547 relations: A Short History of Christianity, Abdomen, Acupuncture, Acute (medicine), Addiction medicine, Adolfo Lutz, Africa, Al-Risalah al-Dhahabiah, Al-Zahrawi, Alexander Fleming, Alexandre Yersin, Algorithm, Ali al-Ridha, Allergy, Alternative medicine, Amateur, Ambulatory care, Anatomy, Ancient Egyptian medicine, Ancient Greek medicine, Ancient Iranian medicine, Andrea Cesalpino, Andreas Vesalius, Anesthesiology, Angiology, Animism, Anthropology, Antibiotic, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, Applied science, Arabic, Arabs, Arsphenamine, Asaph the Jew, Asclepius, Asia, Aspirin, Assay, Athlete, Atropine, Auscultation, Averroes, Avestan, Aviation medicine, Avicenna, Ayurveda, Azo dye, Babylonia, Bacteria, Banana passionfruit, ..., Basic research, Behavior, Beneficence (ethics), Bimaristan, Biochemistry, Biological engineering, Biology, Biomechanics, Biomedical engineering, Biomedical sciences, Biopharmaceutical, Biophysics, Biopsy, Biopsychosocial model, Biostatistics, Biotechnology, Birth defect, Black Death, Blood pressure, Blood test, Blood transfusion, Blood vessel, Bloodletting, Bronze Age, Burn, Byzantine Empire, Canada, Cardiac surgery, Cardiology, Cardiovascular disease, Cathedral school, Catholic Church, Catholic Church and health care, Cell (biology), Cell biology, Charlatan, Charlemagne, Childbirth, Chronic condition, Circulatory system, Claude Bernard, Claude Bourgelat, Clinic, Clinical chemistry, Clinical neurophysiology, Clinical pharmacology, Clinical psychology, Cluny Abbey, Cochrane (organisation), Cognition, Colorectal surgery, Commonwealth of Nations, Community health, Conservation medicine, Continuing medical education, Continuum International Publishing Group, Convalescence, Cranial nerves, Credential, CT scan, Cultural studies, Current Medicinal Chemistry, Cytogenetics, Cytopathology, De humani corporis fabrica, Dentistry, Dermatology, Developed country, Developing country, Diabetes mellitus, Diabetic ketoacidosis, Diagnosis, Diet (nutrition), Dietitian, Differential diagnosis, Digoxin, Dilemma, Disaster medicine, Disease, Divination, Diving medicine, DNA replication, Doctor of Medicine, Doctor–patient relationship, Doctors' trial, Ear, Early Middle Ages, Ebers Papyrus, Edward Jenner, Edwin Smith Papyrus, Egyptian medical papyri, Electroencephalography, Electromyography, Electron microscope, Electronic health record, Embryology, Emergency department, Emergency medical technician, Emergency medicine, Emotion, Encyclopædia Britannica, Endemic (epidemiology), Endocrinology, Endoscopy, Engineering, Environmental medicine, Ephedrine, Epidemiology, Ethics, Etiology, Evidence-based medicine, Evoked potential, Evolution, Evolutionary medicine, Eye, Eye surgery, Faculty (academic staff), Family history (medicine), Family medicine, Family tree, Florence Nightingale, Flow cytometry, Fluorescence in situ hybridization, Francis Crick, Frank Macfarlane Burnet, Fungus, Gabriele Falloppio, Galen, Gamma camera, Gastroenterology, Gastrointestinal tract, Gene, General practice, General surgery, Genetic disorder, Genetics, Genomics, Geoffrey Blainey, Geriatrics, Germany, Glossary of medicine, Greek language, Greeks, Gynaecology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvey Cushing, Healing, Health, Health care, Health education, Health informatics, Health insurance, Health system, Health technology, Heart, Heart failure, Hematology, Hepatology, Herbalism, Heredity, Herman Boerhaave, Hippocrates, Hippocratic Oath, Histology, History of science, Honesty, Hospice, Hospice and palliative medicine, Hospital medicine, Howard Florey, Huangdi Neijing, Human body, Human evolution, Human genetics, Human musculoskeletal system, Human skin, Human spaceflight, Humanities, Humorism, Hyoscine, Hyperbaric medicine, Ibn al-Nafis, Ibn Zuhr, Ifá, Imhotep, Immune system, Immunohistochemistry, Immunology, Indian subcontinent, Infection, Infectious disease (medical specialty), Information science, Information technology, Informed consent, Injury, Inoculation, Inspection (medicine), Institute of Policy Studies (Sri Lanka), Intensive care medicine, Interdisciplinarity, Internal medicine, Internship (medicine), Ionizing radiation, Iranian traditional medicine, James Watson, Jean-Martin Charcot, Jewish medicine, Joseph Lister, Justice (ethics), Kahun Gynaecological Papyrus, Karl Landsteiner, Kitasato Shibasaburō, Laser medicine, Latin, Law, List of causes of death by rate, List of disorders, List of Greek mythological figures, List of important publications in medicine, Lists of diseases, Literature, Louis Pasteur, Lung, Malnutrition, Managed care, Materia medica, Maurice Wilkins, Mechanics, Medical anthropology, Medical billing, Medical classification, Medical device, Medical diagnosis, Medical education, Medical encyclopedia, Medical equipment, Medical ethics, Medical genetics, Medical geology, Medical history, Medical humanities, Medical imaging, Medical journal, Medical jurisprudence, Medical laboratory, Medical literature, Medical malpractice, Medical microbiology, Medical News Today, Medical physics, Medical prescription, Medical psychology, Medical record, Medical research, Medical school, Medical sign, Medical sociology, Medical test, Medical ultrasound, Medication, Medicine, Medicine in ancient Rome, Medicine in the medieval Islamic world, Medicine man, Mental disorder, Mental status examination, Meta-analysis, Michael Servetus, Microbiology, Microorganism, Microscopy, Modernity, Molecular biology, Molecular medicine, Moral, Moses, Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi, Muti, Nail clubbing, National Cancer Institute, Naturopathy, Neonatology, Neoplasm, Nephrology, Nerve conduction study, Nervous system, Neurology, Neuroscience, Neurosurgery, New York City, Nicolaus Copernicus, Nikolai Korotkov, Non-ionizing radiation, Nosokinetics, Nosology, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Nuclear medicine, Nurse practitioner, Nursing, Nursing home care, Nutrition, Obstetrics, Obstetrics and gynaecology, Occupational medicine, Occupational therapy, Oncology, Ophthalmology, Oral and maxillofacial surgery, Order of Saint Benedict, Organ transplantation, Organism, Orthopedic surgery, Osteopathic medicine in the United States, Otorhinolaryngology, Otto Loewi, Outline of health sciences, Over-the-counter drug, OxfordDictionaries.com, Oxygen saturation, Pain management, Palpation, Paroxysmal attack, Pathology, Patient, Paul Broca, Paul Ehrlich, Pediatric surgery, Pediatrics, Perception, Percussion (medicine), Perforated eardrum, Peripheral nervous system, Persian people, Pharmaceutical medicine, Pharmacist, Pharmacogenomics, Pharmacology, Pharmacopoeia, Philadelphia, Philosophy, Philosophy of healthcare, Photobiology, Physical chemistry, Physical examination, Physical medicine and rehabilitation, Physical therapy, Physician, Physician assistant, Physics, Physiology, Pierre Fauchard, Plastic surgery, Podiatry, Poison, Polymath, Polymerase chain reaction, Polysomnography, Population health, Prayer, Prehistoric medicine, Prescription drug, Preventive healthcare, Primary care, Primary care physician, Primary healthcare, Primum non nocere, Professional, Proto-Indo-European language, Protozoa, Psychiatry, Psychology, Psychotherapy, Ptolemy, Public health, Public hospital, Pulmonary circulation, Pulmonology, Pulse, Quackery, Radiation therapy, Radiobiology, Radiology, Realdo Colombo, Rectum, Relapse, Religion, Reproducibility, Reproductive endocrinology and infertility, Reproductive medicine, Residency (medicine), Respect for persons, Respiratory system, Respiratory therapist, Rheumatology, Robert Koch, Rod of Asclepius, Royal Australasian College of Physicians, Royal College of Anaesthetists, Royal College of Physicians, Royal College of Surgeons of England, Rudolf Virchow, Salvador Luria, Santiago Ramón y Cajal, Schola Medica Salernitana, Science, Separation of prescribing and dispensing, Sex differences in medicine, Sexual medicine, Shamanism, Shang dynasty, Siddha medicine, Side effect, Single-payer healthcare, Smallpox vaccine, Snake, Social science, Sociology, Spain, Spasm, Specialty (medicine), Speech-language pathology, Spinal cord, Spiritualism, Splint (medicine), Sports medicine, Sri Lanka, St Thomas' Hospital, Stethoscope, Steven Novella, Strain (injury), Sulfonamide (medicine), Surgeon, Surgeon's assistant, Surgery, Surgical oncology, Surgical suture, Surgical technologist, Sushruta, Symptom, Systematic review, Terminal illness, The Canon of Medicine, Theophilus Protospatharius, Therapy, Tissue (biology), Tobacco smoking, Tomography, Tongue depressor, Torah, Toxicology, Traditional African medicine, Traditional Chinese medicine, Traditional Korean medicine, Traditional medicine, Transcription (biology), Transfusion medicine, Translation (biology), Trauma center, Trauma surgery, Travel medicine, Tribe, Tropical medicine, Truth, Tuskegee syphilis experiment, Twelver, Umbrella term, United Kingdom, United States, Universal health care, Uremia, Urgent care, Urinary system, Urology, Uroscopy, Utilization management, Vaccination, Vaccine, Vascular surgery, Veterinary medicine, Veterinary physician, Vinca alkaloid, Virus, Visual arts, Warfarin, Weight loss, Western Roman Empire, Western world, Wilderness medicine (practice), Wilhelm Röntgen, William Coley, William Harvey, William Osler, William Williams Keen, World Health Organization, X-ray, Yunani medicine, 1st millennium BC. 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A Short History of Christianity is a non-fiction book on the history of the Christian religion written by the Australian historian Geoffrey Blainey.
