340 relations: Abdominal pain, Acetate, Acetoxy group, Acne, Adrenal gland, Adrenal insufficiency, Adrenocorticotropic hormone, Adverse effect, Agonist, Aldosterone, Allergy, Allopregnanolone, Allosteric modulator, Altered state of consciousness, Amenorrhea, American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Aminoglutethimide, Anabolism, Androgen, Androgen receptor, Anesthesia, Anterior pituitary, Antiandrogen, Anticonvulsant, Antiestrogen, Antigonadotropin, Antimineralocorticoid, Anxiety, Anxiolytic, Appetite, Area under the curve (pharmacokinetics), Artery, Atherosclerosis, Atrophy, Aura (symptom), Benign prostatic hyperplasia, Benzodiazepine, Bioavailability, Bioidentical hormone replacement therapy, Biological half-life, Biological target, Biosynthesis, Biotransformation, Birth control, Birth defect, Blood vessel, Bone density, Boxed warning, Breast cancer, Breast pain, ..., Breastfeeding, Calcium channel, Cancer, Carcinogen, Cardiovascular disease, Catamenial epilepsy, Cervix, Chemical castration, Chlormadinone acetate, Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, Cirrhosis, Class action, Coagulation, Cognitive deficit, Colorectal cancer, Combined injectable birth control, Combined oral contraceptive pill, Competitive inhibition, Conjugated estrogens, Conjugated estrogens/medroxyprogesterone acetate, Coronary artery disease, Corticosteroid, Cortisol, Cushing's syndrome, CYP17A1, CYP3A4, Cyproterone acetate, Cytokine, Decidualization, Deep vein thrombosis, Dementia, Deoxycorticosterone, Depression (mood), Derivative (chemistry), Developing country, Diabetes mellitus, Diabetic nephropathy, Diabetic neuropathy, Diabetic retinopathy, Dihydrotestosterone, Dissociation constant, Dizziness, Downregulation and upregulation, Drug interaction, Dysfunctional uterine bleeding, Dysmenorrhea, Dysuria, EC50, Ectopic pregnancy, Edema, Ejaculation, Elimination (pharmacology), Elsevier, Endometrial cancer, Endometrial hyperplasia, Endometriosis, Endometrium, Enzyme, Enzyme induction and inhibition, Enzyme inhibitor, Epilepsy, Epileptic seizure, Epithelium, Erectile dysfunction, Ester, Estradiol, Estradiol (medication), Estradiol cypionate, Estradiol cypionate/medroxyprogesterone acetate, Estradiol valerate, Estrogen, Estrogen (medication), Estrogen receptor, Ethinylestradiol, Excretion, Familial male-limited precocious puberty, Fatigue, Feces, Fertilisation, Fertility, Flunitrazepam, Follicle-stimulating hormone, Follicular phase, Food and Drug Administration, France, Functional group, GABAA receptor, Germany, Glucocorticoid, Glucocorticoid receptor, Gonadotropin, Gonadotropin-releasing hormone, Gynecomastia, Headache, Health system, Hepatitis, Hepatocellular adenoma, Hepatocellular carcinoma, High-density lipoprotein, Hip fracture, Hirsutism, Homogeneity and heterogeneity, Hormonal contraception, Hormone, Hot flash, HSD3B2, Human fertilization, Human serum albumin, Hydroxylation, Hydroxyprogesterone acetate, Hypericum perforatum, Hypersexuality, Hypertension, Hypnotic, Hypoestrogenism, Hypothalamic–pituitary hormone, Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, Hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis, Hypothalamus, IC50, IL1A, In vitro, Indonesia, Interleukin 1 beta, Interleukin 6, Intramuscular injection, Intrauterine device, Intravenous therapy, Intrinsic activity, Iron deficiency, Iron-deficiency anemia, Irregular menstruation, Israel, Kidney cancer, Levonorgestrel-releasing implant, Libido, Ligand (biochemistry), Liver, Liver cancer, Liver disease, Long-acting reversible contraception, Lost to follow-up, Luteal phase, Luteinizing hormone, Mechanism of action, Medical experimentation in Africa, MedlinePlus, Medrogestone, Medroxyprogesterone, Megestrol acetate, Menarche, Menopause, Menstrual disorder, Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy, Metabolic pathway, Metabolism, Metabolite, Metastasis, Methyl group, Methylation, Metribolone, Metrorrhagia, Micronization, Migraine, Mineralocorticoid, Mineralocorticoid receptor, Mittelschmerz, Mood swing, Myocardial infarction, Nandrolone, National Cancer Institute, National Health Service, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, National Women's Health Network, Nausea, Negative feedback, Neuropeptide Y, Neurosteroid, New Zealand, Nomegestrol acetate, Norethisterone, Norethisterone acetate, Oral administration, Oral contraceptive pill, Orexigenic, Organic compound, Osteoporosis, Ovarian cyst, Ovulation, Palliative care, Paraphilia, Pelvic inflammatory disease, Pfizer, Pharmacodynamics, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacovigilance, Pituitary gland, Plasma protein binding, Positive feedback, Postmenopausal hormone therapy, Postpartum period, Preadolescence, Precocious puberty, Pregnancy, Pregnane, Pregnanolone, Primary biliary cholangitis, Progesterone, Progesterone (medication), Progesterone receptor, Progestin, Progestogen, Progestogen ester, Progestogen-only injectable contraceptive, Progestogen-only pill, Proinflammatory cytokine, Promegestone, Pulmonary embolism, Quality and Outcomes Framework, Receptor antagonist, Recurrent miscarriage, Redox, Rhesus macaque, Sedation, Serum albumin, Sex hormone-binding globulin, Sex offender, Sex steroid, Sexually transmitted infection, Sickle cell disease, Side effect, Somnolence, Spermatozoon, Spironolactone, Steroid, Steroid diabetes, Steroid hormone receptor, Steroidal antiandrogen, Stroke, Stroma (tissue), Structural analog, Subcutaneous injection, Surgery, Suspension (chemistry), Sweden, Syntex, Tablet (pharmacy), Teratology, Testicle, Thailand, Thrombin receptor, Thrombosis, Thrombus, Tolerability, Trademark distinctiveness, Trans woman, Transactivation, Transcortin, Transcription (biology), Transgender hormone therapy (male-to-female), Triglyceride, Tumor necrosis factor alpha, United Kingdom, United States, Upjohn, Urine, Uterine fibroid, Vagina, Vaginal bleeding, Vascular disease, Venous thrombosis, Ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, Veterinary medicine, Viral hepatitis, Virilization, Viscosity, Vitamin B12 deficiency, Vomiting, WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, Women's Health Initiative, World Health Organization, Zimbabwe, 17α-Hydroxyprogesterone, 3α-Androstanediol, 3α-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 3β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 5α-Dihydroprogesterone, 5α-Reductase, 5β-Dihydroprogesterone, 5β-Reductase. 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Abdominal pain, also known as a stomach ache, is a symptom associated with both non-serious and serious medical issues.
