369 relations: Abrasive, Access to Medicine Index, Access to medicines, ACE inhibitor, Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, ACT UP, Adherence (medicine), Agribusiness, Al-Kindi, Alexis Carrel, Alkali, Alkalinizing agent, Allergy, Alpha blocker, Alpha-1 blocker, Alprazolam, Amebicide, Aminoglycoside, Amphetamine, Anabolic steroid, Analgesic, Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System, Ancient Egyptian medicine, Ancient Greek medicine, Androgen, Anesthetic, Angiotensin II receptor blocker, Antacid, Anthelmintic, Anti-diabetic medication, Anti-inflammatory, Anti-obesity medication, Antiandrogen, Antianginal, Antiarrhythmic agent, Antibiotic, Antibody, Anticholinergic, Anticoagulant, Anticonvulsant, Antidepressant, Antidiarrhoeal, Antidotarium Nicolai, Antiemetic, Antifibrinolytic, Antiflatulent, Antifungal, Antihemorrhagic, Antihistamine, Antihypertensive drug, ..., Antileukotriene, Antimalarial medication, Antiplatelet drug, Antiprotozoal, Antipruritic, Antipsychotic, Antipyretic, Antiseptic, Antispasmodic, Antitoxin, Antiviral drug, Anxiolytic, Aromatase inhibitor, Aspirin, Assisted suicide, Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry, Astringent, Atharvaveda, Avicenna, Ayurveda, Babylonia, Barbiturate, Benzodiazepine, Beta blocker, Beta-adrenergic agonist, Beta2-adrenergic agonist, Biguanide, Bile acid sequestrant, Binding selectivity, Bioavailability, Biological half-life, Biological system, Biological target, BioMarin Pharmaceutical, Biopharmaceutical, Biotechnology, Bisphosphonate, Blood pressure, Blood product, Bolus (medicine), Brill Publishers, Bronchodilator, Burn, Caister Academic Press, Calcitonin, Calcium channel blocker, Campaign for Access to Essential Medicines, Cannabinoid, Capsule (pharmacy), Cardiac glycoside, Cell therapy, Central nervous system, Chemical library, Chemical property, Chemical synthesis, Chemotherapy, Chlordiazepoxide, Chlorpromazine, Cholinergic, Cimetidine, Classical pharmacology, Classification, Classification of Pharmaco-Therapeutic Referrals, Clinical trial, Clomifene, Coagulation, Codeine, Compulsory license, Conjugated estrogens, Contrast agent, Controlled substance, Corticosteroid, Cosmetics, Cough medicine, COX-2 inhibitor, Cream (pharmaceutical), Cure, Cycloplegia, Cyclopyrrolones, Cytoprotection, De Gradibus, Decongestant, Deodorant, Deprescribing, Diazepam, Dietary supplement, Diethylstilbestrol, Digoxin, Disease, Disinfectant, Dispensary, Diuretic, Doha Declaration, Dopamine agonist, Dopamine antagonist, Dosage form, Drug, Drug class, Drug delivery, Drug design, Drug development, Drug discovery, Drug nomenclature, Efficacy, Egyptian medical papyri, Electrolyte, Elixir sulfanilamide, Enteral administration, Environmental persistent pharmaceutical pollutant, Erythropoietin, Essential medicines, Estrogen, Eugeroic, Euthanasia, Expanded access, Extract, Factor VIII, Fertility medication, Fever, Fibrinolysis, Follicle-stimulating hormone, Food and Drug Administration, Gamma-Linolenic acid, Garcia de Orta, Gastrointestinal tract, Gene therapy, Generic drug, Glaucoma, Gonadorelin, Gonadotropin, Gonadotropin release inhibitor, Gonadotropin-releasing hormone, Growth hormone, Guernica (magazine), H2 antagonist, Health Affairs, Heinrich von Staden (historian), Henry Drysdale Dakin, Heparin, High-throughput screening, Hinduism, Hippocratic Oath, HIV/AIDS, Honey, Hormonal contraception, Hormone, Hormone replacement therapy, Hormone therapy, Human genome, Human Genome Project, Hypnotic, Identification of medicinal products, Imatinib, Imidazole, Immunoglobulin therapy, Immunology, Immunosuppressive drug, Inflammation, Insulin, Intellectual property, Interferon, Interleukin, International Narcotics Control Board, Intravenous therapy, Jurisdiction, Kahun Gynaecological Papyrus, Keratolytic, Laxative, Lead compound, Leprostatic agent, Lipid-lowering agent, List of drugs, List of pharmaceutical companies, Lithium (medication), Local anesthetic, Lovastatin, Luteinizing hormone, Magnesium (medical use), Malaria, Mast cell, Mast cell stabilizer, Médecins Sans Frontières, Medical diagnosis, Medical prescription, Medical research, Medicare Part D, Medicinal chemistry, Medicine, Medicine in the medieval Islamic world, Medieval medicine of Western Europe, Meprobamate, Metabolism, Metformin, Methylphenidate, Microorganism, Miosis, Moisturizer, Monoamine oxidase inhibitor, Monoclonal antibody, Monoclonal antibody therapy, Mood stabilizer, Morphine, Mucokinetics, Muscle relaxant, Musculoskeletal disorder, Mydriasis, National Health Service, National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority, Natural product, Neuromuscular disease, New chemical entity, Nitrate, Nitroglycerin, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Nosology, Novartis, Novartis v. Union of India & Others, Nursing, Off-label use, Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr., Opioid, Opium, Oral administration, Oral contraceptive pill, Ormeloxifene, Orphan drug, Over-the-counter drug, Overmedication, Pain, Parasympatholytic, Parasympathomimetic drug, Parenteral nutrition, Paricalcitol, Parkinson's disease, Patent, Pediculicide, Penicillin, Pharmaceutical code, Pharmaceutical industry, Pharmacist, Pharmacology, Pharmacotherapy, Pharmacy, Pharmacy technician, Physician, Physician assistant, Polyene, Potency (pharmacology), Pravastatin, Prehistoric medicine, Prescription costs, Prescription drug, Preventive healthcare, Progestogen, Prohibition, Prostaglandin, Prostaglandin analogue, Proteolysis, Proton-pump inhibitor, Psychedelic drug, Quinine, Quinolone, Quinolone antibiotic, Recombinant DNA, Reflux suppressant, Reserpine, Retinoid, Reverse pharmacology, Route of administration, Scabies, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Serendipity, Serotonin receptor antagonist, Sex steroid, Sildenafil, Simvastatin, Small molecule, Spermicide, Statin, Stem cell, Stimulant, Sulfonamide (medicine), Sulfonylurea, Sunscreen, Sympathomimetic drug, Tablet (pharmacy), Tamoxifen, Tar, Tardive dyskinesia, The Canon of Medicine, Theodoric Borgognoni, Therapeutic effect, Therapy, Thiazolidinedione, Thyroid hormones, Tonicity, Topical anesthetic, Topical medication, Tranquilizer, Treatment Action Group, Tricyclic antidepressant, TRIPS Agreement, Tuberculosis management, United Kingdom, United Nations, Vaccine, Valpromide, Vasoconstriction, Vasodilation, Vasopressin analogue, Vitamin, Vomiting, World Health Organization, World Trade Organization, World War I, Wound, Xanthine, 2nd millennium BC, 5α-Reductase inhibitor. 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An abrasive is a material, often a mineral, that is used to shape or finish a workpiece through rubbing which leads to part of the workpiece being worn away by friction.
