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Medieval university

Index Medieval university

A medieval university is a corporation organized during the Middle Ages for the purposes of higher learning. [1]

138 relations: A History of the University in Europe, Abbot, Aelius Donatus, Al-Andalus, Alcohol intoxication, Ancient higher-learning institutions, Ancient universities of Scotland, Arabs, Archbishop, Aristotelian ethics, Aristotelian physics, Aristotelianism, Aristotle, Ars grammatica, Authentica habita, Autonomy, Bachelor of Arts, Bible, Bologna, Bratislava, Byzantine Empire, Campus, Canon law, Canon law of the Catholic Church, Cardinal (Catholic Church), Cathedral school, Catholic Church, Charles Homer Haskins, Charles University, Christendom, Christianity, Clergy, College, Corporal punishment, De sphaera mundi, Dissolution of the Monasteries, Doc (computing), Early modern period, Eberhard of Béthune, Ecclesiastical court, Emirate of Sicily, England, Faculty (division), Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor, Galileo Galilei, Gilbert de la Porrée, Gregorian Reform, Guild, Hastings Rashdall, Heidelberg University, ..., High Middle Ages, History of Christianity, Holy Roman Empire, Holy See, Isaac Newton, Isagoge, Jagiellonian University, Johannes Kepler, Kingdom of England, Kingdom of France, Kingdom of Italy (Holy Roman Empire), Kingdom of Portugal, Latin, Law, Lexikon des Mittelalters, Liberal arts education, Licentiate (degree), List of oldest universities in continuous operation, Liturgy, Madrasa, Master of Arts, Mathematics, Medicine, Merton College, Oxford, Metaphysics (Aristotle), Middle Ages, Monastery, Monastic school, Monk, Nation (university), Nicolaus Copernicus, Nun, Papal bull, Parens scientiarum, Paris, Peter Abelard, Peter Lombard, Philosophy, Pope Alexander III, Pope Gregory IX, Pope Gregory VII, Pope John XXI, Pope Nicholas IV, Porphyry (philosopher), Priscian, Renaissance, Renaissance humanism, Renaissance of the 12th century, Robert Grosseteste, Robert Rait, Roman Curia, Rome, Sacrament, Scholasticism, Scientific Revolution, Sentences, Spain, Studium generale, Theology, Thomas Aquinas, Toby Huff, Tonsure, Toulouse, Town and gown, Trivium, Tycho Brahe, University, University of Bologna, University of Cambridge, University of Coimbra, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, University of Montpellier, University of Northampton (13th century), University of Orléans, University of Oxford, University of Padua, University of Palencia, University of Paris, University of Paris strike of 1229, University of Pisa, University of Salamanca, University of Siena, University of St Andrews, University of Toulouse, University of Valladolid, University of Vienna, Western world, Writings of Cicero. Expand index (88 more) »

A History of the University in Europe

A History of the University in Europe is a four-volume book series on the history and development of the European university from the medieval origins of the institution until the present day.

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Abbot, meaning father, is an ecclesiastical title given to the male head of a monastery in various traditions, including Christianity.

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Aelius Donatus

Aelius Donatus (fl. mid-fourth century AD) was a Roman grammarian and teacher of rhetoric.

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Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.

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Alcohol intoxication

Alcohol intoxication, also known as drunkenness or alcohol poisoning, is negative behavior and physical effects due to the recent drinking of ethanol (alcohol).

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Ancient higher-learning institutions

A variety of ancient higher-learning institutions were developed in many cultures to provide institutional frameworks for scholarly activities.

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Ancient universities of Scotland

The ancient universities of Scotland are medieval and renaissance universities which continue to exist in the present day.

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Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.

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In Christianity, an archbishop (via Latin archiepiscopus, from Greek αρχιεπίσκοπος, from αρχι-, 'chief', and επίσκοπος, 'bishop') is a bishop of higher rank or office.

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Aristotelian ethics

Aristotle first used the term ethics to name a field of study developed by his predecessors Socrates and Plato.

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Aristotelian physics

Aristotelian physics is a form of natural science described in the works of the Greek philosopher Aristotle (384–).

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Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle.

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Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.

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Ars grammatica

An ars grammatica (art of grammar) is a generic or proper title for surveys of Latin grammar.

