238 relations: Abdominal pain, Absorption (pharmacology), Acetate, Acetomepregenol, Adrenal gland, Adrenal insufficiency, Adverse effect, Africa, Agonist, Alcohol, Aldosterone, Anabolic steroid, Anabolism, Anagestone acetate, Androgen, Androgen deficiency, Androgen receptor, Antiandrogen, Anticorticotropin, Antidote, Antiemetic, Antiestrogen, Antigonadotropin, Antimineralocorticoid, Aromatase inhibitor, Asia, Ataxia, Australia, Benign prostatic hyperplasia, Bicalutamide, Bioavailability, Biological half-life, Biological target, Biosynthesis, Biotransformation, Birth control, Birth weight, Blood lipids, Blood pressure, Breast cancer, Breastfeeding, Cachexia, Calcium channel, Canada, Cancer, Case report, Castration, Chemical synthesis, Chemotherapy, Chest pain, ..., Chlormadinone acetate, Cholestasis, Chronic condition, Circulatory system, Clinical governance, Clinical trial, Cmax (pharmacology), Combined injectable birth control, Combined oral contraceptive pill, Contraindication, Corticosteroid, Cough, Cushing's syndrome, Cymegesolate, Cyproterone acetate, Decidualization, Deep vein thrombosis, Derivative (chemistry), Dexamethasone, Dialysis, Dialysis (biochemistry), Diarrhea, Diethylstilbestrol, Dizziness, Double bond, Drug interaction, Drug metabolism, Drug overdose, Edema, Endometrial cancer, Endometrial hyperplasia, Endometriosis, Endometrium, Eosinopenia, Ester, Estradiol (medication), Estrogen, Estrogen (medication), Ethinylestradiol, Ethisterone, Europe, Excretion, Feces, Feminization (biology), Fetus, Generic drug, Germany, Glucocorticoid, Glucocorticoid receptor, Gonad, Gynaecology, Gynecomastia, High-density lipoprotein, High-dose estrogen, HIV, HIV/AIDS, Hormone, Hormone-sensitive cancer, Hot flash, Human serum albumin, Hydrocortisone, Hydroxylation, Hydroxyprogesterone caproate, Hyperglycemia, Hypersensitivity, Hypogonadism, Hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis, Hypothalamus, IL1A, India, Indinavir, Infertility, Insulin-like growth factor 1, Interleukin, Interleukin 6, Intramuscular injection, Intrinsic activity, Ireland, Japan, Jaundice, Latin America, Ligand (biochemistry), Liver, Low-density lipoprotein, Male breast cancer, Male contraceptive, Mammary gland, Mammary tumor, Mechanism of action, Medicine, Medroxyprogesterone acetate, Megestrol, Megestrol caproate, Meningioma, Menopause, Menstrual disorder, Merck Group, Mestranol, Metabolism, Metastasis, Methyl group, Metribolone, Mexico, Micronization, Mineralocorticoid, Mineralocorticoid receptor, Nandrolone, Nandrolone decanoate, Nausea, Negative feedback, Neuropeptide Y, New Zealand, Nomegestrol acetate, Off-label use, Oral administration, Oral contraceptive pill, Orexigenic, Organic compound, Osteoporosis, Ovarian cancer, Ovulation, Oxandrolone, Partial agonist, Peptide hormone, Pharmacodynamics, Pharmacokinetics, Pituitary gland, Plasma protein binding, Polyphagia, Postmarketing surveillance, Postmenopausal hormone therapy, Potency (pharmacology), Precocious puberty, Pregnancy, Pregnane, Progesterone, Progesterone (medication), Progesterone receptor, Progestin, Progestogen, Progestogen ester, Proinflammatory cytokine, Promegestone, Prostate cancer, Pulmonary embolism, Redox, Rifabutin, Route of administration, Russia, Secondary sex characteristic, Sex hormone-binding globulin, Sex steroid, Sexual dysfunction, Shortness of breath, Side effect, Solubility, South Africa, Spermatogenesis, Spironolactone, Steroid, Steroid diabetes, Steroidal antiandrogen, Structural analog, Suspension (chemistry), Syntex, Tablet (pharmacy), Tamoxifen, Teratology, Testosterone (medication), Thrombophlebitis, Tissue (biology), Tolerability, Toxicity, Trademark distinctiveness, Transcortin, Triglyceride, Tumor necrosis factor alpha, United Kingdom, United States, Urine, Vaginal bleeding, Venous thrombosis, Ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, Veterinary medicine, Water retention (medicine), Weight gain, Zidovudine, 17α-Hydroxyprogesterone. Expand index (188 more) » « Shrink index
Abdominal pain, also known as a stomach ache, is a symptom associated with both non-serious and serious medical issues.
