302 relations: 'Abd al-Ilah, Addis Ababa, Aden, Adolf Hitler, Afrika Korps, Airborne forces, Albania, Albert Kesselring, Aleppo, Alexander Löhr, Alexandros Papagos, Ali Mansur, Allied Force Headquarters, Allied invasion of Italy, Allied invasion of Sicily, Allies of World War II, Amin al-Husseini, Amman, Amphibious warfare, Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran, Archibald Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell, Arkhangelsk, Armistice, Armistice of 22 June 1940, Armistice of Cassibile, Athens, Atlantic Ocean, Attack on Mers-el-Kébir, Attack on Pearl Harbor, Austria, Axis powers, Baghdad, Balkan Campaign (World War II), Balkans, Bardia, Battle of Anzio, Battle of Crete, Battle of France, Battle of Gazala, Battle of Greece, Battle of Kasserine Pass, Battle of Odžak, Battle of Poljana, Battle of Taranto, Battle of the Atlantic, Battle of the Mareth Line, Battle of the Mediterranean, Benito Mussolini, Bernard Paget, Bosnia and Herzegovina, ..., Brandenburgers, Brazilian Expeditionary Force, Bridgehead, British Armed Forces, British Army, British Mandate for Palestine (legal instrument), British Somaliland, Bulgaria, Cairo, Cannes, Canton of Ticino, Capture of Kufra, Case Anton, Chetniks, Claude Auchinleck, Commander-in-chief, Commonwealth of Nations, Corsica, Croatia, Cyprus, Dalmatia, Djibouti, Dodecanese, Dwight D. Eisenhower, East Africa, East African Campaign (World War II), Eastern Front (World War II), Egypt, Eighth Army (United Kingdom), Emirate of Transjordan, Eritrea, Erwin Rommel, Ethiopian Empire, Ethnic violence, European theatre of World War II, Faisal II of Iraq, Fallschirmjäger, Far East, First Battle of El Alamein, Force H, Fort Capuzzo, François Darlan, Franco-Italian Armistice, Free France, French Expeditionary Corps (1943–44), French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon, French Somaliland, Fritz Grobba, Fyodor Tolbukhin, General Staff of the Republic of Turkey, Germany and the Second World War, Gibraltar, Gloster Gladiator, Golden Square (Iraq), Gondar, Gothic Line, Government of Greece, Government of National Salvation, Government of Romania, Gran Sasso raid, Grand Council of Fascism, Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Greco-Italian War, Greece, Greek Civil War, Greek People's Liberation Army, Greek Resistance, Haile Selassie, Harold Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis, Hawker Hurricane, Heinrich von Vietinghoff, Henri Dentz, HMS Cockchafer (1915), Human overpopulation, Hungary, I Canadian Corps, II Corps (Poland), Independent State of Croatia, Indian Ocean, Insect-class gunboat, Invasion of Yugoslavia, Iran, Iraq, Iraqforce, Italian battleship Roma (1940), Italian Campaign (World War II), Italian conquest of British Somaliland, Italian Empire, Italian Ethiopia, Italian guerrilla war in Ethiopia, Italian invasion of Albania, Italian invasion of Egypt, Italian invasion of France, Italian occupation of France, Jaghbub, Libya, James Somerville, Jean de Lattre de Tassigny, Joachim von Ribbentrop, Jordan, Josip Broz Tito, Karl Wolff, Kenya, Kenya Colony, Kingdom of Greece, Kingdom of Iraq, Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Kos, Kriegsmarine, Kufra, La Spezia, League of Communists of Yugoslavia, Leros, Levant, Libya, Libyan Desert, List of kings of Iraq, List of World War II battles, Luftwaffe, Malta, Mandatory Palestine, Mark W. Clark, Maximilian von Weichs, Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean U-boat Campaign (World War II), Menton, Mersa Matruh, Messina, Middle East, Middle East Command, Military campaign, Military history of Gibraltar during World War II, Monarchy, Mosul, Murmansk, National Liberation Front (Greece), Nazi Germany, Negotiation, Neutral country, Nice, Normandy, Normandy landings, North Africa, North African Campaign timeline, North Cape (Norway), Nyon Conference, OB Süd, Office of Public Sector Information, Operation Baytown, Operation Compass, Operation Dragoon, Operation Lustre, Operation Overlord, Operation Sea Lion, Operation Slapstick, Operation Sonnenblume, Operation Sunrise (World War II), Operation Torch, Otto Skorzeny, Pact of Steel, Pahlavi dynasty, Paris Protocols, Persian Gulf, Pietro Badoglio, Poland, Polish Armed Forces in the West, Politics of Italy, Prime minister, Prisoner of war, Protectorate, Pula, RAF Habbaniya, Rashid Ali al-Gaylani, Red Army, Regent, Regia Aeronautica, Republic of Macedonia, Reza Shah, Rodolfo Graziani, Roman Empire, Romania, Rome, Royal Air Force, Royal Italian Army during World War II, Royal Navy, Salamis Island, Sallum, Savoy, Schutzstaffel, Second Battle of El Alamein, Second Italo-Ethiopian War, Shah, Sidi Barrani, Siege of Malta (World War II), Siege of Tobruk, Sixth United States Army Group, Slovene Partisans, Slovenes, Slovenia, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Southern Europe, Soviet Union, Spanish Civil War, Spring 1945 offensive in Italy, Strait of Gibraltar, Strait of Hormuz, Sudan, Suez, Supermarine Spitfire, Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force, Switzerland, Syria–Lebanon Campaign, Taha al-Hashimi, Tanganyika (territory), Taranto, Tenth Army (Italy), Theater (warfare), Tobruk, Toulon, Trieste, Tunisia, Tunisian Campaign, Turkey, Twelfth United States Army Group, Uganda, Ugo Cavallero, Unconditional surrender, United States Army North, Vice admiral, Vichy France, Vladimir Zhdanov, Vladivostok, Władysław Anders, Wehrmacht, Werner Junck, Western Desert Campaign, Western Front (World War II), Wilhelm List, Winter Line, World War II, World War II in Yugoslavia, Yugoslav Partisans, 10th Army (Wehrmacht), 1941 Iraqi coup d'état, 1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine, 1948 Arab–Israeli War, 23rd U-boat Flotilla, 2nd New Zealand Division, 3rd Algerian Infantry Division, 442nd Infantry Regiment (United States), 6th Armoured Division (South Africa), 8th Infantry Division (India), 92nd Infantry Division (United States). 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'Abd al-Ilah of Hejaz, (Arabic: عبد الإله; also written Abdul Ilah or Abdullah; 14 November 1913 – 14 July 1958) was a cousin and brother-in-law of King Ghazi of Iraq.