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Authentica habita

Authentica habita,, Encyclopædia Britannica, 2010.

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In development or moral, political, and bioethical philosophy, autonomy is the capacity to make an informed, un-coerced decision.

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Bachelor of Arts

A Bachelor of Arts (BA or AB, from the Latin baccalaureus artium or artium baccalaureus) is a bachelor's degree awarded for an undergraduate course or program in either the liberal arts, sciences, or both.

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The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.

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Bologna (Bulåggna; Bononia) is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna Region in Northern Italy.

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Bratislava (Preßburg or Pressburg, Pozsony) is the capital of Slovakia.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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A campus is traditionally the land on which a college or university and related institutional buildings are situated.

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Canon law

Canon law (from Greek kanon, a 'straight measuring rod, ruler') is a set of ordinances and regulations made by ecclesiastical authority (Church leadership), for the government of a Christian organization or church and its members.

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Canon law of the Catholic Church

The canon law of the Catholic Church is the system of laws and legal principles made and enforced by the hierarchical authorities of the Catholic Church to regulate its external organization and government and to order and direct the activities of Catholics toward the mission of the Church.

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Cardinal (Catholic Church)

A cardinal (Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae cardinalis, literally Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church) is a senior ecclesiastical leader, considered a Prince of the Church, and usually an ordained bishop of the Roman Catholic Church.

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Cathedral school

Cathedral schools began in the Early Middle Ages as centers of advanced education, some of them ultimately evolving into medieval universities.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Charles Homer Haskins

Charles Homer Haskins (December 21, 1870 – May 14, 1937) was a history professor at Harvard University.

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Charles University

Charles University, known also as Charles University in Prague (Univerzita Karlova; Universitas Carolina; Karls-Universität) or historically as the University of Prague (Universitas Pragensis), is the oldest and largest university in the Czech Republic. Founded in 1348, it was the first university in Central Europe. It is one of the oldest universities in Europe in continuous operation and ranks in the upper 1.5 percent of the world’s best universities. Its seal shows its protector Emperor Charles IV, with his coats of arms as King of the Romans and King of Bohemia, kneeling in front of St. Wenceslas, the patron saint of Bohemia. It is surrounded by the inscription, Sigillum Universitatis Scolarium Studii Pragensis (Seal of the Prague academia).

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Christendom has several meanings.

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ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Clergy are some of the main and important formal leaders within certain religions.

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A college (Latin: collegium) is an educational institution or a constituent part of one.

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Corporal punishment

Corporal punishment or physical punishment is a punishment intended to cause physical pain on a person.

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De sphaera mundi

De sphaera mundi (Latin title meaning On the Sphere of the World, sometimes rendered The Sphere of the Cosmos; the Latin title is also given as Tractatus de sphaera, Textus de sphaera, or simply De sphaera) is a medieval introduction to the basic elements of astronomy written by Johannes de Sacrobosco (John of Holywood) c. 1230.

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Dissolution of the Monasteries

The Dissolution of the Monasteries, sometimes referred to as the Suppression of the Monasteries, was the set of administrative and legal processes between 1536 and 1541 by which Henry VIII disbanded monasteries, priories, convents and friaries in England and Wales and Ireland, appropriated their income, disposed of their assets, and provided for their former personnel and functions.

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Doc (computing)

In computing, DOC or doc (an abbreviation of "document") is a filename extension for word processing documents, most commonly in the proprietary Microsoft Word Binary File Format.

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Early modern period

The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.

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Eberhard of Béthune

Eberhard of Béthune (also known as Everard of Béthune, Évrard de Béthune, Éverard de Béthune, Ebrardus Bethuniensis or Bithuniensis, Eberhardus Bethuniensis, Eberard, Ebrard, Ebrad; d. c. 1212) was a Flemish grammarian of the early thirteenth century, from Arras.

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Ecclesiastical court

An ecclesiastical court, also called court Christian or court spiritual, is any of certain courts having jurisdiction mainly in spiritual or religious matters.

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Emirate of Sicily

The Emirate of Sicily (إِمَارَةُ صِقِلِّيَة) was an emirate on the island of Sicily which existed from 831 to 1091.

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England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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Faculty (division)

A faculty is a division within a university or college comprising one subject area, or a number of related subject areas.

