363 relations: Abbey Church of Saint-Savin-sur-Gartempe, Abbey of Saint-Pierre Mozac, Adolph Goldschmidt, Afghanistan, Al-Andalus, Alan Caiger-Smith, Albert, Prince Consort, Altarpiece, Ancient Greek art, Andachtsbilder, Anglo-Saxon art, Angus Maddison, Animal style, Annunciation, Anti-Judaism in early Christianity, Antiquarian, Apostles, Architecture, Ardagh Hoard, Arma Christi, Armenia, Ars moriendi, Art history, Art of Europe, Art of the Crusades, Arts Council of Great Britain, Ascension of Jesus, Augustus Pugin, Autun Cathedral, Avignon, Émile Mâle, Balkans, Baltic Sea, Bamberg Apocalypse, Baptismal font at St Bartholomew's Church, Liège, Barbarian, Baroque, Barrel vault, Basilica of St Denis, Battle of Nancy, Bern Historical Museum, Bernard of Clairvaux, Black Death, Block book, Book of hours, Book of Kells, Bourgeoisie, Branko Milanović, British Museum, Bronze, ..., Brooch, Byzantine art, Byzantine coinage, Byzantine Empire, Byzantine Iconoclasm, Byzantine silk, Calf, Calligraphy, Capital (architecture), Capua, Carnavalet Museum, Carolingian architecture, Carolingian art, Carpet page, Catacombs of Rome, Cathedral, Cîteaux Abbey, Celtic art, Celtic brooch, Celtic Revival, Ceramic art, Charlemagne, Charles the Bold, Chivalry, Christ in Majesty, Christianization, Cimabue, Clergy, Codex Amiatinus, Codex Aureus of Lorsch, Coin, College Art Association, Cologne, Commentary on Job, Commentary on the Apocalypse, Consequences of the Black Death, Constantinople, Consular diptych, Coptic art, Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, Courtly love, Crosier, Crucifix, Crusades, Crypt, Danse Macabre, Dark Ages (historiography), Decorative arts, Dendrochronology, Diadem, Dijon, Divan (furniture), Doge's Palace, Donor portrait, Drogo Sacramentary, Duccio, Duke of Burgundy, Early Christian art and architecture, Early Christianity, Early Muslim conquests, Early Netherlandish painting, Ebbo Gospels, Ecclesia and Synagoga, Egypt, Eltham Palace, Embroidery, Encaustic painting, Ernst Kitzinger, Erwin Panofsky, Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, Evangelist portrait, Facade, Fernand Braudel, Flanders, Florence, Folk art, Francia, Franz Theodor Kugler, Fresco, Fuller Brooch, Funerary art, Geary–Khamis dollar, George Salting, Georgia (country), Gero Cross, Giorgio Vasari, Giotto, Gniezno Doors, God the Father, Gold, Gold leaf, Golden Madonna of Essen, Goldsmith, Gospel Book, Gothic architecture, Gothic art, Gothic Revival architecture, Grave goods, Great Mosque of Kairouan, Guild, Guild of Saint Luke, Harbaville Triptych, Henri Focillon, Heresy, Hiberno-Scottish mission, High cross, Hildesheim, Hispano-Moresque ware, Historiated initial, History of painting, Holy Roman Empire, Hortus conclusus, Hugh Thomas, Baron Thomas of Swynnerton, Icon, Iconography, Illuminated manuscript, Insular art, Interlace (art), International Gothic, Islamic art, Islamic glass, Italian Renaissance, Ivanhoe, Ivory, Iznik pottery, J. 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Morgan, Jacob Burckhardt, Jewish hat, Jews, Johann Gottfried Herder, John Everett Millais, John Ruskin, John, Duke of Berry, Jonah, Kairouan, Kent, Kurt Weitzmann, Lapis lazuli, Last Judgment, Late antiquity, Lewes Priory, Life of Christ in art, Life of the Virgin, Lintel, List of illuminated manuscripts, Macedonian art (Byzantine), Madonna (art), Man of Sorrows, Mary Magdalene, Mary, mother of Jesus, Matchbook, Medieval antisemitism, Medieval demography, Medieval literature, Medieval music, Medieval theatre, Medieval Warm Period, Medievalism, Memento mori, Merovingian art, Metalworking, Meyer Schapiro, Michel Erhart, Middle Ages, Migration Period, Migration Period art, Milan, Miniature (illuminated manuscript), Moissac, Monkwearmouth–Jarrow Abbey, Monumental sculpture, Mosaic, Mosaic covenant, Mosan art, Mosque, Mozarabic art and architecture, Nation, Nave, Nazarene movement, Nef (metalwork), New Covenant, Nicholas of Verdun, Nicola Pisano, Nikolaus Pevsner, Nile, Noli me tangere, North Sea, Norway, Norwich, Nottingham alabaster, Oak, Old master print, Old Testament, Ornament (art), Oseberg Ship, Ottoman Empire, Ottonian art, Palaeography, Palais des Papes, Palimpsest, Panel painting, Paper, Paris Psalter, Passion of Jesus, Pericopes of Henry II, Perspective (graphical), Pictish stone, Picts, Picture stone, Pietà, Pigment, Pisanello, Poitiers, Polyptych, Poor Man's Bible, Pope Gregory I, Portal (architecture), Portico, Pottery of ancient Greece, Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, Pre-Romanesque art and architecture, Prow, Psalter, Pseudo-Kufic, Raphael, Ravenna, Ravensburg, Real estate, Reformation, Relic, Relief, Reliquary, Renaissance, Renaissance art, Renaissance humanism, Reredos, Resurrection of Jesus, Richard II of England, Richard Krautheimer, Roman art, Roman provincial currency, Romanesque architecture, Romanesque art, Rothschild family, Rule of Saint Benedict, Runestone, Saint Catherine's Monastery, Saint symbolism, Sainte-Chapelle, Sant'Angelo in Formis, Sarcophagus, Scandinavia, Sceat, Sculpture, Scythian art, Seat of Wisdom, Self-portrait, Shrine of the Three Kings, Sicily, Speculum Humanae Salvationis, St Botolph's Church, Hardham, St. Albans Psalter, Stained glass, Supersessionism, Sutton Hoo, Sweden, Syria, Tapestry, Tara Brooch, Tessera, The Hunchback of Notre-Dame, The Stones of Venice (book), Thomas Rickman, Tile, Tournai, Tower of London, Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry, Treasure binding, Trecento, Tree of Jesse, Triptych, Tunisia, Tympanum (architecture), Typology (theology), Ultramarine, Usury, Utrecht Psalter, Valencia, Vault (architecture), Vézelay Abbey, Veil of Veronica, Vellum, Venice, Vernacular, Victor Hugo, Victoria and Albert Museum, Viking art, Vikings, Virgin of Mercy, Visigothic art and architecture, Vistula, Vitreous enamel, Walter Scott, Western painting, Western world, Westminster Abbey, Westminster Retable, Westwork, White Tower (Tower of London), William Burges, William Morris, Wilton Diptych, Woodcut. 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The Abbey Church of Saint-Savin-sur-Gartempe is a Roman Catholic church located in Saint-Savin-sur-Gartempe, in Poitou, France.