In pharmacology (and more specifically pharmacokinetics), absorption is the movement of a drug from the site of administration to bloodstream.
An acetate is a salt formed by the combination of acetic acid with an alkaline, earthy, metallic or nonmetallic and other base.
Acetomepregenol (ACM), also known as mepregenol diacetate and sold under the brand name Diamol, is a progestin medication which is used in Russia for the treatment of gynecological conditions and as a method of birth control in combination with an estrogen.
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.
Adrenal insufficiency is a condition in which the adrenal glands do not produce adequate amounts of steroid hormones, primarily cortisol; but may also include impaired production of aldosterone (a mineralocorticoid), which regulates sodium conservation, potassium secretion, and water retention.
In medicine, an adverse effect is an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
Aldosterone, the main mineralocorticoid hormone, is a steroid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland.
Anabolic steroids, also known more properly as anabolic–androgenic steroids (AAS), are steroidal androgens that include natural androgens like testosterone as well as synthetic androgens that are structurally related and have similar effects to testosterone.
Anabolism (from ἁνά, "upward" and βάλλειν, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that construct molecules from smaller units.
Anagestone acetate, sold under the brand names Anatropin and Neo-Novum, is a progestin medication which was withdrawn from medical use.
An androgen (from Greek andr-, the stem of the word meaning "man") is any natural or synthetic steroid hormone which regulates the development and maintenance of male characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors.
Androgen deficiency also known as hypoandrogenism and androgen deficiency syndrome, is a medical condition characterized by not enough androgenic activity in the body.
The androgen receptor (AR), also known as NR3C4 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 4), is a type of nuclear receptor that is activated by binding any of the androgenic hormones, including testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in the cytoplasm and then translocating into the nucleus.
Antiandrogens, also known as androgen antagonists or testosterone blockers, are a class of drugs that prevent androgens like testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) from mediating their biological effects in the body.
An anticorticotropin, or anticorticotrophin, is a drug which opposes the actions of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and/or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in relation to their stimulatory effects on the adrenal glands, or which otherwise suppresses steroid hormone production in the adrenal glands.
An antidote is a substance which can counteract a form of poisoning.
An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea.
Antiestrogens, also known as estrogen antagonists or estrogen blockers, are a class of drugs which prevent estrogens like estradiol from mediating their biological effects in the body.
An antigonadotropin is a drug which suppresses the activity and/or downstream effects of one or both of the gonadotropins, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).
An antimineralocorticoid, MCRA, or an aldosterone antagonist, is a diuretic drug which antagonizes the action of aldosterone at mineralocorticoid receptors.
Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are a class of drugs used in the treatment of breast cancer in postmenopausal women and gynecomastia in men.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Ataxia is a neurological sign consisting of lack of voluntary coordination of muscle movements that includes gait abnormality.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), also called prostate enlargement, is a noncancerous increase in size of the prostate.
Bicalutamide, sold under the brand name Casodex among others, is an antiandrogen medication that is primarily used to treat prostate cancer.
In pharmacology, bioavailability (BA or F) is a subcategory of absorption and is the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs.
The biological half-life of a biological substance is the time it takes for half to be removed by biological processes when the rate of removal is roughly exponential.
A biological target is anything within a living organism to which some other entity (like an endogenous ligand or a drug) is directed and/or binds, resulting in a change in its behavior or function.
Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.
Biotransformation is the chemical modification (or modifications) made by an organism on a chemical compound.
Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy.
Birth weight is the body weight of a baby at its birth.
Blood lipids (or blood fats) are lipids in the blood, either free or bound to other molecules.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.
Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast.
Cachexia, or wasting syndrome, is loss of weight, muscle atrophy, fatigue, weakness and significant loss of appetite in someone who is not actively trying to lose weight.
A calcium channel is an ion channel which shows selective permeability to calcium ions.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
In medicine, a case report is a detailed report of the symptoms, signs, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of an individual patient.
Castration (also known as gonadectomy) is any action, surgical, chemical, or otherwise, by which an individual loses use of the testicles.
Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.
Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.
Chest pain is pain in any region of the chest.
