abdallāh bin Abī Quḥāfah (أبو بكر الصديق عبد الله بن أبي قحافة; 573 CE23 August 634 CE), popularly known as Abu Bakr (أبو بكر), was a senior companion (Sahabi) and—through his daughter Aisha—the father-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Abu Bakr became the first openly declared Muslim outside Muhammad's family.Muhammad Mustafa Al-A'zami (2003), The History of The Qur'anic Text: From Revelation to Compilation: A Comparative Study with the Old and New Testaments, p.26, 59. UK Islamic Academy.. Abu Bakr served as a trusted advisor to Muhammad. During Muhammad's lifetime, he was involved in several campaigns and treaties.Tabqat ibn al-Saad book of Maghazi, page no:62 He ruled over the Rashidun Caliphate from 632 to 634 CE when he became the first Muslim Caliph following Muhammad's death. As caliph, Abu Bakr succeeded to the political and administrative functions previously exercised by Muhammad. He was commonly known as The Truthful (الصديق). Abu Bakr's reign lasted for 2 years, 2 months, 2 weeks and 1 day ending with his death after an illness.

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Abu Tahir al-Jannabi

Abū Tāhir Sulaymān al-Jannābī (906–944) (ابو طاهر سلیمان الجنّابي) was the ruler of the Qarmatian state in Bahrain (historical region) and Eastern Arabia, who in 930 led the sacking of Mecca.

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Abyssinian people

Abyssinian people (ሐበሻይት), also known as the Habesha or Abesha, are a population inhabiting the Horn of Africa.

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Afghanistan

Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.

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Africa

Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).

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Ahmadiyya

Ahmadiyya (officially, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community or the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama'at; الجماعة الإسلامية الأحمدية, transliterated: al-Jamā'ah al-Islāmiyyah al-Aḥmadiyyah; احمدیہ مسلم جماعت) is an Islamic religious movement founded in Punjab, British India, in the late 19th century.

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Ajyad

Ajyad (أجياد)is a historic neighborhood of Mecca in Makkah Province, in western Saudi Arabia.

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Ajyad Fortress

The Ajyad Fortress (Ecyad Kalesi; قلعة أجياد) was an Ottoman citadel which stood on a hill overlooking the Grand Mosque of Mecca, in what is now Saudi Arabia.

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Akib ibn Usaid

Akib ibn Usaid, a sahaba of Muhammad, was the first governor of Mecca.

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Al Adl

Al Adl or Al `adl is a neighborhood of Mecca in Makkah Province, in western Saudi Arabia.

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Al Arabiya

Al Arabiya (العربية, transliterated: or; meaning "The Arabic One" or "The Arab One") is a Saudi-owned pan-Arab television news channel broadcast in Modern Standard Arabic.

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Al Ekhbariya

Al Ekhbariya (Arabic: الإخبارية) is an Arabic news and current affairs satellite TV channel based in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

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Al Faisaliyyah

Al Faisaliyyah is a neighborhood of Mecca in Makkah Province, in western Saudi Arabia.

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Al Gemmezah

Al Gemmezah is a neighborhood of Mecca in Makkah Province, in western Saudi Arabia.

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Al Ghassalah

Al Ghassalah is a neighborhood of Mecca in Makkah Province, in western Saudi Arabia.

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Al Hindawiyyah

Al Hindawiyyah is a neighborhood of Mecca in Makkah Province, in western Saudi Arabia.

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Al Imran

Sura Al-Imran (آل عمران, Sūratu Āl 'Imrān, "The Family of Imran") is the 3rd chapter of the Qur'an with two hundred verses.

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Al Iskan

Al Iskan (also called King Fahd District) is a neighborhood of Mecca in Makkah Province, in western Saudi Arabia.It includes the King Fahd Housing complex, A residential district.

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Al Maabda

Al Maabda is a neighborhood of Mecca in Makkah Province, in western Saudi Arabia.

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Al Mashaaer Al Mugaddassah Metro line

The Al Mashaaer Al Mugaddassah Metro line, (قطار المشاعر المقدسة الخط الجنوبي. qtar al mashaaer al muqaddassah al khat diljanubi) is a metro line in the city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia.

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Al Muaisem

Al Muaisem is a neighborhood of Mecca in Makkah Province, in western Saudi Arabia.

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Al Nadwa

Al Nadwa (in Arabic الندوة meaning The Forum) was a Mecca-based Arabic daily newspaper published in Saudi Arabia.

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Al Nuzha

Al Nuzha is a neighborhood of Mecca in Makkah Province, in western Saudi Arabia.

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Al Rasaifah

Al Rasaifah is a neighborhood of Mecca in Makkah Province, in western Saudi Arabia.

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Al Riyadiah

Al Riyadiah is the sole carrier of Saudi Professional League football broadcasts in Saudi Arabia.

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Al Shoqiyah

Al Shoqiyah is a neighborhood of Mecca in Makkah Province, in western Saudi Arabia.

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Al Shubaikah

Al Shubaikah is a neighborhood of Mecca in Makkah Province, in western Saudi Arabia.

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Al Sulaimaniyyah

Al Sulaimaniyyah is a neighborhood of Mecca in Makkah Province, in western Saudi Arabia.

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Al Tundobawi

Al Tundobawi is a neighborhood of Mecca in Makkah Province, in western Saudi Arabia.

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Al Utaibiyyah

Al Utaibiyyah is a neighborhood of Mecca in Makkah Province, in western Saudi Arabia.

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Al Zahir (Mecca neighborhood)

Al Zahir is a neighborhood of Mecca in Makkah Province, in western Saudi Arabia.

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Al Zahra

Al Zahra is a neighborhood of Mecca in Makkah Province, in western Saudi Arabia.

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Al-Bilad (Saudi newspaper)

Al-Bilad (lit) is a Saudi Arabian daily newspaper located in Jeddah.

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Al-Fath

Sūrat al-Fatḥ (سورة الفتح, "Victory, Triumph") is the 48th sura of the Qur'an with 29 ayat.

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Al-Fil

Sūrat al-Fīl (سورة الفيل, "Chapter of the Elephant") is the 105th chapter (surah) of the Quran.

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Al-Khalidiya, Mecca

Al Khalediya is a neighborhood of Mecca in Makkah Province, in western Saudi Arabia.

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Al-Wehda Club (Mecca)

Al-Wehda Club (نادي الوحدة) is a multi-sports club team from Makkah, Saudi Arabia, founded in 1945.

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Ali

Ali (ʿAlī) (15 September 601 – 29 January 661) was the cousin and the son-in-law of Muhammad, the last prophet of Islam.

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Ali of Hejaz

Ali bin Hussein, GBE (علي بن الحسين بن علي الهاشمي, ‘Alī ibn al-Ḥusayn ibn ‘Alī al-Hāshimī; 18791935) was King of Hejaz and Grand Sharif of Mecca from October 1924 until he was deposed by Ibn Saud in December 1925.