Addis Ababa (አዲስ አበባ,, "new flower"; or Addis Abeba (the spelling used by the official Ethiopian Mapping Authority); Finfinne "natural spring") is the capital and largest city of Ethiopia.
Aden (عدن Yemeni) is a port city in Yemen, located by the eastern approach to the Red Sea (the Gulf of Aden), some east of Bab-el-Mandeb.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
The Afrika Korps or German Africa Corps (Deutsches Afrikakorps, DAK) was the German expeditionary force in Africa during the North African Campaign of World War II.
Airborne Military parachuting or gliding form of inserting personnel or supplies.
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.
Albert Kesselring (30 November 1885 – 16 July 1960) was a German Luftwaffe Generalfeldmarschall during World War II.
Aleppo (ﺣﻠﺐ / ALA-LC) is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most-populous Syrian governorate.
Alexander Löhr (20 May 1885 – 26 February 1947) was an Austrian Air Force commander during the 1930s and, after the annexation of Austria, he was a Luftwaffe commander.
Alexandros Papagos (Αλέξανδρος Παπάγος; 9 December 1883 – 4 October 1955) was a Greek Army officer who led the Hellenic Army in World War II and the later stages of the Greek Civil War.
Ali Mansur, also known as Mansur ul-Mulk, (1886 – 8 December 1974 in Tehran) was a Prime Minister of Iran.
Allied Force Headquarters (AFHQ) was the headquarters that controlled all Allied operational forces in the Mediterranean Theatre of World War II from late 1942 until the end of the war in Europe in May 1945.
The Allied invasion of Italy was the Allied amphibious landing on mainland Italy that took place on 3 September 1943 during the early stages of the Italian Campaign of World War II.
The Allied invasion of Sicily, codenamed Operation Husky, was a major campaign of World War II, in which the Allies took the island of Sicily from the Axis powers (Italy and Nazi Germany).
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Mohammed Amin al-Husseini (محمد أمين الحسيني; 1897 – 4 July 1974) was a Palestinian Arab nationalist and Muslim leader in Mandatory Palestine.
Amman (عمّان) is the capital and most populous city of Jordan, and the country's economic, political and cultural centre.
Amphibious warfare is a type of offensive military operation that today uses naval ships to project ground and air power onto a hostile or potentially hostile shore at a designated landing beach.
The Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran, also known as Anglo-Soviet invasion of Persia, was the invasion of the Imperial State of Iran during the Second World War by Soviet, British and other Commonwealth armed forces.
Field Marshal Archibald Percival Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell, (5 May 1883 – 24 May 1950) was a senior officer of the British Army.
Arkhangelsk (p), also known in English as Archangel and Archangelsk, is a city and the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast, in the north of European Russia.
An armistice is a formal agreement of warring parties to stop fighting.
The Armistice of 22 June 1940 was signed at 18:36.
The Armistice of Cassibile was an armistice signed on 3 September 1943 by Walter Bedell Smith and Giuseppe Castellano, and made public on 8 September, between the Kingdom of Italy and the Allies during World War II.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
The Attack on Mers-el-Kébir (3 July 1940) also known as the Battle of Mers-el-Kébir, was part of Operation Catapult.
The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Territory, on the morning of December 7, 1941.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
The Balkan Campaign of World War II began with the Italian invasion of Greece on 28 October 1940.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
Bardia, or El Burdi (البردية or البردي) is a Mediterranean seaport in the Butnan District of eastern Libya.
The Battle of Anzio was a battle of the Italian Campaign of World War II that took place from January 22, 1944 (beginning with the Allied amphibious landing known as Operation Shingle) to June 5, 1944 (ending with the capture of Rome).
The Battle of Crete (Luftlandeschlacht um Kreta, also Unternehmen Merkur, "Operation Mercury," Μάχη της Κρήτης) was fought during the Second World War on the Greek island of Crete.
The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War.
The Battle of Gazala (near the modern town of Ayn al Ghazālah) was fought during the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War, west of the port of Tobruk in Libya, from 26 May to 21 June 1942.
The Battle of Greece (also known as Operation Marita, Unternehmen Marita) is the common name for the invasion of Allied Greece by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany in April 1941 during World War II.
The Battle of Kasserine Pass was a battle of the Tunisia Campaign of World War II that took place in February 1943.
Battle of Odžak was the last World War II battle in Europe.
The Battle of Poljana (Monday May 14 – Tuesday May 15, 1945) was a battle of World War II in Yugoslavia.
The Battle of Taranto took place on the night of 11–12 November 1940 during the Second World War between British naval forces, under Admiral Andrew Cunningham, and Italian naval forces, under Admiral Inigo Campioni.
The Battle of the Atlantic was the longest continuous military campaign in World War II, running from 1939 to the defeat of Germany in 1945.
The Battle of the Mareth Line or the Battle of Mareth was an attack in the Second World War by the British Eighth Army (General Bernard Montgomery) in Tunisia, against the Mareth Line held by the Italo-German 1st Army (General Giovanni Messe).
The Battle of the Mediterranean was the name given to the naval campaign fought in the Mediterranean Sea during World War II, from 10 June 1940 to 2 May 1945.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).
General Sir Bernard Charles Tolver Paget, (15 September 1887 – 16 February 1961) was a senior British Army officer during the Second World War.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
The Brandenburgers (Brandenburger) were members of the Brandenburg German special forces unit during World War II.
The Brazilian Expeditionary Force or BEF (Força Expedicionária Brasileira; FEB) consisted of about 25,700 men arranged by the army and air force to fight alongside the Allied forces in the Mediterranean Theatre of World War II.
A bridgehead (or bridge-head) is the strategically important area of ground around the end of a bridge or other place of possible crossing over a body of water which at time of conflict is sought to be defended/taken over by the belligerent forces.