Mozac Abbey is a former Cluniac monastery in the commune of Mozac near Riom in Auvergne, France.
Adolph Goldschmidt (15 January 1863 – 5 January 1944) was a Jewish German art historian.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.
Alan Caiger-Smith MBE (born 1930) is a British studio potter and writer on pottery.
Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Francis Albert Augustus Charles Emmanuel; 26 August 1819 – 14 December 1861) was the husband and consort of Queen Victoria.
An altarpiece is an artwork such as a painting, sculpture or relief representing a religious subject made for placing behind the altar of a Christian church.
Ancient Greek art stands out among that of other ancient cultures for its development of naturalistic but idealized depictions of the human body, in which largely nude male figures were generally the focus of innovation.
Andachtsbilder (singular Andachtsbild, German for devotional image) is a German term often used in English in art history for Christian devotional images designed as aids for prayer or contemplation.
Anglo-Saxon art covers art produced within the Anglo-Saxon period of English history, beginning with the Migration period style that the Anglo-Saxons brought with them from the continent in the 5th century, and ending in 1066 with the Norman Conquest of a large Anglo-Saxon nation-state whose sophisticated art was influential in much of northern Europe.
Angus Maddison (6 December 1926 – 24 April 2010) was a British economist specialising in quantitative macroeconomic history, including the measurement and analysis of economic growth and development.
Animal style art is an approach to decoration found from China to Northern Europe in the early Iron Age, and the barbarian art of the Migration Period, characterized by its emphasis on animal motifs.
The Annunciation (from Latin annuntiatio), also referred to as the Annunciation to the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Annunciation of Our Lady, or the Annunciation of the Lord, is the Christian celebration of the announcement by the angel Gabriel to the Virgin Mary that she would conceive and become the mother of Jesus, the Son of God, marking his Incarnation.
Anti-Judaism in Early Christianity is a description of anti-Judaic sentiment in the first three centuries of Christianity; the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd centuries.
An antiquarian or antiquary (from the Latin: antiquarius, meaning pertaining to ancient times) is an aficionado or student of antiquities or things of the past.
In Christian theology and ecclesiology, the apostles, particularly the Twelve Apostles (also known as the Twelve Disciples or simply the Twelve), were the primary disciples of Jesus, the central figure in Christianity.
Architecture is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or any other structures.
The Ardagh Hoard, best known for the Ardagh Chalice, is a hoard of metalwork from the 8th and 9th centuries.
Arma Christi ("Weapons of Christ"), or the Instruments of the Passion, are the objects associated with Jesus' Passion in Christian symbolism and art.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The Ars moriendi ("The Art of Dying") are two related Latin texts dating from about 1415 and 1450 which offer advice on the protocols and procedures of a good death, explaining how to "die well" according to Christian precepts of the late Middle Ages.
Art history is the study of objects of art in their historical development and stylistic contexts; that is genre, design, format, and style.
The art of Europe, or Western art, encompasses the history of visual art in Europe.
Crusader Art is mainly viewed as a mixture of western and eastern art traditions which is due primarily to many different backgrounds of the artists.
The Arts Council of Great Britain was a non-departmental public body dedicated to the promotion of the fine arts in Great Britain.
The ascension of Jesus (anglicized from the Vulgate Latin Acts 1:9-11 section title: Ascensio Iesu) is the departure of Christ from Earth into the presence of God.
Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin (1 March 181214 September 1852) was an English architect, designer, artist, and critic who is principally remembered for his pioneering role in the Gothic Revival style of architecture.
The Cathedral of Saint Lazarus of Autun (Cathédrale Saint-Lazare d'Autun), commonly known as Autun Cathedral, is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Autun and a national monument of France.
Avignon (Avenio; Provençal: Avignoun, Avinhon) is a commune in south-eastern France in the department of Vaucluse on the left bank of the Rhône river.
Émile Mâle (2 June 1862 – 6 October 1954) was a French art historian, one of the first to study medieval, mostly sacral French art and the influence of Eastern European iconography thereon.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
The Bamberg Apocalypse (Bamberg State Library, Msc.Bibl.140) is an 11th-century richly illuminated manuscript containing the Book of Revelation and a Gospel Lectionary.
The baptismal font at St Bartholomew's Church, Liège is a Romanesque brass or bronze baptismal font made between 1107 and 1118 now in St Bartholomew's church in Liège, Belgium.
A barbarian is a human who is perceived to be either uncivilized or primitive.
The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.
A barrel vault, also known as a tunnel vault or a wagon vault, is an architectural element formed by the extrusion of a single curve (or pair of curves, in the case of a pointed barrel vault) along a given distance.
The Basilica of Saint Denis (Basilique royale de Saint-Denis, or simply Basilique Saint-Denis) is a large medieval abbey church in the city of Saint-Denis, now a northern suburb of Paris.
The Battle of Nancy was the final and decisive battle of the Burgundian Wars, fought outside the walls of Nancy on 5 January 1477 by Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, against René II, Duke of Lorraine, and the Swiss Confederacy.
The Bern Historical Museum (Bernisches Historisches Museum, Musée d’Histoire de Berne) is the second largest historical museum in Switzerland.
Bernard of Clairvaux, O.Cist (Bernardus Claraevallensis; 109020 August 1153) was a French abbot and a major leader in the reform of Benedictine monasticism that caused the formation of the Cistercian order.
The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.
Block books, also called xylographica, are short books of up to 50 leaves, block printed in Europe in the second half of the 15th century as woodcuts with blocks carved to include both text and illustrations.
The book of hours is a Christian devotional book popular in the Middle Ages.
The Book of Kells (Codex Cenannensis; Leabhar Cheanannais; Dublin, Trinity College Library, MS A. I., sometimes known as the Book of Columba) is an illuminated manuscript Gospel book in Latin, containing the four Gospels of the New Testament together with various prefatory texts and tables.
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.
Branko Milanović (Бранко Милановић; born October 24, 1953) is a Serbian-American economist.
The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture.
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
A brooch is a decorative jewelry item designed to be attached to garments, often to hold them closed.
Byzantine art is the name for the artistic products of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire, as well as the nations and states that inherited culturally from the empire.
Byzantine currency, money used in the Eastern Roman Empire after the fall of the West, consisted of mainly two types of coins: the gold solidus and a variety of clearly valued bronze coins.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Byzantine Iconoclasm (Εἰκονομαχία, Eikonomachía, literally, "image struggle" or "struggle over images") refers to two periods in the history of the Byzantine Empire when the use of religious images or icons was opposed by religious and imperial authorities within the Eastern Church and the temporal imperial hierarchy.
Byzantine silk is silk woven in the Byzantine Empire (Byzantium) from about the fourth century until the Fall of Constantinople in 1453.
A calf (plural, calves) is the young of domestic cattle.
Calligraphy (from Greek: καλλιγραφία) is a visual art related to writing.