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Amalek

Amalek (عماليق) is a nation described in the Old Testament of the Hebrew Bible.

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Anno Domini

The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.

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Ape

Apes (Hominoidea) are a branch of Old World tailless anthropoid primates native to Africa and Southeast Asia.

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Arab Radio and Television Network

Arab Radio and Television Network (acronym: ART) is an Arabic-language television network characterized by its multitude of channels.

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Arabia Petraea

Arabia Petraea or Petrea, also known as Rome's Arabian Province (Provincia Arabia) or simply Arabia, was a frontier province of the Roman Empire beginning in the 2nd century; it consisted of the former Nabataean Kingdom in Jordan, southern Levant, the Sinai Peninsula and northwestern Arabian Peninsula.

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Arabian Peninsula

The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.

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Arabic

Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Archangel

An archangel is an angel of high rank.

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Association football

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.

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Aziziyah

Aziziyah is a neighborhood of Mecca in Makkah Province, in western Saudi Arabia.

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Ḥ-R-M

Ḥ-R-M (Modern ח–ר–מ; ح–ر–م) is the triconsonantal root of many Semitic words, and many of those words are used as names.

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Baghdad

Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.

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Bakkah

Bakkah (بكة), according to the Sunni and Shi'a scholars, is an ancient name for Mecca, the most holy city of Islam.

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Baklava

Baklava is a rich, sweet dessert pastry made of layers of filo filled with chopped nuts and sweetened and held together with syrup or honey.

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Banu Hudhayl

Banu Hudhayl (Arabic: بـنـو هـذيـل) are an Adnanite tribe of western Saudi Arabia in Hijjaz.

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Banu Khuza'a

The Banū Khuza’ah (Arabic بنو خزاعة singular خزاعيّ Khuzā’ī) is the name of an Azdite, Qaḥṭānite tribe (some say Muḑarite ‘Adnānite), which is one of the main ancestral tribes of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Banu Kinanah

Banu Kinanah (also Bani Kinanah) (بنو كنانة or بني كنانة) are the largest Mudhari Adnanite tribe of western Saudi Arabia in Hejaz and Tihama.

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Banu Tamim

The tribe of Banu Tamim (بـنـو تـمـيـم) or Bani Tamim (بـني تـمـيـم) is one of the main tribes of Arabia.

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Basic Law of Saudi Arabia

The Basic Law of Saudi Arabia (alternative name: Basic System of Governance; Arabic: النظام الأساسي للحكم) is a constitution-like charter divided into nine chapters, consisting of 83 articles.

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Battle of Badr

The Battle of Badr (غزوة بدر), fought on Tuesday, 13 March 624 CE (17 Ramadan, 2 AH in the Islamic calendar) in the Hejaz region of western Arabia (present-day Saudi Arabia), was a key battle in the early days of Islam and a turning point in Muhammad's struggle with his opponents among the Quraish in Mecca.

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Battle of Mecca (1813)

Ottoman return of Mecca 1813 (Mekke'nin Osmanlıya Dönüşü) also known as the Battle of Mecca happened several days after the recapture of Jeddah during the Ottoman–Saudi War.

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Battle of Mecca (1916)

The Battle of Mecca occurred in the Muslim holy city of Mecca in June and July 1916.

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Battle of Mecca (1924)

Battle of Mecca took place in Mecca, in what is now known today as Saudi Arabia, following the fall of Ta'if to King Abdulaziz Ibn Saud in his campaign to conquer the Kingdom of Hejaz.

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Battle of the Trench

The Battle of the Trench (Ghazwat al-Khandaq) also known as the Battle of the Confederates (Ghazwat al-Ahzab), was a 30-day-long siege of Yathrib (now Medina) by Arab and Jewish tribes. The strength of the confederate armies is estimated around 10,000 men with six hundred horses and some camels, while the Medinan defenders numbered 3,000. The largely outnumbered defenders of Medina, mainly Muslims led by Islamic prophet Muhammad, dug a trench on the suggestion of Salman Farsi, which together with Medina's natural fortifications, rendered the confederate cavalry (consisting of horses and camels) useless, locking the two sides in a stalemate. Hoping to make several attacks at once, the confederates persuaded the Muslim-allied Medinan Jews, Banu Qurayza, to attack the city from the south. However, Muhammad's diplomacy derailed the negotiations, and broke up the confederacy against him. The well-organised defenders, the sinking of confederate morale, and poor weather conditions caused the siege to end in a fiasco. The siege was a "battle of wits", in which the Muslims tactically overcame their opponents while suffering very few casualties. Efforts to defeat the Muslims failed, and Islam became influential in the region. As a consequence, the Muslim army besieged the area of the Banu Qurayza tribe, leading to their surrender and enslavement or execution. The defeat caused the Meccans to lose their trade and much of their prestige.

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Battle of Uhud

The Battle of Uhud (غزوة أحد) was a battle between the early Muslims and their Quraish Meccan enemies in AD 624 in the northwest of the Arabian peninsula.

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Bedouin

The Bedouin (badawī) are a grouping of nomadic Arab peoples who have historically inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq and the Levant.

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Bibliotheca historica

Bibliotheca historica (Βιβλιοθήκη ἱστορική, "Historical Library"), is a work of universal history by Diodorus Siculus.

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Black Death

The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.

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Bologna

Bologna (Bulåggna; Bononia) is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna Region in Northern Italy.

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Brill Publishers

Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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Cairo

Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.

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Caliphate

A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Camel train

A camel train or caravan is a series of camels carrying passengers and/or goods on a regular or semi-regular service between points.

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Castle

A castle (from castellum) is a type of fortified structure built during the Middle Ages by predominantly the nobility or royalty and by military orders.

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Central Asia

Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.

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Cholera

Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.

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Cholera outbreaks and pandemics

Seven cholera pandemics have occurred in the past 200 years, with the seventh pandemic originating in Indonesia in 1961.

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Christian

A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.

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Church (building)

A church building or church house, often simply called a church, is a building used for Christian religious activities, particularly for worship services.

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Circa

Circa, usually abbreviated c., ca. or ca (also circ. or cca.), means "approximately" in several European languages (and as a loanword in English), usually in reference to a date.

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Cistern

A cistern (Middle English cisterne, from Latin cisterna, from cista, "box", from Greek κίστη, "basket") is a waterproof receptacle for holding liquids, usually water.

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Closed city

A closed city or closed town is a settlement where travel or residency restrictions are applied so that specific authorization is required to visit or remain overnight.

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Commando

A commando is a soldier or operative of an elite light infantry or special operations force often specializing in amphibious landings, parachuting or abseiling.

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Common Era

Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.

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Damascus

Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.

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Dammam

Dammam (الدمام) is the capital of the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia.

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Day of Arafah

The Day of Arafah (Yawm ‘Arafah) is an Islamic holiday that falls on the 9th day of Dhu al-Hijjah of the lunar Islamic Calendar.

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Defecation

Defecation is the final act of digestion, by which organisms eliminate solid, semisolid, or liquid waste material from the digestive tract via the anus.

