97 relations: Abbas Abdi, Abdolkarim Soroush, Aftab Yazd, Agence France-Presse, Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, Ali Akbar Nategh-Nouri, Ali Khamenei, Ali Larijani, Aligudarz, Association of Combatant Clerics, Ata'ollah Mohajerani, Barack Obama, Basij, Behzad Nabavi, Campaign manager, Combatant Clergy Association, Committee for the Defense of Prisoners' Rights, Dress code, Egyptian revolution of 2011, Emadeddin Baghi, Eqbal, Etemad, Expediency Discernment Council, Fatemeh Karroubi, Gholam-Ali Haddad-Adel, Gholamhossein Karbaschi, Google News, Guardian Council, Guidance Patrol, Hayat-e-No, Heshmatiyeh Prison, House arrest, Hunger strike, Hussein-Ali Montazeri, Ijtihad, Iran, Iranian Green Movement, Iranian presidential election, 2005, Iranian presidential election, 2009, Iranian Reformists, Iranian Revolution, Islamic Consultative Assembly, Islamic Republic News Agency, Islamic Republican Party, Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, Jamileh Kadivar, Kahrizak detention center, Law, List of Speakers of the Parliament of Iran, Lorestan Province, ..., Lurs, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Marja', Martin Ennals Award for Human Rights Defenders, Masoud Nili, Mir-Hossein Mousavi, Mofsed-e-filarz, Mohammad Khatami, Mohammad Mousavi Khoeiniha, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Mohammad Yazdi, Mohammad-Ali Abtahi, Mohammad-Ali Najafi, Mohammad-Reza Khatami, Mojtaba Khamenei, Mosque, Museum of the Qasr Prison, National Trust Party (Iran), Pahlavi dynasty, Politician, Private law, Public trial, Qazvin, Qom, Rasoul Montajabnia, Ruhollah Khomeini, Sadeq Larijani, Saeed Mortazavi, Shia Islam, Solicitor, Supreme leader, Supreme Leader of Iran, Tehran, Tehran Province, Tehran, Rey, Shemiranat and Eslamshahr (electoral district), The Green Path of Hope, The New York Times, The New Yorker, Theology, Trade, Tunisian Revolution, United States, University of Tehran, Yousef Saanei, Zahra Rahnavard, Zoroastrianism, 2009 Iranian presidential election protests. Expand index (47 more) » « Shrink index
Abbas Abdi (عباس عبدی; born 1 October 1956) is one of Iran's most influential reformists, journalist, self-taught sociologist and social activist.
Abdolkarim Soroush (عبدالكريم سروش; born Hossein Haj Faraj Dabbagh (born 1945; حسين حاج فرج دباغ), is an Iranian Islamic thinker, reformer, Rumi scholar, public intellectual, and a former professor of philosophy at the University of Tehran and Imam Khomeini International University during Islamic regime since he only has a chemistry BS. He is arguably the most influential figure in the religious intellectual movement of Iran. Soroush is currently a visiting scholar at the University of Maryland in College Park, MD. He was also affiliated with other prestigious institutions, including Harvard, Princeton, Yale, Columbia, the Leiden-based International Institute as a visiting professor for the Study of Islam in the Modern World (ISIM) and the Wissenschaftskolleg in Berlin. He was named by TIME as one of the world’s 100 most influential people in 2005, and by Prospect magazine as one of the most influential intellectuals in the world in 2008. Soroush's ideas, founded on Relativism, prompted both supporters and critics to compare his role in reforming Islam to that of Martin Luther in reforming Christianity.
Aftab-e Yazd (آفتاب یزد lit. "The Yazd Sun") is a Persian-language daily reformist newspaper published in Iran.
Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France.
Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani (Akbar Hāshemī Rafsanjānī or Hashemi Bahramani; 25 August 1934 – 8 January 2017) was an influential Iranian politician, writer and one of the founding fathers of the Islamic Republic who was the fourth President of Iran from 3 August 1989 until 3 August 1997.