The Access to Medicine Index is a ranking system published biennially since 2008 by the Access to Medicine Foundation in Haarlem, The Netherlands, an international not-for-profit organisation, funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the UK Department for International Development (DFID) and the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Access to medicines refers to the reasonable ability for people to get needed medicines required to achieve health.
An angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor) is a pharmaceutical drug used primarily for the treatment of hypertension (elevated blood pressure) and congestive heart failure.
An acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (often abbreviated AChEI) or anti-cholinesterase is a chemical or a drug that inhibits the acetylcholinesterase enzyme from breaking down acetylcholine, thereby increasing both the level and duration of action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power (ACT UP) is an international direct action advocacy group working to impact the lives of people with AIDS (PWAs) and the AIDS pandemic to bring about legislation, medical research and treatment and policies to ultimately bring an end to the disease by mitigating loss of health and lives.
In medicine, compliance (also adherence, capacitance) describes the degree to which a patient correctly follows medical advice.
Agribusiness is the business of agricultural production.
Abu Yūsuf Yaʻqūb ibn ʼIsḥāq aṣ-Ṣabbāḥ al-Kindī (أبو يوسف يعقوب بن إسحاق الصبّاح الكندي; Alkindus; c. 801–873 AD) was an Arab Muslim philosopher, polymath, mathematician, physician and musician.
Alexis Carrel (28 June 1873 – 5 November 1944) was a French surgeon and biologist who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1912 for pioneering vascular suturing techniques.
In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.
Alkalinizing agents are drugs used to manage disorders associated with low pH.
Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment.
Alpha-blockers, also known as α-blockers or α-adrenoreceptor antagonists, are a class of pharmacological agents that act as antagonists on α-adrenergic receptors (α-adrenoceptors).
Alpha-1 blockers (also called alpha-adrenergic blocking agents) constitute a variety of drugs that block alpha-1-adrenergic receptors in arteries, smooth muscles, and central nervous system tissues.
Alprazolam, available under the trade name Xanax, is a potent, short-acting benzodiazepine anxiolytic—a minor tranquilizer.
An amebicide (or amoebicide) is an agent used in the treatment of amoebozoa infections, called amoebiasis.
Aminoglycoside is a medicinal and bacteriologic category of traditional Gram-negative antibacterial therapeutic agents that inhibit protein synthesis and contain as a portion of the molecule an amino-modified glycoside (sugar); the term can also refer more generally to any organic molecule that contains aminosugar substructures.
Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.
Anabolic steroids, also known more properly as anabolic–androgenic steroids (AAS), are steroidal androgens that include natural androgens like testosterone as well as synthetic androgens that are structurally related and have similar effects to testosterone.
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.
The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Classification System is used for the classification of active ingredients of drugs according to the organ or system on which they act and their therapeutic, pharmacological and chemical properties.
The medicine of the ancient Egyptians is some of the oldest documented.
Ancient Greek medicine was a compilation of theories and practices that were constantly expanding through new ideologies and trials.
An androgen (from Greek andr-, the stem of the word meaning "man") is any natural or synthetic steroid hormone which regulates the development and maintenance of male characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors.
An anesthetic (or anaesthetic) is a drug to prevent pain during surgery, completely blocking any feeling as opposed to an analgesic.
Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), also known as angiotensin II receptor antagonists, AT1 receptor antagonists or sartans, are a group of pharmaceuticals that modulate the renin–angiotensin system.
An antacid is a substance which neutralizes stomach acidity and is used to relieve heartburn, indigestion or an upset stomach.
Anthelmintics or antihelminthics are a group of antiparasitic drugs that expel parasitic worms (helminths) and other internal parasites from the body by either stunning or killing them and without causing significant damage to the host.
Drugs used in diabetes treat diabetes mellitus by lowering glucose levels in the blood.
Anti-inflammatory, or antiinflammatory, refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation or swelling.
Anti-obesity medication or weight loss drugs are pharmacological agents that reduce or control weight.
Antiandrogens, also known as androgen antagonists or testosterone blockers, are a class of drugs that prevent androgens like testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) from mediating their biological effects in the body.
An antianginal is any drug used in the treatment of angina pectoris, a symptom of ischaemic heart disease.
Antiarrhythmic agents, also known as cardiac dysrhythmia medications, are a group of pharmaceuticals that are used to suppress abnormal rhythms of the heart (cardiac arrhythmias), such as atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
An anticholinergic agent is a substance that blocks the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the peripheral nervous system.
Anticoagulants, commonly referred to as blood thinners, are chemical substances that prevent or reduce coagulation of blood, prolonging the clotting time.
Anticonvulsants (also commonly known as antiepileptic drugs or as antiseizure drugs) are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures.
Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.
An anti-diarrhoeal drug (or anti-diarrheal drug in American English) is any medication which provides symptomatic relief for diarrhoea.