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Deity

A deity is a supernatural being considered divine or sacred.

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Desert climate

The Desert climate (in the Köppen climate classification BWh and BWk, sometimes also BWn), also known as an arid climate, is a climate in which precipitation is too low to sustain any vegetation at all, or at most a very scanty shrub, and does not meet the criteria to be classified as a polar climate.

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Desert of Paran

The Desert of Paran or Wilderness of Paran (also sometimes spelled Pharan or Faran; מִדְבַּר פָּארָן, Midbar Pa'ran), is a location mentioned in the Hebrew Bible.

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Deutscher Wetterdienst

The Deutscher Wetterdienst or DWD for short, is the German Meteorological Office, based in Offenbach am Main, Germany, which monitors weather and meteorological conditions over Germany and provides weather services for the general public and for nautical, aviational or agricultural purposes.

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Dhu al-Hijjah

Dhu'l-Hijjah or alternatively Zulhijja (ذو الحجة; properly transliterated, also called Zil-Hajj) is the twelfth and final month in the Islamic calendar.

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Dhu al-Qidah

Dhu'l-Qi'dah, Dhu'l-Qa'dah, or alternatively Zulqida (ذو القعدة, also transliterated) is the eleventh month in the Islamic calendar.

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Diodorus Siculus

Diodorus Siculus (Διόδωρος Σικελιώτης Diodoros Sikeliotes) (1st century BC) or Diodorus of Sicily was a Greek historian.

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Dusk

Dusk occurs at the darkest stage of twilight, or at the very end of astronomical twilight after sunset and just before night.

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Electric locomotive

An electric locomotive is a locomotive powered by electricity from overhead lines, a third rail or on-board energy storage such as a battery or a supercapacitor.

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Emirate of Diriyah

The Emirate of Diriyah was the first Saudi state.

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Emirate of Nejd

The Emirate of Nejd was the second Saudi state, existing between 1824 and 1891 in Nejd, the regions of Riyadh and Ha'il of what is now Saudi Arabia.

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Encarta

Microsoft Encarta was a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation from 1993 to 2009.

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Encyclopaedia of Islam

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is an encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies published by Brill.

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Encyclopædia Britannica

The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.

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ETH Zurich

ETH Zurich (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich; Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich) is a science, technology, engineering and mathematics STEM university in the city of Zürich, Switzerland.

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Ethiopia

Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.

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Ethnic group

An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.

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Etymology

EtymologyThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time".

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Euphrates

The Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranuna; 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu; الفرات al-Furāt; ̇ܦܪܬ Pǝrāt; Եփրատ: Yeprat; פרת Perat; Fırat; Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.

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Europe

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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Fahd of Saudi Arabia

Fahd bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques (فهد بن عبد العزيز آل سعود; 16 March 1921 – 1 August 2005) was King of Saudi Arabia from 1982 to 2005.

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Five Pillars of Islam

The Five Pillars of Islam (أركان الإسلام; also أركان الدين "pillars of the religion") are five basic acts in Islam, considered mandatory by believers and are the foundation of Muslim life.

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Flag carrier

A flag carrier is a transportation company, such as an airline or shipping company, that, being locally registered in a given sovereign state, enjoys preferential rights or privileges accorded by the government for international operations.

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Ful medames

Ful medames (فول مدمس,; other spellings include ful mudammas and foule mudammes), or simply fūl, is a dish of cooked fava beans served with vegetable oil, cumin, and optionally with chopped parsley, garlic, onion, lemon juice, chili pepper and other vegetable, herb and spice ingredients.

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Gabriel

Gabriel (lit, lit, ⲅⲁⲃⲣⲓⲏⲗ, ܓܒܪܝܝܠ), in the Abrahamic religions, is an archangel who typically serves as God's messenger.

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Gallipoli Campaign

The Gallipoli Campaign, also known as the Dardanelles Campaign, the Battle of Gallipoli, or the Battle of Çanakkale (Çanakkale Savaşı), was a campaign of the First World War that took place on the Gallipoli peninsula (Gelibolu in modern Turkey) in the Ottoman Empire between 17 February 1915 and 9 January 1916.

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Gazza (Mecca neighborhood)

Gazza is a neighborhood of Mecca in Makkah Province, in western Saudi Arabia.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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Ghassanids

The Ghassanids (الغساسنة; al-Ghasāsinah, also Banū Ghassān "Sons of Ghassān") was an Arab kingdom, founded by descendants of the Azd tribe from Yemen who immigrated in the early 3rd century to the Levant region, where some merged with Hellenized Christian communities, converting to Christianity in the first few centuries AD while others may have already been Christians before emigrating north to escape religious persecution.

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GIGN

GIGN (Groupe d'intervention de la Gendarmerie nationale; National Gendarmerie Intervention Group) is the elite police tactical unit of the French National Gendarmerie.

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Grand Mosque seizure

The Grand Mosque seizure occurred during November and December 1979 when extremist insurgents calling for the overthrow of the House of Saud took over Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia.

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Great Depression

The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.

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Great Mosque of Mecca

The Great Mosque of Mecca, also called Al-Haram Mosque (al-Masjid al-Ḥarām, "the Forbidden Mosque" or "the Sacred Mosque") or Grand Mosque of Makkah, is the largest mosque in the world, and surrounds the Islamic Qiblah (قِـبْـلَـة, Direction of Prayer), that is the Kaaba in the Hejazi city of Mecca (مَـكَّـة, Makkah), Saudi Arabia.

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Guru Nanak

Guru Nanak (IAST: Gurū Nānak) (15 April 1469 – 22 September 1539) was the founder of Sikhism and the first of the ten Sikh Gurus.

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Hagar

Hagar (of uncertain origin هاجر Hājar; Agar) is a biblical person in the Book of Genesis.

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Hajj

The Hajj (حَجّ "pilgrimage") is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city for Muslims, and a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and can support their family during their absence.

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Haramain high-speed rail project

The Haramain high-speed rail project, also known as the "Western railway" or "Mecca–Medina high-speed railway", is a high-speed inter-city rail transport system under construction in Saudi Arabia.

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HarperCollins

HarperCollins Publishers L.L.C. is one of the world's largest publishing companies and is one of the Big Five English-language publishing companies, alongside Hachette, Macmillan, Penguin Random House, and Simon & Schuster.

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Hashemites

The Hashemites (الهاشميون, Al-Hāshimīyūn; also House of Hashim) are the ruling royal family of Jordan.

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Hegira

The Hegira (also called Hijrah, هِجْرَة) is the migration or journey of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Yathrib, later renamed by him to Medina, in the year 622.

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Hejaz

The Hejaz (اَلْـحِـجَـاز,, literally "the Barrier"), is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia.

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Highway 40 (Saudi Arabia)

Highway 40 is the most important highway of Saudi Arabia, linking the largest cities by crossing the entire country and Arabian Peninsula.