An acetate is a salt formed by the combination of acetic acid with an alkaline, earthy, metallic or nonmetallic and other base.
Acetoxy group, abbreviated AcO or OAc, is a chemical functional group of the structure CH3-C(.
Acne, also known as acne vulgaris, is a long-term skin disease that occurs when hair follicles are clogged with dead skin cells and oil from the skin.
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.
Adrenal insufficiency is a condition in which the adrenal glands do not produce adequate amounts of steroid hormones, primarily cortisol; but may also include impaired production of aldosterone (a mineralocorticoid), which regulates sodium conservation, potassium secretion, and water retention.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, also adrenocorticotropin, corticotropin) is a polypeptide tropic hormone produced by and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.
In medicine, an adverse effect is an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
Aldosterone, the main mineralocorticoid hormone, is a steroid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland.
Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment.
Allopregnanolone, also known as 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one or 3α,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone (3α,5α-THP), as well as brexanolone, is an endogenous inhibitory pregnane neurosteroid.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, an allosteric modulator (allo- from the Greek meaning "other") is a substance which indirectly influences (modulates) the effects of a primary ligand that directly activates or deactivates the function of a target protein.
An altered state of consciousness (ASC), also called altered state of mind or mind alteration, is any condition which is significantly different from a normal waking state.
Amenorrhoea is the absence of a menstrual period in a woman of reproductive age.
The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists is a professional association of physicians specializing in obstetrics and gynecology in the United States.
Aminoglutethimide is an anti-steroid drug marketed under the tradename Cytadren by Novartis around the world.
Anabolism (from ἁνά, "upward" and βάλλειν, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that construct molecules from smaller units.
An androgen (from Greek andr-, the stem of the word meaning "man") is any natural or synthetic steroid hormone which regulates the development and maintenance of male characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors.
The androgen receptor (AR), also known as NR3C4 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 4), is a type of nuclear receptor that is activated by binding any of the androgenic hormones, including testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in the cytoplasm and then translocating into the nucleus.
In the practice of medicine (especially surgery and dentistry), anesthesia or anaesthesia (from Greek "without sensation") is a state of temporary induced loss of sensation or awareness.
A major organ of the endocrine system, the anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis or pars anterior), is the glandular, anterior lobe that together with the posterior lobe (posterior pituitary, or the neurohypophysis) makes up the pituitary gland (hypophysis).
Antiandrogens, also known as androgen antagonists or testosterone blockers, are a class of drugs that prevent androgens like testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) from mediating their biological effects in the body.
Anticonvulsants (also commonly known as antiepileptic drugs or as antiseizure drugs) are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures.
Antiestrogens, also known as estrogen antagonists or estrogen blockers, are a class of drugs which prevent estrogens like estradiol from mediating their biological effects in the body.
An antigonadotropin is a drug which suppresses the activity and/or downstream effects of one or both of the gonadotropins, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).
An antimineralocorticoid, MCRA, or an aldosterone antagonist, is a diuretic drug which antagonizes the action of aldosterone at mineralocorticoid receptors.
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent) is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety.
Appetite is the desire to eat food, sometimes due to hunger.
In the field of pharmacokinetics, the area under the curve (AUC) is the definite integral in a plot of drug concentration in blood plasma vs.
An artery (plural arteries) is a blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart to all parts of the body (tissues, lungs, etc).
Atherosclerosis is a disease in which the inside of an artery narrows due to the build up of plaque.
Atrophy is the partial or complete wasting away of a part of the body.
An aura is a perceptual disturbance experienced by some with migraines or seizures before either the headache or seizure begins.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), also called prostate enlargement, is a noncancerous increase in size of the prostate.
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.
In pharmacology, bioavailability (BA or F) is a subcategory of absorption and is the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs.