The British Armed Forces, also known as Her/His Majesty's Armed Forces, are the military services responsible for the defence of the United Kingdom, its overseas territories and the Crown dependencies.
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.
The British Mandate for Palestine (valid 29 September 1923 - 15 May 1948), also known as the Mandate for Palestine or the Palestine Mandate, was a "Class A" League of Nations mandate for the territories of Mandatory Palestine – in which the Balfour Declaration's "national home for the Jewish people" was to be established – and a separate Arab Emirate of Transjordan, both of which were conceded by the Ottoman Empire under the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne.
British Somaliland, officially the British Somaliland Protectorate (Dhulka Maxmiyada Soomaalida ee Biritishka, translit) was a British protectorate in present-day northwestern Somalia.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
Cannes (Canas) is a city located on the French Riviera.
The canton of Ticino, formally the Republic and Canton of Ticino (Repubblica e Cantone Ticino; Canton Tesin; Kanton Tessin; canton du Tessin, chantun dal Tessin) is the southernmost canton of Switzerland.
The Capture of Kufra/Prise de Koufra (Koufra, Cufra) was part of the Allied Western Desert Campaign during the Second World War.
Operation Anton, or Fall Anton, in German, was the codename for the military occupation of Vichy France carried out by Germany and Italy in November 1942.
The Chetnik Detachments of the Yugoslav Army, also known as the Yugoslav Army in the Homeland or The Ravna Gora Movement, commonly known as the Chetniks (Četnici, Четници,; Četniki), was a World War II movement in Yugoslavia led by Draža Mihailović, an anti-Axis movement in their long-term goals which engaged in marginal resistance activities for limited periods.
Field Marshal Sir Claude John Eyre Auchinleck (21 June 1884 – 23 March 1981) was a British Army commander during the Second World War.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
Corsica (Corse; Corsica in Corsican and Italian, pronounced and respectively) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 18 regions of France.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
Dalmatia (Dalmacija; see names in other languages) is one of the four historical regions of Croatia, alongside Croatia proper, Slavonia and Istria.
Djibouti (جيبوتي, Djibouti, Jabuuti, Gabuuti), officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
The Dodecanese (Δωδεκάνησα, Dodekánisa, literally "twelve islands") are a group of 15 larger plus 150 smaller Greek islands in the southeastern Aegean Sea, off the coast of Asia Minor (Turkey), of which 26 are inhabited.
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.
East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern region of the African continent, variably defined by geography.
The East African Campaign (also known as the Abyssinian Campaign) was fought in East Africa during World War II by Allied forces, mainly from the British Empire, against Axis forces, primarily from Italy of Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana, or AOI), between June 1940 and November 1941.
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The Eighth Army was a field army formation of the British Army during the Second World War, fighting in the North African and Italian campaigns.
The Emirate of Transjordan (إمارة شرق الأردن lit. "Emirate of east Jordan"), also hyphenated as Trans-Jordan and previously known as Transjordania or Trans-Jordania, was a British protectorate established in April 1921.
Eritrea (ኤርትራ), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa, with its capital at Asmara.
Erwin Rommel (15 November 1891 – 14 October 1944) was a German general and military theorist.
The Ethiopian Empire (የኢትዮጵያ ንጉሠ ነገሥት መንግሥተ), also known as Abyssinia (derived from the Arabic al-Habash), was a kingdom that spanned a geographical area in the current state of Ethiopia.
Ethnic violence refers to violence expressly motivated by ethnic hatred and ethnic conflict.
The European theatre of World War II, also known as the Second European War, was a huge area of heavy fighting across Europe, from Germany's and the Soviet Union's joint invasion of Poland in September 1939 until the end of the war with the Soviet Union conquering most of Eastern Europe along with the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945 (Victory in Europe Day).
Faisal II (Arabic: الملك فيصل الثاني Al-Malik Fayṣal Ath-thānī) (2 May 1935 – 14 July 1958) was the last King of Iraq.
Fallschirmjäger is the German word for paratroopers.
The Far East is a geographical term in English that usually refers to East Asia (including Northeast Asia), the Russian Far East (part of North Asia), and Southeast Asia.
The First Battle of El Alamein (1–27 July 1942) was a battle of the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War, fought in Egypt between Axis forces (Germany and Italy) of the Panzer Army Africa (Panzerarmee Afrika, which included the Afrika Korps) (Field Marshal (Generalfeldmarschall) Erwin Rommel) and Allied (British Imperial and Commonwealth) forces (Britain, British India, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand) of the Eighth Army (General Claude Auchinleck).
Force H was a British naval formation during the Second World War.
Fort Capuzzo (Ridotta Capuzzo) was a fort in the colony of Italian Libya, near the Libyan-Egyptian border and next to the Italian Frontier Wire.
Jean Louis Xavier François Darlan (7 August 1881 – 24 December 1942) was a French Admiral and political figure.
The Franco-Italian Armistice, or Armistice of Villa Incisa, signed on 24 June 1940, in effect from 25 June, ended the brief Italian invasion of France during the Second World War.
Free France and its Free French Forces (French: France Libre and Forces françaises libres) were the government-in-exile led by Charles de Gaulle during the Second World War and its military forces, that continued to fight against the Axis powers as one of the Allies after the fall of France.
The French Expeditionary Corps (Corps Expéditionnaire Français, CEF), also known as the French Expeditionary Corps in Italy (Corps Expéditionaire Français en Italie, CEFI.), was an expeditionary force composed of Free French soldiers that fought in the Italian Campaign during World War II under the command of General Alphonse Juin.
The Mandate for Syria and Lebanon (Mandat français pour la Syrie et le Liban; الانتداب الفرنسي على سوريا ولبنان) (1923−1946) was a League of Nations mandate founded after the First World War and the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire concerning Syria and Lebanon.
French Somaliland (Côte française des Somalis, lit. "French Coast of the Somalis"; Dhulka Soomaaliyeed ee Faransiiska) was a French colony in the Horn of Africa.
Fritz Konrad Ferdinand Grobba (18 July 1886 – 2 September 1973) was a German diplomat during the interwar period and World War II.