In architecture the capital (from the Latin caput, or "head") or chapiter forms the topmost member of a column (or a pilaster).
Capua is a city and comune in the province of Caserta, Campania, southern Italy, situated north of Naples, on the northeastern edge of the Campanian plain.
The Carnavalet Museum (French: Musée Carnavalet) in Paris is dedicated to the history of the city.
Carolingian architecture is the style of north European Pre-Romanesque architecture belonging to the period of the Carolingian Renaissance of the late 8th and 9th centuries, when the Carolingian dynasty dominated west European politics.
Carolingian art comes from the Frankish Empire in the period of roughly 120 years from about 780 to 900—during the reign of Charlemagne and his immediate heirs—popularly known as the Carolingian Renaissance.
Carpet pages are a characteristic feature of Insular illuminated manuscripts.
The Catacombs of Rome (Catacombe di Roma) are ancient catacombs, underground burial places under Rome, Italy, of which there are at least forty, some discovered only in recent decades.
A cathedral is a Christian church which contains the seat of a bishop, thus serving as the central church of a diocese, conference, or episcopate.
Cîteaux Abbey (French: Abbaye de Cîteaux) is a Roman Catholic abbey located in Saint-Nicolas-lès-Cîteaux, south of Dijon, France.
Celtic art is associated with the peoples known as Celts; those who spoke the Celtic languages in Europe from pre-history through to the modern period, as well as the art of ancient peoples whose language is uncertain, but have cultural and stylistic similarities with speakers of Celtic languages.
The Celtic brooch, more properly called the penannular brooch, and its closely related type, the pseudo-penannular brooch, are types of brooch clothes fasteners, often rather large.
The Celtic Revival (also referred to as the Celtic Twilight or Celtomania) was a variety of movements and trends in the 19th and 20th centuries that saw a renewed interest in aspects of Celtic culture.
Ceramic art is art made from ceramic materials, including clay.
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
Charles the Bold (also translated as Charles the Reckless).
Chivalry, or the chivalric code, is an informal, varying code of conduct developed between 1170 and 1220, never decided on or summarized in a single document, associated with the medieval institution of knighthood; knights' and gentlewomen's behaviours were governed by chivalrous social codes.
Christ in Majesty or Christ in Glory (Maiestas Domini) is the Christian image of Christ seated on a throne as ruler of the world, always seen frontally in the centre of the composition, and often flanked by other sacred figures, whose membership changes over time and according to the context.
Christianization (or Christianisation) is the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire groups at once.
Cimabue (1240 – 1302),Vasari, G. Lives of the Artists.
Clergy are some of the main and important formal leaders within certain religions.
The Codex Amiatinus, is the earliest surviving complete manuscript of the Latin Vulgate versionBruce M. Metzger, The Text of the New Testament (Oxford University Press 2005), p. 106.
The Codex Aureus of Lorsch or Lorsch Gospels (Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Pal. lat. 50, and Alba Iulia, Biblioteca Documenta Batthyaneum, s.n.) is an illuminated Gospel Book written in latin between 778 and 820, roughly coinciding with the period of Charlemagne's rule over the Frankish Empire.
A coin is a small, flat, (usually) round piece of metal or plastic used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender.
The College Art Association of America (usually referred to as simply CAA) is the principal professional association in the United States for practitioners and scholars of art, art history, and art criticism.
Cologne (Köln,, Kölle) is the largest city in the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the fourth most populated city in Germany (after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich).
Saint Gregory's Commentary on Job, or Moralia, sive Expositio in Job, sometimes called Magna Moralia (not to be confused with Aristotle's Magna Moralia), was written between 578 and 595, begun when Gregory was at the court of Tiberius II at Constantinople, but finished only after he had already been in Rome for several years.
Commentary on the Apocalypse (Commentaria In Apocalypsin) is a book written in the eighth century by the Spanish monk and theologian Beatus of Liébana (730–785) and copied and illustrated in manuscript in works called "Beati" during the 10th and 11th Centuries a.d. It is a commentary on the New Testament Apocalypse of John or Book of Revelation.
The consequences of the Black Death are the short-term and long-term effects of the Black Death on human populations across the world.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
In Late Antiquity, a consular diptych was a type of diptych intended as a de-luxe commemorative object.
Coptic art is a term used either for the art of Egypt produced in the early Christian era or for the art produced by the Coptic Christians themselves.
The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria (Coptic: Ϯⲉⲕ̀ⲕⲗⲏⲥⲓⲁ ̀ⲛⲣⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛⲟⲣⲑⲟⲇⲟⲝⲟⲥ, ti.eklyseya en.remenkimi en.orthodoxos, literally: the Egyptian Orthodox Church) is an Oriental Orthodox Christian church based in Egypt, Northeast Africa and the Middle East.
Courtly love (or fin'amor in Occitan) was a medieval European literary conception of love that emphasized nobility and chivalry.
A crosier (also known as a crozier, paterissa, pastoral staff, or bishop's staff) is a stylized staff carried by high-ranking Roman Catholic, Eastern Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Anglican, and some Lutheran, United Methodist and Pentecostal prelates.
A crucifix (from Latin cruci fixus meaning "(one) fixed to a cross") is an image of Jesus on the cross, as distinct from a bare cross.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
A crypt (from Latin crypta "vault") is a stone chamber beneath the floor of a church or other building.
The Danse Macabre (from the French language), also called the Dance of Death, is an artistic genre of allegory of the Late Middle Ages on the universality of death: no matter one's station in life, the Dance Macabre unites all.
The "Dark Ages" is a historical periodization traditionally referring to the Middle Ages, that asserts that a demographic, cultural, and economic deterioration occurred in Western Europe following the decline of the Roman Empire.
The decorative arts are arts or crafts concerned with the design and manufacture of beautiful objects that are also functional.
Dendrochronology (or tree-ring dating) is the scientific method of dating tree rings (also called growth rings) to the exact year they were formed in order to analyze atmospheric conditions during different periods in history.
A diadem is a type of crown, specifically an ornamental headband worn by monarchs and others as a badge of royalty.
Dijon is a city in eastern:France, capital of the Côte-d'Or département and of the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region.
A divan (Turkish divan, originally from Persian devan) is a piece of couch-like sitting furniture or, in some countries, a box-spring based bed.
The Doge's Palace (Palazzo Ducale; Pałaso Dogal) is a palace built in Venetian Gothic style, and one of the main landmarks of the city of Venice in northern Italy.
A donor portrait or votive portrait is a portrait in a larger painting or other work showing the person who commissioned and paid for the image, or a member of his, or (much more rarely) her, family.
The Drogo Sacramentary (Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, MS lat. 9428) is a Carolingian illuminated manuscript on vellum of c.850 AD, one of the monuments of Carolingian book illumination.
Duccio di Buoninsegna (c. 1255–1260 – c. 1318–1319) was an Italian painter active in Siena, Tuscany, in the late 13th and early 14th centuries.