Bioidentical hormone replacement therapy (BHRT), also known as bioidentical hormone therapy or natural hormone therapy, is the use of hormones that are identical on a molecular level with endogenous hormones in hormone replacement therapy.
The biological half-life of a biological substance is the time it takes for half to be removed by biological processes when the rate of removal is roughly exponential.
A biological target is anything within a living organism to which some other entity (like an endogenous ligand or a drug) is directed and/or binds, resulting in a change in its behavior or function.
Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.
Biotransformation is the chemical modification (or modifications) made by an organism on a chemical compound.
Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy.
A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
Bone density, or bone mineral density (BMD), is the amount of bone mineral in bone tissue.
In the United States, a boxed warning (sometimes "black box warning", colloquially) is a type of warning that appears on the package insert for certain prescription drugs, so called because the U.S. Food and Drug Administration specifies that it is formatted with a 'box' or border around the text.
Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.
Breast pain is a medical symptom that is most often associated with a developing disease or condition of the breast.
Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast.
A calcium channel is an ion channel which shows selective permeability to calcium ions.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
Epilepsy is a chronic neurological condition characterized by recurrent seizures.
The cervix or cervix uteri (neck of the uterus) is the lower part of the uterus in the human female reproductive system.
Chemical castration is castration via anaphrodisiac drugs, whether to reduce libido and sexual activity, to treat cancer, or otherwise.
Chlormadinone acetate (CMA), sold under the brand names Belara, Lutéran, and Prostal among others, is a progestin and antiandrogen medication which is used in birth control pills to prevent pregnancy, as a component of menopausal hormone therapy, and in the treatment of gynecological disorders as well as androgen-dependent conditions like enlarged prostate and prostate cancer in men and acne and hirsutism in women.
Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme is commonly referred to as P450scc, where "scc" is an acronym for side-chain cleavage.
Cirrhosis is a condition in which the liver does not function properly due to long-term damage.
A class action, class suit, or representative action is a type of lawsuit where one of the parties is a group of people who are represented collectively by a member of that group.
Coagulation (also known as clotting) is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a blood clot.
Cognitive deficit or cognitive impairment is an inclusive term to describe any characteristic that acts as a barrier to the cognition process.
Colorectal cancer (CRC), also known as bowel cancer and colon cancer, is the development of cancer from the colon or rectum (parts of the large intestine).
Combined injectable contraceptives (CICs) are a form of hormonal birth control for women.
The combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP), often referred to as the birth control pill or colloquially as "the pill", is a type of birth control that is designed to be taken orally by women.
Competitive inhibition is a form of enzyme inhibition where binding of an inhibitor prevents binding of the target molecule of the enzyme, also known as the substrate.
Conjugated estrogens (CEs), or conjugated equine estrogens (CEEs), sold under the brand name Premarin (a contraction of "pregnant mares' urine") among others, is an estrogen medication which is used in menopausal hormone therapy and for various other indications.
Conjugated estrogens/medroxyprogesterone acetate (CEs/MPA), sold under the brand names Prempro and Premphase, is a combination product of conjugated estrogens (Premarin), an estrogen, and medroxyprogesterone acetate (Provera), a progestogen, which is used in menopausal hormone therapy for the treatment of menopausal symptoms.
Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.
Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones.
Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.
Cushing's syndrome is a collection of signs and symptoms due to prolonged exposure to cortisol.
Cytochrome P450 17A1, also called steroid 17α-monooxygenase, 17α-hydroxylase, 17,20-lyase, or 17,20-desmolase, is an enzyme of the hydroxylase type that in humans is encoded by the CYP17A1 gene on chromosome 10.
Cytochrome P450 3A4 (abbreviated CYP3A4) is an important enzyme in the body, mainly found in the liver and in the intestine.
Cyproterone acetate (CPA), sold alone under the brand name Androcur or with ethinylestradiol (EE) under the brand names Diane or Diane-35 among others, is an antiandrogen and progestogen which is used in the treatment of androgen-dependent conditions like acne, excessive hair growth, early puberty, and prostate cancer, as a component of feminizing hormone therapy for transgender women, and in birth control pills.
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.
Decidualization is a process that results in significant changes to cells of the endometrium in preparation for, and during, pregnancy.
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT), is the formation of a blood clot in a deep vein, most commonly the legs.
Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.
Deoxycorticosterone (DOC), or desoxycorticosterone, may refer to.
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.
In chemistry, a derivative is a compound that is derived from a similar compound by a chemical reaction.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Diabetic nephropathy (DN), also known as diabetic kidney disease, is the chronic loss of kidney function occurring in those with diabetes mellitus.
Diabetic neuropathies are nerve damaging disorders associated with diabetes mellitus.
Diabetic retinopathy, also known as diabetic eye disease, is a medical condition in which damage occurs to the retina due to diabetes mellitus.
Dihydrotestosterone (DHT), or 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT), also known as androstanolone or stanolone, is an endogenous androgen sex steroid and hormone.
In chemistry, biochemistry, and pharmacology, a dissociation constant (K_d) is a specific type of equilibrium constant that measures the propensity of a larger object to separate (dissociate) reversibly into smaller components, as when a complex falls apart into its component molecules, or when a salt splits up into its component ions.
Dizziness is an impairment in spatial perception and stability.
In the biological context of organisms' production of gene products, downregulation is the process by which a cell decreases the quantity of a cellular component, such as RNA or protein, in response to an external stimulus.