The Antidotarium Nicolai, also known as the Antidotarium parvum or small antidotarium, was a late 11th or early 12th-century Latin book with about 150 recipes for the creation of medicines from plants and minerals.
An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea.
Antifibrinolytics are a class of medication that are inhibitors of fibrinolysis.
An antiflatulent agent is a drug used for the alleviation or prevention of excessive intestinal gas, i.e., flatulence.
An antifungal medication, also known as an antimycotic medication, is a pharmaceutical fungicide or fungistatic used to treat and prevent mycosis such as athlete's foot, ringworm, candidiasis (thrush), serious systemic infections such as cryptococcal meningitis, and others.
An antihemorrhagic (antihæmorrhagic) agent is a substance that promotes hemostasis (stops bleeding).
Antihistamines are drugs which treat allergic rhinitis and other allergies.
Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure).
An antileukotriene is a drug which functions as a leukotriene-related enzyme inhibitor (arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase) or leukotriene receptor antagonist (cysteinyl leukotriene receptors) and consequently opposes the function of these inflammatory mediators; leukotrienes are produced by the immune system and serve to promote bronchoconstriction, inflammation, microvascular permeability, and mucus secretion in asthma and COPD.
Antimalarial medications, also known as antimalarials, are designed to prevent or cure malaria.
An antiplatelet drug (antiaggregant) is a member of a class of pharmaceuticals that decrease platelet aggregation and inhibit thrombus formation.
Antiprotozoal agents (ATC code: ATC P01) is a class of pharmaceuticals used in treatment of protozoan infection.
Antipruritics, also known as anti-itch drugs, are medications that inhibit the itching (Latin: pruritus) often associated with sunburns, allergic reactions, eczema, psoriasis, chickenpox, fungal infections, insect bites and stings like those from mosquitoes, fleas, and mites, and contact dermatitis and urticaria caused by plants such as poison ivy (urushiol-induced contact dermatitis) or stinging nettle.
Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers, are a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Antipyretics (from anti- 'against' and 'feverish') are substances that reduce fever.
Antiseptics (from Greek ἀντί anti, "against" and σηπτικός sēptikos, "putrefactive") are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction.
An antispasmodic (synonym: spasmolytic) is a pharmaceutical drug or other agent that suppresses muscle spasms.
An antitoxin is an antibody with the ability to neutralize a specific toxin.
Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections rather than bacterial ones.
An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent) is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety.
Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are a class of drugs used in the treatment of breast cancer in postmenopausal women and gynecomastia in men.
Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.
Assisted suicide is suicide committed with the aid of another person, sometimes a physician.
The Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry (ABPI) is the trade association for over 120 companies in the UK producing prescription medicines for humans, founded in 1891.
An astringent (sometimes called adstringent) is a chemical that shrinks or constricts body tissues.
The Atharva Veda (Sanskrit: अथर्ववेद, from and veda, meaning "knowledge") is the "knowledge storehouse of atharvāṇas, the procedures for everyday life".
Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.
Ayurveda is a system of medicine with historical roots in the Indian subcontinent.
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
A barbiturate is a drug that acts as a central nervous system depressant, and can therefore produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to death.
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.
Beta blockers, also written β-blockers, are a class of medications that are particularly used to manage abnormal heart rhythms, and to protect the heart from a second heart attack (myocardial infarction) after a first heart attack (secondary prevention).
Beta adrenergic agonists or beta agonists are medications that relax muscles of the airways, which widen the airways and result in easier breathing.
β2 (beta2) adrenergic receptor agonists, also known as adrenergic β2 receptor agonists, are a class of drugs that act on the β2 adrenergic receptor.
Biguanide is the organic compound with the formula HN(C(NH)NH2)2.
The bile acid sequestrants are a group of resins used to bind certain components of bile in the gastrointestinal tract.
Binding selectivity is defined with respect to the binding of ligands to a substrate forming a complex.
In pharmacology, bioavailability (BA or F) is a subcategory of absorption and is the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs.
The biological half-life of a biological substance is the time it takes for half to be removed by biological processes when the rate of removal is roughly exponential.
A biological system is a complex network of biologically relevant entities.
A biological target is anything within a living organism to which some other entity (like an endogenous ligand or a drug) is directed and/or binds, resulting in a change in its behavior or function.
BioMarin Pharmaceutical Inc. is an American biotechnology company headquartered in San Rafael, California.
A biopharmaceutical, also known as a biologic(al) medical product, biological, or biologic, is any pharmaceutical drug product manufactured in, extracted from, or semisynthesized from biological sources.
Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).
Bisphosphonates are a class of drugs that prevent the loss of bone density, used to treat osteoporosis and similar diseases.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
A blood product is any therapeutic substance prepared from human blood.
In medicine, a bolus (from Latin bolus, ball) is the administration of a discrete amount of medication, drug, or other compound within a specific time, generally within 1 - 30 minutes, in order to raise its concentration in blood to an effective level.
Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.
A bronchodilator is a substance that dilates the bronchi and bronchioles, decreasing resistance in the respiratory airway and increasing airflow to the lungs.
A burn is a type of injury to skin, or other tissues, caused by heat, cold, electricity, chemicals, friction, or radiation.
Caister Academic Press is an independent academic publishing company that produces books and ebooks on microbiology, and molecular biology.
Calcitonin (also known as thyrocalcitonin) is a 32-amino acid linear polypeptide hormone that is produced in humans primarily by the parafollicular cells (also known as C-cells) of the thyroid gland, and in many other animals in the ultimopharyngeal body.
Calcium channel blockers (CCB), calcium channel antagonists or calcium antagonists are several medications that disrupt the movement of calcium through calcium channels.
The Campaign for Access to Essential Medicines is an international campaign started by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) to increase the availability of essential medicines in developing countries.
A cannabinoid is one of a class of diverse chemical compounds that acts on cannabinoid receptors in cells that alter neurotransmitter release in the brain.
In the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, encapsulation refers to a range of dosage forms—techniques used to enclose medicines—in a relatively stable shell known as a capsule, allowing them to, for example, be taken orally or be used as suppositories.