Fedor Ivanovich Tolbukhin (Фёдор Ива́нович Толбу́хин; June 16, 1894 – October 17, 1949) was a Soviet military commander.
The General Staff of the Republic of Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Genelkurmay Başkanlığı, abbreviation: T.C. Gnkur. Bşk.lığı) presides over the Armed Forces of the Republic of Turkey, comprising the Land Forces, Navy, Air Force and Special Forces.
Germany and the Second World War (Das Deutsche Reich und der Zweite Weltkrieg) is a 12,000-page, 13-volume work published by the Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt (DVA), that has taken academics from the military history centre of the German armed forces 30 years to finish.
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Gloster Gladiator (or Gloster SS.37) is a British-built biplane fighter.
The Golden Square (Arabic: المربع الذهبي) was a group of four officers of the Iraqi armed forces who played a part in Iraqi politics throughout the 1930s and early 1940s.
Gondar or Gonder (Amharic: ጎንደር, Gonder or Gondär; formerly ጐንደር, Gʷandar or Gʷender) is a city and separate woreda in Ethiopia.
The Gothic Line (Gotenstellung; Linea Gotica) was a German defensive line of the Italian Campaign of World War II.
Government of Greece (officially: Government of the Hellenic Republic; also Greek Government or Hellenic Government) mfa.gr is the government of the Third Hellenic Republic, reformed to its present form in 1974.
The Government of National Salvation (Vlada narodnog spasa / Влада народног спаса; Regierung der nationalen Rettung), also referred to as the Nedić's regime (Nedićev režim / Недићев режим), was the second Serbian puppet government, after the Commissioner Government, established on the Territory of the (German) Military Commander in Serbia during World War II.
The Government of Romania (Guvernul României) forms one half of the executive branch of the government of Romania (the other half being the office of the President of Romania).
The Gran Sasso raid or Operation Eiche ("Oak") was the rescue of Italian dictator Benito Mussolini by German paratroopers led by Major Otto-Harald Mors and Waffen-SS commandos in September 1943, during World War II.
The Grand Council of Fascism (aka: Fascist Grand Council) was the main body of Mussolini's Fascist government in Italy.
The Grand Mufti of Jerusalem is the Sunni Muslim cleric in charge of Jerusalem's Islamic holy places, including the Al-Aqsa Mosque.
The Greco-Italian War (Italo-Greek War, Italian Campaign in Greece; in Greece: War of '40 and Epic of '40) took place between the kingdoms of Italy and Greece from 28 October 1940 to 23 April 1941.
Τhe Greek Civil War (ο Eμφύλιος, o Emfýlios, "the Civil War") was fought in Greece from 1946 to 1949 between the Greek government army—backed by the United Kingdom and the United States—and the Democratic Army of Greece (DSE)—the military branch of the Greek Communist Party (KKE).
The Greek People's Liberation Army or ELAS (Ελληνικός Λαϊκός Απελευθερωτικός Στρατός (ΕΛΑΣ), Ellinikós Laïkós Apeleftherotikós Stratós), often mistakenly called the National People's Liberation Army (Εθνικός Λαϊκός Απελευθερωτικός Στρατός, Ethnikós Laïkós Apeleftherotikós Stratós), was the military arm of the left-wing National Liberation Front (EAM) during the period of the Greek Resistance until February 1945, then during the Greek Civil War.
The Greek Resistance (italic, i.e., "National Resistance") is the blanket term for a number of armed and unarmed groups from across the political spectrum that resisted the Axis occupation of Greece in the period 1941–1944, during World War II.
Haile Selassie I (ቀዳማዊ ኃይለ ሥላሴ, qädamawi haylä səllasé,;, born Ras Tafari Makonnen, was Ethiopia's regent from 1916 to 1930 and emperor from 1930 to 1974.
Field Marshal Harold Rupert Leofric George Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis, (10 December 1891 – 16 June 1969) was a senior British Army officer who served with distinction in both the First World War and the Second World War and, afterwards, as Governor General of Canada, the 17th since Canadian Confederation.
The Hawker Hurricane is a British single-seat fighter aircraft of the 1930s–1940s that was designed and predominantly built by Hawker Aircraft Ltd.
Heinrich von Vietinghoff (6 December 1887 – 23 February 1952) was a German general (Generaloberst) of the Wehrmacht during World War II.
Henri Fernand Dentz (16 December 1881 – 13 December 1945) was a soldier and general in the French Army (Armée de Terre) and, after France surrendered during World War II, he served with the Vichy French Army.
HMS Cockchafer was a Royal Navy.
Human overpopulation (or population overshoot) occurs when the ecological footprint of a human population in a specific geographical location exceeds the carrying capacity of the place occupied by that group.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
I Canadian Corps was one of the two corps fielded by the Canadian Army during the Second World War.
The Polish II Corps (Drugi Korpus Wojska Polskiego), 1943–1947, was a major tactical and operational unit of the Polish Armed Forces in the West during World War II.
The Independent State of Croatia (Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH; Unabhängiger Staat Kroatien; Stato Indipendente di Croazia) was a World War II fascist puppet state of Germany and Italy.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
The Insect-class gunboats (or large China gunboatsThe s were "small China gunboats") were a class of small, but well-armed Royal Navy ships designed for use in shallow rivers or inshore.
The invasion of Yugoslavia, also known as the April War or Operation 25, was a German-led attack on the Kingdom of Yugoslavia by the Axis powers which began on 6 April 1941 during World War II.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Iraqforce was a British and Commonwealth formation that came together in the Kingdom of Iraq.
Roma, named after two previous ships and the city of Rome, was the fourth -class battleship of Italy's Regia Marina (Royal Navy).
The Italian Campaign of World War II consisted of the Allied operations in and around Italy, from 1943 to the end of the war in Europe.
The Italian Empire (Impero Italiano) comprised the colonies, protectorates, concessions, dependencies and trust territories of the Kingdom of Italy and, after 1946, the Italian Republic.
Ethiopia was occupied by Italy in 1936 and became a part of the Italian colony Italian East Africa, during which time Emperor Haile Selassie continued to reign as monarch in exile.