A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance (usually another drug) affects the activity of a drug when both are administered together.
Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) is abnormal genital tract bleeding based in the uterus and found in the absence of demonstrable structural or organic disease.
Dysmenorrhea, also known as painful periods, or menstrual cramps, is pain during menstruation.
In medicine, specifically urology, dysuria refers to painful urination.
Half maximal effective concentration (EC50) refers to the concentration of a drug, antibody or toxicant which induces a response halfway between the baseline and maximum after a specified exposure time.
Ectopic pregnancy is a complication of pregnancy in which the embryo attaches outside the uterus.
Edema, also spelled oedema or œdema, is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, located beneath the skin and in the cavities of the body, which can cause severe pain.
Ejaculation is the discharge of semen (normally containing sperm) from the male reproductory tract, usually accompanied by orgasm.
In pharmacology the elimination or excretion of a drug is understood to be any one of a number of processes by which a drug is eliminated (that is, cleared and excreted) from an organism either in an unaltered form (unbound molecules) or modified as a metabolite.
Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.
Endometrial cancer is a cancer that arises from the endometrium (the lining of the uterus or womb).
Endometrial hyperplasia is a condition of excessive proliferation of the cells of the endometrium, or inner lining of the uterus.
Endometriosis is a condition in which the endometrium, the layer of tissue that normally covers the inside of the uterus, grows outside of it.
The endometrium is the inner epithelial layer, along with its mucous membrane, of the mammalian uterus.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Enzyme induction is a process in which a molecule (e.g. a drug) induces (i.e. initiates or enhances) the expression of an enzyme.
4QI9) An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity.
Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.
An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
Erectile dysfunction (ED), also known as impotence, is a type of sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis during sexual activity.
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
Estradiol (E2), also spelled oestradiol, is an estrogen steroid hormone and the major female sex hormone.
Estradiol, also spelled oestradiol, is a medication and naturally occurring steroid hormone.
Estradiol cypionate, sold under the brand name Depo-Estradiol among others, is a medication which is used in hormone therapy such as for menopausal symptoms and in hormonal birth control.
Estradiol cypionate/medroxyprogesterone acetate, sold under the brand name Lunelle among others, is a form of combined injectable birth control.
Estradiol valerate, sold under the brand names Progynova, Progynon Depot, and Delestrogen among others, is a medication which is used in hormone therapy such as for menopausal symptoms and in hormonal birth control.
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
An estrogen is a type of medication which is used most commonly in hormonal birth control and menopausal hormone therapy.
Estrogen receptors (ERs) are a group of proteins found inside cells.
Ethinylestradiol (EE) is an estrogen medication which is used widely in birth control pills in combination with progestins.
Excretion is the process by which metabolic waste is eliminated from an organism.
Familial male-limited precocious puberty, often abbreviated as FMPP, also known as familial sexual precocity or gonadotropin-independent testotoxicosis, is a form of gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty in which boys experience early onset and progression of puberty.
Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.
Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.
Fertilisation or fertilization (see spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, conception, fecundation, syngamy and impregnation, is the fusion of gametes to initiate the development of a new individual organism.
Fertility is the natural capability to produce offspring.
Flunitrazepam, also known as Rohypnol among other names, is an intermediate acting benzodiazepine used in some countries to treat severe insomnia and in fewer, early in anesthesia.
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a gonadotropin, a glycoprotein polypeptide hormone.
The follicular phase is the phase of the estrous cycle, (or, in humans and great apes, the menstrual cycle) during which follicles in the ovary mature.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.
The GABAA receptor (GABAAR) is an ionotropic receptor and ligand-gated ion channel.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.
The glucocorticoid receptor (GR, or GCR) also known as NR3C1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1) is the receptor to which cortisol and other glucocorticoids bind.
Gonadotropins are glycoprotein polypeptide hormones secreted by gonadotrope cells of the anterior pituitary of vertebrates.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) also known as gonadoliberin, and by various other names in its endogenous form and as gonadorelin in its pharmaceutical form, is a releasing hormone responsible for the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary.
Gynecomastia is an endocrine system disorder in which a noncancerous increase in the size of male breast tissue occurs.
Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.
A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.
Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver tissue.
Hepatocellular adenoma (also known as hepatic adenoma or hepadenoma) is a rare, benign liver tumor.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer in adults, and is the most common cause of death in people with cirrhosis.
High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are one of the five major groups of lipoproteins.
A hip fracture is a break that occurs in the upper part of the femur (thigh bone).
Hirsutism is excessive body hair in men and women on parts of the body where hair is normally absent or minimal, such as on the chin or chest in particular, or the face or body in general.
Homogeneity and heterogeneity are concepts often used in the sciences and statistics relating to the uniformity in a substance or organism.
Hormonal contraception refers to birth control methods that act on the endocrine system.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Hot flashes (American English) or hot flushes (British English) are a form of flushing due to reduced levels of estradiol.
HSD3B2 is a human gene that encodes for 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/delta(5)-delta(4)isomerase type II or hydroxy-delta-5-steroid dehydrogenase, 3 beta- and steroid delta-isomerase 2.
Human fertilization is the union of a human egg and sperm, usually occurring in the ampulla of the fallopian tube.
Human serum albumin is the serum albumin found in human blood.
Hydroxylation is a chemical process that introduces a hydroxyl group (-OH) into an organic compound.