The abdomen (less formally called the belly, stomach, tummy or midriff) constitutes the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates.
Acupuncture is a form of alternative medicine in which thin needles are inserted into the body.
In medicine, describing a disease as acute denotes that it is of short duration and, as a corollary of that, of recent onset.
Addiction medicine is a medical specialty that deals with the treatment of addiction.
Adolfo Lutz (6 October 1855 – 18 December 1940) was a Brazilian physician, father of tropical medicine and medical zoology in Brazil, and a pioneer epidemiologist and researcher in infectious diseases.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Al-Risalah al-Dhahabiah (الرسالة الذهبیة,; "The Golden Treatise") is a medical dissertation on health and remedies attributed to Ali ibn Musa al-Ridha (765–818), the eighth Imam of Shia.
Abū al-Qāsim Khalaf ibn al-‘Abbās al-Zahrāwī al-Ansari (أبو القاسم خلف بن العباس الزهراوي;‎ 936–1013), popularly known as Al-Zahrawi (الزهراوي), Latinised as Abulcasis (from Arabic Abū al-Qāsim), was an Arab Muslim physician, surgeon and chemist who lived in Al-Andalus.
Sir Alexander Fleming (6 August 1881 – 11 March 1955) was a Scottish physician, microbiologist, and pharmacologist.
Alexandre Emile Jean Yersin (22 September 1863 – 1 March 1943) was a Swiss and naturalized French physician and bacteriologist.
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.
'Alī ibn Mūsā ar-Riḍā (علي ابن موسى الرّضا), also called Abu al-Hasan, Ali al-Reza (29 December 765 – 23 August 818) or in Iran (Persia) as Imam Reza (امام رضا), was a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad and the eighth Shi'ite Imam, after his father Musa al-Kadhim, and before his son Muhammad al-Jawad.
Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment.
Alternative medicine, fringe medicine, pseudomedicine or simply questionable medicine is the use and promotion of practices which are unproven, disproven, impossible to prove, or excessively harmful in relation to their effect — in the attempt to achieve the healing effects of medicine.--> --> --> They differ from experimental medicine in that the latter employs responsible investigation, and accepts results that show it to be ineffective. The scientific consensus is that alternative therapies either do not, or cannot, work. In some cases laws of nature are violated by their basic claims; in some the treatment is so much worse that its use is unethical. Alternative practices, products, and therapies range from only ineffective to having known harmful and toxic effects.--> Alternative therapies may be credited for perceived improvement through placebo effects, decreased use or effect of medical treatment (and therefore either decreased side effects; or nocebo effects towards standard treatment),--> or the natural course of the condition or disease. Alternative treatment is not the same as experimental treatment or traditional medicine, although both can be misused in ways that are alternative. Alternative or complementary medicine is dangerous because it may discourage people from getting the best possible treatment, and may lead to a false understanding of the body and of science.-->---> Alternative medicine is used by a significant number of people, though its popularity is often overstated.--> Large amounts of funding go to testing alternative medicine, with more than US$2.5 billion spent by the United States government alone.--> Almost none show any effect beyond that of false treatment,--> and most studies showing any effect have been statistical flukes. Alternative medicine is a highly profitable industry, with a strong lobby. This fact is often overlooked by media or intentionally kept hidden, with alternative practice being portrayed positively when compared to "big pharma". --> The lobby has successfully pushed for alternative therapies to be subject to far less regulation than conventional medicine.--> Alternative therapies may even be allowed to promote use when there is demonstrably no effect, only a tradition of use. Regulation and licensing of alternative medicine and health care providers varies between and within countries. Despite laws making it illegal to market or promote alternative therapies for use in cancer treatment, many practitioners promote them.--> Alternative medicine is criticized for taking advantage of the weakest members of society.--! Terminology has shifted over time, reflecting the preferred branding of practitioners.. Science Based Medicine--> For example, the United States National Institutes of Health department studying alternative medicine, currently named National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, was established as the Office of Alternative Medicine and was renamed the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine before obtaining its current name. Therapies are often framed as "natural" or "holistic", in apparent opposition to conventional medicine which is "artificial" and "narrow in scope", statements which are intentionally misleading. --> When used together with functional medical treatment, alternative therapies do not "complement" (improve the effect of, or mitigate the side effects of) treatment.--> Significant drug interactions caused by alternative therapies may instead negatively impact functional treatment, making it less effective, notably in cancer.--> Alternative diagnoses and treatments are not part of medicine, or of science-based curricula in medical schools, nor are they used in any practice based on scientific knowledge or experience.--> Alternative therapies are often based on religious belief, tradition, superstition, belief in supernatural energies, pseudoscience, errors in reasoning, propaganda, fraud, or lies.--> Alternative medicine is based on misleading statements, quackery, pseudoscience, antiscience, fraud, and poor scientific methodology. Promoting alternative medicine has been called dangerous and unethical.--> Testing alternative medicine that has no scientific basis has been called a waste of scarce research resources.--> Critics state that "there is really no such thing as alternative medicine, just medicine that works and medicine that doesn't",--> that the very idea of "alternative" treatments is paradoxical, as any treatment proven to work is by definition "medicine".-->.
An amateur (French amateur "lover of", from Old French and ultimately from Latin amatorem nom. amator, "lover") is generally considered a person who pursues a particular activity or field of study independently from their source of income.
Ambulatory care or outpatient care is medical care provided on an outpatient basis, including diagnosis, observation, consultation, treatment, intervention, and rehabilitation services.
Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.
The medicine of the ancient Egyptians is some of the oldest documented.
Ancient Greek medicine was a compilation of theories and practices that were constantly expanding through new ideologies and trials.
The practice and study of medicine in Persia has a long and prolific history.
Andrea Cesalpino (Latinized as Andreas Cæsalpinus) (6 June 1519 – 23 February 1603) was an Italian physician, philosopher and botanist.
Andreas Vesalius (31 December 1514 – 15 October 1564) was a 16th-century Flemish anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human Body).
Anesthesiology (spelled anaesthesiology in UK English), called anaesthetics in UK English according to some sources but not according to others, is the medical speciality concerned with anesthesia (loss of sensation) and anesthetics (substances that cause this loss).
Angiology (from Greek ἀγγεῖον, angeīon, "vessel"; and -λογία, -logia) is the medical specialty which studies the diseases of the circulatory system and of the lymphatic system, i.e., arteries, veins and lymphatic vessels, and its diseases.
Animism (from Latin anima, "breath, spirit, life") is the religious belief that objects, places and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence.
Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
Antonie Philips van Leeuwenhoek FRS (24 October 1632 – 26 August 1723) was a Dutch businessman and scientist in the Golden Age of Dutch science and technology.
Applied science is the application of existing scientific knowledge to practical applications, like technology or inventions.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Arsphenamine, also known as Salvarsan or compound 606, is a drug that was introduced at the beginning of the 1910s as the first effective treatment for syphilis, and was also used to treat trypanosomiasis.
Asaph the Jew (אסף היהודי Assaf HaYehudi, also known as Asaph ben Berechiah, Asaph Judaeus and אסף הרופא Asaph HaRofe.
Asclepius (Ἀσκληπιός, Asklēpiós; Aesculapius) was a hero and god of medicine in ancient Greek religion and mythology.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.
An assay is an investigative (analytic) procedure in laboratory medicine, pharmacology, environmental biology and molecular biology for qualitatively assessing or quantitatively measuring the presence, amount, or functional activity of a target entity (the analyte).
An athlete (also sportsman or sportswoman) is a person who competes in one or more sports that involve physical strength, speed or endurance.