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Hilton Hotels & Resorts

Hilton Hotels & Resorts (formerly known as Hilton Hotels) is a global brand of full-service hotels and resorts and the flagship brand of Hilton.

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Himyarite Kingdom

The Ḥimyarite Kingdom or Ḥimyar (مملكة حِمْيَر, Mamlakat Ḥimyar, Musnad: 𐩢𐩣𐩺𐩧𐩣, ממלכת חִמְיָר) (fl. 110 BCE–520s CE), historically referred to as the Homerite Kingdom by the Greeks and the Romans, was a kingdom in ancient Yemen.

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Holiest sites in Islam

There are sites, which are mentioned or referred to in the Quran, that are considered holy to Islam.

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Holy city

Holy city is a term applied to many cities, all of them central to the history or faith of specific religions.

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Hubal

Hubal (هُبَل) was a god worshipped in pre-Islamic Arabia, notably by Quraysh at the Kaaba in Mecca.

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Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca

Hussein ibn Ali al-Hashimi (الحسين بن علي الهاشمي, al-Ḥusayn ibn ‘Alī al-Hāshimī; 1853/18544 June 1931) was a Hashemite Arab leader who was the Sharif and Emir of Mecca from 1908 and, after proclaiming the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire, King of the Hejaz from 1916 to 1924.

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Ibn Ishaq

Muḥammad ibn Isḥāq ibn Yasār ibn Khiyār (according to some sources, ibn Khabbār, or Kūmān, or Kūtān, محمد بن إسحاق بن يسار بن خيار, or simply ibn Isḥaq, ابن إسحاق, meaning "the son of Isaac"; died 767 or 761) was an Arab Muslim historian and hagiographer.

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Ibn Khaldun

Ibn Khaldun (أبو زيد عبد الرحمن بن محمد بن خلدون الحضرمي.,; 27 May 1332 – 17 March 1406) was a fourteenth-century Arab historiographer and historian.

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Ibn Saud

Abdulaziz ibn Abdul Rahman ibn Faisal ibn Turki ibn Abdullah ibn Muhammad Al Saud (عبد العزيز بن عبد الرحمن آل سعود,; 15 January 1875 – 9 November 1953), usually known within the Arab world as Abdulaziz and in the West as Ibn Saud, was the first monarch and founder of Saudi Arabia, the "third Saudi state".

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International school

An international school is a school that promotes international education, in an international environment, either by adopting a curriculum such as that of the International Baccalaureate, Edexcel or Cambridge International Examinations, or by following a national curriculum different from that of the school's country of residence.

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Iraq

Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.

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Ishmael

Ishmael Ἰσμαήλ Ismaēl; Classical/Qur'anic Arabic: إِسْمَٰعِيْل; Modern Arabic: إِسْمَاعِيْل ʾIsmāʿīl; Ismael) is a figure in the Tanakh and the Quran and was Abraham's first son according to Jews, Christians and Muslims. Ishmael was born to Abraham and Sarah's handmaiden Hagar (Hājar).. According to the Genesis account, he died at the age of 137. The Book of Genesis and Islamic traditions consider Ishmael to be the ancestor of the Ishmaelites and patriarch of Qaydār. According to Muslim tradition, Ishmael the Patriarch and his mother Hagar are said to be buried next to the Kaaba in Mecca.

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Ishmael in Islam

Ishmael (إسماعيل) is the figure known in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam as Abraham's (Ibrahim) son, born to Hagar (Hajar).

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Islam

IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Islamic schools and branches

This article summarizes the different branches and schools in Islam.

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Islamism

Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.

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Islamization

Islamization (also spelled Islamisation, see spelling differences; أسلمة), Islamicization or Islamification is the process of a society's shift towards Islam, such as found in Sudan, Pakistan, Iran, Malaysia, or Algeria.

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Isma'ilism

Ismāʿīlism (الإسماعيلية al-Ismāʿīliyya; اسماعیلیان; اسماعيلي; Esmāʿīliyān) is a branch of Shia Islam.

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Istanbul

Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.

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Jabal Al Nour

Jabal Al Nour is a neighborhood of Mecca in Makkah Province, in western Saudi Arabia.

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Jabal al-Nour

Jabal an-Nour (lit or 'Hill of the Illumination') is a mountain near Mecca in the Hejazi region of Saudi Arabia.

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Jamaraat Bridge

The Jamaraat Bridge (جسر الجمرات; transliterated: Jisr Al-Jamarat) is a pedestrian bridge in Mina, Saudi Arabia, near Mecca used by Muslims during the Hajj ritual Stoning of the Devil.

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Jarwal (Mecca neighborhood)

Jarwal is a neighborhood of Mecca in Makkah Province, in western Saudi Arabia.

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Jeddah

Jeddah (sometimes spelled Jiddah or Jedda;; جدة, Hejazi pronunciation) is a city in the Hijaz Tihamah region on the coast of the Red Sea and is the major urban center of western Saudi Arabia. It is the largest city in Makkah Province, the largest seaport on the Red Sea, and with a population of about four million people, the second-largest city in Saudi Arabia after the capital city, Riyadh. Jeddah is Saudi Arabia's commercial capital. Jeddah is the principal gateway to Mecca and Medina, two of the holiest cities in Islam and popular tourist attractions. Economically, Jeddah is focusing on further developing capital investment in scientific and engineering leadership within Saudi Arabia, and the Middle East. Jeddah was independently ranked fourth in the Africa – Mid-East region in terms of innovation in 2009 in the Innovation Cities Index. Jeddah is one of Saudi Arabia's primary resort cities and was named a Beta world city by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network (GaWC). Given the city's close proximity to the Red Sea, fishing and seafood dominates the food culture unlike other parts of the country. In Arabic, the city's motto is "Jeddah Ghair," which translates to "Jeddah is different." The motto has been widely used among both locals as well as foreign visitors. The city had been previously perceived as the "most open" city in Saudi Arabia.

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Jet aircraft

A jet aircraft (or simply jet) is an aircraft (nearly always a fixed-wing aircraft) propelled by jet engines (jet propulsion).

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John S. Marr

John S Marr (born April 1940) is an American physician, epidemiologist, and author.

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Jordan

Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.

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Juhayman al-Otaybi

Juhayman ibn Muhammad ibn Sayf al-Otaybi (جهيمان بن محمد بن سيف العتيبي 16 September 1936 – 9 January 1980) was a Saudi religious extremist and former Saudi Arabian army man who in 1979 led the Grand Mosque seizure of the Masjid al Haram in Mecca, Islam's holiest site, to protest against the Saudi monarchy and the House of Saud.

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Jurhum

Jurhum (also Banu Jurhum) was a Qahtani tribe in the Arabian peninsula.

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Jurhum (Mecca neighborhood)

Jurhum is a neighborhood of Mecca in Makkah Province, in western Saudi Arabia.