Chlormadinone acetate (CMA), sold under the brand names Belara, Lutéran, and Prostal among others, is a progestin and antiandrogen medication which is used in birth control pills to prevent pregnancy, as a component of menopausal hormone therapy, and in the treatment of gynecological disorders as well as androgen-dependent conditions like enlarged prostate and prostate cancer in men and acne and hirsutism in women.
Cholestasis is a condition where bile cannot flow from the liver to the duodenum.
A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Clinical governance is a systematic approach to maintaining and improving the quality of patient care within the National Health Service, (NHS).
Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research.
Cmax is the maximum (or peak) serum concentration that a drug achieves in a specified compartment or test area of the body after the drug has been administrated and before the administration of a second dose.
Combined injectable contraceptives (CICs) are a form of hormonal birth control for women.
The combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP), often referred to as the birth control pill or colloquially as "the pill", is a type of birth control that is designed to be taken orally by women.
In medicine, a contraindication is a condition or factor that serves as a reason to withhold a certain medical treatment due to the harm that it would cause the patient.
Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones.
A cough is a sudden and often repetitively occurring, protective reflex, which helps to clear the large breathing passages from fluids, irritants, foreign particles and microbes.
Cushing's syndrome is a collection of signs and symptoms due to prolonged exposure to cortisol.
Cymegesolate (developmental code name Progestin No. 1), also known as cypionyl megestrol acetate or as megestrol acetate 3β-cypionate, is a progestin medication which was never marketed.
Cyproterone acetate (CPA), sold alone under the brand name Androcur or with ethinylestradiol (EE) under the brand names Diane or Diane-35 among others, is an antiandrogen and progestogen which is used in the treatment of androgen-dependent conditions like acne, excessive hair growth, early puberty, and prostate cancer, as a component of feminizing hormone therapy for transgender women, and in birth control pills.
Decidualization is a process that results in significant changes to cells of the endometrium in preparation for, and during, pregnancy.
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT), is the formation of a blood clot in a deep vein, most commonly the legs.
In chemistry, a derivative is a compound that is derived from a similar compound by a chemical reaction.
Dexamethasone is a type of corticosteroid medication.
In medicine, dialysis (from Greek διάλυσις, diàlysis, "dissolution"; from διά, dià, "through", and λύσις, lỳsis, "loosening or splitting") is the process of removing excess water, solutes and toxins from the blood in those whose native kidneys have lost the ability to perform these functions in a natural way.
In biochemistry, dialysis is the process of separating molecules in solution by the difference in their rates of diffusion through a semipermeable membrane, such as dialysis tubing.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
Diethylstilbestrol (DES), also known as stilbestrol or stilboestrol, is an estrogen medication which is mostly no longer used.
Dizziness is an impairment in spatial perception and stability.
A double bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two chemical elements involving four bonding electrons instead of the usual two.
A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance (usually another drug) affects the activity of a drug when both are administered together.
Drug metabolism is the metabolic breakdown of drugs by living organisms, usually through specialized enzymatic systems.
The term drug overdose (or simply overdose or OD) describes the ingestion or application of a drug or other substance in quantities greater than are recommended or generally practiced.
Edema, also spelled oedema or œdema, is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, located beneath the skin and in the cavities of the body, which can cause severe pain.
Endometrial cancer is a cancer that arises from the endometrium (the lining of the uterus or womb).
Endometrial hyperplasia is a condition of excessive proliferation of the cells of the endometrium, or inner lining of the uterus.
Endometriosis is a condition in which the endometrium, the layer of tissue that normally covers the inside of the uterus, grows outside of it.
The endometrium is the inner epithelial layer, along with its mucous membrane, of the mammalian uterus.
Eosinopenia is a form of agranulocytosis where the number of eosinophil granulocytes is lower than expected.
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
Estradiol, also spelled oestradiol, is a medication and naturally occurring steroid hormone.
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
An estrogen is a type of medication which is used most commonly in hormonal birth control and menopausal hormone therapy.
Ethinylestradiol (EE) is an estrogen medication which is used widely in birth control pills in combination with progestins.
Ethisterone, also known as ethinyltestosterone, pregneninolone, and anhydrohydroxyprogesterone and formerly sold under the brand names Proluton C and Pranone among others, is a progestin medication which was used in the treatment of gynecological disorders but is now no longer available.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Excretion is the process by which metabolic waste is eliminated from an organism.
Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.
In biology and medicine, feminization is the development in an organism of physical characteristics that are usually unique to the female of the species.
A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.