Duke of Burgundy (duc de Bourgogne) was a title borne by the rulers of the Duchy of Burgundy, a small portion of traditional lands of Burgundians west of river Saône which in 843 was allotted to Charles the Bald's kingdom of West Franks.
Early Christian art and architecture or Paleochristian art is the art produced by Christians or under Christian patronage from the earliest period of Christianity to, depending on the definition used, sometime between 260 and 525.
Early Christianity, defined as the period of Christianity preceding the First Council of Nicaea in 325, typically divides historically into the Apostolic Age and the Ante-Nicene Period (from the Apostolic Age until Nicea).
The early Muslim conquests (الفتوحات الإسلامية, al-Futūḥāt al-Islāmiyya) also referred to as the Arab conquests and early Islamic conquests began with the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the 7th century.
Early Netherlandish painting is the work of artists, sometimes known as the Flemish Primitives, active in the Burgundian and Habsburg Netherlands during the 15th- and 16th-century Northern Renaissance; especially in the flourishing cities of Bruges, Ghent, Mechelen, Louvain, Tournai and Brussels, all in contemporary Belgium.
The Ebbo Gospels (Épernay, Bibliothèque Municipale, Ms. 1) is an early Carolingian illuminated Gospel book known for an unusual, energetic style of illustration.
Ecclesia and Synagoga, or Ecclesia et Synagoga in Latin, meaning "Church and Synagogue", are a pair of figures personifying the Church and the Jewish synagogue, that is to say the Jewish religion, found in medieval Christian art.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Eltham Palace is a large house in Eltham in the Royal Borough of Greenwich, in south-east London, England.
Embroidery is the craft of decorating fabric or other materials using a needle to apply thread or yarn.
Encaustic painting, also known as hot wax painting, involves using heated beeswax to which colored pigments are added.
Ernst Kitzinger (December 27, 1912 – January 22, 2003) was a German-American historian of late antique, early medieval, and Byzantine art.
Erwin Panofsky (March 30, 1892 in Hannover – March 14, 1968 in Princeton, New Jersey) was a German-Jewish art historian, whose academic career was pursued mostly in the U.S. after the rise of the Nazi regime.
Eugène Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc (27 January 1814 – 17 September 1879) was a French architect and author who restored many prominent medieval landmarks in France, including those which had been damaged or abandoned during the French Revolution.
Evangelist portraits are a specific type of miniature included in ancient and mediaeval illuminated manuscript Gospel Books, and later in Bibles and other books, as well as other media.
A facade (also façade) is generally one exterior side of a building, usually, but not always, the front.
Fernand Braudel (24 August 1902 – 27 November 1985) was a French historian and a leader of the Annales School.
Flanders (Vlaanderen, Flandre, Flandern) is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium, although there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language, politics and history.
Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.
Folk art encompasses art produced from an indigenous culture or by peasants or other laboring tradespeople.
Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks (Regnum Francorum), or Frankish Empire was the largest post-Roman Barbarian kingdom in Western Europe.
Franz Theodor Kugler (19 January 1808, Stettin – 18 March 1858, Berlin) was an art historian and cultural administrator for the Prussian state.
Fresco (plural frescos or frescoes) is a technique of mural painting executed upon freshly laid, or wet lime plaster.
The Fuller Brooch is an Anglo-Saxon silver and niello brooch dated to the late 9th century, which is now in the British Museum, where it is normally on display in Room 41.
Funerary art is any work of art forming, or placed in, a repository for the remains of the dead.
The Geary–Khamis dollar, more commonly known as the international dollar (Int'l. dollar or Intl. dollar, abbreviation: Int'l$., Intl$. or Int$), is a hypothetical unit of currency that has the same purchasing power parity that the U.S. dollar had in the United States at a given point in time.
George Salting (15 August 183512 December 1909) was an Australian-born British art collector.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The Gero Cross or Gero Crucifix (Gero-Kreuz), of around 965–970, is the oldest large sculpture of the crucified Christ north of the Alps, and has always been displayed in Cologne Cathedral in Germany.
Giorgio Vasari (30 July 1511 – 27 June 1574) was an Italian painter, architect, writer, and historian, most famous today for his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects, considered the ideological foundation of art-historical writing.
Giotto di Bondone (1267 – January 8, 1337), known mononymously as Giotto and Latinised as Giottus, was an Italian painter and architect from Florence during the Late Middle Ages.
The Gniezno Doors (Drzwi Gnieźnieńskie) are a pair of bronze doors at the entrance to Gniezno Cathedral in Gniezno, Poland, a Gothic building which the doors pre-date, having been carried over from an earlier building.
God the Father is a title given to God in various religions, most prominently in Christianity.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
Gold leaf is gold that has been hammered into thin sheets by goldbeating and is often used for gilding.
The Golden Madonna of Essen is a sculpture of the Virgin Mary and the infant Jesus.
A goldsmith is a metalworker who specializes in working with gold and other precious metals.
The Gospel Book, Evangelion, or Book of the Gospels (Greek: Εὐαγγέλιον, Evangélion) is a codex or bound volume containing one or more of the four Gospels of the Christian New Testament – normally all four – centering on the life of Jesus of Nazareth and the roots of the Christian faith.
Gothic architecture is an architectural style that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages.
Gothic art was a style of medieval art that developed in Northern France out of Romanesque art in the 12th century AD, led by the concurrent development of Gothic architecture.
Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic or neo-Gothic) is an architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England.
Grave goods, in archaeology and anthropology, are the items buried along with the body.
The Great Mosque of Kairouan (جامع القيروان الأكبر), also known as the Mosque of Uqba (جامع عقبة بن نافع), is a mosque in Tunisia, situated in the UNESCO World Heritage town of Kairouan.
A guild is an association of artisans or merchants who oversee the practice of their craft/trade in a particular area.
The Guild of Saint Luke was the most common name for a city guild for painters and other artists in early modern Europe, especially in the Low Countries.
The Harbaville Triptych is a Byzantine ivory triptych of the middle of the 10th century with a Deesis and other saints, now in the Louvre.
Henri Focillon (7 September 1881 – 3 March 1943) was a French art historian.
Heresy is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization.
The Hiberno-Scottish mission was a series of missions and expeditions initiated by various Irish clerics and cleric-scholars who, for the most part, are not known to have acted in concert.
A high cross or standing cross (cros ard / ardchros, crois àrd / àrd-chrois, croes uchel / croes eglwysig) is a free-standing Christian cross made of stone and often richly decorated.
Hildesheim (Eastphalian: Hilmessen) is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany with 103,804 inhabitants.
Hispano-Moresque ware is a style of initially Islamic pottery created in Al Andalus or Muslim Spain, which continued to be produced under Christian rule in styles blending Islamic and European elements.
A historiated initial is an initial, an enlarged letter at the beginning of a paragraph or other section of text, that contains a picture.
The history of painting reaches back in time to artifacts from pre-historic humans, and spans all cultures.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
Hortus conclusus is a Latin term, meaning literally "enclosed garden".