Ali Akbar Nateq-Nouri (علیاکبر ناطقنوری; sometimes spelt Nategh-Nouri) (born 6 October 1944) is an Iranian politician.
Sayyid Ali Hosseini Khamenei (سید علی حسینی خامنهای,; born 17 July 1939) is a ''marja'' and the second and current Supreme Leader of Iran, in office since 1989.
Ali Larijani (علی لاریجانی,; born 3 June 1957) is an Iranian conservative politician, philosopher and former military officer who has been Speaker of the Parliament of Iran since 2008.
Aligoudarz (اليگودرز, also Romanized as Alīgūdarz, Aligoodarz; also known as ‘Ali Gudār) is a city and capital of Aligudarz County, Lorestan Province, Iran.
The Association of Combatant Clerics (majma'-e rowhāniyūn-e mobārez) is an Iranian reformist clerical political party.
Seyyed Ata'ollah Mohajerani (سید عطاءالله مهاجرانی, born 24 July 1954 in Arak, Iran) is an Iranian historian, journalist, author and reformist politician.
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
The Basij (بسيج, lit. "The Mobilization"), Niruyeh Moghavemat Basij (نیروی مقاومت بسیج, "Mobilisation Resistance Force"), full name Sāzmān-e Basij-e Mostaz'afin (سازمان بسیج مستضعفین, "The Organization for Mobilization of the Oppressed"), is one of the five forces of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps.
Behzad Nabavi (بهزاد نبوی) is an Iranian reformist politician.
A campaign manager or campaign director is a paid or volunteer individual whose role is to coordinate a political campaign's operations such as fundraising, advertising, polling, getting out the vote (with direct contact to the public), and other activities supporting the effort, directly.
The Combatant Clergy Association (Jāme'e-ye Rowhāniyyat-e Mobārez) is a politically active group in Iran, but not a political party in the traditional sense.
Committee for the Defense of Prisoners' Rights, also translated as Defending the Rights of Prisoners, is an Iranian NGO dedicated to defending the rights of prisoners in the Islamic Republic of Iran.
A dress code is a set of written and, more often, unwritten rules with regard to clothing.
The Egyptian revolution of 2011, locally known as the January 25 Revolution (ثورة 25 يناير), and as the Egyptian Revolution of Dignity began on 25 January 2011 and took place across all of Egypt.
Emadeddin Baghi (born 25 April 1962) is an Iranian human rights activist, prisoners' rights advocate, investigative journalist, theologian and writer.
Eqbal (اقبال; Luck in English) was a Persian reformist newspaper published in Iran.
Etemad or Etemaad (in Persian اعتماد lit. Trust; correct transcription: ettemād, because in pronunciation the letter "t" is duplicated) is a reformist newspaper in Iran that is published in Tehran.
The Expediency Discernment Council of the System (مجمع تشخیص مصلحت نظام Majma' Taškhīs Maṣlaḥat Nezām) is an administrative assembly appointed by the Supreme Leader and was created upon the revision to the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran on 6 February 1988.
Fatemeh Karroubi (فاطمه کروبی; born 1949) is an Iranian politician and activist.
Gholam Ali Haddad-Adel (غلامعلی حداد عادل, born 4 May 1945) is an Iranian philosopher, politician and former chairman of the Parliament.
Gholamhossein Karbaschi (غلامحسین کرباسچی, born 23 August 1954) is an Iranian politician who was the Mayor of Tehran from 1990 until 1998.
Google News is a news aggregator and app developed by Google.
The Guardian Council of the Constitution (شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی, Shūra-ye negahbān-e qānūn-e āsāsī) is an appointed and constitutionally mandated 12-member council that wields considerable power and influence in the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Guidance Patrol (گشت ارشاد, gašt-e eršād; also known as morality police) is a kind of vice squad in the Law Enforcement Force of Islamic Republic of Iran, established in 2005 with the task to arrest mostly women (but also some men) who deem improperly dressed according to the dress code.