A generic drug is a pharmaceutical drug that is equivalent to a brand-name product in dosage, strength, route of administration, quality, performance, and intended use, but does not carry the brand name.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.
The glucocorticoid receptor (GR, or GCR) also known as NR3C1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1) is the receptor to which cortisol and other glucocorticoids bind.
A gonad or sex gland or reproductive gland is a mixed gland that produces the gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones of an organism.
Gynaecology or gynecology (see spelling differences) is the medical practice dealing with the health of the female reproductive systems (vagina, uterus, and ovaries) and the breasts.
Gynecomastia is an endocrine system disorder in which a noncancerous increase in the size of male breast tissue occurs.
High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are one of the five major groups of lipoproteins.
High-dose estrogen (HDE) is a type of hormone therapy in which high doses of estrogens are given.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
A hormone-sensitive cancer, or hormone-dependent cancer, is a type of cancer that is dependent on a hormone for growth and/or survival.
Hot flashes (American English) or hot flushes (British English) are a form of flushing due to reduced levels of estradiol.
Human serum albumin is the serum albumin found in human blood.
Hydrocortisone, sold under a number of brand names, is the name for the hormone cortisol when supplied as a medication.
Hydroxylation is a chemical process that introduces a hydroxyl group (-OH) into an organic compound.
Hydroxyprogesterone caproate (OHPC), sold under the brand names Proluton and Makena among others, is a progestin medication which is used to prevent preterm birth in pregnant women with a history of the condition and to treat gynecological disorders.
Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar (also spelled hyperglycaemia or hyperglycæmia) is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma.
Hypersensitivity (also called hypersensitivity reaction or intolerance) refers to undesirable reactions produced by the normal immune system, including allergies and autoimmunity.
Hypogonadism means diminished functional activity of the gonads—the testes or the ovaries —that may result in diminished sex hormone biosynthesis.
The hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis (HPG axis) refers to the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and gonadal glands as if these individual endocrine glands were a single entity.
The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.
Interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1α) also known as hematopoietin 1 is a cytokine of the interleukin 1 family that in humans is encoded by the IL1A gene.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indinavir (IDV; trade name Crixivan, manufactured by Merck) is a protease inhibitor used as a component of highly active antiretroviral therapy to treat HIV/AIDS.
Infertility is the inability of a person, animal or plant to reproduce by natural means.
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), also called somatomedin C, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGF1 gene.
Interleukins (ILs) are a group of cytokines (secreted proteins and signal molecules) that were first seen to be expressed by white blood cells (leukocytes).
Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is an interleukin that acts as both a pro-inflammatory cytokine and an anti-inflammatory myokine.
Intramuscular (also IM or im) injection is the injection of a substance directly into muscle.
Intrinsic activity (IA) or efficacy refers to the relative ability of a drug-receptor complex to produce a maximum functional response.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Jaundice, also known as icterus, is a yellowish or greenish pigmentation of the skin and whites of the eyes due to high bilirubin levels.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is one of the five major groups of lipoprotein which transport all fat molecules around the body in the extracellular water.
Male breast cancer (male breast neoplasm) is a rare cancer in males that originates from the breast.
Male contraceptives, also known as male birth control are methods of preventing pregnancy that primarily involve the male physiology.
A mammary gland is an exocrine gland in mammals that produces milk to feed young offspring.
A mammary tumor is a neoplasm originating in the mammary gland.
In pharmacology, the term mechanism of action (MOA) refers to the specific biochemical interaction through which a drug substance produces its pharmacological effect.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), sold under the brand name Depo-Provera among others, is a hormonal medication of the progestin type.
Megestrol is a progestin of the 17α-hydroxyprogesterone group which was never marketed and is not currently used clinically.
Megestrol caproate, abbreviated as MGC, is a progestin medication which was never marketed.
Meningioma, also known as meningeal tumor, is typically a slow-growing tumor that forms from the meninges, the membranous layers surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children.
A menstrual disorder is an abnormal condition in a woman's menstrual cycle.
Merck KGaA, branded and commonly known as Merck, is a German multinational pharmaceutical, chemical and life sciences company headquartered in Darmstadt, with around 50,000 employees in around 70 countries.
Mestranol, sold under the brand names Enovid, Norinyl, and Ortho-Novum among others, is an estrogen medication which has been used in birth control pills, menopausal hormone therapy, and the treatment of menstrual disorders.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Metastasis is a pathogenic agent's spread from an initial or primary site to a different or secondary site within the host's body; it is typically spoken of as such spread by a cancerous tumor.