Hugh Swynnerton Thomas, Baron Thomas of Swynnerton (21 October 1931 – 7 May 2017) was an English historian, writer and life peer in the House of Lords.
An icon (from Greek εἰκών eikōn "image") is a religious work of art, most commonly a painting, from the Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, and certain Eastern Catholic churches.
Iconography, as a branch of art history, studies the identification, description, and the interpretation of the content of images: the subjects depicted, the particular compositions and details used to do so, and other elements that are distinct from artistic style.
An illuminated manuscript is a manuscript in which the text is supplemented with such decoration as initials, borders (marginalia) and miniature illustrations.
Insular art, also known as Hiberno-Saxon art, is the style of art produced in the post-Roman history of Ireland and Britain.
In the visual arts, interlace is a decorative element found in medieval art.
International Gothic is a period of Gothic art which began in Burgundy, France, and northern Italy in the late 14th and early 15th century.
Islamic art encompasses the visual arts produced from the 7th century onward by people who lived within the territory that was inhabited by or ruled by culturally Islamic populations.
The influence of the Islamic world to the history of glass is reflected by its distribution around the world, from Europe to China, and from Russia to East Africa.
The Italian Renaissance (Rinascimento) was the earliest manifestation of the general European Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement that began in Italy during the 14th century (Trecento) and lasted until the 17th century (Seicento), marking the transition between Medieval and Modern Europe.
Ivanhoe is an historical novel by Sir Walter Scott, first published in 1820 in three volumes and subtitled A Romance.
Ivory is a hard, white material from the tusks (traditionally elephants') and teeth of animals, that can be used in art or manufacturing.
Iznik pottery, or Iznik ware, named after the town of İznik in western Anatolia where it was made, is a decorated ceramic that was produced from the last quarter of the 15th century until the end of the 17th century.
John Pierpont Morgan Sr. (April 17, 1837 – March 31, 1913) was an American financier and banker who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation in the United States of America in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Carl Jacob Christoph Burckhardt (May 25, 1818 – August 8, 1897) was a Swiss historian of art and culture and an influential figure in the historiography of both fields.
The Jewish hat also known as the Jewish cap, Judenhut (German) or Latin pilleus cornutus ("horned skullcap"), was a cone-shaped pointed hat, often white or yellow, worn by Jews in Medieval Europe and some of the Islamic world.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Johann Gottfried (after 1802, von) Herder (25 August 174418 December 1803) was a German philosopher, theologian, poet, and literary critic.
Sir John Everett Millais, 1st Baronet, PRA (8 June 1829 – 13 August 1896) was an English painter and illustrator who was one of the founders of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood.
John Ruskin (8 February 1819 – 20 January 1900) was the leading English art critic of the Victorian era, as well as an art patron, draughtsman, watercolourist, a prominent social thinker and philanthropist.
John of Berry or John the Magnificent (French: Jean de Berry; 30 November 1340 – 15 June 1416) was Duke of Berry and Auvergne and Count of Poitiers and Montpensier.
Jonah or Jonas is the name given in the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh/Old Testament) to a prophet of the northern kingdom of Israel in about the 8th century BCE.
Kairouan (القيروان, also known as al-Qayrawan), is the capital of the Kairouan Governorate in Tunisia.
Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties.
Kurt Weitzmann (May 7, 1904, Klein Almerode (Witzenhausen, near Kassel) – June 7, 1993, Princeton, New Jersey) was a highly influential art historian who studied Byzantine and medieval art.
Lapis lazuli, or lapis for short, is a deep blue metamorphic rock used as a semi-precious stone that has been prized since antiquity for its intense color.
The Last Judgment, Final Judgment, Day of Judgment, Judgment Day, Doomsday, or The Day of the Lord (Hebrew Yom Ha Din) (יום הדין) or in Arabic Yawm al-Qiyāmah (یوم القيامة) or Yawm ad-Din (یوم الدین) is part of the eschatological world view of the Abrahamic religions and in the Frashokereti of Zoroastrianism.
Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, and the Near East.
Lewes Priory is a demolished medieval Cluniac priory in Southover, East Sussex in the United Kingdom.
The Life of Christ as a narrative cycle in Christian art comprises a number of different subjects narrating the events from the life of Jesus on earth.
The Life of the Virgin, showing narrative scenes from the life of Mary, the mother of Jesus, is a common subject for pictorial cycles in Christian art, often complementing, or forming part of, a cycle on the Life of Christ.
A lintel or lintol is a structural horizontal block that spans the space or opening between two vertical supports.
This is a list of illuminated manuscripts.
Macedonian art is the art of the Macedonian Renaissance in Byzantine art.
A Madonna is a representation of Mary, either alone or with her child Jesus.
Man of Sorrows is paramount among the prefigurations of the Messiah identified by Christians in the passages of Isaiah 53 (Servant songs) in the Hebrew Bible.
Saint Mary Magdalene, sometimes called simply the Magdalene, was a Jewish woman who, according to the four canonical gospels, traveled with Jesus as one of his followers and was a witness to his crucifixion, burial, and resurrection.
Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.
A matchbook is a small paperboard folder (matchcover) enclosing a quantity of matches and having a coarse striking surface on the exterior.
Anti-Semitism in the history of the Jews in the Middle Ages became increasingly prevalent in the Late Middle Ages.
Medieval demography is the study of human demography in Europe and the Mediterranean during the Middle Ages.
Medieval literature is a broad subject, encompassing essentially all written works available in Europe and beyond during the Middle Ages (that is, the one thousand years from the fall of the Western Roman Empire ca. AD 500 to the beginning of the Florentine Renaissance in the late 15th century).
Medieval music consists of songs, instrumental pieces, and liturgical music from about 500 A.D. to 1400.
Medieval theatre refers to theatrical performance in the period between the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century A.D. and the beginning of the Renaissance in approximately the 15th century A.D. Medieval Theatre covers all drama produced in Europe over that thousand-year period and refers to a variety of genres, including liturgical drama, mystery plays, morality plays, farces and masques.
The Medieval Warm Period (MWP) also known as the Medieval Climate Optimum, or Medieval Climatic Anomaly was a time of warm climate in the North Atlantic region that may have been related to other warming events in other regions during that time, including China and other areas, lasting from to.
Medievalism is the system of belief and practice characteristic of the Middle Ages, or devotion to elements of that period, which has been expressed in areas such as architecture, literature, music, art, philosophy, scholarship, and various vehicles of popular culture.
Memento mori (Latin: "remember that you have to die"), Oxford English Dictionary, Third Edition, June 2001.
Merovingian art is the art of the Merovingian dynasty of the Franks, which lasted from the 5th century to the 8th century in present-day France, Benelux and a part of Germany.
Metalworking is the process of working with metals to create individual parts, assemblies, or large-scale structures.
Meyer Schapiro (23 September 1904 – 3 March 1996) was a Lithuanian-born American art historian known for forging new art historical methodologies that incorporated an interdisciplinary approach to the study of works of art.