Hydroxyprogesterone acetate (OHPA), sold under the brand name Prodox, is an orally active progestin related to hydroxyprogesterone caproate (OHPC) which has been used in clinical and veterinary medicine.
Hypericum perforatum, known as perforate St John's-wort, common Saint John's wort and St John's wort, is a flowering plant in the family Hypericaceae.
Hypersexuality is a clinical diagnosis used by mental healthcare professionals to describe extremely frequent or suddenly increased libido.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Hypnotic (from Greek Hypnos, sleep) or soporific drugs, commonly known as sleeping pills, are a class of psychoactive drugs whose primary function is to induce sleep and to be used in the treatment of insomnia (sleeplessness), or surgical anesthesia.
Hypoestrogenism, or estrogen deficiency, refers to a lower than normal level of estrogen, the primary sex hormone in women.
Hypothalamic–pituitary hormones are hormones that are produced by the hypothalamus and pituitary gland.
The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA axis or HTPA axis) is a complex set of direct influences and feedback interactions among three components: the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland (a pea-shaped structure located below the thalamus), and the adrenal (also called "suprarenal") glands (small, conical organs on top of the kidneys).
The hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis (HPG axis) refers to the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and gonadal glands as if these individual endocrine glands were a single entity.
The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.
The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) is a measure of the potency of a substance in inhibiting a specific biological or biochemical function.
Interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1α) also known as hematopoietin 1 is a cytokine of the interleukin 1 family that in humans is encoded by the IL1A gene.
In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Interleukin 1 beta (IL1β) also known as leukocytic pyrogen, leukocytic endogenous mediator, mononuclear cell factor, lymphocyte activating factor and other names, is a cytokine protein that in humans is encoded by the IL1B gene.
Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is an interleukin that acts as both a pro-inflammatory cytokine and an anti-inflammatory myokine.
Intramuscular (also IM or im) injection is the injection of a substance directly into muscle.
An intrauterine device (IUD), also known as intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD or ICD) or coil, is a small, often T-shaped birth control device that is inserted into a woman's uterus to prevent pregnancy.
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
Intrinsic activity (IA) or efficacy refers to the relative ability of a drug-receptor complex to produce a maximum functional response.
Iron deficiency, or sideropaenia, is the state in which a body has not enough (or not qualitatively enough) iron to supply its eventual needs.
Iron-deficiency anemia is anemia caused by a lack of iron.
Irregular menstruation is a menstrual disorder whose manifestations include irregular cycle lengths as well as metrorrhagia (vaginal bleeding between expected periods).
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Kidney cancer, also known as renal cancer, is a type of cancer that starts in the cells in the kidney.
Levonorgestrel-releasing implant, sold under the brand name Jadelle among others, is a device made up of a two rods of levonorgestrel used for birth control.
Libido, colloquially known as sex drive, is a person's overall sexual drive or desire for sexual activity.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Liver cancer, also known as hepatic cancer and primary hepatic cancer, is cancer that starts in the liver.
Liver disease (also called hepatic disease) is a type of damage to or disease of the liver.
Long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC) are methods of birth control that provide effective contraception for an extended period without requiring user action.
In the clinical research trial industry, lost to follow-up refers to patients who at one point in time were actively participating in a clinical research trial, but have become lost (either by error in a computer tracking system or by being unreachable) at the point of follow-up in the trial.
The luteal phase is the latter phase of the menstrual cycle (in humans and a few other animals) or the earlier phase of the estrous cycle (in other placental mammals).
Luteinizing hormone (LH, also known as lutropin and sometimes lutrophin) is a hormone produced by gonadotropic cells in the anterior pituitary gland.
In pharmacology, the term mechanism of action (MOA) refers to the specific biochemical interaction through which a drug substance produces its pharmacological effect.
African countries have been sites for clinical trials by large pharmaceutical companies, raising human rights concerns.
MedlinePlus is an online information service produced by the United States National Library of Medicine.
Medrogestone, sold under the brand name Colprone among others, is a progestin medication which has been used in menopausal hormone therapy and in the treatment of gynecological disorders.
Medroxyprogesterone (MP), is a progestin which is not used medically.
Megestrol acetate (MGA), sold under the brand name Megace among others, is a progestin medication which is used mainly as an appetite stimulant to treat wasting syndromes such as cachexia.
Menarche (Greek: μήν mēn "month" + ἀρχή arkhē "beginning") is the first menstrual cycle, or first menstrual bleeding, in female humans.
Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children.
A menstrual disorder is an abnormal condition in a woman's menstrual cycle.
The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy, referred to as The Merck Manual, is the world's best-selling medical textbook, and the oldest continuously published English language medical textbook.
In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a linked series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.
Metastasis is a pathogenic agent's spread from an initial or primary site to a different or secondary site within the host's body; it is typically spoken of as such spread by a cancerous tumor.
A methyl group is an alkyl derived from methane, containing one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms — CH3.
In the chemical sciences, methylation denotes the addition of a methyl group on a substrate, or the substitution of an atom (or group) by a methyl group.
Metribolone (developmental code name R1881), also known as methyltrienolone, is a synthetic and orally active anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) and a 17α-alkylated nandrolone (19-nortestosterone) derivative which was never marketed for medical use but has been widely used in scientific research as a hot ligand in androgen receptor (AR) ligand binding assays (LBAs) and as a photoaffinity label for the AR.
Micronization is the process of reducing the average diameter of a solid material's particles.