Atropine is a medication to treat certain types of nerve agent and pesticide poisonings as well as some types of slow heart rate and to decrease saliva production during surgery.
Auscultation (based on the Latin verb auscultare "to listen") is listening to the internal sounds of the body, usually using a stethoscope.
Ibn Rushd (ابن رشد; full name; 1126 – 11 December 1198), often Latinized as Averroes, was an Andalusian philosopher and thinker who wrote about many subjects, including philosophy, theology, medicine, astronomy, physics, Islamic jurisprudence and law, and linguistics.
Avestan, also known historically as Zend, is a language known only from its use as the language of Zoroastrian scripture (the Avesta), from which it derives its name.
Aviation medicine, also called flight medicine or aerospace medicine, is a preventive or occupational medicine in which the patients/subjects are pilots, aircrews, or astronauts.
Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.
Ayurveda is a system of medicine with historical roots in the Indian subcontinent.
Azo dyes are organic compounds bearing the functional group R−N.
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Banana passionfruit is the fruit of several plants in the genus Passiflora, and is therefore related to the passion fruit.
Basic research, also called pure research or fundamental research, has the scientific research aim to improve scientific theories for improved understanding or prediction of natural or other phenomena.
Behavior (American English) or behaviour (Commonwealth English) is the range of actions and mannerisms made by individuals, organisms, systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment.
Beneficence is a concept in research ethics which states that researchers should have the welfare of the research participant as a goal of any clinical trial or other research study.
Bimaristan is a Persian word (بیمارستان bīmārestān) meaning "hospital", with Bimar- from Middle Persian (Pahlavi) of vīmār or vemār, meaning "sick" plus -stan as location and place suffix.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
Biological engineering or bio-engineering is the application of principles of biology and the tools of engineering to create usable, tangible, economically viable products.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
Biomechanics is the study of the structure and function of the mechanical aspects of biological systems, at any level from whole organisms to organs, cells and cell organelles, using the methods of mechanics.
Biomedical engineering (BME) is the application of engineering principles and design concepts to medicine and biology for healthcare purposes (e.g. diagnostic or therapeutic).
Biomedical sciences are a set of applied sciences applying portions of natural science or formal science, or both, to knowledge, interventions, or technology that are of use in healthcare or public health.
A biopharmaceutical, also known as a biologic(al) medical product, biological, or biologic, is any pharmaceutical drug product manufactured in, extracted from, or semisynthesized from biological sources.
Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science that applies the approaches and methods of physics to study biological systems.
A biopsy is a medical test commonly performed by a surgeon, interventional radiologist, or an interventional cardiologist involving extraction of sample cells or tissues for examination to determine the presence or extent of a disease.
The biopsychosocial model is a broad view that attributes disease outcome to the intricate, variable interaction of biological factors (genetic, biochemical, etc), psychological factors (mood, personality, behavior, etc.), and social factors (cultural, familial, socioeconomic, medical, etc.).Santrock, J. W. (2007).
Biostatistics is the application of statistics to a wide range of topics in biology.
Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).
A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.
The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle, or via fingerprick.
Blood transfusion is generally the process of receiving blood or blood products into one's circulation intravenously.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
Bloodletting (or blood-letting) is the withdrawal of blood from a patient to prevent or cure illness and disease.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
A burn is a type of injury to skin, or other tissues, caused by heat, cold, electricity, chemicals, friction, or radiation.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Cardiac surgery, or cardiovascular surgery, is surgery on the heart or great vessels performed by cardiac surgeons.
Cardiology (from Greek καρδίᾱ kardiā, "heart" and -λογία -logia, "study") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the heart as well as parts of the circulatory system.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
Cathedral schools began in the Early Middle Ages as centers of advanced education, some of them ultimately evolving into medieval universities.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Roman Catholic Church is the largest non-government provider of health care services in the world.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Cell biology (also called cytology, from the Greek κυτος, kytos, "vessel") is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, the basic unit of life.
A charlatan (also called a swindler or mountebank) is a person practicing quackery or some similar confidence trick or deception in order to obtain money, fame or other advantages via some form of pretense or deception.
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
Childbirth, also known as labour and delivery, is the ending of a pregnancy by one or more babies leaving a woman's uterus by vaginal passage or C-section.
A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Claude Bernard (12 July 1813 – 10 February 1878) was a French physiologist.
Claude Bourgelat (27 March 1712 – 3 January 1779) was a French veterinary surgeon.
A clinic (or outpatient clinic or ambulatory care clinic) is a healthcare facility that is primarily focused on the care of outpatients.
Clinical chemistry (also known as chemical pathology, clinical biochemistry or medical biochemistry) is the area of chemistry that is generally concerned with analysis of bodily fluids for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.
Clinical neurophysiology is a medical specialty that studies the central and peripheral nervous systems through the recording of bioelectrical activity, whether spontaneous or stimulated.
Clinical pharmacology is the science of drugs and their clinical use.
Clinical psychology is an integration of science, theory and clinical knowledge for the purpose of understanding, preventing, and relieving psychologically-based distress or dysfunction and to promote subjective well-being and personal development.
Cluny Abbey (formerly also Cluni, or Clugny) is a former Benedictine monastery in Cluny, Saône-et-Loire, France.
Cochrane is a non-profit, non-governmental organization formed to organize medical research findings so as to facilitate evidence-based choices about health interventions faced by health professionals, patients, and policy makers.
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".
Colorectal surgery is a field in medicine, dealing with disorders of the rectum, anus, and colon.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
Community health is a major field of study within the medical and clinical sciences which focuses on the maintenance, protection, and improvement of the health status of population groups and communities.
Conservation medicine is an emerging, interdisciplinary field that studies the relationship between human and animal health, and environmental conditions.
Continuing medical education (CME) refers to a specific form of continuing education (CE) that helps those in the medical field maintain competence and learn about new and developing areas of their field.
Continuum International Publishing Group was an academic publisher of books with editorial offices in London and New York City.
Convalescence is the gradual recovery of health and strength after illness or injury.
Cranial nerves are the nerves that emerge directly from the brain (including the brainstem), in contrast to spinal nerves (which emerge from segments of the spinal cord).
Examples of credentials include academic diplomas, academic degrees, certifications, security clearances, identification documents, badges, passwords, user names, keys, powers of attorney, and so on.
A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.
Cultural studies is a field of theoretically, politically, and empirically engaged cultural analysis that concentrates upon the political dynamics of contemporary culture, its historical foundations, defining traits, conflicts, and contingencies.
Current Medicinal Chemistry is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by Bentham Science Publishers.
Cytogenetics is a branch of genetics that is concerned with how the chromosomes relate to cell behaviour, particularly to their behaviour during mitosis and meiosis.
Cytopathology (from Greek κύτος, kytos, "a hollow"; πάθος, pathos, "fate, harm"; and -λογία, -logia) is a branch of pathology that studies and diagnoses diseases on the cellular level.
De humani corporis fabrica libri septem (Latin for "On the fabric of the human body in seven books") is a set of books on human anatomy written by Andreas Vesalius (1514–1564) and published in 1543.
Dentistry is a branch of medicine that consists of the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders, and conditions of the oral cavity, commonly in the dentition but also the oral mucosa, and of adjacent and related structures and tissues, particularly in the maxillofacial (jaw and facial) area.
Dermatology (from ancient Greek δέρμα, derma which means skin and λογία, logia) is the branch of medicine dealing with the skin, nails, hair and its diseases.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus.
Diagnosis is the identification of the nature and cause of a certain phenomenon.
In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism.
A dietitian (or dietician) is an expert in dietetics; that is, human nutrition and the regulation of diet.
In medicine, a differential diagnosis is the distinguishing of a particular disease or condition from others that present similar clinical features.
Digoxin, sold under the brand name Lanoxin among others, is a medication used to treat various heart conditions.
A dilemma (δίλημμα "double proposition") is a problem offering two unrelated possibilities, neither of which is unambiguously acceptable or preferable.
Disaster medicine is the area of medical specialization serving the dual areas of providing health care to disaster survivors and providing medically related disaster preparation, disaster planning, disaster response and disaster recovery leadership throughout the disaster life cycle.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
Divination (from Latin divinare "to foresee, to be inspired by a god", related to divinus, divine) is the attempt to gain insight into a question or situation by way of an occultic, standardized process or ritual.
Diving medicine, also called undersea and hyperbaric medicine (UHB), is the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of conditions caused by humans entering the undersea environment.
In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.
A Doctor of Medicine (MD from Latin Medicinae Doctor) is a medical degree, the meaning of which varies between different jurisdictions.
The doctor–patient relationship is a central part of health care and the practice of medicine.
The Doctors' trial (officially United States of America v. Karl Brandt, et al.) was the second of 12 trials for war crimes of German doctors that the United States authorities held in their occupation zone in Nuremberg, Germany, after the end of World War II.
The ear is the organ of hearing and, in mammals, balance.
The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.