A methyl group is an alkyl derived from methane, containing one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms — CH3.
Metribolone (developmental code name R1881), also known as methyltrienolone, is a synthetic and orally active anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) and a 17α-alkylated nandrolone (19-nortestosterone) derivative which was never marketed for medical use but has been widely used in scientific research as a hot ligand in androgen receptor (AR) ligand binding assays (LBAs) and as a photoaffinity label for the AR.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Micronization is the process of reducing the average diameter of a solid material's particles.
Mineralocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which in turn are a class of steroid hormones.
The mineralocorticoid receptor (or MR, MLR, MCR), also known as the aldosterone receptor or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 2, (NR3C2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NR3C2 gene that is located on chromosome 4q31.1-31.2.
Nandrolone, also known as 19-nortestosterone, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) which is used in the form of esters such as nandrolone decanoate (brand name Deca-Durabolin) and nandrolone phenylpropionate (brand name Durabolin).
Nandrolone decanoate, sold under the brand name Deca-Durabolin among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which is used primarily in the treatment of anemias and wasting syndromes, as well as osteoporosis in menopausal women.
Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
Negative feedback (or balancing feedback) occurs when some function of the output of a system, process, or mechanism is fed back in a manner that tends to reduce the fluctuations in the output, whether caused by changes in the input or by other disturbances.
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36 amino-acid neuropeptide that is involved in various physiological and homeostatic processes in both the central and peripheral nervous systems.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC), sold under the brand names Lutenyl and Zoely among others, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control pills, menopausal hormone therapy, and for the treatment of gynecological disorders.
Off-label use is the use of pharmaceutical drugs for an unapproved indication or in an unapproved age group, dosage, or route of administration.
Oral contraceptives, abbreviated OCPs, also known as birth control pills, are medications taken by mouth for the purpose of birth control.
An orexigenic, or appetite stimulant, is a drug, hormone, or compound that increases appetite and may induce hyperphagia.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Osteoporosis is a disease where increased bone weakness increases the risk of a broken bone.
Ovarian cancer is a cancer that forms in or on an ovary.
Ovulation is the release of eggs from the ovaries.
Oxandrolone, sold under the brand names Oxandrin and Anavar among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which is used to help promote weight gain in various situations, to help offset protein catabolism caused by long-term corticosteroid therapy, to support recovery from severe burns, to treat bone pain associated with osteoporosis, to aid in the development of girls with Turner syndrome, and for other indications.
In pharmacology, partial agonists are drugs that bind to and activate a given receptor, but have only partial efficacy at the receptor relative to a full agonist.
Peptide hormones or protein hormones are hormones whose molecules are peptides or proteins, respectively.
Pharmacodynamics is the study of the biochemical and physiologic effects of drugs (especially pharmaceutical drugs).
Pharmacokinetics (from Ancient Greek pharmakon "drug" and kinetikos "moving, putting in motion"; see chemical kinetics), sometimes abbreviated as PK, is a branch of pharmacology dedicated to determining the fate of substances administered to a living organism.
An explanation of the development of the pituitary gland (Hypophysis cerebri) & the congenital anomalies. In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing in humans.
Plasma protein binding refers to the degree to which medications attach to proteins within the blood.
Polyphagia or hyperphagia is excessive hunger or increased appetite.
Postmarketing surveillance (PMS) (also post market surveillance) is the practice of monitoring the safety of a pharmaceutical drug or medical device after it has been released on the market and is an important part of the science of pharmacovigilance.
Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), or postmenopausal hormone therapy (PHT, PMHT), also known as hormone replacement therapy in menopause, is a form of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) which is used in postmenopausal, perimenopausal, and surgically menopausal women.
In the field of pharmacology, potency is a measure of drug activity expressed in terms of the amount required to produce an effect of given intensity.
In medicine, precocious puberty is puberty occurring at an unusually early age.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
Pregnane is a C21 steroid and, indirectly, a parent of progesterone.
Progesterone (P4) is an endogenous steroid and progestogen sex hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species.
Progesterone is a medication and naturally occurring steroid hormone.
The progesterone receptor (PR), also known as NR3C3 or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 3, is a protein found inside cells.
A progestin is a type of medication which is used most commonly in hormonal birth control and menopausal hormone therapy.
Progestogens, also sometimes spelled progestagens or gestagens, are a class of steroid hormones that bind to and activate the progesterone receptor (PR).