A migraine is a primary headache disorder characterized by recurrent headaches that are moderate to severe.
Mineralocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which in turn are a class of steroid hormones.
The mineralocorticoid receptor (or MR, MLR, MCR), also known as the aldosterone receptor or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 2, (NR3C2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NR3C2 gene that is located on chromosome 4q31.1-31.2.
Mittelschmerz (German: "middle pain") is a medical term for "ovulation pain" or "midcycle pain".
A mood swing is an extreme or rapid change in mood.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
Nandrolone, also known as 19-nortestosterone, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) which is used in the form of esters such as nandrolone decanoate (brand name Deca-Durabolin) and nandrolone phenylpropionate (brand name Durabolin).
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is one of eleven agencies that are part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
The National Health Service (NHS) is the name used for each of the public health services in the United Kingdom – the National Health Service in England, NHS Scotland, NHS Wales, and Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland – as well as a term to describe them collectively.
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) is an executive non-departmental public body of the Department of Health in the United Kingdom, which publishes guidelines in four areas.
The National Women's Health Network (NWHN) is a non-profit women's health advocacy organization located in Washington, D.C..
Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
Negative feedback (or balancing feedback) occurs when some function of the output of a system, process, or mechanism is fed back in a manner that tends to reduce the fluctuations in the output, whether caused by changes in the input or by other disturbances.
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36 amino-acid neuropeptide that is involved in various physiological and homeostatic processes in both the central and peripheral nervous systems.
Neurosteroids, also known as neuroactive steroids, are endogenous or exogenous steroids that rapidly alter neuronal excitability through interaction with ligand-gated ion channels and other cell surface receptors.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC), sold under the brand names Lutenyl and Zoely among others, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control pills, menopausal hormone therapy, and for the treatment of gynecological disorders.
Norethisterone, also known as norethindrone and sold under the brand names Aygestin and Primolut N among many others, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control pills, menopausal hormone therapy, and for the treatment of gynecological disorders.
Norethisterone acetate (NETA), also known as norethindrone acetate and sold under the brand name Primolut-Nor among others, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control pills, menopausal hormone therapy, and for the treatment of gynecological disorders.
Oral contraceptives, abbreviated OCPs, also known as birth control pills, are medications taken by mouth for the purpose of birth control.
An orexigenic, or appetite stimulant, is a drug, hormone, or compound that increases appetite and may induce hyperphagia.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Osteoporosis is a disease where increased bone weakness increases the risk of a broken bone.
An ovarian cyst is a fluid-filled sac within the ovary.
Ovulation is the release of eggs from the ovaries.
Palliative care is a multidisciplinary approach to specialized medical and nursing care for people with life-limiting illnesses.
Paraphilia (previously known as sexual perversion and sexual deviation) is the experience of intense sexual arousal to atypical objects, situations, fantasies, behaviors, or individuals.
Pelvic inflammatory disease or pelvic inflammatory disorder (PID) is an infection of the upper part of the female reproductive system namely the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries, and inside of the pelvis.
Pfizer Inc. is an American pharmaceutical conglomerate headquartered in New York City, with its research headquarters in Groton, Connecticut.
Pharmacodynamics is the study of the biochemical and physiologic effects of drugs (especially pharmaceutical drugs).
Pharmacokinetics (from Ancient Greek pharmakon "drug" and kinetikos "moving, putting in motion"; see chemical kinetics), sometimes abbreviated as PK, is a branch of pharmacology dedicated to determining the fate of substances administered to a living organism.
Pharmacovigilance (PV or PhV), also known as drug safety, is the pharmacological science relating to the collection, detection, assessment, monitoring, and prevention of adverse effects with pharmaceutical products.
An explanation of the development of the pituitary gland (Hypophysis cerebri) & the congenital anomalies. In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing in humans.
Plasma protein binding refers to the degree to which medications attach to proteins within the blood.
Positive feedback is a process that occurs in a feedback loop in which the effects of a small disturbance on a system include an increase in the magnitude of the perturbation.
Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), or postmenopausal hormone therapy (PHT, PMHT), also known as hormone replacement therapy in menopause, is a form of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) which is used in postmenopausal, perimenopausal, and surgically menopausal women.
A postpartum (or postnatal) period begins immediately after the birth of a child as the mother's body, including hormone levels and uterus size, returns to a non-pregnant state.
Preadolescence, also known as pre-teen or tween, is a stage of human development following early childhood and preceding adolescence.
In medicine, precocious puberty is puberty occurring at an unusually early age.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
Pregnane is a C21 steroid and, indirectly, a parent of progesterone.
Pregnanolone, also known as eltanolone, is an endogenous neurosteroid that is biosynthesized from progesterone.
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), previously known as primary biliary cirrhosis, is an autoimmune disease of the liver.
Progesterone (P4) is an endogenous steroid and progestogen sex hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species.
Progesterone is a medication and naturally occurring steroid hormone.
The progesterone receptor (PR), also known as NR3C3 or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 3, is a protein found inside cells.
A progestin is a type of medication which is used most commonly in hormonal birth control and menopausal hormone therapy.
Progestogens, also sometimes spelled progestagens or gestagens, are a class of steroid hormones that bind to and activate the progesterone receptor (PR).
A progestogen ester is an ester of a progestogen or progestin (a synthetic progestogen).
Progestogen-only injectable contraceptives (POICs) are a form of hormonal contraception and progestogen-only contraception that are administered by injection and providing long-lasting birth control.