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Kaaba

The Kaaba (ٱلْـكَـعْـبَـة, "The Cube"), also referred as al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah (ٱلْـكَـعْـبَـة الْـمُـشَـرًّفَـة, the Holy Ka'bah), is a building at the center of Islam's most important mosque, that is Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (ٱلْـمَـسْـجِـد الْـحَـرَام, The Sacred Mosque), in the Hejazi city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia.

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Kabsa

Kabsa (كبسة kabsah) is a family of mixed rice dishes that originates from Saudi Arabia, where it is commonly regarded as a national dish.

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Kebab

Kebabs (also kabobs or kababs) are various cooked meat dishes, with their origins in Middle Eastern cuisine.

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Khadija (name)

Khadija (Khadeeja) (خديجة) is an Arabic feminine given name, the name of Khadija bint Khuwaylid, first wife of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.

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Khalid bin Faisal Al Saud

Khalid al-Faisal Al Saud (خالد الفيصل بن عبد العزيز آل سعود) (born 24 February 1940) is the current Governor of Makkah Province in Saudi Arabia.

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Khedive

The term Khedive (خدیو Hıdiv) is a title largely equivalent to the English word viceroy.

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Khosrow I

Khosrow I (also known as Chosroes I and Kisrā in classical sources; 501–579, most commonly known in Persian as Anushiruwān (انوشيروان, "the immortal soul"; also known as Anushiruwan the Just (انوشيروان دادگر, Anushiruwān-e Dādgar), was the King of Kings (Shahanshah) of the Sasanian Empire from 531 to 579. He was the successor of his father Kavadh I (488–531). Khosrow I was the twenty-second Sasanian Emperor of Persia, and one of its most celebrated emperors. He laid the foundations of many cities and opulent palaces, and oversaw the repair of trade roads as well as the building of numerous bridges and dams. His reign is furthermore marked by the numerous wars fought against the Sassanid's neighboring archrivals, the Roman-Byzantine Empire, as part of the already centuries-long lasting Roman-Persian Wars. The most important wars under his reign were the Lazic War which was fought over Colchis (western Georgia-Abkhazia) and the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 572–591. During Khosrow's ambitious reign, art and science flourished in Persia and the Sasanian Empire reached its peak of glory and prosperity. His rule was preceded by his father's and succeeded by Hormizd IV. Khosrow Anushiruwan is one of the most popular emperors in Iranian culture and literature and, outside of Iran, his name became, like that of Caesar in the history of Rome, a designation of the Sasanian kings. He also introduced a rational system of taxation, based upon a survey of landed possessions, which his father had begun, and tried in every way to increase the welfare and the revenues of his empire. His army was in discipline decidedly superior to the Byzantines, and apparently was well paid. He was also interested in literature and philosophical discussions. Under his reign chess was introduced from India, and the famous book of Kalilah and Dimnah was translated. He thus became renowned as a wise king.

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King Abdul Aziz Stadium

The King Abdulaziz Stadium (ستاد الملك عبدالعزيز) is a multi-purpose stadium in Mecca, Saudi Arabia.

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King Abdulaziz International Airport

King Abdulaziz International Airport (KAIA) (مطار الملك عبدالعزيز الدولي) is an airport located 19 km to the north of Jeddah.

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King Abdullah Economic City

King Abdullah Economic City (KAEC,; مدينة الملك عبدالله الإقتصادية) is a megaproject announced in 2005 by king Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, the then-king of Saudi Arabia.

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Kingdom of Aksum

The Kingdom of Aksum (also known as the Kingdom of Axum, or the Aksumite Empire) was an ancient kingdom in what is now northern Ethiopia and Eritrea.

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Kingdom of Hejaz

The Hashemite Kingdom of Hejaz (المملكة الحجازية الهاشمية, Al-Mamlakah al-Ḥijāzyah Al-Hāshimīyah) was a state in the Hejaz region in the Middle East ruled by the Hashemite dynasty.

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Kofta

Kofta is a family of meatball or meatloaf dishes found in South Asian, Middle Eastern, Balkan, and Central Asian cuisines.

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Kufa

Kufa (الْكُوفَة) is a city in Iraq, about south of Baghdad, and northeast of Najaf.

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Lakhmids

The Lakhmids (اللخميون) or Banu Lakhm (بنو لخم) were an Arab kingdom of southern Iraq with al-Hirah as their capital, from about 300 to 602 AD.

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Lebanese cuisine

Lebanese cuisine is a Levantine style of cooking that includes an abundance of whole grains, fruits, vegetables, starches, fresh fish and seafood; animal fats are consumed sparingly.

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Leuke Kome

Leuke Kome (meaning, "white village") was a Nabataean port city located on the Incense Route.

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Library of Congress Country Studies

The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the United States Library of Congress, freely available for use by researchers.

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List of cities and towns in Saudi Arabia

This is a list of cities and towns in Saudi Arabia.

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List of expeditions of Muhammad

The list of expeditions of Muhammad includes the expeditions undertaken by the Muslim community during the lifetime of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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List of largest buildings

The lists in this article rank buildings from around the world by usable space (volume), footprint on the ground (area), and floor space (area), respectively.

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London

London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Lonely Planet

Lonely Planet is the largest travel guide book publisher in the world.

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Ludovico di Varthema

Ludovico di Varthema, also known as Barthema and Vertomannus (c. 1470 – 1517), was an Italian traveller, diarist and aristocrat known for being the first non-Muslim European to enter Mecca as a pilgrim.

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Mada'in Saleh

Mada'in Saleh (مدائن صالح, madāʼin Ṣāliḥ, "Cities of Saleh"), also called "Al-Hijr" or "Hegra", is an archaeological site located in the Sector of Al-`Ula within Al Madinah Region, the Hejaz, Saudi Arabia.

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Makkah Region

The Makkah Region or Mecca Region (مِـنْـطَـقَـة مَـكَّـة الـمُـكَـرَّمَـة) is the most populous region (minṭaqah) in Saudi Arabia.

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Mandi (food)

Mandi (المندي) is a traditional dish from Yemen of meat, rice, and spices.

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Mayor

In many countries, a mayor (from the Latin maior, meaning "bigger") is the highest-ranking official in a municipal government such as that of a city or a town.

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Mecca Gate

The Gate of Mecca, Mecca Gate or Makkah Gate (بوابة), also known as Qur'an Gate (القرآن), is an arch gateway monumental on the Makkah al-Mukkarramah road of the Jeddah–Makkah Highway.

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Mecca Metro

The Mecca Metro or Makkah Metro is a planned four-line metro system for the city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia, constructed by China Railway Construction Corporation and run by Makkah Mass Rail Transit Company (MMRTC).

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Mecca Time

Mecca Time was a proposed time standard that uses the line of longitude that goes through Mecca, Saudi Arabia (39°49′34″ E of the Greenwich Meridian) as its Prime Meridian.

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Meccan surah

The Meccan surahs are the chronologically earlier chapters (surahs) of the Qur'an that were, according to Islamic tradition, revealed anytime before the migration of the Islamic prophet Muhammed and his followers from Mecca to Medina (Hijra).