The Ebers Papyrus, also known as Papyrus Ebers, is an Egyptian medical papyrus of herbal knowledge dating to circa 1550 BC.
Edward Jenner, FRS FRCPE (17 May 1749 – 26 January 1823) was an English physician and scientist who was the pioneer of smallpox vaccine, the world's first vaccine.
The Edwin Smith Papyrus is an ancient Egyptian medical text, named after the dealer who bought it in 1862, and the oldest known surgical treatise on trauma.
Egyptian medical papyri are ancient Egyptian texts written on papyrus which permit a glimpse at medical procedures and practices in ancient Egypt.
Electroencephalography (EEG) is an electrophysiological monitoring method to record electrical activity of the brain.
Electromyography (EMG) is an electrodiagnostic medicine technique for evaluating and recording the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles.
An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.
An electronic health record (EHR), or electronic medical record (EMR), is the systematized collection of patient and population electronically-stored health information in a digital format.
Embryology (from Greek ἔμβρυον, embryon, "the unborn, embryo"; and -λογία, -logia) is the branch of biology that studies the prenatal development of gametes (sex cells), fertilization, and development of embryos and fetuses.
An emergency department (ED), also known as an accident & emergency department (A&E), emergency room (ER), emergency ward (EW) or casualty department, is a medical treatment facility specializing in emergency medicine, the acute care of patients who present without prior appointment; either by their own means or by that of an ambulance.
Emergency medical technician (EMT) and ambulance technician are terms used in some countries to denote a health care provider of emergency medical services.
Emergency medicine, also known as accident and emergency medicine, is the medical specialty concerned with caring for undifferentiated, unscheduled patients with illnesses or injuries requiring immediate medical attention.
Emotion is any conscious experience characterized by intense mental activity and a certain degree of pleasure or displeasure.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
In epidemiology, an infection is said to be endemic (from Greek ἐν en "in, within" and δῆμος demos "people") in a population when that infection is constantly maintained at a baseline level in a geographic area without external inputs.
Endocrinology (from endocrine + -ology) is a branch of biology and medicine dealing with the endocrine system, its diseases, and its specific secretions known as hormones.
An endoscopy (looking inside) is used in medicine to look inside the body.
Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.
Environmental medicine is a multidisciplinary field involving medicine, environmental science, chemistry and others, overlapping with environmental pathology.
Ephedrine is a medication and stimulant.
Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
Etiology (alternatively aetiology or ætiology) is the study of causation, or origination.
Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is an approach to medical practice intended to optimize decision-making by emphasizing the use of evidence from well-designed and well-conducted research.
An evoked potential or evoked response is an electrical potential recorded from the nervous system of a human or other animal following presentation of a stimulus, as distinct from spontaneous potentials as detected by electroencephalography (EEG), electromyography (EMG), or other electrophysiologic recording method.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Evolutionary medicine or Darwinian medicine is the application of modern evolutionary theory to understanding health and disease.
Eyes are organs of the visual system.
Eye surgery, also known as ocular surgery, is surgery performed on the eye or its adnexa, typically by an ophthalmologist.
Faculty (in North American usage) or academics (in British, Australia, and New Zealand usage) are the academic staff of a university: professors of various ranks, lecturers, and/or researchers.
In medicine, a family history (FH or FHx) consists of information about disorders from which the direct blood relatives of the patient have suffered.
Family medicine (FM), formerly family practice (FP), is a medical specialty devoted to comprehensive health care for people of all ages; the specialist is named a family physician or family doctor.
A family tree, or pedigree chart, is a chart representing family relationships in a conventional tree structure.
Florence Nightingale, (12 May 1820 – 13 August 1910) was an English social reformer and statistician, and the founder of modern nursing.
In biotechnology, flow cytometry is a laser- or impedance-based, biophysical technology employed in cell counting, cell sorting, biomarker detection and protein engineering, by suspending cells in a stream of fluid and passing them through an electronic detection apparatus.
Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) is a molecular cytogenetic technique that uses fluorescent probes that bind to only those parts of the chromosome with a high degree of sequence complementarity.
Francis Harry Compton Crick (8 June 1916 – 28 July 2004) was a British molecular biologist, biophysicist, and neuroscientist, most noted for being a co-discoverer of the structure of the DNA molecule in 1953 with James Watson, work which was based partly on fundamental studies done by Rosalind Franklin, Raymond Gosling and Maurice Wilkins.
Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet, (3 September 1899 – 31 August 1985), usually known as Macfarlane or Mac Burnet, was an Australian virologist best known for his contributions to immunology.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Gabriele Falloppio (1523 – October 9, 1562), often known by his Latin name Fallopius, was one of the most important anatomists and physicians of the sixteenth century.
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.
A gamma camera (γ-camera), also called a scintillation camera or Anger camera, is a device used to image gamma radiation emitting radioisotopes, a technique known as scintigraphy.
Gastroenterology (MeSH heading) is the branch of medicine focused on the digestive system and its disorders.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
General practice is the name given in the United Kingdom to the service provided by General practitioners.
General surgery is a surgical specialty that focuses on abdominal contents including esophagus, stomach, small bowel, colon, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, appendix and bile ducts, and often the thyroid gland (depending on local referral patterns).
A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of science focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes.
Geoffrey Norman Blainey (born 11 March 1930) is an Australian historian, academic, philanthropist and commentator with a wide international audience.
Geriatrics, or geriatric medicine, is a specialty that focuses on health care of elderly people.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
This glossary of medical terms is a list of definitions about medicine, its sub-disciplines, and related fields.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
Gynaecology or gynecology (see spelling differences) is the medical practice dealing with the health of the female reproductive systems (vagina, uterus, and ovaries) and the breasts.
The Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health (formerly Harvard School of Public Health) is the public health graduate school of Harvard University, located in the Longwood Medical Area of Boston, Massachusetts adjacent Harvard Medical School.
Harvey Williams Cushing (April 8, 1869 – October 7, 1939) was an American neurosurgeon, pathologist, writer and draftsman.
Healing (literally meaning to make whole) is the process of the restoration of health from an unbalanced, diseased or damaged organism.
Health is the ability of a biological system to acquire, convert, allocate, distribute, and utilize energy with maximum efficiency.
Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings.
Health education is a profession of educating people about health.
Health informatics (also called health care informatics, healthcare informatics, medical informatics, nursing informatics, clinical informatics, or biomedical informatics) is information engineering applied to the field of health care, essentially the management and use of patient healthcare information.
Health insurance is insurance that covers the whole or a part of the risk of a person incurring medical expenses, spreading the risk over a large number of persons.
A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.
Health technology is defined by the World Health Organization as the application of organized knowledge and skills in the form of devices, medicines, vaccines, procedures and systems developed to solve a health problem and improve quality of life.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.
Hematology, also spelled haematology, is the branch of medicine concerned with the study of the cause, prognosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases related to blood.
Hepatology is the branch of medicine that incorporates the study of liver, gallbladder, biliary tree, and pancreas as well as management of their disorders.
Herbalism (also herbal medicine or phytotherapy) is the study of botany and use of plants intended for medicinal purposes or for supplementing a diet.
Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.
Herman Boerhaave (31 December 1668 – 23 September 1738)Underwood, E. Ashworth.
Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.
The Hippocratic Oath is an oath historically taken by physicians.
Histology, also microanatomy, is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.
The history of science is the study of the development of science and scientific knowledge, including both the natural and social sciences.
Honesty refers to a facet of moral character and connotes positive and virtuous attributes such as integrity, truthfulness, straightforwardness, including straightforwardness of conduct, along with the absence of lying, cheating, theft, etc.
Hospice care is a type of care and philosophy of care that focuses on the palliation of a chronically ill, terminally ill or seriously ill patient's pain and symptoms, and attending to their emotional and spiritual needs.
Hospice and palliative medicine is a formal subspecialty of medicine in the United States that focuses on symptom management, relief of suffering and end-of-life care.
Hospital medicine in the United States is the medical specialty concerned with the care of acutely ill hospitalized patients.
Howard Walter Florey, Baron Florey, (24 September 189821 February 1968) was an Australian pharmacologist and pathologist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1945 with Sir Ernst Chain and Sir Alexander Fleming for his role in the development of penicillin.
Huangdi Neijing, literally the Inner Canon of the Yellow Emperor or Esoteric Scripture of the Yellow Emperor, is an ancient Chinese medical text that has been treated as the fundamental doctrinal source for Chinese medicine for more than two millennia.
The human body is the entire structure of a human being.
Human evolution is the evolutionary process that led to the emergence of anatomically modern humans, beginning with the evolutionary history of primates – in particular genus Homo – and leading to the emergence of Homo sapiens as a distinct species of the hominid family, the great apes.
Human genetics is the study of inheritance as it occurs in human beings.
The human musculoskeletal system (also known as the locomotor system, and previously the activity system) is an organ system that gives humans the ability to move using their muscular and skeletal systems.