Michel Erhart (1440 to 1445 – after 1522, Ulm) was a German late Gothic sculptor who lived and worked in Ulm.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Migration Period was a period during the decline of the Roman Empire around the 4th to 6th centuries AD in which there were widespread migrations of peoples within or into Europe, mostly into Roman territory, notably the Germanic tribes and the Huns.
Migration Period art denotes the artwork of the Germanic peoples during the Migration period (ca. 300-900).
Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.
The word miniature, derived from the Latin minium, red lead, is a small illustration used to decorate an ancient or medieval illuminated manuscript; the simple illustrations of the early codices having been miniated or delineated with that pigment.
Moissac is a commune in the Tarn-et-Garonne department in the Occitanie region in southern France.
Monkwearmouth–Jarrow Abbey was a Benedictine double monastery in the Kingdom of Northumbria, England.
The term monumental sculpture is often used in art history and criticism, but not always consistently.
A mosaic is a piece of art or image made from the assemblage of small pieces of colored glass, stone, or other materials.
The Mosaic covenant (named after Moses), also known as the Sinaitic Covenant (named after the biblical Mount Sinai), refers to a biblical covenant between God and the biblical Israelites, including their proselytes.
Mosan art is a regional style of art from the valley of the Meuse in present-day Belgium, the Netherlands, and Germany.
A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.
Mozarabic art refers to art of Mozarabs (from musta'rab meaning “Arabized”), Iberian Christians living in Al-Andalus, the Muslim conquered territories in the period that comprises from the Arab invasion of the Iberian Peninsula (711) to the end of the 11th century, adopted some Arab customs without converting to Islam, preserving their religion and some ecclesiastical and judicial autonomy.
A nation is a stable community of people, formed on the basis of a common language, territory, economic life, ethnicity or psychological make-up manifested in a common culture.
The nave is the central aisle of a basilica church, or the main body of a church (whether aisled or not) between its rear wall and the far end of its intersection with the transept at the chancel.
The name Nazarene was adopted by a group of early 19th century German Romantic painters who aimed to revive honesty and spirituality in Christian art.
A nef is an extravagant table ornament and container used in the Middle Ages and Renaissance, made of precious metals in the shape of a ship – nef was another word for a carrack in French.
The New Covenant (Hebrew; Greek διαθήκη καινή diatheke kaine) is a biblical interpretation originally derived from a phrase in the Book of Jeremiah, in the Hebrew Bible.
Nicholas of Verdun (1130–1205) was a French artist, one of the most famous goldsmiths and enamelists of the Middle Ages.
Nicola Pisano (also called Niccolò Pisano, Nicola de Apulia or Nicola Pisanus; c. 1220/1225 – c. 1284) was an Italian sculptor whose work is noted for its classical Roman sculptural style.
Sir Nikolaus Bernhard Leon Pevsner (30 January 1902 – 18 August 1983) was a German, later British scholar of the history of art, and especially that of architecture.
The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.
Noli me tangere is the Latin version of a phrase spoken, according to John 20:17, by Jesus to Mary Magdalene when she recognized him after his resurrection.
The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
Norwich (also) is a city on the River Wensum in East Anglia and lies approximately north-east of London.
Nottingham alabaster is a term used to refer to the English sculpture industry, mostly of relatively small religious carvings, which flourished from the fourteenth century until the early sixteenth century.
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.
An old master print is a work of art produced by a printing process within the Western tradition.
The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
In architecture and decorative art, ornament is a decoration used to embellish parts of a building or object.
The Oseberg ship (Norwegian: Osebergskipet) is a well-preserved Viking ship discovered in a large burial mound at the Oseberg farm near Tønsberg in Vestfold county, Norway.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Ottonian art is a style in pre-romanesque German art, covering also some works from the Low Countries, northern Italy and eastern France.
Palaeography (UK) or paleography (US; ultimately from παλαιός, palaiós, "old", and γράφειν, graphein, "to write") is the study of ancient and historical handwriting (that is to say, of the forms and processes of writing, not the textual content of documents).
The Palais des Papes (English: Papal palace, lo Palais dei Papas in Occitan) is a historical palace located in Avignon, southern France.
In textual studies, a palimpsest is a manuscript page, either from a scroll or a book, from which the text has been scraped or washed off so that the page can be reused for another document.
A panel painting is a painting made on a flat panel made of wood, either a single piece, or a number of pieces joined together.
Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together moist fibres of cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets.
For the third copy of the Utrecht Psalter.
In Christianity, the Passion (from Late Latin: passionem "suffering, enduring") is the short final period in the life of Jesus covering his entrance visit to Jerusalem and leading to his crucifixion on Mount Calvary, defining the climactic event central to Christian doctrine of salvation history.
The Pericopes of Henry II (Munich, Bavarian State Library, Clm 4452) is a luxurious medieval illuminated manuscript made for Henry II, the last Ottonian Holy Roman Emperor, made c. 1002 – 1012 AD.
Perspective (from perspicere "to see through") in the graphic arts is an approximate representation, generally on a flat surface (such as paper), of an image as it is seen by the eye.
A Pictish stone is a type of monumental stele, generally carved or incised with symbols or designs.
The Picts were a tribal confederation of peoples who lived in what is today eastern and northern Scotland during the Late Iron Age and Early Medieval periods.
A picture stone, image stone or figure stone is an ornate slab of stone, usually limestone, which was raised in Germanic Iron Age or Viking Age Scandinavia, and in the greatest number on Gotland.
A pietà (meaning "pity", "compassion") is a subject in Christian art depicting the Virgin Mary cradling the dead body of Jesus, most often found in sculpture.
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.
Pisanello (c. 1395c. 1455), known professionally as Antonio di Puccio Pisano or Antonio di Puccio da Cereto, also erroneously called Vittore Pisano by Giorgio Vasari, was one of the most distinguished painters of the early Italian Renaissance and Quattrocento.
Poitiers is a city on the Clain river in west-central France.
A polyptych (Greek: poly- "many" and ptychē "fold") is a painting (usually panel painting) which is divided into sections, or panels.
The term Poor Man's Bible has come into use in modern times to describe works of art within churches and cathedrals which either individually or collectively have been created to illustrate the teachings of the Bible for a largely illiterate population.
Pope Saint Gregory I (Gregorius I; – 12 March 604), commonly known as Saint Gregory the Great, Gregory had come to be known as 'the Great' by the late ninth century, a title which is still applied to him.
A portal is an opening in a wall of a building, gate or fortification, especially a grand entrance to an important structure.
A portico is a porch leading to the entrance of a building, or extended as a colonnade, with a roof structure over a walkway, supported by columns or enclosed by walls.
Ancient Greek pottery, due to its relative durability, comprises a large part of the archaeological record of ancient Greece, and since there is so much of it (over 100,000 painted vases are recorded in the Corpus vasorum antiquorum), it has exerted a disproportionately large influence on our understanding of Greek society.
The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (later known as the Pre-Raphaelites) was a group of English painters, poets, and critics, founded in 1848 by William Holman Hunt, John Everett Millais and Dante Gabriel Rossetti.