Hayat-e-No (حیات نو, hayat-e nou, New Life in English) was a Persian reformist newspaper published in Iran.
Heshmatiyeh Prison (زندان حشمتیه Zendān Heshmatiyeh) is a prison in Iran, located on a Revolutionary Guards (IRGC) base, in the North-East of Tehran.
In justice and law, house arrest (also called home confinement, home detention, or, in modern times, electronic monitoring) is a measure by which a person is confined by the authorities to a residence.
A hunger strike is a method of non-violent resistance or pressure in which participants fast as an act of political protest, or to provoke feelings of guilt in others, usually with the objective to achieve a specific goal, such as a policy change.
Hussein-Ali Montazeri (24 September 1922 – 19 December 2009; حسینعلی منتظری&lrm) was an Iranian Shia Islamic theologian, Islamic democracy advocate, writer and human rights activist.
Ijtihad (اجتهاد, lit. effort, physical or mental, expended in a particular activity) is an Islamic legal term referring to independent reasoning or the thorough exertion of a jurist's mental faculty in finding a solution to a legal question.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iranian Green Movement (جنبش سبز ایران), also known as the Persian Awakening or Persian Spring by the western media, refers to a political movement that arose after the 2009 Iranian presidential election, in which protesters demanded the removal of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad from office.
Iran's ninth presidential election took place in two rounds, the first on 17 June 2005, the run-off on 24 June.
Iran's tenth presidential election was held on 12 June 2009, with incumbent Mahmoud Ahmadinejad running against three challengers.
The Iranian reformists (Eslâh-Talabân) are a political faction in Iran that support former President Mohammad Khatami's plans to change the Iranian political system to include more freedom and democracy.
The Iranian Revolution (Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution), Iran Chamber.
The Islamic Consultative Assembly (Majles-e Showrā-ye Eslāmī), also called the Iranian Parliament, the Iranian Majlis (or Majles, مجلس), is the national legislative body of Iran.
The Islamic Republic News Agency (خبرگزاری جمهوری اسلامی), or IRNA, is the official news agency of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
The Islamic Republican Party (IRP; Ḥezb-e Jomhūrī-e Eslāmī, also translated Islamic Republic Party) formed in mid-1979 to assist the Iranian Revolution and Ayatollah Khomeini establish theocracy in Iran.
The Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) (lit or Sepâh for short) is a branch of Iran's Armed Forces founded after 1979 Revolution on 22 April 1979 by order of Ayatollah Khomeini.IISS Military Balance 2006, Routledge for the IISS, London, 2006, p. 187 Whereas the regular military (or Artesh) defends Iran's borders and maintains internal order, according to the Iranian constitution, the Revolutionary Guard (pasdaran) is intended to protect the country's Islamic Republic system. The Revolutionary Guards state that their role in protecting the Islamic system is preventing foreign interference as well as coups by the military or "deviant movements". The Revolutionary Guards have roughly 125,000 military personnel including ground, aerospace and naval forces. Its naval forces are now the primary forces tasked with operational control of the Persian Gulf. GlobalBearings.net, 15 December 2011. It also controls the paramilitary Basij militia which has about 90,000 active personnel.Abrahamian, Ervand, History of Modern Iran, Columbia University Press, 2008 pp. 175–76 Its media arm is Sepah News. Since its origin as an ideologically driven militia, the Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution has taken a greater role in nearly every aspect of Iranian society. Its expanded social, political, military and economic role under President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's administration—especially during the 2009 presidential election and post-election suppression of protest—has led many Western analysts to argue that its political power has surpassed even that of the Shia clerical system. The Chief Commander of the Guardians since 2007 is Mohammad Ali Jafari, who was preceded by Yahya Rahim Safavi from 1997.