The human skin is the outer covering of the body.
Human spaceflight (also referred to as crewed spaceflight or manned spaceflight) is space travel with a crew or passengers aboard the spacecraft.
Humanities are academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture.
Humorism, or humoralism, was a system of medicine detailing the makeup and workings of the human body, adopted by Ancient Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers, positing that an excess or deficiency of any of four distinct bodily fluids in a person—known as humors or humours—directly influences their temperament and health.
Hyoscine, also known as scopolamine, is a medication used to treat motion sickness and postoperative nausea and vomiting.
Hyperbaric medicine is medical treatment in which an ambient pressure greater than sea level atmospheric pressure is a necessary component.
Ala-al-din abu Al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi (Arabic: علاء الدين أبو الحسن عليّ بن أبي حزم القرشي الدمشقي), known as Ibn al-Nafis (Arabic: ابن النفيس), was an Arab physician mostly famous for being the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood.
Ibn Zuhr (ابن زهر; 1094–1162), traditionally known by his Latinized name of Avenzoar, was an Arab physician, surgeon, and poet.
Ifá is a religion and system of divination and refers to the verses of the literary corpus known as the Odu Ifá.
Imhotep (Egyptian: ỉỉ-m-ḥtp *jā-im-ḥātap, in Unicode hieroglyphs: 𓇍𓅓𓊵:𓏏*𓊪, "the one who comes in peace"; fl. late 27th century BC) was an Egyptian chancellor to the pharaoh Djoser, probable architect of the step pyramid, and high priest of the sun god Ra at Heliopolis.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) involves the process of selectively imaging antigens (proteins) in cells of a tissue section by exploiting the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in biological tissues.
Immunology is a branch of biology that covers the study of immune systems in all organisms.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Infectious disease, also known as infectious diseases, infectious medicine, infectious disease medicine or infectiology, is a medical specialty dealing with the diagnosis, control and treatment of infections.
Information science is a field primarily concerned with the analysis, collection, classification, manipulation, storage, retrieval, movement, dissemination, and protection of information.
Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.
Informed consent is a process for getting permission before conducting a healthcare intervention on a person, or for disclosing personal information.
Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage to the body caused by external force.
The terms inoculation, vaccination and immunization are often used synonymously to refer to artificial induction of immunity against various infectious diseases.
In medicine, inspection (Latin word "Inspectio" or the act of beholding) is the thorough and unhurried visualization of the client.
Institute of Policy Studies of Sri Lanka (IPS) is the apex economic policy research institute in Sri Lanka.
Intensive care medicine, or critical care medicine, is a branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and management of life-threatening conditions that may require sophisticated life support and monitoring.
Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combining of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project).
Internal medicine or general medicine (in Commonwealth nations) is the medical specialty dealing with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of adult diseases.
Medical intern is a term used in some countries to describe a physician in training who has completed medical school and has a medical degree, but does not yet have a full license to practice medicine unsupervised.
Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.
Iranian traditional medicine (ITM), also known as Persian traditional medicine, Iranian-Islamic traditional medicine (IITM), traditional Iranian medicine (TIM), or simply traditional medicine (Persian: طب سنتی ایرانی tebbe sonnati irāni) is one of famous and most ancient forms of traditional medicines.
James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, geneticist and zoologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA in 1953 with Francis Crick and Rosalind Franklin.
Jean-Martin Charcot (29 November 1825 – 16 August 1893) was a French neurologist and professor of anatomical pathology.
Jewish medicine is medical practice of the Jewish people, including writing in the languages of both Hebrew and Arabic.
Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister, (5 April 182710 February 1912), known between 1883 and 1897 as Sir Joseph Lister, Bt., was a British surgeon and a pioneer of antiseptic surgery.
In research ethics, justice is the fair selection of research participants.
The Kahun Gynaecological Papyrus (also Petrie Medical Papyrus, Kahun Medical Papyrus, Lahun Medical Papyrus, or UC32057) is the oldest known medical text in Egypt, although not the oldest in the world as in Philadelphia museum a Sumerian medical clay tablet from 3rd millennium is preserved.
Karl Landsteiner,, (June 14, 1868 – June 26, 1943) was an Austrian biologist, physician, and immunologist.
Baron was a Japanese physician and bacteriologist during the reign of the Empire of Japan, prior to World War 2.
Laser medicine consists in the use of lasers in medical diagnosis, treatments, or therapies, such as laser photodynamic therapy.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.
The following is a list of the causes of human deaths worldwide for the year 2002, arranged by their associated mortality rates.
A list of types of disorders.
The following is a list of gods, goddesses and many other divine and semi-divine figures from Ancient Greek mythology and Ancient Greek religion.
This is a list of important publications in medicine, organized by field.
A medical condition is a broad term that includes all diseases and disorders.
Literature, most generically, is any body of written works.
Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French biologist, microbiologist and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.
The term "managed care" or "managed healthcare" is used in the United States to describe a group of activities ostensibly intended to reduce the cost of providing for profit health care while improving the quality of that care ("managed care techniques").
Materia medica (medical material/substance) is a Latin term for the body of collected knowledge about the therapeutic properties of any substance used for healing (i.e., medicines).
Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins (15 December 1916 – 5 October 2004) was a New Zealand-born British physicist and molecular biologist, and Nobel laureate whose research contributed to the scientific understanding of phosphorescence, isotope separation, optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction, and to the development of radar.
Mechanics (Greek μηχανική) is that area of science concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effects of the bodies on their environment.
Medical anthropology studies "human health and disease, health care systems, and biocultural adaptation".
Medical billing is a payment practice within the United States health system.
Medical classification, or medical coding, is the process of transforming descriptions of medical diagnoses and procedures into universal medical code numbers.
A medical device is any apparatus, appliance, software, material, or other article—whether used alone or in combination, including the software intended by its manufacturer to be used specifically for diagnostic and/or therapeutic purposes and necessary for its proper application—intended by the manufacturer to be used for human beings for the purpose of.
Medical diagnosis (abbreviated Dx or DS) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs.
Medical education is education related to the practice of being a medical practitioner; either the initial training to become a physician (i.e., medical school and internship), or additional training thereafter (e.g., residency, fellowship and continuing medical education).
A medical encyclopedia is a comprehensive written compendium that holds information about diseases, medical conditions, tests, symptoms, injuries, and surgeries.
Medical equipment (also known as armamentarium) is designed to aid in the diagnosis, monitoring or treatment of medical conditions.
Medical ethics is a system of moral principles that apply values to the practice of clinical medicine and in scientific research.
Medical genetics is the branch of medicine that involves the diagnosis and management of hereditary disorders.
Medical geology is an emerging interdisciplinary scientific field studying the relationship between natural geological factors and their effects on human and animal health.
The medical history or case history of a patient is information gained by a physician by asking specific questions, either of the patient or of other people who know the person and can give suitable information, with the aim of obtaining information useful in formulating a diagnosis and providing medical care to the patient.
Medical humanities is an interdisciplinary field of medicine which includes the humanities (literature, philosophy, ethics, history and religion), social science (anthropology, cultural studies, psychology, sociology, health geography) and the arts (literature, theater, film, and visual arts) and their application to medical education and practice.
Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).
A medical journal is a peer-reviewed scientific journal which communicates medical information to physicians and other health professionals.
Medical jurisprudence or legal medicine is the branch of science and medicine involving the study and application of scientific and medical knowledge to legal problems, such as inquests, and in the field of law.
A medical laboratory or clinical laboratory is a laboratory where tests are carried out on clinical specimens in order to obtain information about the health of a patient in order to provide diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Medical literature is the scientific literature of medicine: articles in journals and texts in books devoted to the field of medicine.
Medical malpractice is a legal cause of action that occurs when a medical or health care professional deviates from standards in his or her profession, thereby causing injury to a patient.
Medical microbiology, the large subset of microbiology that is applied to medicine, is a branch of medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases.
Medical News Today is a web-based outlet for medical news, targeted to both physicians and the general public.
Medical physics (also called biomedical physics, medical biophysics or applied physics in medicine) is, generally speaking, the application of physics concepts, theories and methods to medicine or healthcare.
A prescription is a health-care program implemented by a physician or other qualified health care practitioner in the form of instructions that govern the plan of care for an individual patient.
Medical psychology is the application of psychological principles to the practice of medicine, and is clearly comprehensive rather than primarily drug-oriented, for both physical and mental disorders.
The terms medical record, health record, and medical chart are used somewhat interchangeably to describe the systematic documentation of a single patient's medical history and care across time within one particular health care provider's jurisdiction.
Biomedical research (or experimental medicine) encompasses a wide array of research, extending from "basic research" (also called bench science or bench research), – involving fundamental scientific principles that may apply to a ''preclinical'' understanding – to clinical research, which involves studies of people who may be subjects in clinical trials.
A medical school is a tertiary educational institution —or part of such an institution— that teaches medicine, and awards a professional degree for physicians and surgeons.