Pre-Romanesque art and architecture is the period in European art from either the emergence of the Merovingian kingdom in about 500 CE or from the Carolingian Renaissance in the late 8th century, to the beginning of the 11th century Romanesque period.
The prow is the forward-most part of a ship's bow that cuts through the water.
A psalter is a volume containing the Book of Psalms, often with other devotional material bound in as well, such as a liturgical calendar and litany of the Saints.
Pseudo-Kufic, or Kufesque, also sometimes Pseudo-Arabic, is a style of decoration used during the Middle Ages or the Renaissance, consisting of imitations of the Arabic Kufic script, or sometimes Arabic cursive script, made in a non-Arabic context: "Imitations of Arabic in European art are often described as pseudo-Kufic, borrowing the term for an Arabic script that emphasizes straight and angular strokes, and is most commonly used in Islamic architectural decoration".
Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino (March 28 or April 6, 1483April 6, 1520), known as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance.
Ravenna (also locally; Ravèna) is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna, in the Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy.
Ravensburg is a town in Upper Swabia in Southern Germany, capital of the district of Ravensburg, Baden-Württemberg.
Real estate is "property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals or water; immovable property of this nature; an interest vested in this (also) an item of real property, (more generally) buildings or housing in general.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
In religion, a relic usually consists of the physical remains of a saint or the personal effects of the saint or venerated person preserved for purposes of veneration as a tangible memorial.
Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material.
A reliquary (also referred to as a shrine or by the French term châsse) is a container for relics.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Contributions to painting and architecture have been especially rich.
Renaissance humanism is the study of classical antiquity, at first in Italy and then spreading across Western Europe in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries.
A reredos (IPA /ˈrɪɚdɒs/) or raredos is a large altarpiece, a screen, or decoration placed behind the altar in a church.
The resurrection of Jesus or resurrection of Christ is the Christian religious belief that, after being put to death, Jesus rose again from the dead: as the Nicene Creed expresses it, "On the third day he rose again in accordance with the Scriptures".
Richard II (6 January 1367 – c. 14 February 1400), also known as Richard of Bordeaux, was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399.
Richard Krautheimer (6 July 1897 in Fürth (Franconia), Germany – 1 November 1994 in Rome, Italy) was a 20th-century art historian, architectural historian, Baroque scholar, and Byzantinist.
Roman art refers to the visual arts made in Ancient Rome and in the territories of the Roman Empire.
Roman provincial currency was coinage minted within the Roman Empire by local civic rather than imperial authorities.
Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches.
Romanesque art is the art of Europe from approximately 1000 AD to the rise of the Gothic style in the 12th century, or later, depending on region.
The Rothschild family is a wealthy Jewish family descending from Mayer Amschel Rothschild (1744–1812), a court factor to the German Landgraves of Hesse-Kassel in the Free City of Frankfurt, Holy Roman Empire, who established his banking business in the 1760s. Unlike most previous court factors, Rothschild managed to bequeath his wealth and established an international banking family through his five sons, who established themselves in London, Paris, Frankfurt, Vienna, and Naples. The family was elevated to noble rank in the Holy Roman Empire and the United Kingdom. During the 19th century, the Rothschild family possessed the largest private fortune in the world, as well as the largest private fortune in modern world history.The House of Rothschild: Money's prophets, 1798–1848, Volume 1, Niall Ferguson, 1999, page 481-85The Secret Life of the Jazz Baroness, from The Times 11 April 2009, Rosie Boycott The family's wealth was divided among various descendants, and today their interests cover a diverse range of fields, including financial services, real estate, mining, energy, mixed farming, winemaking and nonprofits.The Rothschilds: Portrait of a Dynasty, By Frederic Morton, page 11 The Rothschild family has frequently been the subject of conspiracy theories, many of which have antisemitic origins.
The Rule of Saint Benedict (Regula Benedicti) is a book of precepts written by Benedict of Nursia (AD 480–550) for monks living communally under the authority of an abbot.
A runestone is typically a raised stone with a runic inscription, but the term can also be applied to inscriptions on boulders and on bedrock.
Saint Catherine's Monastery (دير القدّيسة كاترين; Μονὴ τῆς Ἁγίας Αἰκατερίνης), officially "Sacred Monastery of the God-Trodden Mount Sinai" (Ιερά Μονή του Θεοβαδίστου Όρους Σινά), lies on the Sinai Peninsula, at the mouth of a gorge at the foot of Mount Sinai, near the town of Saint Catherine, Egypt.
Christianity has used symbolism from its very beginnings.
The Sainte-Chapelle (Holy Chapel) is a royal chapel in the Gothic style, within the medieval Palais de la Cité, the residence of the Kings of France until the 14th century, on the Île de la Cité in the River Seine in Paris, France.
Sant'Angelo in Formis is an abbey in the municipality of Capua, southern Italy.
A sarcophagus (plural, sarcophagi) is a box-like funeral receptacle for a corpse, most commonly carved in stone, and usually displayed above ground, though it may also be buried.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
A sceat (sceattas) was a small, thick silver coin minted in England, Frisia and Jutland during the Anglo-Saxon period.
Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions.
Scythian art is art, primarily decorative objects, such as jewellery, produced by the nomadic tribes in the area known to the ancient Greeks as Scythia, which was centred on the Pontic-Caspian steppe and ranged from modern Kazakhstan to the Baltic coast of modern Poland and to Georgia.
In Roman Catholic tradition, "Seat of Wisdom" or "Throne of Wisdom" (translating Latin sedes sapientiae) is one of many devotional titles for Mary, the Mother of God.
A self-portrait is a representation of an artist that is drawn, painted, photographed, or sculpted by that artist.
The Shrine of the Three Kings (German Dreikönigsschrein or Der Dreikönigenschrein), Tomb of the Three Kings, or Tomb of the Three Magi is a reliquary traditionally believed to contain the bones of the Biblical Magi, also known as the Three Kings or the Three Wise Men.
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
The Speculum Humanae Salvationis or Mirror of Human Salvation was a bestselling anonymous illustrated work of popular theology in the late Middle Ages, part of the genre of encyclopedic speculum literature, in this case concentrating on the medieval theory of typology, whereby the events of the Old Testament prefigured, or foretold, the events of the New Testament.
St Botolph's Church is the Church of England parish church of Hardham, West Sussex.
The St Albans Psalter, also known as the Albani Psalter or the Psalter of Christina of Markyate, is an English illuminated manuscript, one of several psalters known to have been created at or for St Albans Abbey in the 12th century.
The term stained glass can refer to coloured glass as a material or to works created from it.
Supersessionism, also called replacement theology or fulfillment theology, is a Christian doctrine which asserts that the New Covenant through Jesus Christ, supercedes the Old Covenant, which was made exclusively with the Jewish people.
Sutton Hoo, near Woodbridge, Suffolk, is the site of two 6th- and early 7th-century cemeteries.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Tapestry is a form of textile art, traditionally woven on a vertical loom.
The Tara Brooch is a Celtic brooch of the pseudo-penannular type, made in 650 to 750 AD.