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Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor

Frederick I (Friedrich I, Federico I; 1122 – 10 June 1190), also known as Frederick Barbarossa (Federico Barbarossa), was the Holy Roman Emperor from 2 January 1155 until his death.

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Galileo Galilei

Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath.

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Gilbert de la Porrée

Gilbert de la Porrée (after 1085 – 4 September 1154), also known as Gilbert of Poitiers, Gilbertus Porretanus or Pictaviensis, was a scholastic logician and theologian.

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Gregorian Reform

The Gregorian Reforms were a series of reforms initiated by Pope Gregory VII and the circle he formed in the papal curia, c. 1050–80, which dealt with the moral integrity and independence of the clergy.

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A guild is an association of artisans or merchants who oversee the practice of their craft/trade in a particular area.

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Hastings Rashdall

Hastings Rashdall, FBA (24 June 1858, London – 9 February 1924, Worthing) was an English philosopher, theologian, and historian.

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Heidelberg University

Heidelberg University (Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg; Universitas Ruperto Carola Heidelbergensis) is a public research university in Heidelberg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany.

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High Middle Ages

The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period of European history that commenced around 1000 AD and lasted until around 1250 AD.

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History of Christianity

The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion, Christendom, and the Church with its various denominations, from the 1st century to the present.

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Holy Roman Empire

The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.

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Holy See

The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.

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Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.

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The Isagoge (Εἰσαγωγή, Eisagōgḗ) or "Introduction" to Aristotle's "Categories", written by Porphyry in Greek and translated into Latin by Boethius, was the standard textbook on logic for at least a millennium after his death.

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Jagiellonian University

The Jagiellonian University (Polish: Uniwersytet Jagielloński; Latin: Universitas Iagellonica Cracoviensis, also known as the University of Kraków) is a research university in Kraków, Poland.

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Johannes Kepler

Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer.

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Kingdom of England

The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.

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Kingdom of France

The Kingdom of France (Royaume de France) was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe.

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Kingdom of Italy (Holy Roman Empire)

The Kingdom of Italy (Latin: Regnum Italiae or Regnum Italicum, Italian: Regno d'Italia) was one of the constituent kingdoms of the Holy Roman Empire, along with the kingdoms of Germany, Bohemia, and Burgundy.

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Kingdom of Portugal

The Kingdom of Portugal (Regnum Portugalliae, Reino de Portugal) was a monarchy on the Iberian Peninsula and the predecessor of modern Portugal.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.

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Lexikon des Mittelalters

The Lexikon des Mittelalters ("Lexicon of the Middle Ages", LMA, LexMA) is a German encyclopedia on the history and culture of the Middle Ages.

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Liberal arts education

Liberal arts education (from Latin "free" and "art or principled practice") can claim to be the oldest programme of higher education in Western history.

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Licentiate (degree)

A licentiate is a degree below that of a PhD given by universities in some countries.

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List of oldest universities in continuous operation

This article contains a list of the oldest existing universities in continuous operation in the world.

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Liturgy is the customary public worship performed by a religious group, according to its beliefs, customs and traditions.

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Madrasa (مدرسة,, pl. مدارس) is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious (of any religion), and whether a school, college, or university.

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Master of Arts

A Master of Arts (Magister Artium; abbreviated MA; also Artium Magister, abbreviated AM) is a person who was admitted to a type of master's degree awarded by universities in many countries, and the degree is also named Master of Arts in colloquial speech.

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Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

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Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.

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Merton College, Oxford

Merton College (in full: The House or College of Scholars of Merton in the University of Oxford) is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England.

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Metaphysics (Aristotle)

Metaphysics (Greek: τὰ μετὰ τὰ φυσικά; Latin: Metaphysica) is one of the principal works of Aristotle and the first major work of the branch of philosophy with the same name.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone (hermits).

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Monastic school

Monastic schools (Scholae monasticae) were, along with cathedral schools, the most important institutions of higher learning in the Latin West from the early Middle Ages until the 12th century.

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A monk (from μοναχός, monachos, "single, solitary" via Latin monachus) is a person who practices religious asceticism by monastic living, either alone or with any number of other monks.

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Nation (university)

Student nations or simply nations (natio meaning "being born") are regional corporations of students at a university.