Cardiac glycosides are a class of organic compounds that increase the output force of the heart and decrease its rate of contractions by acting on the cellular sodium-potassium ATPase pump.
Cell therapy (also called cellular therapy or cytotherapy) is therapy in which cellular material is injected into a patient; this generally means intact, living cells.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
A chemical library or compound library is a collection of stored chemicals usually used ultimately in high-throughput screening or industrial manufacture.
A chemical property is any of a material's properties that becomes evident during, or after, a chemical reaction; that is, any quality that can be established only by changing a substance's chemical identity.
Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.
Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.
Chlordiazepoxide, trade name Librium, is a sedative and hypnotic medication of the benzodiazepine class; it is used to treat anxiety, insomnia and withdrawal symptoms from alcohol and/or drug abuse.
Chlorpromazine (CPZ), marketed under the trade names Thorazine and Largactil among others, is an antipsychotic medication.
In general, the word choline refers to the various quaternary ammonium salts containing the ''N'',''N'',''N''-trimethylethanolammonium cation.
Cimetidine, sold under the brand name Tagamet among others, is a histamine H2 receptor antagonist that inhibits stomach acid production.
In the field of drug discovery, classical pharmacology, also known as forward pharmacology, or phenotypic drug discovery (PDD), relies on phenotypic screening (screening in intact cells or whole organisms) of chemical libraries of synthetic small molecules, natural products or extracts to identify substances that have a desirable therapeutic effect.
Classification is a process related to categorization, the process in which ideas and objects are recognized, differentiated, and understood.
The Classification of Pharmaco-Therapeutic Referrals (CPR) is a taxonomy focused to define and group together situations requiring a referral from pharmacists to physicians (and vice versa) regarding the pharmacotherapy used by the patients.
Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research.
Clomifene, also known as clomiphene, is a medication used to treat infertility in women who do not ovulate.
Coagulation (also known as clotting) is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a blood clot.
Codeine is an opiate used to treat pain, as a cough medicine, and for diarrhea. It is typically used to treat mild to moderate degrees of pain. Greater benefit may occur when combined with paracetamol (acetaminophen) or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as aspirin or ibuprofen. Evidence does not support its use for acute cough suppression in children or adults. In Europe it is not recommended as a cough medicine in those under twelve years of age. It is generally taken by mouth. It typically starts working after half an hour with maximum effect at two hours. The total duration of its effects last for about four to six hours. Common side effects include vomiting, constipation, itchiness, lightheadedness, and drowsiness. Serious side effects may include breathing difficulties and addiction. It is unclear if its use in pregnancy is safe. Care should be used during breastfeeding as it may result in opiate toxicity in the baby. Its use as of 2016 is not recommended in children. Codeine works following being broken down by the liver into morphine. How quickly this occurs depends on a person's genetics. Codeine was discovered in 1832 by Pierre Jean Robiquet. In 2013 about 361,000 kilograms of codeine were produced while 249,000 kilograms were used. This makes it the most commonly taken opiate. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 0.04 and 0.29 USD per dose as of 2014. In the United States it costs about one dollar a dose. Codeine occurs naturally and makes up about 2% of opium.
A compulsory license provides that the owner of a patent or copyright licenses the use of their rights against payment either set by law or determined through some form of adjudication or arbitration.
Conjugated estrogens (CEs), or conjugated equine estrogens (CEEs), sold under the brand name Premarin (a contraction of "pregnant mares' urine") among others, is an estrogen medication which is used in menopausal hormone therapy and for various other indications.
A contrast agent (or contrast medium) is a substance used to increase the contrast of structures or fluids within the body in medical imaging.
A controlled substance is generally a drug or chemical whose manufacture, possession, or use is regulated by a government, such as illicitly used drugs or prescription medications that are designated a Controlled Drug in the United Kingdom.
Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones.
Cosmetics are substances or products used to enhance or alter the appearance of the face or fragrance and texture of the body.
Cough medicines are medications used in those with coughing and related conditions.
Selective COX-2 inhibitors are a type of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that directly targets cyclooxygenase-2, COX-2, an enzyme responsible for inflammation and pain.
A cream is a preparation usually for application to the skin.
A cure is a substance or procedure that ends a medical condition, such as a medication, a surgical operation, a change in lifestyle or even a philosophical mindset that helps end a person's sufferings; or the state of being healed, or cured.
Cycloplegia is paralysis of the ciliary muscle of the eye, resulting in a loss of accommodation.
Cyclopyrrolones are a family of hypnotic and anxiolytic nonbenzodiazepine drugs with similar pharmacological profiles to the benzodiazepine derivatives.
Cytoprotection is a process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.
De Gradibus was an Arabic book published by the Arab physician Al-Kindi (c. 801–873 CE).
A decongestant, or nasal decongestant, is a type of pharmaceutical drug that is used to relieve nasal congestion in the upper respiratory tract.
A deodorant is a substance applied to the body to prevent body odor caused by the bacterial breakdown of perspiration in armpits, feet, and other areas of the body.
Deprescribing is the process of intentionally stopping a medication or reducing its dose to improve the person's health or reduce the risk of adverse side effects.
Diazepam, first marketed as Valium, is a medicine of the benzodiazepine family that typically produces a calming effect.
A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid.
Diethylstilbestrol (DES), also known as stilbestrol or stilboestrol, is an estrogen medication which is mostly no longer used.
Digoxin, sold under the brand name Lanoxin among others, is a medication used to treat various heart conditions.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to the surface of non-living objects to destroy microorganisms that are living on the objects.
A dispensary is an office in a school, hospital, industrial plant, or other organization that dispenses medications, medical supplies, and in some cases even medical and dental treatment.
A diuretic is any substance that promotes diuresis, the increased production of urine.
The Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health was adopted by the WTO Ministerial Conference of 2001 in Doha on November 14, 2001.
A dopamine receptor agonist is a compound that activates dopamine receptors.
A dopamine antagonist (antidopaminergic) is a type of drug which blocks dopamine receptors by receptor antagonism.
Dosage forms (also called unit doses) are pharmaceutical drug products in the form in which they are marketed for use, with a specific mixture of active ingredients and inactive components (excipients), in a particular configuration (such as a capsule shell, for example), and apportioned into a particular dose.