A medical sign is an objective indication of some medical fact or characteristic that may be detected by a patient or anyone, especially a physician, before or during a physical examination of a patient.
A medical test is a medical procedure performed to detect, diagnose, or monitor diseases, disease processes, susceptibility, and determine a course of treatment.
Medical ultrasound (also known as diagnostic sonography or ultrasonography) is a diagnostic imaging technique based on the application of ultrasound.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Medicine in ancient Rome combined various techniques using different tools, methodology, and ingredients.
In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine is the science of medicine developed in the Islamic Golden Age, and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of Islamic civilization.
A medicine man or medicine woman is a traditional healer and spiritual leader who serves a community of indigenous people of the Americas.
A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.
The mental status examination or mental state examination (MSE) is an important part of the clinical assessment process in psychiatric practice.
A meta-analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies.
Michael Servetus (Miguel Serveto, Michel Servet), also known as Miguel Servet, Miguel Serveto, Michel Servet, Revés, or Michel de Villeneuve (29 September 1509 or 1511 – 27 October 1553), was a Spanish (then French) theologian, physician, cartographer, and Renaissance humanist.
Microbiology (from Greek μῑκρος, mīkros, "small"; βίος, bios, "life"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of microorganisms, those being unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells).
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
Microscopy is the technical field of using microscopes to view objects and areas of objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye (objects that are not within the resolution range of the normal eye).
Modernity, a topic in the humanities and social sciences, is both a historical period (the modern era), as well as the ensemble of particular socio-cultural norms, attitudes and practices that arose in the wake of Renaissance, in the "Age of Reason" of 17th-century thought and the 18th-century "Enlightenment".
Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.
Molecular medicine is a broad field, where physical, chemical, biological, bioinformatics and medical techniques are used to describe molecular structures and mechanisms, identify fundamental molecular and genetic errors of disease, and to develop molecular interventions to correct them.
A moral (from Latin morālis) is a message that is conveyed or a lesson to be learned from a story or event.
Mosesמֹשֶׁה, Modern Tiberian ISO 259-3; ܡܘܫܐ Mūše; موسى; Mωϋσῆς was a prophet in the Abrahamic religions.
Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyyā al-Rāzī (Abūbakr Mohammad-e Zakariyyā-ye Rāzī, also known by his Latinized name Rhazes or Rasis) (854–925 CE), was a Persian polymath, physician, alchemist, philosopher, and important figure in the history of medicine.
Muti is a term for traditional medicine in Southern Africa as far north as Lake Tanganyika.
Nail clubbing, also known as digital clubbing, is a deformity of the finger or toe nails associated with a number of diseases, mostly of the heart and lungs.
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is one of eleven agencies that are part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Naturopathy or naturopathic medicine is a form of alternative medicine that employs an array of pseudoscientific practices branded as "natural", "non-invasive", and as promoting "self-healing".
Neonatology is a subspecialty of pediatrics that consists of the medical care of newborn infants, especially the ill or premature newborn.
Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.
Nephrology (from Greek nephros "kidney", combined with the suffix -logy, "the study of") is a specialty of medicine and pediatrics that concerns itself with the kidneys: the study of normal kidney function and kidney disease, the preservation of kidney health, and the treatment of kidney disease, from diet and medication to renal replacement therapy (dialysis and kidney transplantation).
A nerve conduction study (NCS) is a medical diagnostic test commonly used to evaluate the function, especially the ability of electrical conduction, of the motor and sensory nerves of the human body.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.
Neurosurgery, or neurological surgery, is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, surgical treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Nicolaus Copernicus (Mikołaj Kopernik; Nikolaus Kopernikus; Niklas Koppernigk; 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance-era mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe, likely independently of Aristarchus of Samos, who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier.
Nikolai Sergeyevich Korotkov (also romanized Korotkoff; Николай Серге́евич Коротков) (– 14 March 1920) was a Russian surgeon, a pioneer of 20th century vascular surgery, and the inventor of auscultatory technique for blood pressure measurement.
Non-ionizing (or non-ionising) radiation refers to any type of electromagnetic radiation that does not carry enough energy per quantum (photon energy) to ionize atoms or molecules—that is, to completely remove an electron from an atom or molecule.
Nosokinetics is the science/subject of measuring and modelling the process of care in health and social care systems.
Nosology is a classification scheme used in medicine to classify diseases.
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon in which nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiation.
Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty involving the application of radioactive substances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.
Nurse practitioners are healthcare professionals educated and trained to provide health promotion and maintenance through the diagnosis and treatment of acute illness and chronic conditions.
Nursing is a profession within the health care sector focused on the care of individuals, families, and communities so they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life.
Nursing homes are a type of residential care that provide around-the-clock nursing care for elderly people.
Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism.
Obstetrics is the field of study concentrated on pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period.
Obstetrics and gynecology (commonly known as OB-GYN, OBG, O&G or obs and gynae in the USA, and referred to as gynae in the UK) is the medical specialty that deals with pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period (obstetrics) and the health of the female reproductive systems (vagina, uterus, and ovaries) and the breasts (gynecology).
Occupational medicine, until 1960 called industrial medicine, is the branch of medicine which is concerned with the maintenance of health in the workplace, including prevention and treatment of diseases and injuries, with secondary objectives of maintaining and increasing productivity and social adjustment in the workplace.
Occupational therapy (OT) is the use of assessment and intervention to develop, recover, or maintain the meaningful activities, or occupations, of individuals, groups, or communities.
Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer.
Ophthalmology is a branch of medicine and surgery (both methods are used) that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eyeball and orbit.
Oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS or OMFS) specializes in treating many diseases, injuries and defects in the head, neck, face, jaws and the hard and soft tissues of the oral (mouth) and maxillofacial (jaws and face) region.
The Order of Saint Benedict (OSB; Latin: Ordo Sancti Benedicti), also known as the Black Monksin reference to the colour of its members' habitsis a Catholic religious order of independent monastic communities that observe the Rule of Saint Benedict.
Organ transplantation is a medical procedure in which an organ is removed from one body and placed in the body of a recipient, to replace a damaged or missing organ.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
Orthopedic surgery or orthopedics, also spelled orthopaedic, is the branch of surgery concerned with conditions involving the musculoskeletal system.
Osteopathic medicine is a branch of the medical profession in the United States.
Otorhinolaryngology (also called otolaryngology and otolaryngology–head and neck surgery) is a surgical subspecialty within medicine that deals with conditions of the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) and related structures of the head and neck.
Otto Loewi (3 June 1873 – 25 December 1961) was a German-born pharmacologist and psychobiologist who discovered the role of acetylcholine as an endogenous neurotransmitter. For his discovery he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1936, which he shared with Sir Henry Dale, who was a lifelong friend who helped to inspire the neurotransmitter experiment. Loewi met Dale in 1902 when spending some months in Ernest Starling's laboratory at University College, London.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to health sciences: Health sciences – are applied sciences that address the use of science, technology, engineering or mathematics in the delivery of healthcare to human beings.
Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional, as opposed to prescription drugs, which may be sold only to consumers possessing a valid prescription.
OxfordDictionaries.com, originally titled Oxford Dictionaries Online (ODO) and rebranded Oxford Living Dictionaries in 2017, is an online dictionary produced by the Oxford University Press (OUP) publishing house, a department of the University of Oxford, which also publishes a number of print dictionaries, among other works.
Oxygen saturation (symbol SO2) is a relative measure of the concentration of oxygen that is dissolved or carried in a given medium as a proportion of the maximal concentration that can be dissolved in that medium.
Pain management, pain medicine, pain control or algiatry, is a branch of medicine employing an interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those living with chronic pain The typical pain management team includes medical practitioners, pharmacists, clinical psychologists, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, physician assistants, nurses.
Palpation is the process of using one's hands to check the body, especially while perceiving/diagnosing a disease or illness.
Paroxysmal attacks or paroxysms (from Greek παροξυσμός) are a sudden recurrence or intensification of symptoms, such as a spasm or seizure.
Pathology (from the Ancient Greek roots of pathos (πάθος), meaning "experience" or "suffering" and -logia (-λογία), "study of") is a significant field in modern medical diagnosis and medical research, concerned mainly with the causal study of disease, whether caused by pathogens or non-infectious physiological disorder.
A patient is any recipient of health care services.
Pierre Paul Broca (28 June 1824 – 9 July 1880) was a French physician, anatomist and anthropologist.
Paul Ehrlich (14 March 1854 – 20 August 1915) was a German Jewish physician and scientist who worked in the fields of hematology, immunology, and antimicrobial chemotherapy.
Pediatric surgery is a subspecialty of surgery involving the surgery of fetuses, infants, children, adolescents, and young adults.
Pediatrics (also spelled paediatrics or pædiatrics) is the branch of medicine that involves the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents.
Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.