The Italian guerrilla war in Ethiopia was a conflict fought from the summer of 1941 to the autumn of 1943 by remnants of Italian troops in Ethiopia, in what had been the short-lived attempt to incorporate Ethiopia as part of Italian East Africa.
The Italian invasion of Albania (April 7–12, 1939) was a brief military campaign by the Kingdom of Italy against the Albanian Kingdom.
The Italian invasion of Egypt (Operazione E) was an Italian offensive against British, Commonwealth and Free French forces during the Western Desert Campaign (1940–1943) of the Second World War.
The Italian invasion of France, also called the Battle of the Alps (10–25 June 1940), was the first major Italian engagement of World War II and the last major engagement of the Battle of France.
Italian-occupied France was an area of south-eastern France occupied by Fascist Italy in two stages during World War II.
Jaghbub (الجغبوب, Giarabub) is a remote desert village in the Al Jaghbub Oasis in the eastern Libyan Desert.
Admiral of the Fleet Sir James Fownes Somerville (17 July 1882 – 19 March 1949) was a Royal Navy officer.
Jean Joseph Marie Gabriel de Lattre de Tassigny, GCB, MC (2 February 1889 – 11 January 1952) was a French military commander in World War II and the First Indochina War.
Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim von Ribbentrop (30 April 1893 – 16 October 1946), more commonly known as Joachim von Ribbentrop, was Foreign Minister of Nazi Germany from 1938 until 1945.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
Josip Broz (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз,; 7 May 1892 – 4 May 1980), commonly known as Tito (Cyrillic: Тито), was a Yugoslav communist revolutionary and political leader, serving in various roles from 1943 until his death in 1980.
Karl Wolff (13 May 1900 – 17 July 1984) was a high-ranking member of the Nazi SS who held the rank of SS-Obergruppenführer in the Waffen-SS.
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
The Colony and Protectorate of Kenya was part of the British Empire in Africa from 1920 until 1963.
The Kingdom of Greece (Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Ἑλλάδος) was a state established in 1832 at the Convention of London by the Great Powers (the United Kingdom, Kingdom of France and the Russian Empire).
The Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq (المملكة العراقية الهاشمية) was founded on 23 August 1921 under British administration following the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in the Mesopotamian campaign of World War I. Although a League of Nations mandate was awarded to the UK in 1920, the 1920 Iraqi revolt resulted in the scrapping of the original mandate plan in favor of a British administered semi-independent kingdom, under the Hashemite allies of Britain, via the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty.
The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croatian, Slovene: Kraljevina Jugoslavija, Краљевина Југославија; Кралство Југославија) was a state in Southeast Europe and Central Europe, that existed from 1918 until 1941, during the interwar period and beginning of World War II.
Kos or Cos (Κως) is a Greek island, part of the Dodecanese island chain in the southeastern Aegean Sea, off the Anatolian coast of Turkey.
The Kriegsmarine (literally "War Navy") was the navy of Germany from 1935 to 1945.
Kufra is a basinBertarelli (1929), p. 514.
La Spezia (A Spèza in the local dialect of Spezzina), at the head of the Gulf of La Spezia in the southern part of the Liguria region of Northern Italy, is the capital city of the province of La Spezia.
The League of Communists of Yugoslavia, before 1952 the Communist Party of Yugoslavia, was the country's largest communist party, and the ruling party of SFR Yugoslavia.
Leros (Λέρος) is a Greek island and municipality in the Dodecanese in the southern Aegean Sea.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
The Libyan Desert forms the northern and eastern part of the Sahara Desert.
The King of Iraq (Arabic: ملك العراق, Mālik al-‘Irāq) was Iraq's head of state and monarch from 1921 to 1958.
This is a list of World War II battles.
The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht military forces during World War II.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
Mandatory Palestine (فلسطين; פָּלֶשְׂתִּינָה (א"י), where "EY" indicates "Eretz Yisrael", Land of Israel) was a geopolitical entity under British administration, carved out of Ottoman Syria after World War I. British civil administration in Palestine operated from 1920 until 1948.
Mark Wayne Clark (May 1, 1896 – April 17, 1984) was a United States Army officer who saw service during World War I, World War II, and the Korean War.
Maximilian von Weichs (12 November 1881 – 27 September 1954) was a field marshal in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
The Mediterranean U-boat Campaign lasted from about 21 September 1941 to 19 September 1944 during the Second World War.
Menton (written Menton in classical norm or Mentan in Mistralian norm; Mentone) is a commune in the Alpes-Maritimes department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.
Mersa Matruh (مرسى مطروح) is a seaport in Egypt, the capital of the Matrouh Governorate.
Messina (Sicilian: Missina; Messana, Μεσσήνη) is the capital of the Italian Metropolitan City of Messina.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Middle East Command, later Middle East Land Forces, was a British Army Command established prior to the Second World War in Egypt.
The term military campaign applies to large scale, long duration, significant military strategy plans incorporating a series of inter-related military operations or battles forming a distinct part of a larger conflict often called a war.
The military history of Gibraltar during World War II exemplifies Gibraltar's position as a British fortress since the early 18th century and as a vital factor in British military strategy, both as a foothold on the continent of Europe, and as a bastion of British sea power.
A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty.
Mosul (الموصل, مووسڵ, Māwṣil) is a major city in northern Iraq. Located some north of Baghdad, Mosul stands on the west bank of the Tigris, opposite the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh on the east bank. The metropolitan area has grown to encompass substantial areas on both the "Left Bank" (east side) and the "Right Bank" (west side), as the two banks are described by the locals compared to the flow direction of Tigris. At the start of the 21st century, Mosul and its surrounds had an ethnically and religiously diverse population; the majority of Mosul's population were Arabs, with Assyrians, Armenians, Turkmens, Kurds, Yazidis, Shabakis, Mandaeans, Kawliya, Circassians in addition to other, smaller ethnic minorities. In religious terms, mainstream Sunni Islam was the largest religion, but with a significant number of followers of the Salafi movement and Christianity (the latter followed by the Assyrians and Armenians), as well as Shia Islam, Sufism, Yazidism, Shabakism, Yarsanism and Mandaeism. Mosul's population grew rapidly around the turn of the millennium and by 2004 was estimated to be 1,846,500. In 2014, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant seized control of the city. The Iraqi government recaptured it in the 2016–2017 Battle of Mosul. Historically, important products of the area include Mosul marble and oil. The city of Mosul is home to the University of Mosul and its renowned Medical College, which together was one of the largest educational and research centers in Iraq and the Middle East. Mosul, together with the nearby Nineveh plains, is one of the historic centers for the Assyrians and their churches; the Assyrian Church of the East; its offshoot, the Chaldean Catholic Church; and the Syriac Orthodox Church, containing the tombs of several Old Testament prophets such as Jonah, some of which were destroyed by ISIL in July 2014.