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Nicolaus Copernicus

Nicolaus Copernicus (Mikołaj Kopernik; Nikolaus Kopernikus; Niklas Koppernigk; 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance-era mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe, likely independently of Aristarchus of Samos, who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier.

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A nun is a member of a religious community of women, typically living under vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience in the enclosure of a monastery.

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Papal bull

A papal bull is a type of public decree, letters patent, or charter issued by a pope of the Roman Catholic Church.

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Parens scientiarum

Parens scientiarum (Latin: The Mother of Sciences) is the incipit designating a papal bull issued by Pope Gregory IX on April 13, 1231, after the University of Paris strike of 1229.

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Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.

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Peter Abelard

Peter Abelard (Petrus Abaelardus or Abailardus; Pierre Abélard,; 1079 – 21 April 1142) was a medieval French scholastic philosopher, theologian, and preeminent logician.

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Peter Lombard

Peter Lombard (also Peter the Lombard, Pierre Lombard or Petrus Lombardus; 1096, Novara – 21/22 July 1160, Paris), was a scholastic theologian, Bishop of Paris, and author of Four Books of Sentences, which became the standard textbook of theology, for which he earned the accolade Magister Sententiarum.

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Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.

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Pope Alexander III

Pope Alexander III (c. 1100/1105 – 30 August 1181), born Roland of Siena, was Pope from 7 September 1159 to his death in 1181.

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Pope Gregory IX

Pope Gregory IX Gregorius IX (born Ugolino di Conti; c. 1145 or before 1170 – 22 August 1241), was Pope from 19 March 1227 to his death in 1241.

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Pope Gregory VII

Gregory VII (Gregorius VII; 1015 – 25 May 1085), born Hildebrand of Sovana (Ildebrando da Soana), was Pope from 22 April 1073 to his death in 1085.

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Pope John XXI

Pope John XXI (Ioannes XXI; – 20 May 1277), born Peter Juliani (Petrus Iulianus; Pedro Julião), was Pope from 8 September 1276 to his death in 1277.

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Pope Nicholas IV

Pope Nicholas IV (Nicolaus IV; 30 September 1227 – 4 April 1292), born Girolamo Masci, Pope from 22 February 1288 to his death in 1292.

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Porphyry (philosopher)

Porphyry of Tyre (Πορφύριος, Porphýrios; فرفوريوس, Furfūriyūs; c. 234 – c. 305 AD) was a Neoplatonic philosopher who was born in Tyre, in the Roman Empire.

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Priscianus Caesariensis, commonly known as Priscian, was a Latin grammarian and the author of the Institutes of Grammar which was the standard textbook for the study of Latin during the Middle Ages.

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The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.

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Renaissance humanism

Renaissance humanism is the study of classical antiquity, at first in Italy and then spreading across Western Europe in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries.

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Renaissance of the 12th century

The Renaissance of the 12th century was a period of many changes at the outset of the high Middle Ages.

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Robert Grosseteste

Robert Grosseteste (Robertus Grosseteste; – 9 October 1253) was an English statesman, scholastic philosopher, theologian, scientist and Bishop of Lincoln.

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Robert Rait

Sir Robert Sangster Rait (1874–1936) was a Scottish historian, Historiographer Royal and Principal of the University of Glasgow.

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Roman Curia

The Roman Curia is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See and the central body through which the Roman Pontiff conducts the affairs of the universal Catholic Church.

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Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).

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A sacrament is a Christian rite recognized as of particular importance and significance.

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Scholasticism is a method of critical thought which dominated teaching by the academics ("scholastics", or "schoolmen") of medieval universities in Europe from about 1100 to 1700, and a program of employing that method in articulating and defending dogma in an increasingly pluralistic context.

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Scientific Revolution

The Scientific Revolution was a series of events that marked the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed the views of society about nature.

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The Four Books of Sentences (Libri Quattuor Sententiarum) is a book of theology written by Peter Lombard in the 12th century.

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Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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Studium generale

Studium generale is the old customary name for a medieval university.

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Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.

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Thomas Aquinas

Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church.

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Toby Huff

Toby E. Huff was born in Portland, Maine in 1942.

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Tonsure is the practice of cutting or shaving some or all of the hair on the scalp, as a sign of religious devotion or humility.

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Toulouse (Tolosa, Tolosa) is the capital of the French department of Haute-Garonne and of the region of Occitanie.