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.
A drug class is a set of medications that have similar chemical structures, the same mechanism of action (i.e., bind to the same biological target), a related mode of action, and/or are used to treat the same disease.
Drug delivery refers to approaches, formulations, technologies, and systems for transporting a pharmaceutical compound in the body as needed to safely achieve its desired therapeutic effect.
Drug design, often referred to as rational drug design or simply rational design, is the inventive process of finding new medications based on the knowledge of a biological target.
Drug development is the process of bringing a new pharmaceutical drug to the market once a lead compound has been identified through the process of drug discovery.
In the fields of medicine, biotechnology and pharmacology, drug discovery is the process by which new candidate medications are discovered.
Drug nomenclature is the systematic naming of drugs, especially pharmaceutical drugs.
Efficacy is the ability to get a job done satisfactorily.
Egyptian medical papyri are ancient Egyptian texts written on papyrus which permit a glimpse at medical procedures and practices in ancient Egypt.
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
Elixir sulfanilamide was an improperly prepared sulfanilamide medicine that caused mass poisoning in the United States in 1937.
In general medicine, enteral administration (Greek enteros, "intestine") is food or drug administration via the human gastrointestinal tract.
The term Environmental persistent pharmaceutical pollutants (EPPP) was first suggested in the nomination in 2010 of pharmaceuticals and environment as an emerging issue in a Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM) by the International Society of Doctors for the Environment (ISDE).
Erythropoietin (EPO), also known as hematopoietin or hemopoietin, is a glycoprotein cytokine secreted by the kidney in response to cellular hypoxia; it stimulates red blood cell production (erythropoiesis) in the bone marrow.
Essential medicines, as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), are the medicines that "satisfy the priority health care needs of the population".
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
Eugeroics (originally, "eugrégorique" or "eugregoric"), also known as wakefulness-promoting agents and wakefulness-promoting drugs, are a class of drugs that promote wakefulness and alertness.
Euthanasia (from εὐθανασία; "good death": εὖ, eu; "well" or "good" – θάνατος, thanatos; "death") is the practice of intentionally ending a life to relieve pain and suffering.
Expanded access is the use of an unapproved drug or medical device under specials forms of investigational new drug applications (IND) or IDE application for devices, outside of a clinical trial, by people with serious or life-threatening conditions who do not meet the enrollment criteria for the clinical trial in progress.
An extract is a substance made by extracting a part of a raw material, often by using a solvent such as ethanol or water.
Factor VIII (FVIII) is an essential blood-clotting protein, also known as anti-hemophilic factor (AHF).
Fertility medication, better known as fertility drugs, are drugs which enhance reproductive fertility.
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.
Fibrinolysis is a process that prevents blood clots from growing and becoming problematic.
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a gonadotropin, a glycoprotein polypeptide hormone.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
Gamma-linolenic acid or GLA (γ-Linolenic acid), (INN and USAN gamolenic acid) is a fatty acid found primarily in vegetable oils.
Garcia de Orta (or Garcia d'Orta) (1501? – 1568) was a Portuguese Renaissance Sephardi Jewish physician, herbalist and naturalist.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
In the medicine field, gene therapy (also called human gene transfer) is the therapeutic delivery of nucleic acid into a patient's cells as a drug to treat disease.
A generic drug is a pharmaceutical drug that is equivalent to a brand-name product in dosage, strength, route of administration, quality, performance, and intended use, but does not carry the brand name.
Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases which result in damage to the optic nerve and vision loss.
Gonadorelin, also known as gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and sold under the brand names Factrel, HRF, Kryptocur, Lutrelef, Lutrepulse, and Relefact among others, is a GnRH agonist which is used in fertility medicine and to treat amenorrhea and hypogonadism.
Gonadotropins are glycoprotein polypeptide hormones secreted by gonadotrope cells of the anterior pituitary of vertebrates.
The hormone of gonadotropins secreted by the anterior hypophyse gland effects on the gonads and play a crucial role in the process of gonadal development and function in vertebrates.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) also known as gonadoliberin, and by various other names in its endogenous form and as gonadorelin in its pharmaceutical form, is a releasing hormone responsible for the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary.
Growth hormone (GH), also known as somatotropin (or as human growth hormone in its human form), is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction, and cell regeneration in humans and other animals.
Guernica / A Magazine of Art and Politics is an online site that publishes art, photography, fiction, and poetry from around the world, along with nonfiction such as letters from abroad, investigative pieces, and opinion pieces on international affairs and U.S. domestic policy.
H2 antagonists, sometimes referred to as H2RA and also called H2 blockers, are a class of medications that block the action of histamine at the histamine H2 receptors of the parietal cells in the stomach.
Health Affairs is a peer-reviewed healthcare journal established in 1981 by John K. Iglehart; since 2014, the editor-in-chief is Alan Weil.
Heinrich von Staden (born 1939) is a South African historian and classical scholar who has written several books and hundreds of articles and encyclopedia entries on ancient medicine, ancient philosophy, the history of science, and comparative literature.
Henry Drysdale Dakin FRS (12 March 188010 February 1952) was an English chemist.
Heparin, also known as unfractionated heparin (UFH), is medication which is used as an anticoagulant (blood thinner).
High-throughput screening (HTS) is a method for scientific experimentation especially used in drug discovery and relevant to the fields of biology and chemistry.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
The Hippocratic Oath is an oath historically taken by physicians.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Honey is a sweet, viscous food substance produced by bees and some related insects.
Hormonal contraception refers to birth control methods that act on the endocrine system.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is any form of hormone therapy wherein the patient, in the course of medical treatment, receives hormones, either to supplement a lack of naturally occurring hormones or to substitute other hormones for naturally occurring hormones.
Hormone therapy or hormonal therapy is the use of hormones in medical treatment.
The human genome is the complete set of nucleic acid sequences for humans, encoded as DNA within the 23 chromosome pairs in cell nuclei and in a small DNA molecule found within individual mitochondria.
The Human Genome Project (HGP) was an international scientific research project with the goal of determining the sequence of nucleotide base pairs that make up human DNA, and of identifying and mapping all of the genes of the human genome from both a physical and a functional standpoint.