Murmansk (p; Мурман ланнҍ; Murmánska; Muurman) is a port city and the administrative center of Murmansk Oblast in the far northwest part of Russia.
The National Liberation Front or EAM (Εθνικό Απελευθερωτικό Μέτωπο (ΕΑΜ), Ethniko Apeleftherotiko Metopo) was the main movement of the Greek Resistance during the Axis occupation of Greece.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Negotiation comes from the Latin neg (no) and otsia (leisure) referring to businessmen who, unlike the patricians, had no leisure time in their industriousness; it held the meaning of business (le négoce in French) until the 17th century when it took on the diplomatic connotation as a dialogue between two or more people or parties intended to reach a beneficial outcome over one or more issues where a conflict exists with respect to at least one of these issues.
A neutral country is a state, which is either neutral towards belligerents in a specific war, or holds itself as permanently neutral in all future conflicts (including avoiding entering into military alliances such as NATO).
Nice (Niçard Niça, classical norm, or Nissa, nonstandard,; Nizza; Νίκαια; Nicaea) is the fifth most populous city in France and the capital of the Alpes-Maritimes département.
Normandy (Normandie,, Norman: Normaundie, from Old French Normanz, plural of Normant, originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is one of the 18 regions of France, roughly referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy.
The Normandy landings were the landing operations on Tuesday, 6 June 1944 of the Allied invasion of Normandy in Operation Overlord during World War II.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
Timeline of the North African Campaign.
North Cape (Nordkapp; Davvenjárga) is a cape on the northern coast of the island of Magerøya in Northern Norway.
The Nyon Conference was a diplomatic conference held in Nyon, Switzerland in September 1937 to address attacks on international shipping in the Mediterranean Sea during the Spanish Civil War.
The Commander in Chief in the South (Oberbefehlshaber Süd) (German: initials OB Süd) commanded all Luftwaffe units based in the Mediterranean and North African theatre in World War II.
The Office of Public Sector Information (OPSI) is the body responsible for the operation of Her Majesty's Stationery Office (HMSO) and of other public information services of the United Kingdom.
Operation Baytown was an Allied amphibious landing on the mainland of Italy that took place on 3 September 1943, part of the Allied invasion of Italy, itself part of the Italian Campaign, during the Second World War.
Operation Compass was the first large Allied military operation of the Western Desert Campaign (1940–1943) during the Second World War.
Operation Dragoon (initially Operation Anvil) was the code name for the Allied invasion of Southern France on 15August 1944.
Operation Lustre was an action during World War II: the movement of British and other Allied troops (Australian, New Zealand and Polish) from Egypt to Greece in March and April 1941, in response to the failed Italian invasion and the looming threat of German intervention.
Operation Overlord was the codename for the Battle of Normandy, the Allied operation that launched the successful invasion of German-occupied Western Europe during World War II.
Operation Sea Lion, also written as Operation Sealion (Unternehmen Seelöwe), was Nazi Germany's code name for the plan for an invasion of the United Kingdom during the Battle of Britain in the Second World War.
Operation Slapstick was the code name for a British landing from the sea at the Italian port of Taranto during the Second World War.
Operation Sonnenblume (Unternehmen Sonnenblume/Operation Sunflower) was the name given to the dispatch of German troops to North Africa in February 1941, during the Second World War.
Operation Sunrise, or the Bern incident, refers to a series of secret negotiations from February to May 1945 between representatives of Nazi Germany and the Western Allies of World War II to arrange a local surrender of German forces in northern Italy.
Operation Torch (8–16 November 1942, formerly Operation Gymnast) was a Anglo–American invasion of French North Africa, during the North African Campaign of the Second World War.
Otto Skorzeny (12 June 19085 July 1975) was an Austrian born SS-Obersturmbannführer (lieutenant colonel) in the Waffen-SS during World War II.
The Pact of Steel (Stahlpakt, Patto d'Acciaio), known formally as the Pact of Friendship and Alliance between Germany and Italy, was a military and political alliance between the Kingdom of Italy and Nazi Germany.
The Pahlavi dynasty (دودمان پهلوی) was the ruling house of the imperial state of Iran from 1925 until 1979, when the 2,500 years of continuous Persian monarchy was overthrown and abolished as a result of the Iranian Revolution.
The Paris Protocols was an agreement between Nazi Germany and Vichy France negotiated in May 1941.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
Marshal Pietro Badoglio, 1st Duke of Addis Abeba, 1st Marquess of Sabotino (28 September 1871 – 1 November 1956), was an Italian general during both World Wars and a Prime Minister of Italy, as well as the first viceroy of Italian East Africa.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The Polish Armed Forces in the West refers to the Polish military formations formed to fight alongside the Western Allies against Nazi Germany and its allies during World War II.
The politics of Italy are conducted through a parliamentary republic with a multi-party system.
A prime minister is the head of a cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state.
Pula or Pola (Italian and Istro-Romanian: Pola; Colonia Pietas Iulia Pola Pollentia Herculanea; Slovene and Chakavian: Pulj, Hungarian: Póla, Polei, Ancient Greek: Πόλαι, Polae) is the largest city in Istria County, Croatia and the eighth largest city in the country, situated at the southern tip of the Istria peninsula, with a population of 57,460 in 2011.
Royal Air Force Station Habbaniya, more commonly known as RAF Habbaniya, (originally RAF Dhibban) was a Royal Air Force station at Habbaniyah, about west of Baghdad in modern-day Iraq, on the banks of the Euphrates near Lake Habbaniyah.