A progestogen ester is an ester of a progestogen or progestin (a synthetic progestogen).
A proinflammatory cytokine or more simply an inflammatory cytokine is a type of signaling molecule (a cytokine) that is excreted from immune cells like helper T cells (Th) and macrophages, and certain other cell types that promote inflammation.
Promegestone, sold under the brand name Surgestone, is a progestin medication which is used in menopausal hormone therapy and in the treatment of gynecological disorders.
Prostate cancer is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system.
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blockage of an artery in the lungs by a substance that has moved from elsewhere in the body through the bloodstream (embolism).
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Rifabutin (Rfb) is an antibiotic used to treat tuberculosis and prevent and treat ''Mycobacterium avium'' complex.
A route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Secondary sex characteristics are features that appear during puberty in humans, and at sexual maturity in other animals.
Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) or sex steroid-binding globulin (SSBG) is a glycoprotein that binds to the two sex hormones: androgen and estrogen.
Sex steroids, also known as gonadocorticoids and gonadal steroids, are steroid hormones that interact with vertebrate androgen or estrogen receptors.
Sexual dysfunction (or sexual malfunction or sexual disorder) is difficulty experienced by an individual or a couple during any stage of a normal sexual activity, including physical pleasure, desire, preference, arousal or orgasm.
Shortness of breath, also known as dyspnea, is the feeling that one cannot breathe well enough.
In medicine, a side effect is an effect, whether therapeutic or adverse, that is secondary to the one intended; although the term is predominantly employed to describe adverse effects, it can also apply to beneficial, but unintended, consequences of the use of a drug.
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
Spermatogenesis is the process by which haploid spermatozoa develop from germ cells in the seminiferous tubules of the testis.
Spironolactone, sold under the brand name Aldactone among others, is a medication that is primarily used to treat fluid build-up due to heart failure, liver scarring, or kidney disease.
A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.
Steroid diabetes (also "steroid-induced diabetes") is a medical term referring to prolonged hyperglycemia due to glucocorticoid therapy for another medical condition.
A steroidal antiandrogen (SAA) is an antiandrogen with a steroidal chemical structure.
A structural analog, also known as a chemical analog or simply an analog, is a compound having a structure similar to that of another compound, but differing from it in respect to a certain component.
In chemistry, a suspension is a heterogeneous mixture that contains solid particles sufficiently large for sedimentation.
Laboratorios Syntex SA was a pharmaceutical company formed in Mexico City in 1944 by Russell Marker to manufacture therapeutic steroids from the Mexican yams called cabeza de negro (Dioscorea mexicana) and Barbasco (Dioscorea composita).
A tablet is a pharmaceutical dosage form.
Tamoxifen (TMX), sold under the brand name Nolvadex among others, is a medication that is used to prevent breast cancer in women and treat breast cancer in women and men.
Teratology is the study of abnormalities of physiological development.
Testosterone is a medication and naturally occurring steroid hormone.
Thrombophlebitis is a phlebitis (inflammation of a vein) related to a thrombus (blood clot).
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Tolerability refers to the degree to which overt adverse effects of a drug can be tolerated by a patient.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
Trademark distinctiveness is an important concept in the law governing trademarks and service marks.
Transcortin, also known as corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) or serpin A6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SERPINA6 gene.
A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (from tri- and glyceride).
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNFα, cachexin, or cachectin) is a cell signaling protein (cytokine) involved in systemic inflammation and is one of the cytokines that make up the acute phase reaction.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
Vaginal bleeding is any bleeding through the vagina, including bleeding from the vaginal wall itself, as well as (and more commonly) bleeding from another location of the female reproductive system, often the uterus.
A venous thrombus is a blood clot (thrombus) that forms within a vein.
The ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMN, also sometimes referred to as the ventromedial hypothalamus, VMH) is a nucleus of the hypothalamus.
Veterinary medicine is the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease, disorder and injury in non-human animals.
The term water retention (also known as fluid retention) or hydrops, hydropsy, edema, signifies an abnormal accumulation of clear, watery fluid in the tissues or cavities of the body.
Weight gain is an increase in body weight.
Zidovudine (ZDV), also known as azidothymidine (AZT), is an antiretroviral medication used to prevent and treat HIV/AIDS.
17α-Hydroxyprogesterone (17α-OHP), or hydroxyprogesterone (OHP), is an endogenous progestogen steroid hormone related to progesterone.