Hypnotic (from Greek Hypnos, sleep) or soporific drugs, commonly known as sleeping pills, are a class of psychoactive drugs whose primary function is to induce sleep and to be used in the treatment of insomnia (sleeplessness), or surgical anesthesia.
Identification of Medicinal Products (IDMP) is a set of five ISO norms which has been developed in response to a worldwide demand for internationally harmonized specifications for medicinal products.
Imatinib, sold under the brand names Gleevec among others, is a medication used to treat cancer.
Imidazole is an organic compound with the formula C3N2H4.
Immunoglobulin therapy, also known as normal human immunoglobulin (NHIG), is the use of a mixture of antibodies (immunoglobulins) to treat a number of health conditions.
Immunology is a branch of biology that covers the study of immune systems in all organisms.
Immunosuppressive drugs or immunosuppressive agents or antirejection medications are drugs that inhibit or prevent activity of the immune system.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property that includes intangible creations of the human intellect, and primarily encompasses copyrights, patents, and trademarks.
Interferons (IFNs) are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of several pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, and also tumor cells.
Interleukins (ILs) are a group of cytokines (secreted proteins and signal molecules) that were first seen to be expressed by white blood cells (leukocytes).
The International Narcotics Control Board (INCB) is the independent and quasi-judicial control organ for the implementation of the United Nations drug conventions.
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
Jurisdiction (from the Latin ius, iuris meaning "law" and dicere meaning "to speak") is the practical authority granted to a legal body to administer justice within a defined field of responsibility, e.g., Michigan tax law.
The Kahun Gynaecological Papyrus (also Petrie Medical Papyrus, Kahun Medical Papyrus, Lahun Medical Papyrus, or UC32057) is the oldest known medical text in Egypt, although not the oldest in the world as in Philadelphia museum a Sumerian medical clay tablet from 3rd millennium is preserved.
Keratolytic therapy is treatment to remove warts, calluses and other lesions in which the epidermis produces excess skin.
Laxatives, purgatives, or aperients are substances that loosen stools and increase bowel movements.
A lead compound (i.e. a "leading" compound, not to be confused with various compounds of the metallic element lead) in drug discovery is a chemical compound that has pharmacological or biological activity likely to be therapeutically useful, but may nevertheless have suboptimal structure that requires modification to fit better to the target; lead drugs offer the prospect of being followed by back-up compounds.
A leprostatic agent is a drug that interferes with proliferation of the bacterium that causes leprosy.
Hypolipidemic agents, or antihyperlipidemic agents, are a diverse group of pharmaceuticals that are used in the treatment of high levels of fats (lipids), such as cholesterol, in the blood (hyperlipidemia).
It is limited to those companies notable enough to have articles in Wikipedia.
Lithium compounds, also known as lithium salts, are primarily used as a psychiatric medication.
A local anesthetic (LA) is a medication that causes reversible absence of pain sensation, although other senses are often affected, as well.
Lovastatin (Merck's Mevacor) is a statin drug, used for lowering cholesterol in those with hypercholesterolemia to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease.
Luteinizing hormone (LH, also known as lutropin and sometimes lutrophin) is a hormone produced by gonadotropic cells in the anterior pituitary gland.
Magnesium salts are available as a medication in a number of formulations.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
A mast cell (also known as a mastocyte or a labrocyte) is a type of white blood cell.
Mast cell stabilizers are chromone medications used to prevent or control certain allergic disorders.
Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF; pronounced), also known in English as Doctors Without Borders, is an international humanitarian medical non-governmental organisation (NGO) of French origin best known for its projects in conflict zones and in countries affected by endemic diseases.
Medical diagnosis (abbreviated Dx or DS) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs.
A prescription is a health-care program implemented by a physician or other qualified health care practitioner in the form of instructions that govern the plan of care for an individual patient.
Biomedical research (or experimental medicine) encompasses a wide array of research, extending from "basic research" (also called bench science or bench research), – involving fundamental scientific principles that may apply to a ''preclinical'' understanding – to clinical research, which involves studies of people who may be subjects in clinical trials.
Medicare Part D, also called the Medicare prescription drug benefit, is an optional United States federal-government program to help Medicare beneficiaries pay for self-administered prescription drugs through prescription drug insurance premiums (the cost of almost all professionally administered prescriptions is covered under optional Part B of United States Medicare).
Medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical chemistry are disciplines at the intersection of chemistry, especially synthetic organic chemistry, and pharmacology and various other biological specialties, where they are involved with design, chemical synthesis and development for market of pharmaceutical agents, or bio-active molecules (drugs).
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine is the science of medicine developed in the Islamic Golden Age, and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of Islamic civilization.
Medieval medicine in Western Europe was composed of a mixture of existing ideas from antiquity, spiritual influences and what Claude Lévi-Strauss identifies as the "shamanistic complex" and "social consensus." In the Early Middle Ages, following the fall of the Western Roman Empire, standard medical knowledge was based chiefly upon surviving Greek and Roman texts, preserved in monasteries and elsewhere.
Meprobamate — marketed as Miltown by Wallace Laboratories and Equanil by Wyeth, among others — is a carbamate derivative used as an anxiolytic drug.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Metformin, marketed under the trade name Glucophage among others, is the first-line medication for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, particularly in people who are overweight.
Methylphenidate, sold under various trade names, Ritalin being one of the most commonly known, is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine and piperidine classes that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
Miosis is excessive constriction of the pupil.
Moisturizers or emollients are complex mixtures of chemical agents (often occlusives help hold water in the skin after application, humectants attract moisture and emollients help smooth the skin.) specially designed to make the external layers of the skin (epidermis) softer and more pliable.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of drugs that inhibit the activity of one or both monoamine oxidase enzymes: monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B).
Monoclonal antibodies (mAb or moAb) are antibodies that are made by identical immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cell.
Monoclonal antibody therapy is a form of immunotherapy that uses monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to bind monospecifically to certain cells or proteins.
A mood stabilizer is a psychiatric pharmaceutical drug used to treat mood disorders characterized by intense and sustained mood shifts, typically bipolar disorder type I or type II, borderline personality disorder (BPD) and schizophrenia.
Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate variety which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals.
Mucokinetics are a class of drugs which aid in the clearance of mucus from the airways, lungs, bronchi, and trachea.
A muscle relaxant is a drug that affects skeletal muscle function and decreases the muscle tone.
Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are injuries or pain in the human musculoskeletal system, including the joints, ligaments, muscles, nerves, tendons, and structures that support limbs, neck and back.
Mydriasis is the dilation of the pupil, usually having a non-physiological cause, or sometimes a physiological pupillary response.
The National Health Service (NHS) is the name used for each of the public health services in the United Kingdom – the National Health Service in England, NHS Scotland, NHS Wales, and Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland – as well as a term to describe them collectively.
The National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority (NPPA) is a government regulatory agency that controls the prices of pharmaceutical drugs in India.
A natural product is a chemical compound or substance produced by a living organism—that is, found in nature.
Neuromuscular disease is a very broad term that encompasses many diseases and ailments that impair the functioning of the muscles, either directly, being pathologies of the voluntary muscle, or indirectly, being pathologies of nerves or neuromuscular junctions.
A new chemical entity (NCE) is, according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, a drug that contains no active moiety that has been approved by the FDA in any other application submitted under section 505(b) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.
Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u.
Nitroglycerin (NG), also known as nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin (TNG), trinitroglycerine, nitro, glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), or 1,2,3-trinitroxypropane, is a heavy, colorless, oily, explosive liquid most commonly produced by nitrating glycerol with white fuming nitric acid under conditions appropriate to the formation of the nitric acid ester.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a drug class that reduce pain, decrease fever, prevent blood clots and, in higher doses, decrease inflammation.
Nosology is a classification scheme used in medicine to classify diseases.
Novartis International AG is a Swiss multinational pharmaceutical company based in Basel, Switzerland.
Novartis v. Union of India & Others is a landmark decision by a two-judge bench of the Indian Supreme Court on the issue of whether Novartis could patent Gleevec in India, and was the culmination of a seven-year-long litigation fought by Novartis.
Nursing is a profession within the health care sector focused on the care of individuals, families, and communities so they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life.
Off-label use is the use of pharmaceutical drugs for an unapproved indication or in an unapproved age group, dosage, or route of administration.
Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr. (August 29, 1809 – October 7, 1894) was an American physician, poet, and polymath based in Boston.
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
Opium (poppy tears, with the scientific name: Lachryma papaveris) is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy (scientific name: Papaver somniferum).
Oral contraceptives, abbreviated OCPs, also known as birth control pills, are medications taken by mouth for the purpose of birth control.
Ormeloxifene, also known as centchroman, is one of the selective estrogen receptor modulators, or SERMs, a class of medication which acts on the estrogen receptor.
An orphan drug is a pharmaceutical agent that has been developed specifically to treat a rare medical condition, the condition itself being referred to as an orphan disease.
Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional, as opposed to prescription drugs, which may be sold only to consumers possessing a valid prescription.
Overmedication is an inappropriate medical treatment that occurs when a patient takes unnecessary or excessive medications.
Pain is a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli.
A parasympatholytic agent is a substance or activity that reduces the activity of the parasympathetic nervous system.
A parasympathomimetic drug, sometimes called a cholinomimetic drug, is a substance that stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS).
Total parenteral nutrition (PN) is the feeding of a person intravenously, bypassing the usual process of eating and digestion.
Paricalcitol (chemically it is 19-nor-1,25-(OH)2-vitamin D2. Marketed by Abbott Laboratories under the trade name Zemplar) is a drug used for the prevention and treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone) associated with chronic renal failure.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state or intergovernmental organization to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention.
Pediculicides are substances used to treat lice (Pediculus humanus capitus).
Penicillin (PCN or pen) is a group of antibiotics which include penicillin G (intravenous use), penicillin V (use by mouth), procaine penicillin, and benzathine penicillin (intramuscular use).
Pharmaceutical codes are used in medical classification to uniquely identify medication.
The pharmaceutical industry (or medicine industry) is the commercial industry that discovers, develops, produces, and markets drugs or pharmaceutical drugs for use as different types of medicine and medications.
Pharmacists, also known as chemists (Commonwealth English) or druggists (North American and, archaically, Commonwealth English), are health professionals who practice in pharmacy, the field of health sciences focusing on safe and effective medication use.
Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).
Pharmacotherapy is therapy using pharmaceutical drugs, as distinguished from therapy using surgery (surgical therapy), radiation (radiation therapy), movement (physical therapy), or other modes.
Pharmacy is the science and technique of preparing and dispensing drugs.
A pharmacy technician is a health care provider who performs pharmacy-related functions, generally working under the direct supervision of a licensed pharmacist.
A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.
A physician assistant (US/Canada) or physician associate (UK) is a healthcare professional who practices medicine as a part of a healthcare team with collaborating physicians and other providers.
Polyenes are poly-unsaturated organic compounds that contain at least three alternating double and single carbon–carbon bonds.
In the field of pharmacology, potency is a measure of drug activity expressed in terms of the amount required to produce an effect of given intensity.
Pravastatin (marketed as Pravachol or Selektine) is a member of the drug class of statins, used in combination with diet, exercise, and weight loss for lowering cholesterol and preventing cardiovascular disease.
Prehistoric medicine is any use of medicine from before the invention of writing and the documented history of medicine.
Prescription costs are a common health care cost for many people and also the source of economic hardship for some.
A prescription drug (also prescription medication or prescription medicine) is a pharmaceutical drug that legally requires a medical prescription to be dispensed.
Preventive healthcare (alternately preventive medicine, preventative healthcare/medicine, or prophylaxis) consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment.
Progestogens, also sometimes spelled progestagens or gestagens, are a class of steroid hormones that bind to and activate the progesterone receptor (PR).
Prohibition is the illegality of the manufacturing, storage in barrels or bottles, transportation, sale, possession, and consumption of alcohol including alcoholic beverages, or a period of time during which such illegality was enforced.
The prostaglandins (PG) are a group of physiologically active lipid compounds having diverse hormone-like effects in animals.
Prostaglandin analogues are a class of drugs that bind to a prostaglandin receptor.