Rashid Ali al-Gaylaniin Arab standard pronunciation Rashid Aali al-Kaylani; also transliterated as Sayyad Rashid Aali al-Gillani, Sayyad Rashid Ali al-Gailani or sometimes Sayyad Rashid Ali el Keilany ("Sayyad" serves to address higher standing male persons) (رشيد عالي الكيلاني) (1892 – August 28, 1965) was an Iraqi politician who served as Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Iraq on three occasions: from March to November 1933, from March 1940 to February 1941 and from April to May 1941.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
A regent (from the Latin regens: ruling, governing) is a person appointed to govern a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated.
The Italian Royal Air Force (Regia Aeronautica Italiana) was the name of the air force of the Kingdom of Italy.
Macedonia (translit), officially the Republic of Macedonia, is a country in the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Reza Shah Pahlavi (رضا شاه پهلوی;; 15 March 1878 – 26 July 1944) was the Shah of Iran from 15 December 1925 until he was forced to abdicate by the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran on 16 September 1941.
Marshal Rodolfo Graziani, 1st Marquis of Neghelli (11 August 1882 – 11 January 1955), was a prominent Italian military officer in the Kingdom of Italy's Regio Esercito (Royal Army), primarily noted for his campaigns in Africa before and during World War II.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
This article is about the Italian Royal Army (Regio Esercito) which participated in World War II.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
Salamis (Σαλαμίνα Salamína, Ancient and Katharevousa: Σαλαμίς Salamís), is the largest Greek island in the Saronic Gulf, about 1 nautical mile (2 km) off-coast from Piraeus and about west of Athens.
Sallum, As Sallum, or Sollum (السلوم "Alternative") is a village in Egypt, near the Mediterranean Sea, east of the border with Libya, and around from Tobruk.
Savoy (Savouè,; Savoie; Savoia) is a cultural region in Western Europe.
The Schutzstaffel (SS; also stylized as with Armanen runes;; literally "Protection Squadron") was a major paramilitary organization under Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP) in Nazi Germany, and later throughout German-occupied Europe during World War II.
The Second Battle of El Alamein (23 October – 11 November 1942) was a battle of the Second World War that took place near the Egyptian railway halt of El Alamein. With the Allies victorious, it was the watershed of the Western Desert Campaign. The First Battle of El Alamein had prevented the Axis from advancing further into Egypt. In August 1942, Lieutenant-General Sir Bernard Law Montgomery took command of the Eighth Army following the sacking of General Claude Auchinleck and the death of his replacement Lieutenant-General William Gott in an air crash. The Allied victory turned the tide in the North African Campaign and ended the Axis threat to Egypt, the Suez Canal and the Middle Eastern and Persian oil fields via North Africa. The Second Battle of El Alamein revived the morale of the Allies, being the first big success against the Axis since Operation Crusader in late 1941. The battle coincided with the Allied invasion of French North Africa in Operation Torch, which started on 8 November, the Battle of Stalingrad and the Guadalcanal Campaign.
The Second Italo-Ethiopian War, also referred to as the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, was a colonial war from 3 October 1935 until 1939, despite the Italian claim to have defeated Ethiopia by 5 May 1936, the date of the capture of Addis Ababa.
Shah (Šāh, pronounced, "king") is a title given to the emperors, kings, princes and lords of Iran (historically also known as Persia).
Sidi Barrani (سيدى برانى) is a town in Egypt, near the Mediterranean Sea, about east of the border with Libya, and around from Tobruk, Libya.
The Siege of Malta in the Second World War was a military campaign in the Mediterranean Theatre.
The Siege of Tobruk lasted for 241 days in 1941, after Axis forces advanced through Cyrenaica from El Agheila in Operation Sonnenblume against Allied forces in Libya, during the Western Desert Campaign (1940–1943) of the Second World War.
The Sixth United States Army Group was an Allied Army Group that fought in the European Theater of Operations during World War II.
The Slovene Partisans (formally National Liberation Army and Partisan Detachments of Slovenia) were part of Europe's most effective anti-Nazi resistance movementJeffreys-Jones, R. (2013): In Spies We Trust: The Story of Western Intelligence, Oxford University Press,, Adams, Simon (2005): The Balkans, Black Rabbit Books,, led by Yugoslav revolutionary communists during World War II, the Yugoslav Partisans.
The Slovenes, also called as Slovenians (Slovenci), are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Slovenia who share a common ancestry, culture, history and speak Slovenian as their first language.
Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia or SFRY) was a socialist state led by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars.
Southern Europe is the southern region of the European continent.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
The spring 1945 offensive in Italy, codenamed Operation Grapeshot, was the final Allied attack during the Italian Campaign in the final stages of the Second World War.
The Strait of Gibraltar (مضيق جبل طارق, Estrecho de Gibraltar) is a narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Gibraltar and Peninsular Spain in Europe from Morocco and Ceuta (Spain) in Africa.
The Strait of Hormuz (تنگه هرمز Tangeye Hormoz) is a strait between the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
Suez (السويس; Egyptian Arabic) is a seaport city (population ca. 497,000) in north-eastern Egypt, located on the north coast of the Gulf of Suez (a branch of the Red Sea), near the southern terminus of the Suez Canal, having the same boundaries as Suez governorate.
The Supermarine Spitfire is a British single-seat fighter aircraft used by the Royal Air Force and other Allied countries before, during and after World War II.
Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF) was the headquarters of the Commander of Allied forces in north west Europe, from late 1943 until the end of World War II.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
The Syria–Lebanon campaign, also known as Operation Exporter, was the British invasion of Vichy French Syria and Lebanon from June–July 1941, during the Second World War.
Taha al-Hashimi (Arabic: طه الهاشمى; 1888–1961) served briefly as prime minister of Iraq for two months, from February 1, 1941, to April 1, 1941.
Tanganyika was a territory administered by the United Kingdom (UK) from 1916 until 1961.
Taranto (early Tarento from Tarentum; Tarantino: Tarde; translit; label) is a coastal city in Apulia, Southern Italy.
The Italian Tenth Army was an Italian Army which fought in World War I and in Italian North Africa during World War II.
In warfare, a theater or theatre (see spelling differences) is an area or place in which important military events occur or are progressing.
Tobruk or Tubruq (Αντίπυργος) (طبرق Ṭubruq; also transliterated as Tóbruch, Tobruch, Tobruck and Tubruk) is a port city on Libya's eastern Mediterranean coast, near the border of Egypt.