Percussion is a method of tapping on a surface to determine the underlying structure, and is used in clinical examinations to assess the condition of the thorax or abdomen.
A perforated eardrum or punctured eardrum is a rupture or perforation (hole) of the eardrum which can occur as a result of otitis media (ear infection), trauma (e.g. by trying to clean the ear with sharp instruments), explosion, loud noise or surgery (accidental creation of a rupture).
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system (CNS).
The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.
Pharmaceutical medicine is a medical discipline concerned with the discovery, evaluation, registration, monitoring and clinical aspects of pharmaceutical development.
Pharmacists, also known as chemists (Commonwealth English) or druggists (North American and, archaically, Commonwealth English), are health professionals who practice in pharmacy, the field of health sciences focusing on safe and effective medication use.
Pharmacogenomics is the study of the role of the genome in drug response.
Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).
A pharmacopoeia, pharmacopeia, or pharmacopoea (literally, “drug-making”), in its modern technical sense, is a book containing directions for the identification of compound medicines, and published by the authority of a government or a medical or pharmaceutical society.
Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
The philosophy of healthcare is the study of the ethics, processes, and people which constitute the maintenance of health for human beings.
Photobiology is the scientific study of the interactions of light (technically, non-ionizing radiation) and living organisms.
Physical Chemistry is the study of macroscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems in terms of the principles, practices, and concepts of physics such as motion, energy, force, time, thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics, analytical dynamics and chemical equilibrium.
A physical examination, medical examination, or clinical examination (more popularly known as a check-up) is the process by which a medical professional investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease.
Physical medicine and rehabilitation, also known as physiatry, is a branch of medicine that aims to enhance and restore functional ability and quality of life to those with physical impairments or disabilities.
Physical therapy (PT), also known as physiotherapy, is one of the allied health professions that, by using mechanical force and movements (bio-mechanics or kinesiology), manual therapy, exercise therapy, and electrotherapy, remediates impairments and promotes mobility and function.
A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.
A physician assistant (US/Canada) or physician associate (UK) is a healthcare professional who practices medicine as a part of a healthcare team with collaborating physicians and other providers.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
Pierre Fauchard (1678 – March 22, 1761) was a French physician, credited as being the "father of modern dentistry".
Plastic surgery is a surgical specialty involving the restoration, reconstruction, or alteration of the human body.
Podiatry or podiatric medicine is a branch of medicine devoted to the study, diagnosis, and medical and surgical treatment of disorders of the foot, ankle and lower extremity.
In biology, poisons are substances that cause disturbances in organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity.
A polymath (πολυμαθής,, "having learned much,"The term was first recorded in written English in the early seventeenth century Latin: uomo universalis, "universal man") is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas—such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used in molecular biology to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a segment of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.
Polysomnography (PSG), a type of sleep study, is a multi-parametric test used in the study of sleep and as a diagnostic tool in sleep medicine.
Population health has been defined as "the health outcomes of a group of individuals, including the distribution of such outcomes within the group".
Prayer is an invocation or act that seeks to activate a rapport with an object of worship, typically a deity, through deliberate communication.
Prehistoric medicine is any use of medicine from before the invention of writing and the documented history of medicine.
A prescription drug (also prescription medication or prescription medicine) is a pharmaceutical drug that legally requires a medical prescription to be dispensed.
Preventive healthcare (alternately preventive medicine, preventative healthcare/medicine, or prophylaxis) consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment.
Primary care is the day-to-day healthcare given by a health care provider.
A primary care physician is a physician who provides both the first contact for a person with an undiagnosed health concern as well as continuing care of varied medical conditions, not limited by cause, organ system, or diagnosis.
Primary healthcare (PHC) refers to "essential health care" that is based on "scientifically sound and socially acceptable methods and technology, which make universal health care accessible to all individuals and families in a community.
Primum non nocere is a Latin phrase that means "first, to do no harm." The phrase is sometimes recorded as primum nil nocere.
A professional is a member of a profession or any person who earns their living from a specified professional activity.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
Protozoa (also protozoan, plural protozoans) is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.
Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior and overcome problems in desired ways.
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".
A public hospital or government hospital is a hospital which is owned by a government and receives government funding.
The pulmonary circulation is the portion of the circulatory system which carries deoxygenated blood away from the right ventricle of the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood to the left atrium and ventricle of the heart.
Pulmonology is a medical speciality that deals with diseases involving the respiratory tract.
In medicine, a pulse represents the tactile arterial palpation of the heartbeat by trained fingertips.
Quackery or health fraud is the promotion of fraudulent or ignorant medical practices.
Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.
Radiobiology (also known as radiation biology) is a field of clinical and basic medical sciences that involves the study of the action of ionizing radiation on living things, especially health effects of radiation.
Radiology is the science that uses medical imaging to diagnose and sometimes also treat diseases within the body.
Realdo Colombo (c. 1515, Cremona – 1559, Rome) was an Italian professor of anatomy and a surgeon at the University of Padua between 1544 and 1559.
The rectum is the final straight portion of the large intestine in humans and some other mammals, and the gut in others.
In medicine, relapse or recidivism is a recurrence of a past (typically medical) condition.
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
Reproducibility is the closeness of the agreement between the results of measurements of the same measurand carried out under changed conditions of measurement.
Reproductive endocrinology and infertility (REI) is a surgical subspecialty of obstetrics and gynecology that trains physicians in reproductive medicine addressing hormonal functioning as it pertains to reproduction as well as the issue of infertility.
Reproductive medicine is a branch of medicine that deals with prevention, diagnosis and management of reproductive problems; goals include improving or maintaining reproductive health and allowing people to have children at a time of their choosing.
Residency is a stage of graduate medical training.
Respect for persons is the concept that all people deserve the right to fully exercise their autonomy.
The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.
A respiratory therapist is a specialized healthcare practitioner trained in pulmonary medicine in order to work therapeutically with people suffering from pulmonary disease.
Rheumatology (Greek ρεύμα, rheuma, flowing current) is a branch of medicine devoted to the diagnosis and therapy of rheumatic diseases.
Robert Heinrich Hermann Koch (11 December 1843 – 27 May 1910) was a German physician and microbiologist.
In Greek mythology, the Rod of Asclepius (Greek: Ράβδος του Ασκληπιού Rábdos tou Asklipioú; Unicode symbol: ⚕), also known as the Staff of Asclepius (sometimes also spelled Asklepios or Aesculapius) and as the asklepian, is a serpent-entwined rod wielded by the Greek god Asclepius, a deity associated with healing and medicine.
The Royal Australasian College of Physicians (RACP) is a not-for-profit professional organisation responsible for training, educating, and representing 17,000 physicians and paediatricians and 8000 trainees in 33 medical specialties in Australia and New Zealand.
The Royal College of Anaesthetists (RCoA) is the professional body responsible for the specialty of anaesthesia throughout the United Kingdom.
The Royal College of Physicians is a British professional body dedicated to improving the practice of medicine, chiefly through the accreditation of physicians by examination.
The Royal College of Surgeons of England (abbreviated RCS and sometimes RCSEng), is an independent professional body and registered charity promoting and advancing standards of surgical care for patients, regulating surgery, including dentistry, in England and Wales.
Rudolf Ludwig Carl Virchow (13 October 1821 – 5 September 1902) was a German physician, anthropologist, pathologist, prehistorian, biologist, writer, editor, and politician, known for his advancement of public health.
Salvador Edward Luria (August 13, 1912 – February 6, 1991) was an Italian microbiologist, later a naturalized U.S. citizen.
Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1 May 1852 – 17 October 1934) was a Spanish neuroscientist and pathologist, specializing in neuroanatomy, particularly the histology of the central nervous system.
The Schola Medica Salernitana (Scuola Medica Salernitana) was a late Medieval medical school, the first and most important of its kind.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
Separation of prescribing and dispensing, also called dispensing separation, is a practice in medicine and pharmacy in which the physician who provides a medical prescription is independent from the pharmacist who provides the prescription drug.
Sex differences in medicine include sex-specific diseases or conditions which occur only in people of one sex (for example, prostate cancer in males or uterine cancer in females); sex-related diseases, which are diseases that are more common to one sex (for example, systemic lupus erythematosus occurs predominantly in females); and diseases which occur at similar rates in males and females but manifest differently according to sex (for example, peripheral artery disease).
Sexual medicine is a medical specialty that deals with sexual health.
Shamanism is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with what they believe to be a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world.
The Shang dynasty or Yin dynasty, according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty and followed by the Zhou dynasty.
Siddha medicine is a system of traditional medicine originating in ancient Tamilakam (Tamil Nadu) in South India.
In medicine, a side effect is an effect, whether therapeutic or adverse, that is secondary to the one intended; although the term is predominantly employed to describe adverse effects, it can also apply to beneficial, but unintended, consequences of the use of a drug.