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Town and gown

Town and gown are two distinct communities of a university town; "town" being the non-academic population and "gown" metonymically being the university community, especially in ancient seats of learning such as Oxford, Cambridge, Edinburgh, Aberdeen and St Andrews, although the term is also used to describe modern university towns as well as towns with a significant public school.

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The trivium is the lower division of the seven liberal arts and comprises grammar, logic, and rhetoric (input, process, and output).

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Tycho Brahe

Tycho Brahe (born Tyge Ottesen Brahe;. He adopted the Latinized form "Tycho Brahe" (sometimes written Tÿcho) at around age fifteen. The name Tycho comes from Tyche (Τύχη, meaning "luck" in Greek, Roman equivalent: Fortuna), a tutelary deity of fortune and prosperity of ancient Greek city cults. He is now generally referred to as "Tycho," as was common in Scandinavia in his time, rather than by his surname "Brahe" (a spurious appellative form of his name, Tycho de Brahe, only appears much later). 14 December 154624 October 1601) was a Danish nobleman, astronomer, and writer known for his accurate and comprehensive astronomical and planetary observations.

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A university (universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines.

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University of Bologna

The University of Bologna (Università di Bologna, UNIBO), founded in 1088, is the oldest university in continuous operation, as well as one of the leading academic institutions in Italy and Europe.

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University of Cambridge

The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.

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University of Coimbra

The University of Coimbra (UC; Universidade de Coimbra) is a Portuguese public university in Coimbra, Portugal.

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University of Modena and Reggio Emilia

The University of Modena and Reggio Emilia (Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia), located in Modena and Reggio Emilia, Emilia-Romagna, Italy, is one of the oldest and most prestigious universities in the world, founded in 1175, with a population of 20,000 students.

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University of Montpellier

The University of Montpellier (Université de Montpellier) is a French public research university in Montpellier in south-east of France.

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University of Northampton (13th century)

The University of Northampton was based in Northampton, England, from 1261 to 1265.

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University of Orléans

The University of Orléans (Université d'Orléans) is a French university, in the Academy of Orléans and Tours.

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University of Oxford

The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.

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University of Padua

The University of Padua (Università degli Studi di Padova, UNIPD) is a premier Italian university located in the city of Padua, Italy.

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University of Palencia

The University of Palencia was founded by Alfonso VIII at the request of Bishop Tello Téllez de Meneses and was the first university of Spain.

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University of Paris

The University of Paris (Université de Paris), metonymically known as the Sorbonne (one of its buildings), was a university in Paris, France, from around 1150 to 1793, and from 1806 to 1970.

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University of Paris strike of 1229

The University of Paris strike of 1229 was caused by the deaths of a number of students in punishing a student riot.

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University of Pisa

The University of Pisa (Università di Pisa, UniPi) is an Italian public research university located in Pisa, Italy.

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University of Salamanca

The University of Salamanca (Universidad de Salamanca) is a Spanish higher education institution, located in the city of Salamanca, west of Madrid, in the autonomous community of Castile and León.

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University of Siena

The University of Siena (Università degli Studi di Siena, abbreviation: UNISI) in Siena, Tuscany is one of the oldest and first publicly funded universities in Italy.

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University of St Andrews

The University of St Andrews (informally known as St Andrews University or simply St Andrews; abbreviated as St And, from the Latin Sancti Andreae, in post-nominals) is a British public research university in St Andrews, Fife, Scotland.

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University of Toulouse

The University of Toulouse (Université de Toulouse) was a university in France that was established by papal bull in 1229, making it one of the earliest universities to emerge in Europe.

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University of Valladolid

The University of Valladolid is a public university in the city of Valladolid, province of Valladolid, in the autonomous region of Castile and Leon, Spain.

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University of Vienna

The University of Vienna (Universität Wien) is a public university located in Vienna, Austria.

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Western world

The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.

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Writings of Cicero

The writings of Marcus Tullius Cicero constitute one of the most famous bodies of historical and philosophical work in all of classical antiquity.

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Redirects here:

Ancient universities in Europe, Mediaeval university, Medieval Christian universities, Medieval Christian university, Medieval Universities, Medieval University, Medieval universities, Medieval university in Europe.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medieval_university

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