Jamileh Kadivar (جمیله کدیور) is an Iranian politician and a former member of parliament.
Kahrizak Detention Center (in Persian: بازداشتگاه کهریزک) is a detainment facility operated by the Judicial system of Iran in southern Tehran.
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.
Following is a list of Speakers of the Parliament of Iran, from the Persian Constitutional Revolution to present.
Lorestan Province (استان لرستان, also written Luristan, Lurestan, or Loristan), is a province of western Iran in the Zagros Mountains.
Lurs (also Lors, Lurish: لورَل, Persian:لُرها) are an Iranian people living mainly in western and south-western Iran.
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (Mahmūd Ahmadinezhād, born Mahmoud Sabbaghian (Sabbāghyān) on 28 October 1956) is an Iranian politician who was the sixth President of Iran from 2005 to 2013.
In Shia Islam, marjaʿ (مرجع; plural: marājiʿ), also known as a marjaʿ taqlīd or marjaʿ dīnī (مرجع تقليد / مرجع ديني), literally meaning "source to imitate/follow" or "religious reference", is a title given to the highest level Shia authority, a Grand Ayatollah with the authority to make legal decisions within the confines of Islamic law for followers and less-credentialed clerics.
The Martin Ennals Award for Human Rights Defenders, sometimes called "the Nobel Prize for human rights", was created in 1993 to honour and protect individuals around the world who demonstrate exceptional courage in defending and promoting human rights.
Masoud Nili (مسعود نیلی, born 14 February 1955 in Hamedan) is an Iranian academic and economist.
Mir-Hossein Mousavi Khameneh (Mīr-Hoseyn Mūsavī Khāmené,; born 2 March 1942) is an Iranian reformist politician, artist and architect who served as the seventy-ninth and last Prime Minister of Iran from 1981 to 1989.
Mofsed-e-filarz (مفسد فی الارض, also Mofsed fel-Arz, Afsad-i fil Arz, or fasad-fel-arz, المفسد في الأرض Al-Mofsid fi al-Arḏ, also fasad fi 'l-ard) is the title of capital crimes (or the person guilty of them) in the Islamic Republic of Iran, that has been translated in English language sources variously as "spreading corruption on Earth", "spreading corruption that threatens social and political well-being", "corrupt of the earth; one who is charged with spreading corruption," "gross offenders of the moral order",, Paul Sprauchman, and "enemies of God on Earth.".
Seyyed Mohammad Khatami (سید محمد خاتمی,; born 14 October 1943) is an Iranian scholar, Shia theologian, and reformist politician.
Mohammad Mousavi Khoeiniha (born 1942) is an Iranian cleric and secretary general of the reformist Association of Combatant Clerics.
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (Mohammad Reza Pahlavi,; 26 October 1919 – 27 July 1980), also known as Mohammad Reza Shah (Mohammad Rezā Šāh), was the last Shah of Iran from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow by the Iranian Revolution on 11 February 1979.
Mohammad Yazdi (محمد یزدی, born 2 July 1931) is an Iranian cleric who served as the head of Judiciary System of Iran between 1989 and 1999.
Mohammad-Ali Abtahi (محمدعلی ابطحی; born January 27, 1958) is an Iranian theologian, scholar, pro-democracy activist and chairman of the Institute for Interreligious Dialogue.
Mohammad-Ali Najafi (محمدعلی نجفی; born 13 January 1952) is an Iranian mathematician and reformist politician who was the Mayor of Tehran, serving in the post for eight months, until April 2018.
Mohammad-Reza Khatami (محمدرضا خاتمی, born 1959) is an Iranian politician and nephrologist.
Sayyed Mojtaba Hosseini Khamenei (سید مجتبی حسینی خامنهای; born 8 September 1969) is son of Ali Khamenei, the Supreme Leader of Iran.
A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.