Toulon (Provençal: Tolon (classical norm), Touloun (Mistralian norm)) is a city in southern France and a large military harbour on the Mediterranean coast, with a major French naval base.
Trieste (Trst) is a city and a seaport in northeastern Italy.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
The Tunisian Campaign (also known as the Battle of Tunisia) was a series of battles that took place in Tunisia during the North African Campaign of the Second World War, between Axis and Allied forces.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Twelfth United States Army Group was the largest and most powerful United States Army formation ever to take to the field, commanding four field armies at its peak in 1945: First United States Army, Third United States Army, Ninth United States Army and Fifteenth United States Army.
Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda (Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked country in East Africa.
Ugo Cavallero (20 September 1880 – 13 September 1943) was an Italian military commander before and during World War II.
An unconditional surrender is a surrender in which no guarantees are given to the surrendering party.
The United States Army North is a formation of the United States Army Service Component Command of United States Northern Command.
Vice admiral is a senior naval flag officer rank, equivalent to lieutenant general and air marshal.
Vichy France (Régime de Vichy) is the common name of the French State (État français) headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II.
Vladimir Ivanovich Zhdanov (Russian: Владимир Иванович Жданов) (1902–1964) was a colonel-general of tank troops in the armed forces of the Soviet Union.
Vladivostok (p, literally ruler of the east) is a city and the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, located around the Golden Horn Bay, not far from Russia's borders with China and North Korea.
Władysław Albert Anders (11 August 1892 – 12 May 1970) was a general in the Polish Army and later in life a politician and prominent member of the Polish government-in-exile in London.
The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
Werner Junck (28 December 1895 – 6 August 1976) was a German general in the Luftwaffe during World War II and the one time commander of Fliegerführer Irak.
The Western Desert Campaign (Desert War), took place in the deserts of Egypt and Libya and was the main theatre in the North African Campaign during the Second World War.
The Western Front was a military theatre of World War II encompassing Denmark, Norway, Luxembourg, Belgium, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Germany. World War II military engagements in Southern Europe and elsewhere are generally considered under separate headings. The Western Front was marked by two phases of large-scale combat operations. The first phase saw the capitulation of the Netherlands, Belgium, and France during May and June 1940 after their defeat in the Low Countries and the northern half of France, and continued into an air war between Germany and Britain that climaxed with the Battle of Britain. The second phase consisted of large-scale ground combat (supported by a massive air war considered to be an additional front), which began in June 1944 with the Allied landings in Normandy and continued until the defeat of Germany in May 1945.
Wilhelm List (14 May 1880 – 17 August 1971) was a German field marshal during World War II who was convicted as a war criminal by an Allied tribunal after the war.
The Winter Line was a series of German and Italian military fortifications in Italy, constructed during World War II by Organisation Todt and commanded by Albert Kesselring.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Military operations in World War II in Yugoslavia began on 6 April 1941, when the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was swiftly conquered by Axis forces and partitioned between Germany, Italy, Hungary, Bulgaria and client regimes.
The Yugoslav Partisans,Serbo-Croatian, Macedonian, Slovene: Partizani, Партизани or the National Liberation Army,Narodnooslobodilačka vojska (NOV), Народноослободилачка војска (НОВ); Народноослободителна војска (НОВ); Narodnoosvobodilna vojska (NOV) officially the National Liberation Army and Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia,Narodnooslobodilačka vojska i partizanski odredi Jugoslavije (NOV i POJ), Народноослободилачка војска и партизански одреди Југославије (НОВ и ПОЈ); Народноослободителна војска и партизански одреди на Југославија (НОВ и ПОЈ); Narodnoosvobodilna vojska in partizanski odredi Jugoslavije (NOV in POJ) was the Communist-led resistance to the Axis powers (chiefly Germany) in occupied Yugoslavia during World War II.
The 10th Army (German: 10. Armee) was a World War II field army of Wehrmacht (Germany).
The 1941 Iraqi coup d'état (Arabic: ثورة رشيد عالي الكيلاني), also called the Rashid Ali Al-Gaylani coup or the Golden Square coup, was a nationalist and pro-Nazi Coup d'état in Iraq on 1 April 1941 that overthrew the pro-British regime of Regent 'Abd al-Ilah and his Prime Minister Nuri al-Said and installed Rashid Ali al-Gaylani as Prime Minister.
The 1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine was the first phase of the 1948 Palestine war.
The 1948 Arab–Israeli War, or the First Arab–Israeli War, was fought between the State of Israel and a military coalition of Arab states over the control of Palestine, forming the second stage of the 1948 Palestine war.
23rd U-boat Flotilla ("23. Unterseebootsflottille") was a unit of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II.
The 2nd New Zealand Division, initially the New Zealand Division, was an infantry division of the New Zealand Military Forces (New Zealand's army) during the Second World War.
The 3rd Algerian Infantry Division (3e Division d'Infanterie Algérienne, 3e DIA) was an infantry division of the Army of Africa (Armée d'Afrique) which participated in World War II.
The 442nd Infantry Regiment is an infantry regiment of the United States Army and is the only infantry formation in the Army Reserve.
The 6th South African Armoured Division was the second armoured division of the South African Army and was formed during World War II.
The 8th Mountain Division was raised as the 8th Indian Infantry division of the British Indian Army.
The 92nd Infantry Division (92nd Division, WWI) was a segregated infantry division of the United States Army that served in both World War I and World War II.
African Campaign of World War II, African Campaigns of World War II, African Theatre of World War II, African Theatres of World War II, African campaigns of World War II, African, Mediterranean and Middle East theater, African, Mediterranean and Middle East theatre of World War II, Mediterranean Theatre (World War II), Mediterranean Theatre of Operations, Mediterranean Theatre of World War II, Mediterranean Theatres of World War II, Mediterranean and Middle East Theatre, Mediterranean and Middle East theatre, Mediterranean theatre of World War II, Mediterranean, Middle East and African theatre of World War II, Mediterranean, Middle East and African theatres of World War II, Middle East Campaign, Middle East campaign, Middle East campaigns, Middle Eastern theatre of World War II.