Single-payer healthcare is a healthcare system financed by taxes that covers the costs of essential healthcare for all residents, with costs covered by a single public system (hence 'single-payer').
Smallpox vaccine, the first successful vaccine to be developed, was introduced by Edward Jenner in 1796.
Snakes are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes.
Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.
Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
A spasm is a sudden involuntary contraction of a muscle, a group of muscles, or a hollow organ such as the heart.
A specialty, or speciality, in medicine is a branch of medical practice.
Speech-language pathology is a field of expertise practiced by a clinician known as a speech-language pathologist (SLP), also sometimes referred to as a speech and language therapist or a speech therapist. SLP is considered a "related health profession" along with audiology, optometry, occupational therapy, clinical psychology, physical therapy, and others.
The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.
Spiritualism is a new religious movement based on the belief that the spirits of the dead exist and have both the ability and the inclination to communicate with the living.
A splint is a device used for support or immobilization of a limb or the spine.
Sports medicine, also known as sport and exercise medicine is a branch of medicine that deals with physical fitness and the treatment and prevention of injuries related to sports and exercise.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
St Thomas' Hospital is a large NHS teaching hospital in Central London, England.
The stethoscope is an acoustic medical device for auscultation, or listening to the internal sounds of an animal or human body.
Steven Paul Novella (born July 29, 1964) is an American clinical neurologist and assistant professor at Yale University School of Medicine.
A strain (also known colloquially as a pulled muscle or torn muscle) is an acute or chronic soft tissue injury that occurs to a muscle, tendon, or both (contractile components).
Sulfonamide (also called sulphonamide, sulfa drugs or sulpha drugs) is the basis of several groups of drugs.
In medicine, a surgeon is a physician who performs surgical operations.
A surgeon's assistant, also surgical care practitioner, assistant surgeon, physician, physician assistant, nurse practitioner, surgical first assistant or surgical assistant, assists with surgery during a surgical operation under the direction of a surgeon.
Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
Surgical oncology is the branch of surgery applied to oncology; it focuses on the surgical management of tumors, especially cancerous tumors.
Surgical suture is a medical device used to hold body tissues together after an injury or surgery.
A Surgical Technologist, also called a scrub, scrub tech, surgical technician, or operating room technician, is an allied health professional working as a part of the team delivering surgical care.
Sushruta, or Suśruta (Sanskrit: सुश्रुत, lit. "well heard") was an ancient Indian physician during 1500 BCE to 1000 BCE, known as the main author of the treatise The Compendium of Suśruta (Sanskrit: ''Suśruta-saṃhitā'').
A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.
Systematic reviews are a type of literature review that uses systematic methods to collect secondary data, critically appraise research studies, and synthesize studies.
Terminal illness is an incurable disease that cannot be adequately treated and is reasonably expected to result in the death of the patient.
The Canon of Medicine (القانون في الطب al-Qānūn fī al-Ṭibb) is an encyclopedia of medicine in five books compiled by Persian philosopher Avicenna (Ibn Sina) and completed in 1025.
Theophilus Protospatharius (Θεόφιλος Πρωτοσπαθάριος; ca. 7th century) was the author of several extant Greek medical works of uncertain status, either from Philaretus or Philotheus.
Therapy (often abbreviated tx, Tx, or Tx) is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually following a diagnosis.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Tobacco smoking is the practice of smoking tobacco and inhaling tobacco smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases).
Tomography is imaging by sections or sectioning, through the use of any kind of penetrating wave.
A tongue depressor is a tool used in medical practice to depress the tongue to allow for examination of the mouth and throat.
Torah (תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings.
Toxicology is a discipline, overlapping with biology, chemistry, pharmacology, and medicine, that involves the study of the adverse effects of chemical substances on living organisms and the practice of diagnosing and treating exposures to toxins and toxicants.
Traditional African medicine is an alternative medicine discipline involving indigenous herbalism and African spirituality, typically involving diviners, midwives, and herbalists.
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a style of traditional medicine built on a foundation of more than 2,500 years of Chinese medical practice that includes various forms of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage (tui na), exercise (qigong), and dietary therapy, but recently also influenced by modern Western medicine.
Traditional Korean medicine (Hangul: 한의학(Hanuihak), Hanja: 韓醫學) or (Hangul: 향약 (Hyangyak), Hanja: 鄕藥) refers to the traditional medicine practices that originated and developed in Korea.
Traditional medicine (also known as indigenous or folk medicine) comprises medical aspects of traditional knowledge that developed over generations within various societies before the era of modern medicine.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
Transfusion medicine (or transfusiology) is the branch of medicine that is concerned with transfusion of blood and blood components.
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.
A trauma center (or trauma centre) is a hospital equipped and staffed to provide care for patients suffering from major traumatic injuries such as falls, motor vehicle collisions, or gunshot wounds.
Trauma surgery is a surgical specialty that utilizes both operative and non-operative management to treat traumatic injuries, typically in an acute setting.
Travel medicine or emporiatrics is the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention and management of health problems of international travelers.
A tribe is viewed developmentally, economically and historically as a social group existing outside of or before the development of states.
Tropical Medicine is an interdisciplinary branch of medicine that deals with health issues that occur uniquely, are more widespread, or are more difficult to control in tropical and subtropical regions.
Truth is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an original or standard.
The Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male, also known as the Tuskegee Syphilis Study or Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment was an infamous clinical study conducted between 1932 and 1972 by the U.S. Public Health Service.
Twelver (translit; شیعه دوازدهامامی) or Imamiyyah (إمامية) is the largest branch of Shia Islam.
An umbrella term is a word or phrase that covers a wide range of concepts belonging to a common category.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Universal health care (also called universal health coverage, universal coverage, universal care, or socialized health care) is a health care system that provides health care and financial protection to all citizens of a particular country.
Uremia is the condition of having "urea in the blood".
Urgent care is a category of walk-in clinic focused on the delivery of ambulatory care in a dedicated medical facility outside of a traditional emergency department (emergency room).
The urinary system, also known as the renal system or urinary tract, consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and the urethra.
Urology (from Greek οὖρον ouron "urine" and -λογία -logia "study of"), also known as genitourinary surgery, is the branch of medicine that focuses on surgical and medical diseases of the male and female urinary-tract system and the male reproductive organs.
Uroscopy is the historic medical practice of visually examining a patient's urine for pus, blood, or other symptoms of disease.
Utilization Management (UM) is the use of techniques that allow purchasers to manage the cost of health care benefits by assessing its appropriateness before it is provided using evidence-based criteria or guidelines.
Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen.
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease.
Vascular surgery is a surgical subspecialty in which diseases of the vascular system, or arteries, veins and lymphatic circulation, are managed by medical therapy, minimally-invasive catheter procedures, and surgical reconstruction.
Veterinary medicine is the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease, disorder and injury in non-human animals.
A veterinary physician, usually called a vet, which is shortened from veterinarian (American English) or veterinary surgeon (British English), is a professional who practices veterinary medicine by treating diseases, disorders, and injuries in animals.
Vinca alkaloids are a set of anti-mitotic and anti-microtubule alkaloid agents originally derived from the periwinkle plant Catharanthus roseus (basionym Vinca rosea) and other vinca plants.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
The visual arts are art forms such as ceramics, drawing, painting, sculpture, printmaking, design, crafts, photography, video, filmmaking, and architecture.
Warfarin, sold under the brand name Coumadin among others, is a medication that is used as an anticoagulant (blood thinner).
Weight loss, in the context of medicine, health, or physical fitness, refers to a reduction of the total body mass, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue.
In historiography, the Western Roman Empire refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any one time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court, coequal with that administering the eastern half, then referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
Wilderness medicine, providing "vital emergency care in remote settings" is a rapidly evolving field and is of increasing importance as more people engage in hiking, climbing, kayaking and other potentially hazardous activities in the backcountry.
Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (27 March 1845 – 10 February 1923) was a German mechanical engineer and physicist, who, on 8 November 1895, produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range known as X-rays or Röntgen rays, an achievement that earned him the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901.
William Bradley Coley (January 12, 1862 – April 16, 1936) was an American bone surgeon and cancer researcher best known for his early contributions to the study of cancer immunotherapy.
William Harvey (1 April 1578 – 3 June 1657) was an English physician who made seminal contributions in anatomy and physiology.
Sir William Osler, 1st Baronet, (July 12, 1849 – December 29, 1919) was a Canadian physician and one of the four founding professors of Johns Hopkins Hospital.
William Williams Keen Jr. (January 19, 1837June 7, 1932) was an American doctor who was the first brain surgeon in the United States.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
"Yunani" or "Unani medicine" (Urdu: طب یونانی tibb yūnānī) is the term for Perso-Arabic traditional medicine as practiced in Mughal India and in Muslim culture in South Asia and modern day Central Asia.
The 1st millennium BC encompasses the Iron Age and sees the rise of many successive empires, and spanned from 1000 BC to 1 BC.
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