Progestogen-only pills or progestin-only pills (POP) are contraceptive pills that contain only synthetic progestogens (progestins) and do not contain estrogen.
A proinflammatory cytokine or more simply an inflammatory cytokine is a type of signaling molecule (a cytokine) that is excreted from immune cells like helper T cells (Th) and macrophages, and certain other cell types that promote inflammation.
Promegestone, sold under the brand name Surgestone, is a progestin medication which is used in menopausal hormone therapy and in the treatment of gynecological disorders.
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blockage of an artery in the lungs by a substance that has moved from elsewhere in the body through the bloodstream (embolism).
The Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) is a system for the performance management and payment of general practitioners (GPs) in the National Health Service (NHS) in England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland.
A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.
Recurrent miscarriage, habitual abortion, or recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is three or more consecutive pregnancy losses.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is one of the best-known species of Old World monkeys.
Sedation is the reduction of irritability or agitation by administration of sedative drugs, generally to facilitate a medical procedure or diagnostic procedure.
Serum albumin, often referred to simply as blood albumin, is an albumin (a type of globular protein) found in vertebrate blood.
Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) or sex steroid-binding globulin (SSBG) is a glycoprotein that binds to the two sex hormones: androgen and estrogen.
A sex offender (sexual offender, sex abuser, or sexual abuser) is a person who has committed a sex crime.
Sex steroids, also known as gonadocorticoids and gonadal steroids, are steroid hormones that interact with vertebrate androgen or estrogen receptors.
Sexually transmitted infections (STI), also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases (STD) or venereal diseases (VD), are infections that are commonly spread by sexual activity, especially vaginal intercourse, anal sex and oral sex.
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of blood disorders typically inherited from a person's parents.
In medicine, a side effect is an effect, whether therapeutic or adverse, that is secondary to the one intended; although the term is predominantly employed to describe adverse effects, it can also apply to beneficial, but unintended, consequences of the use of a drug.
Somnolence (alternatively "sleepiness" or "drowsiness") is a state of strong desire for sleep, or sleeping for unusually long periods (compare hypersomnia).
A spermatozoon (pronounced, alternate spelling spermatozoön; plural spermatozoa; from σπέρμα "seed" and ζῷον "living being") is a motile sperm cell, or moving form of the haploid cell that is the male gamete.
Spironolactone, sold under the brand name Aldactone among others, is a medication that is primarily used to treat fluid build-up due to heart failure, liver scarring, or kidney disease.
A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.
Steroid diabetes (also "steroid-induced diabetes") is a medical term referring to prolonged hyperglycemia due to glucocorticoid therapy for another medical condition.
Steroid hormone receptors are found in the nucleus, cytosol, and also on the plasma membrane of target cells.
A steroidal antiandrogen (SAA) is an antiandrogen with a steroidal chemical structure.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
Stroma is the part of a tissue or organ with a structural or connective role.
A structural analog, also known as a chemical analog or simply an analog, is a compound having a structure similar to that of another compound, but differing from it in respect to a certain component.
A subcutaneous injection is administered as a bolus into the subcutis, the layer of skin directly below the dermis and epidermis, collectively referred to as the cutis.
Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
In chemistry, a suspension is a heterogeneous mixture that contains solid particles sufficiently large for sedimentation.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Laboratorios Syntex SA was a pharmaceutical company formed in Mexico City in 1944 by Russell Marker to manufacture therapeutic steroids from the Mexican yams called cabeza de negro (Dioscorea mexicana) and Barbasco (Dioscorea composita).
A tablet is a pharmaceutical dosage form.
Teratology is the study of abnormalities of physiological development.
The testicle or testis is the male reproductive gland in all animals, including humans.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
There are three known thrombin receptors termed PAR1, PAR3 and PAR4 (PAR for protease-activated receptor).
Thrombosis (from Ancient Greek θρόμβωσις thrómbōsis "clotting”) is the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system.
A thrombus, colloquially called a blood clot, is the final product of the blood coagulation step in hemostasis.
Tolerability refers to the degree to which overt adverse effects of a drug can be tolerated by a patient.
Trademark distinctiveness is an important concept in the law governing trademarks and service marks.
A trans woman (sometimes trans-woman or transwoman) is a woman who was assigned male at birth.
In the context of gene regulation: transactivation is the increased rate of gene expression triggered either by biological processes or by artificial means, through the expression of an intermediate transactivator protein.
Transcortin, also known as corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) or serpin A6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SERPINA6 gene.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
Transgender hormone therapy of the male-to-female (MTF) type, also known as feminizing hormone therapy, is a form of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and sex reassignment therapy which is used to change the secondary sexual characteristics of transgender people from masculine (or androgynous) to feminine.
A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (from tri- and glyceride).
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNFα, cachexin, or cachectin) is a cell signaling protein (cytokine) involved in systemic inflammation and is one of the cytokines that make up the acute phase reaction.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The Upjohn Company was a pharmaceutical manufacturing firm founded in 1886 in Kalamazoo, Michigan by Dr. William E. Upjohn, an 1875 graduate of the University of Michigan medical school.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
Uterine fibroids, also known as uterine leiomyomas or fibroids, are benign smooth muscle tumors of the uterus.
In mammals, the vagina is the elastic, muscular part of the female genital tract.