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Medina

Medina (المدينة المنورة,, "the radiant city"; or المدينة,, "the city"), also transliterated as Madīnah, is a city in the Hejaz region of the Arabian Peninsula and administrative headquarters of the Al-Madinah Region of Saudi Arabia.

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Merv

Merv (Merw, Мерв, مرو; مرو, Marv), formerly Achaemenid Persian Satrapy of Margiana, and later Alexandria (Margiana) (Ἀλεξάνδρεια) and Antiochia in Margiana (Ἀντιόχεια τῆς Μαργιανῆς), was a major oasis-city in Central Asia, on the historical Silk Road, located near today's Mary in Turkmenistan.

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Middle East

The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).

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Midrash

In Judaism, the midrash (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. מִדְרָשׁ; pl. מִדְרָשִׁים midrashim) is the genre of rabbinic literature which contains early interpretations and commentaries on the Written Torah and Oral Torah (spoken law and sermons), as well as non-legalistic rabbinic literature (aggadah) and occasionally the Jewish religious laws (halakha), which usually form a running commentary on specific passages in the Hebrew Scripture (Tanakh).

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Millenarianism

Millenarianism (also millenarism), from Latin ''mīllēnārius'' "containing a thousand", is the belief by a religious, social, or political group or movement in a coming major transformation of society, after which all things will be changed.

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Mina, Saudi Arabia

Mina (also known as the Tent City) is a neighborhood of Mecca in Makkah Province, in western Saudi Arabia.

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Misfalah

Misfalah is a neighborhood of Mecca in Makkah Province, in western Saudi Arabia.

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Monotheism

Monotheism has been defined as the belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, is all-powerful and intervenes in the world.

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Mosque

A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.

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Mount Arafat

Mount Arafat or Mount Arafah (جبل عرفات transliterated Jabal ‘Arafāt) is a granite hill east of Mecca in the plain of Arafat.

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Muhajirun

Muhajirun (المهاجرون The Emigrants) were the first converts to Islam and the Islamic Prophet Muhammad's advisors and relatives, who emigrated with him from Mecca to Medina, the event known in Islam as ''The Hijra''.

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Muhammad

MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.

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Muhammad Ali of Egypt

Muhammad Ali Pasha al-Mas'ud ibn Agha (محمد علی پاشا المسعود بن آغا; محمد علي باشا / ALA-LC: Muḥammad ‘Alī Bāshā; Albanian: Mehmet Ali Pasha; Turkish: Kavalalı Mehmet Ali Paşa; 4 March 1769 – 2 August 1849) was an Ottoman Albanian commander in the Ottoman army, who rose to the rank of Pasha, and became Wāli, and self-declared Khedive of Egypt and Sudan with the Ottomans' temporary approval.

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Muhammad in Medina

The Islamic prophet Muhammad came to Medina following the migration of his followers in what is known as the Hijra (migration to Medina) in 622.

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Muhammad's first revelation

Muhammad's first revelation was an event described in Islam as taking place in 610 AD, during which the Islamic prophet, Muhammad was visited by the Angel Jibril Gabriel, who revealed to him the beginnings of what would later become the Quran.

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Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources

Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources is a 1983 biography of the Islamic prophet Muhammad by Martin Lings.

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Muslim

A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.

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Muslim world

The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.

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Muzdalifah

Muzdalifah (مُـزْدَلِـفَـة) is an open, level area near Mecca in Saudi Arabia that is associated with the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage").

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Nabataean Kingdom

The Nabataean Kingdom (المملكة النبطية), also named Nabatea, was a political state of the Arab Nabataeans during classical antiquity.

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Najd

Najd or Nejd (نجد, Najd) is a geographical central region of Saudi Arabia, alone accounting for almost a third of the population of the country.

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National Geographic

National Geographic (formerly the National Geographic Magazine and branded also as NAT GEO or) is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society.

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Nebaioth

Nebaioth (Hebrew נְבָיוֹת) is mentioned at least five times in the Hebrew Bible according to which he was the firstborn son of Ishmael, and the name appears as the name of one of the wilderness tribes mentioned in the Book of Genesis 25:13, and in the Book of Isaiah 60:7.

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Negus

Negus (ነጉሥ,; nigūs; cf. ነጋሲ) is a royal title in the Ethiopian Semitic languages.

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Okaz

Okaz (عكاظ) is an Arabic Saudi Arabian daily newspaper located in Jeddah.

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Old South Arabian

Old South Arabianhttp://e-learning.tsu.ge/pluginfile.php/5868/mod_resource/content/0/dzveli_armosavluri_enebi_-ugarituli_punikuri_arameuli_ebrauli_arabuli.pdf (or Epigraphic South Arabian, or Ṣayhadic) is a group of four closely related extinct languages spoken in the far southern portion of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Old Testament

The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.

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Old World monkey

The Old World monkeys or Cercopithecidae are a family of catarrhines, the only family in the superfamily Cercopithecoidea in the clade (or parvorder) of Catarrhini.

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One Thousand Roads to Mecca

One Thousand Roads to Mecca: Ten Centuries of Travelers Writing About the Muslim Pilgrimage is a collection of travel journals edited by Michael Wolfe and published in 1999.

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Osman Nuri Pasha

Osman Nuri Pasha (عثمان نوری پاشا‎; 1832, Tokat, Ottoman Empire – 5 April 1900, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire), also known as Gazi Osman Pasha, was an Ottoman field marshal and the hero of the Siege of Plevna in 1877.

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Ottoman Caliphate

The Ottoman Caliphate (1517–1924), under the Ottoman dynasty of the Ottoman Empire, was the last Sunni Islamic caliphate of the late medieval and the early modern era.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Paganism

Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).

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Pakistan Armed Forces

The Pakistan Armed Forces (پاکستان مُسَلّح افواج, Pākistān Musallah Afwāj) are the military forces of Pakistan.

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Paleontology

Paleontology or palaeontology is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present).

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Palmyra

Palmyra (Palmyrene: Tadmor; تَدْمُر Tadmur) is an ancient Semitic city in present-day Homs Governorate, Syria.

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Pandemic

A pandemic (from Greek πᾶν pan "all" and δῆμος demos "people") is an epidemic of infectious disease that has spread across a large region; for instance multiple continents, or even worldwide.

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Patricia Crone

Patricia Crone (March 28, 1945July 11, 2015) was a Danish-American author, orientalist, and historian, specializing in early Islamic history.

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Persian Gulf

The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.

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Petra

Petra (Arabic: البتراء, Al-Batrāʾ; Ancient Greek: Πέτρα), originally known to its inhabitants as Raqmu, is a historical and archaeological city in southern Jordan.

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Pilgrimage

A pilgrimage is a journey or search of moral or spiritual significance.

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Piracy

Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence by ship or boat-borne attackers upon another ship or a coastal area, typically with the goal of stealing cargo and other valuable items or properties.