The Museum of the Qasr Prison (موزه زندان قصر muze-ye zendān-e qasr) is a historical complex in Tehran, Iran.
National Trust Party (Ḥezb-e Eʿtemād-e Mellī, also translated as National Confidence Party) is an Iranian political party based on reformist and populist message.
The Pahlavi dynasty (دودمان پهلوی) was the ruling house of the imperial state of Iran from 1925 until 1979, when the 2,500 years of continuous Persian monarchy was overthrown and abolished as a result of the Iranian Revolution.
A politician is a person active in party politics, or a person holding or seeking office in government.
Private law is that part of a civil law legal system which is part of the jus commune that involves relationships between individuals, such as the law of contracts or torts (as it is called in the common law), and the law of obligations (as it is called in civil legal systems).
Public trial or open trial is a trial open to public, as opposed to the secret trial.
Qazvin (قزوین,, also Romanized as Qazvīn, Caspin, Qazwin, or Ghazvin) is the largest city and capital of the Province of Qazvin in Iran.
Qom (قم) is the eighth largest city in Iran.
Rasoul Montajabnia (رسول منتجبنیا; born 13 July 1948 in Shiraz) is an Iranian reformist politician, jurist, vice president and founding member of the National Trust Party (Iran).
Sayyid Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini (سید روحالله موسوی خمینی; 24 September 1902 – 3 June 1989), known in the Western world as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian Shia Islam religious leader and politician.
Sadeq Ardeshir Larijani (صادق اردشیر لاریجانی; born 12 March 1961), more known as Amoli Larijani (آملی لاریجانی), is an Iranian cleric, conservative politician and the current and fifth head of the judicial system of Iran after the 1979 revolution.
Saeed Mortazavi (سعید مرتضوی, born 1967) is an Iranian conservative politician, former judge and former prosecutor.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
A solicitor is a legal practitioner who traditionally deals with most of the legal matters in some jurisdictions.
A supreme leader typically refers to the person among a number of leaders of a state, organization or other such group who has been given or is able to exercise the mostor complete authority over it.
The Supreme Leader of Iran (rahbar-e mo'azzam-e irān), also called the Supreme Leader of the Islamic Revolution (رهبر معظم انقلاب اسلامی), officially in Iran, called the Supreme Leadership Authority (مقام معظم رهبری), is the head of state and highest ranking political and religious authority in the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Tehran (تهران) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.
Tehran Province (استان تهران Ostān-e Tehrān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
Tehran, Rey, Shemiranat and Eslamshahr (تهران، ری، شمیرانات و اسلامشهر) is a constituency for the Islamic Consultative Assembly.
The Green Path of Hope (شورای هماهنگی راه سبز امید) is an Iranian association established by Iranian presidential campaign candidate, Mir-Hossein Mousavi, on August 15, 2009, as the organizational body of Green Movement.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The New Yorker is an American magazine of reportage, commentary, criticism, essays, fiction, satire, cartoons, and poetry.
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.
Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money.
The Tunisian Revolution was an intensive campaign of civil resistance, including a series of street demonstrations taking place in Tunisia, and led to the ousting of longtime president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali in January 2011.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of Tehran (دانشگاه تهران), also known as Tehran University and UT, is Iran's oldest modern university.
Yousef Saanei (يوسف صانعى; born 1937) is an Iranian Twelver Shi'a cleric and politician, a chairman of the Islamic Republic of Iran's powerful Guardian Council from 1980-83.
Zahra Rahnavard (زهرا رهنورد; born Zohreh Kazemi; 19 August 1945) is an Iranian academic, artist and politician.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.
Protests against the 2009 Iranian presidential election results (اعتراضات علیه نتایج انتخابات ریاست جمهوری سال ۱۳۸۸) (a disputed victory by Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad), in support of opposition candidates Mir-Hossein Mousavi and Mehdi Karroubi, occurred in major cities nationwide from 2009 into early 2010.