Proteolysis is the breakdown of proteins into smaller polypeptides or amino acids.
Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) are a group of drugs whose main action is a pronounced and long-lasting reduction of stomach acid production.
Psychedelics are a class of drug whose primary action is to trigger psychedelic experiences via serotonin receptor agonism, causing thought and visual/auditory changes, and altered state of consciousness.
Quinine is a medication used to treat malaria and babesiosis.
Quinolone may refer to.
A quinolone antibiotic is any member of a large group of broad-spectrum bactericides that share a bicyclic core structure related to the compound 4-quinolone.
Recombinant DNA (rDNA) molecules are DNA molecules formed by laboratory methods of genetic recombination (such as molecular cloning) to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in the genome.
A reflux suppressant is any one of a number of drugs used to combat oesophageal reflux.
Reserpine (also known by trade names Raudixin, Serpalan, Serpasil) is an indole alkaloid, Major Types Of Chemical Compounds In Plants & Animals Part II: Phenolic Compounds, Glycosides & Alkaloids. Wayne's Word: An On-Line Textbook of Natural History.
The retinoids are a class of chemical compounds that are vitamers of vitamin A or are chemically related to it.
In the field of drug discovery, reverse pharmacology also known as target-based drug discovery (TDD), a hypothesis is first made that modulation of the activity of a specific protein target will have beneficial therapeutic effects.
A route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body.
Scabies, also known as the seven-year itch, is a contagious skin infestation by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.
Serendipity means an unplanned, fortuitous discovery.
A serotonin antagonist, or serotonin receptor antagonist, is a drug used to inhibit the action at serotonin (5-HT) receptors.
Sex steroids, also known as gonadocorticoids and gonadal steroids, are steroid hormones that interact with vertebrate androgen or estrogen receptors.
Sildenafil, sold as the brand name Viagra among others, is a medication used to treat erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Simvastatin, marketed under the trade name Zocor among others, is a lipid-lowering medication.
Within the fields of molecular biology and pharmacology, a small molecule is a low molecular weight (< 900 daltons) organic compound that may regulate a biological process, with a size on the order of 1 nm.
Spermicide is a contraceptive substance that destroys sperm, inserted vaginally prior to intercourse to prevent pregnancy.
Statins, also known as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, are a class of lipid-lowering medications.
Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells.
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
Sulfonamide (also called sulphonamide, sulfa drugs or sulpha drugs) is the basis of several groups of drugs.
Sulfonylureas (UK: sulphonylurea) are a class of organic compounds used in medicine and agriculture.
Sunscreen, also known as sunblock, sun cream or suntan lotion, is a lotion, spray, gel or other topical product that absorbs or reflects some of the sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation and thus helps protect against sunburn.
Sympathomimetic drugs (also known as adrenergic drugs and adrenergic amines) are stimulant compounds which mimic the effects of endogenous agonists of the sympathetic nervous system.
A tablet is a pharmaceutical dosage form.
Tamoxifen (TMX), sold under the brand name Nolvadex among others, is a medication that is used to prevent breast cancer in women and treat breast cancer in women and men.
Tar is a dark brown or black viscous liquid of hydrocarbons and free carbon, obtained from a wide variety of organic materials through destructive distillation.
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a disorder that results in involuntary, repetitive body movements.
The Canon of Medicine (القانون في الطب al-Qānūn fī al-Ṭibb) is an encyclopedia of medicine in five books compiled by Persian philosopher Avicenna (Ibn Sina) and completed in 1025.
Theodoric Borgognoni (1205 – 1296/8), also known as Teodorico de'Borgognoni, and Theodoric of Lucca, was an Italian who became one of the most significant surgeons of the medieval period.
Therapeutic effect refers to the responses(s) after a treatment of any kind, the results of which are judged to be desirable and beneficial.
Therapy (often abbreviated tx, Tx, or Tx) is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually following a diagnosis.
The thiazolidinediones, abbreviated as TZD, also known as glitazones after the prototypical drug ciglitazone, are a class of heterocyclic compounds consisting of a five-membered C3NS ring.
Thyroid hormones are two hormones produced and released by the thyroid gland, namely triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4).
Tonicity is a measure of the effective osmotic pressure gradient, as defined by the water potential of two solutions separated by a semipermeable membrane.
A topical anesthetic is a local anesthetic that is used to numb the surface of a body part.
A topical medication is a medication that is applied to a particular place on or in the body.
A tranquilizer refers to a drug which is designed for the treatment of anxiety, fear, tension, agitation, and disturbances of the mind, specifically to reduce states of anxiety and tension.
Treatment Action Group (TAG) is a US-based HIV/AIDS activist organization formed in 1991 involved with worldwide efforts to increase research on treatments for HIV and for deadly co-infections that affect people with HIV, such as hepatitis C and tuberculosis.
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are a class of medications that are used primarily as antidepressants.
The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) is an international legal agreement between all the member nations of the World Trade Organization (WTO).
Tuberculosis management refers to the medical treatment of the infectious disease tuberculosis (TB).
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease.
Valpromide (marketed as Depamide by Sanofi-Aventis) is a carboxamide derivative of valproic acid used in the treatment of epilepsy and some affective disorders.
Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, in particular the large arteries and small arterioles.
Vasodilation is the widening of blood vessels.
Vasopressin analogues are chemicals similar in function but not necessarily similar in structure to vasopressin (ADH), such as desmopressin.
A vitamin is an organic molecule (or related set of molecules) which is an essential micronutrient - that is, a substance which an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism - but cannot synthesize it (either at all, or in sufficient quantities), and therefore it must be obtained through the diet.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
A wound is a type of injury which happens relatively quickly in which skin is torn, cut, or punctured (an open wound), or where blunt force trauma causes a contusion (a closed wound).
Xanthine (or; archaically xanthic acid) (3,7-dihydropurine-2,6-dione), is a purine base found in most human body tissues and fluids and in other organisms.
The 2nd millennium BC spanned the years 2000 through 1001 BC.
5α-Reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs), also known as dihydrotestosterone (DHT) blockers, are a class of medications with antiandrogenic effects which are used primarily in the treatment of enlarged prostate and scalp hair loss.
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