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Politics of Saudi Arabia

The politics of Saudi Arabia takes place in the context of a totalitarian absolute monarchy with some Islamic lines, where the King is both the head of state and government.

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Primate

A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").

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Private school

Private schools, also known to many as independent schools, non-governmental, privately funded, or non-state schools, are not administered by local, state or national governments.

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Procopius

Procopius of Caesarea (Προκόπιος ὁ Καισαρεύς Prokopios ho Kaisareus, Procopius Caesariensis; 500 – 554 AD) was a prominent late antique Greek scholar from Palaestina Prima.

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Prophets and messengers in Islam

Prophets in Islam (الأنبياء في الإسلام) include "messengers" (rasul, pl. rusul), bringers of a divine revelation via an angel (Arabic: ملائكة, malāʾikah);Shaatri, A. I. (2007).

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Psalm 84

Psalm 84 is the 84th psalm of the Book of Psalms, generally known in English by its first verse, in the King James Version, "How amiable are thy tabernacles, O Lord of hosts!".

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Ptolemy

Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.

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Qadiriyya

The Qadiriyya (القادريه, قادریه, also transliterated Qadri, Qadriya, Kadri, Elkadri, Elkadry, Aladray, Alkadrie, Adray, Kadray, Qadiri,"Quadri" or Qadri) are members of the Qadiri tariqa (Sufi order).

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Qarmatians

The Qarmatians (قرامطة Qarāmita; also transliterated Carmathians, Qarmathians, Karmathians) were a syncretic branch of Sevener Ismaili Shia Islam that combined elements of Zoroastrianism.

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Qibla

The Qibla (قِـبْـلَـة, "Direction", also transliterated as Qiblah, Qibleh, Kiblah, Kıble or Kibla), is the direction that should be faced when a Muslim prays during Ṣalāṫ (صَـلَاة).

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Qishla of Mecca

The Qishla of Mecca (Mekke Redif Kışlası) was a fortress in Mecca, in what is now Saudi Arabia, built in the 18th century to be a military castle of the Ottoman army.

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Quran

The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).

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Quraysh

The Quraysh (قريش) were a mercantile Arab tribe that historically inhabited and controlled Mecca and its Ka'aba.

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Rabigh

Rabigh (رابغ) is an ancient town on the western coast of Saudi Arabia, along the Red Sea in the Makkah Region.

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Railway Gazette International

Railway Gazette International is a monthly business journal covering the railway, metro, light rail and tram industries worldwide.

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Ramadan (calendar month)

Ramadan (Arabic: رمضان) or Ramadhan is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and the month in which the Quran was revealed to the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Rapid transit

Rapid transit or mass rapid transit, also known as heavy rail, metro, MRT, subway, tube, U-Bahn or underground, is a type of high-capacity public transport generally found in urban areas.

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Rashidun Caliphate

The Rashidun Caliphate (اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ) (632–661) was the first of the four major caliphates established after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.

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Red Sea

The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.

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Regions of Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia is divided into 13 regions (مناطق إدارية; manātiq idāriyya, sing. منطقة إدارية; mintaqah idariyya).

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Religion

Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.

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Religion in pre-Islamic Arabia

Religion in pre-Islamic Arabia was a mix of polytheism, Christianity, Judaism, and Iranian religions.

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Revelation

In religion and theology, revelation is the revealing or disclosing of some form of truth or knowledge through communication with a deity or other supernatural entity or entities.

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Richard Francis Burton

Sir Richard Francis Burton (19 March 1821 – 20 October 1890) was a British explorer, geographer, translator, writer, soldier, orientalist, cartographer, ethnologist, spy, linguist, poet, fencer, and diplomat.

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Riyadh

Riyadh (/rɨˈjɑːd/; الرياض ar-Riyāḍ Najdi pronunciation) is the capital and most populous city of Saudi Arabia.

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Roman–Persian Wars

The Roman–Persian Wars were a series of conflicts between states of the Greco-Roman world and two successive Iranian empires: the Parthian and the Sasanian.

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Saadanius

Saadanius is a genus of fossil primate dating to the Oligocene that is closely related to the common ancestor of the Old World monkeys and apes, collectively known as catarrhines.

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Safa and Marwa

Safa (Aṣ-Ṣafā) and Marwa (Al-Marwah) are two small hills now located in the Great Mosque of Mecca in Saudi Arabia named the Kabbah.

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Salafi movement

The Salafi movement or Salafist movement or Salafism is a reform branch or revivalist movement within Sunni Islam that developed in Egypt in the late 19th century as a response to European imperialism.

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Salah

Salah ("worship",; pl.; also salat), or namāz (نَماز) in some languages, is one of the Five Pillars in the faith of Islam and an obligatory religious duty for every Muslim.

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Samosa

A samosa, sambusa, or samboksa is a fried or baked dish with a savoury filling, such as spiced potatoes, onions, peas, or lentils.

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Sana'a

Sana'a (صنعاء, Yemeni Arabic), also spelled Sanaa or Sana, is the largest city in Yemen and the centre of Sana'a Governorate.

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Sasanian Empire

The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.

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Saudi 1

Saudi TV Channel 1 (KSA 1), or as of 2014 known as Al Saudiya is an Arabic news and entertainment TV channel of Saudi Arabia.

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Saudi 2

Saudi TV Channel 2 (KSA 2), or as of 2014 known as Saudi 2 was the English news and entertainment TV channel of Saudi Arabia.

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Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Saudi Gazette

Saudi Gazette is the leading English-language daily newspaper published in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

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Saudia

Saudia (السعودية), also known as Saudi Arabian Airlines (الخطوط الجوية العربية السعودية), is the national carrier airline of Saudi Arabia, based in Jeddah.

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Second Fitna

The Second Fitna was a period of general political and military disorder that afflicted the Islamic empire during the early Umayyad dynasty, following the death of the first Umayyad caliph Muawiyah I. Historians date its start variously as 680 AD and its end as being somewhere between 685 and 692.

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Second language

A person's second language or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person.

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Shar Mansur

Al Mansur Street (شارع المنصور) is a neighborhood and street of Mecca in Makkah Province, in western Saudi Arabia.

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Sharif of Mecca

The Sharif of Mecca (شريف مكة, Sharīf Makkah) or Hejaz (شريف الحجاز, Sharīf al-Ḥijāz) was the title of the leader of the Sharifate of Mecca, traditional steward of the holy cities of Mecca and Medina and the surrounding Hejaz.

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Shawarma

Shawarma (شاورما), also spelled shawurma or shawerma, is a Levantine meat preparation, where thin cuts of lamb, chicken, turkey, beef, veal, or mixed meats are stacked in a cone-like shape on a vertical rotisserie.

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Siege of Kut

The Siege of Kut Al Amara (7 December 1915 – 29 April 1916), also known as the First Battle of Kut, was the besieging of an 8,000 strong British-Indian garrison in the town of Kut, south of Baghdad, by the Ottoman Army.

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Siege of Mecca (683)

The Siege of Mecca in September–November 683 was one of the early battles of the Second Islamic Civil War.