A tessera (plural: tesserae, diminutive tessella) is an individual tile, usually formed in the shape of a cube, used in creating a mosaic.
The Hunchback of Notre-Dame (Notre-Dame de Paris, "Our Lady of Paris") is a French Romantic/Gothic novel by Victor Hugo, published in 1831.
For the 2001 Doctor Who audio story, see The Stones of Venice (audio drama) The Stones of Venice is a three-volume treatise on Venetian art and architecture by English art historian John Ruskin, first published from 1851 to 1853.
Thomas Rickman (8 June 1776 – 4 January 1841), was an English architect and architectural antiquary who was a major figure in the Gothic Revival.
A tile is a manufactured piece of hard-wearing material such as ceramic, stone, metal, or even glass, generally used for covering roofs, floors, walls, showers, or other objects such as tabletops.
Tournai (Latin: Tornacum, Picard: Tornai), known in Dutch as Doornik and historically as Dornick in English, is a Walloon municipality of Belgium, southwest of Brussels on the river Scheldt.
The Tower of London, officially Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle located on the north bank of the River Thames in central London.
The Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry or Très Riches Heures, (The Very Rich Hours of the Duke of Berry), is the most famous and possibly the best surviving example of French Gothic manuscript illumination, showing the late International Gothic phase of the style.
A treasure binding, or jewelled bookbinding / jeweled bookbinding is a luxurious book cover using metalwork in gold or silver, jewels and ivory, perhaps in addition to more usual bookbinding material for book-covers such as leather, velvet, or other cloth.
The Trecento (Italian for 300, short for "mille trecento," 1300) refers to the 14th century in Italian cultural history.
The Tree of Jesse is a depiction in art of the ancestors of Christ, shown in a tree which rises from Jesse of Bethlehem, the father of King David and is the original use of the family tree as a schematic representation of a genealogy.
A triptych (from the Greek adjective τρίπτυχον "triptukhon" ("three-fold"), from tri, i.e., "three" and ptysso, i.e., "to fold" or ptyx, i.e., "fold") is a work of art (usually a panel painting) that is divided into three sections, or three carved panels that are hinged together and can be folded shut or displayed open.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
In architecture, a tympanum (plural, tympana) is the semi-circular or triangular decorative wall surface over an entrance, door or window, which is bounded by a lintel and arch.
Typology in Christian theology and Biblical exegesis is a doctrine or theory concerning the relationship of the Old Testament to the New Testament.
Ultramarine is a deep blue color and a pigment which was originally made by grinding lapis lazuli into a powder.
Usury is, as defined today, the practice of making unethical or immoral monetary loans that unfairly enrich the lender.
The Utrecht Psalter (Utrecht, Universiteitsbibliotheek, MS Bibl. Rhenotraiectinae I Nr 32.) is a ninth-century illuminated psalter which is a key masterpiece of Carolingian art; it is probably the most valuable manuscript in the Netherlands.
Valencia, officially València, on the east coast of Spain, is the capital of the autonomous community of Valencia and the third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, with around 800,000 inhabitants in the administrative centre.
Vault (French voûte, from Italian volta) is an architectural term for an arched form used to provide a space with a ceiling or roof.
Vézelay Abbey (Abbaye Sainte-Marie-Madeleine de Vézelay) was a Benedictine and Cluniac monastery in Vézelay in the Yonne department in northern Burgundy, France.
The Veil of Veronica, or Sudarium (Latin for sweat-cloth), often called simply "The Veronica" and known in Italian as the Volto Santo or Holy Face (but not to be confused with the carved crucifix Volto Santo of Lucca), is a Christian relic of a piece of cloth which, according to tradition, bears the likeness of the face of Jesus not made by human hand (i.e. an acheiropoieton).
Vellum is prepared animal skin or "membrane" used as a material for writing on.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
A vernacular, or vernacular language, is the language or variety of a language used in everyday life by the common people of a specific population.
Victor Marie Hugo (26 February 1802 – 22 May 1885) was a French poet, novelist, and dramatist of the Romantic movement.
The Victoria and Albert Museum (often abbreviated as the V&A) in London is the world's largest museum of decorative arts and design, housing a permanent collection of over 2.3 million objects.
Viking art, also known commonly as Norse art, is a term widely accepted for the art of Scandinavia and Viking settlements further afield—particularly in the British Isles and Iceland—during the Viking Age of the 8th-11th centuries CE.
Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.
The Virgin of Mercy is a subject in Christian Art, showing a group of people sheltering for protection under the outspread cloak, or pallium of the Virgin Mary.
The Visigoths entered Hispania (modern Spain and Portugal) in 415, and they rose to be the dominant people there until the Moorish invasion of 711 brought their kingdom to an end.
The Vistula (Wisła, Weichsel,, ווייסל), Висла) is the longest and largest river in Poland, at in length. The drainage basin area of the Vistula is, of which lies within Poland (54% of its land area). The remainder is in Belarus, Ukraine and Slovakia. The Vistula rises at Barania Góra in the south of Poland, above sea level in the Silesian Beskids (western part of Carpathian Mountains), where it begins with the White Little Vistula (Biała Wisełka) and the Black Little Vistula (Czarna Wisełka). It then continues to flow over the vast Polish plains, passing several large Polish cities along its way, including Kraków, Sandomierz, Warsaw, Płock, Włocławek, Toruń, Bydgoszcz, Świecie, Grudziądz, Tczew and Gdańsk. It empties into the Vistula Lagoon (Zalew Wiślany) or directly into the Gdańsk Bay of the Baltic Sea with a delta and several branches (Leniwka, Przekop, Śmiała Wisła, Martwa Wisła, Nogat and Szkarpawa).
Vitreous enamel, also called porcelain enamel, is a material made by fusing powdered glass to a substrate by firing, usually between.
Sir Walter Scott, 1st Baronet (15 August 1771 – 21 September 1832) was a Scottish historical novelist, playwright, poet and historian.
The history of Western painting represents a continuous, though disrupted, tradition from antiquity until the present time.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, London, England, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster.
The Westminster Retable, the oldest known panel painting altarpiece in England,, with full image of the retable, accessed 13 July 2010 is estimated to have been painted in the 1270s in the circle of Plantagenet court painters, for Westminster Abbey, very probably for the high altar.
A westwork (Westwerk) is the monumental, west-facing entrance section of a Carolingian, Ottonian, or Romanesque church.
The White Tower is a central tower, the old keep, at the Tower of London.
William Burges (2 December 1827 – 20 April 1881) was an English architect and designer.
William Morris (24 March 1834 – 3 October 1896) was an English textile designer, poet, novelist, translator, and socialist activist.
The Wilton Diptych is a small portable diptych of two hinged panels, painted on both sides, now in the National Gallery, London.
Woodcut is a relief printing technique in printmaking.
Art of the Middle Ages, List of Late Antique, Early Christian and Medieval art monuments, List of Late Antique, Early and Medieval Christian art monuments, Mediaeval art, Medieval Art, Medieval painting.