Vaginal bleeding is any bleeding through the vagina, including bleeding from the vaginal wall itself, as well as (and more commonly) bleeding from another location of the female reproductive system, often the uterus.
Vascular disease is a class of diseases of the blood vessels – the arteries and veins of the circulatory system of the body.
A venous thrombus is a blood clot (thrombus) that forms within a vein.
The ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMN, also sometimes referred to as the ventromedial hypothalamus, VMH) is a nucleus of the hypothalamus.
Veterinary medicine is the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease, disorder and injury in non-human animals.
Viral hepatitis is liver inflammation due to a viral infection.
Virilization or masculinization is the biological development of sex differences, changes that make a male body different from a female body.
The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
Vitamin B12 deficiency, also known as cobalamin deficiency, is the medical condition of low blood levels of vitamin B12.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
The WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (EML), published by the World Health Organization (WHO), contains the medications considered to be most effective and safe to meet the most important needs in a health system.
The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) was initiated by the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) in 1991.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of roughly million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then government and from which it withdrew from in December 2003. It is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator". The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état. On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed.
17α-Hydroxyprogesterone (17α-OHP), or hydroxyprogesterone (OHP), is an endogenous progestogen steroid hormone related to progesterone.
3α-Androstanediol (often abbreviated as 3α-diol), also known as 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol, is an endogenous inhibitory androstane neurosteroid and weak androgen, and a major metabolite of dihydrotestosterone (DHT).
3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3α-HSD), also known as aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C4, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AKR1C4 gene.
3β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-4 isomerase (3β-HSD) is an enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of progesterone from pregnenolone, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone from 17α-hydroxypregnenolone, and androstenedione from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in the adrenal gland.
5α-Dihydroprogesterone (5α-DHP), also known as allopregnanedione, as well as 5α-pregnane-3,20-dione, is an endogenous progestogen and neurosteroid that is synthesized from progesterone.
5α-reductases, also known as 3-oxo-5α-steroid 4-dehydrogenases, are enzymes involved in steroid metabolism.
5β-Dihydroprogesterone (5β-DHP), also known as pregnanedione, as well as 5β-pregnane-3,20-dione, is an endogenous neurosteroid and an intermediate in the biosynthesis of pregnanolone and epipregnanolone from progesterone.
5β-Reductase, or Δ4-3-oxosteroid 5β-reductase (3-oxo-Δ4-steroid 5β-reductase, androstenedione 5β-reductase, cholestenone 5β-reductase, cortisone 5β-reductase, cortisone Δ4-5β-reductase, steroid 5β-reductase, testosterone 5β-reductase, Δ4-3-ketosteroid 5β-reductase, Δ4-5β-reductase, Δ4-hydrogenase, 4,5β-dihydrocortisone:NADP+ Δ4-oxidoreductase, 3-oxo-5β-steroid:NADP+ Δ4-oxidoreductase) is an enzyme with systematic name 5β-cholestan-3-one:NADP+ 4,5-oxidoreductase.
17α-Hydroxy-6α-methylpregn-4-ene-3,20-dione acetate, 17α-hydroxy-6α-methylpregn-4-ene-3,20-dione acetate, 6α-Methyl-17α-acetoxyprogesterone, 6α-Methyl-17α-hydroxyprogesterone acetate, 6α-Methyl-3,20-dioxopregn-4-en-17α-yl acetate, 6α-methyl-17α-acetoxyprogesterone, 6α-methyl-17α-hydroxyprogesterone acetate, 6α-methyl-3,20-dioxopregn-4-en-17α-yl acetate, ATC code G03AC06, ATC code G03DA02, ATC code L02AB02, ATCvet code QG03AC06, ATCvet code QG03DA02, ATCvet code QL02AB02, Acetato de medroxiprogesterona, Amen (drug), Aragest, Aragest 5, Asconale, Birth control shot, Clinofem, Clinovir, Colirest, Controlestril, Curretab, Cycrin, Depo Injection, Depo Provera, Depo provera, Depo shot, Depo-Clinovir, Depo-Prodasone, Depo-Progestin, Depo-Promone, Depo-Provera, Depo-provera, Depomedroxy-progesterone acetate, Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, Deprovera, Farlutal, Farlutin, G-Farlutal, Gestapuran, Hematrol, Hysron, Lutopolar, Lutoral, MPA Gyn 5, Med-Pro, Medroksiprogesteron Asetat, Medroksiprogesteron asetat, Medroksiprogesteroniasetaatti, Medroksiprogesterono acetatas, Medroksyprogesteronu octan, Medroxiprogesteronacetat, Medroxiprogeszteron acetát, Medroxiprogeszteron-acetát, Medroxyhexal, Medroxyprogesteron acetát, Medroxyprogesteron-acetát, Medroxyprogesteronacetat, Medroxyprogesterone 17-acetate, Medroxyprogesterone Acetate, Medroxyprogesteroni acetas, Meprate, Methylacetoxyprogesterone, Methylhydroxyprogesterone acetate, Methypregnone, Metigesterona, Metigestrona, Metipregnone, Médroxyprogestérone (acétate de), Médroxyprogestérone acétate de, Médroxyprogestérone, acétate de, Nadigest, Nidaxin, Novo-Medrone, Oragest, Perlutex, Perlutex Leo, Prodasone, Progestalfa, Progevera, Proverone, Ralovera, Repromap, Repromix, Sirprogen, Sodelut G, The jag, Veramix.