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Siege of Mecca (692)

The 692 AD Siege of Mecca occurred after the Islamic Umayyad Caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan sent his General Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf with a large army to Mecca where Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr ruled, to put an end to the rival Caliphate.

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Smallpox

Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.

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South Asia

South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.

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Southeast Asia

Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.

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Spain

Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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Spice trade

The spice trade refers to the trade between historical civilizations in Asia, Northeast Africa and Europe.

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State school

State schools (also known as public schools outside England and Wales)In England and Wales, some independent schools for 13- to 18-year-olds are known as 'public schools'.

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Succession to Muhammad

The succession to Muhammad is the central issue that divided the Muslim community into several divisions in the first century of Muslim history.

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Sufism

Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.

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Suq Al Lail

Suq Al Lail is a neighborhood of Mecca in Makkah Province, in western Saudi Arabia.

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Surah

A Surah (also spelled Sura; سورة, plural سور suwar) is the term for a chapter of the Quran.

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Syria (region)

The historic region of Syria (ash-Shām, Hieroglyphic Luwian: Sura/i; Συρία; in modern literature called Greater Syria, Syria-Palestine, or the Levant) is an area located east of the Mediterranean sea.

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Syrian cuisine

Syrian cuisine may refer to the cooking traditions and practices in modern-day Syria (as opposed to Greater Syria), merging the habits of people who settled in Syria throughout its history.

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T. E. Lawrence

Colonel Thomas Edward Lawrence, (16 August 1888 – 19 May 1935) was a British archaeologist, military officer, diplomat, and writer.

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Ta'if

Ta'if (الطائف) is a city in Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia at an elevation of on the slopes of Sarawat Mountains (Al-Sarawat Mountains).

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Thamudic

Thamudic is a name invented by nineteenth-century scholars for large numbers of inscriptions in Ancient North Arabian (ANA) alphabets which have not yet been properly studied.

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The Daily Telegraph

The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.

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The Economist

The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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The Independent

The Independent is a British online newspaper.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Star (Malaysia)

The Star is an English-language, tabloid-format newspaper in Malaysia.

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Tigris

Batman River The Tigris (Sumerian: Idigna or Idigina; Akkadian: 𒁇𒄘𒃼; دجلة Dijlah; ܕܹܩܠܵܬ.; Տիգրիս Tigris; Դգլաթ Dglatʿ;, biblical Hiddekel) is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates.

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Tihamah

Tihamah or Tihama (تهامة) refers to the Red Sea coastal plain of the Arabian Peninsula from the Gulf of Aqaba to the Bab el Mandeb.

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Tom Holland (author)

Thomas "Tom" Holland (born 1968) is an English writer and popular historian, who has published several non-academic works on classical and medieval history.

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Trade route

A trade route is a logistical network identified as a series of pathways and stoppages used for the commercial transport of cargo.

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Treaty of Hudaybiyyah

The Treaty of Hudaybiyyah (Arabic: صلح الحديبية) was an important event that took place during the formation of Islam.

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Tribes of Arabia

The tribes of Arabia are the clans that originated in the Arabian Peninsula.

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Turkey

Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Turkish cuisine

Turkish cuisine (Turkish: Türk mutfağı) is largely the heritage of Ottoman cuisine, which can be described as a fusion and refinement of Central Asian, Middle Eastern, Eastern European and Balkan cuisines.

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Turkmenistan

Turkmenistan (or; Türkmenistan), (formerly known as Turkmenia) is a sovereign state in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.

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Umar

Umar, also spelled Omar (عمر بن الخطاب, "Umar, Son of Al-Khattab"; c. 584 CE 3 November 644 CE), was one of the most powerful and influential Muslim caliphs in history.

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Umayyad Caliphate

The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.

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Umm al-Qura University

Umm Al-Qura University (UQU) (جامعة أم القرى.) is a large public Islamic university in Mecca, Saudi Arabia.

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Ummah

(أمة) is an Arabic word meaning "community".

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Umrah

The ʿUmrah (عُمرَة) is an Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, Hijaz, Saudi Arabia, performed by Muslims that can be undertaken at any time of the year, in contrast to the Ḥajj (حَـجّ) which has specific dates according to the Islamic lunar calendar.

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University of Baghdad

The University of Baghdad (UOB) (جامعة بغداد Jāmi'at Baghdād) is the largest university in Iraq and the second largest in the Arab world, behind the University of Cairo.

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UTC+03:00

UTC+03:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +03.

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Uthman

Uthman ibn Affan (ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān), also known in English by the Turkish and Persian rendering, Osman (579 – 17 June 656), was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the third of the Rashidun, or "Rightly Guided Caliphs".

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Vali (governor)

Wāli or vali (from Arabic والي Wāli) is an administrative title that was used during the Caliphate and Ottoman Empire to designate governors of administrative divisions.

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Vayeira

Vayeira, Vayera, or (— Hebrew for "and He appeared," the first word in the parashah) is the fourth weekly Torah portion (parashah) in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading.

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Wahhabism

Wahhabism (الوهابية) is an Islamic doctrine and religious movement founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab.

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War elephant

A war elephant is an elephant that is trained and guided by humans for combat.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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Yaqut al-Hamawi

Yāqūt ibn-'Abdullah al-Rūmī al-Hamawī (1179–1229) (ياقوت الحموي الرومي) was an Arab biographer and geographer of Greek origin, renowned for his encyclopedic writings on the Muslim world.

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Year of the Elephant

The ʿĀmu l-Fīl (عام الفيل, Year of the Elephant) is the name in Islamic history for the year approximately equating to 570 CE.

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Yemen

Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Zamzam Well

The Well of Zamzam (or the Zamzam Well, or just Zamzam; زمزم) is a well located within the Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, east of the Kaaba, the holiest place in Islam.

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1990 Mecca tunnel tragedy

On 2 July 1990, an incident occurred during the Hajj in which 1,426 people were suffocated and trampled to death in a tunnel near Mecca.

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2015 Mina stampede

On 24 September 2015 an event described as a "crush and stampede" caused deaths estimated at well over 2,000 pilgrims, suffocated or crushed during the annual Hajj pilgrimage in Mina, Mecca, Saudi Arabia.

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5th century

The 5th century is the time period from 401 to 500 Anno Domini (AD) or Common Era (CE) in the Julian calendar.

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Al`Awali, Al`awali, An Naqa, An naqa, As Sabahani, As sabahani, Harat al Bab, Harat al bab, History of Mecca, La Mecque, Makka, Makkah, Makkah Al Mukarramah, Makkah Al-Mukkaramah, Makkah al Mukkaramah, Makkah al-Mukarramah, Makkah al-Mukkaramah, Makkat Al Mukarramah, Makkeh, Mecca, Hejaz, Mecca, SA, Mecca, Saudi Arabia, Meccan, Meccans, Mecque, Mekah, Mekka, Mekke-i-Mükerreme.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mecca

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