338 relations: Aşıkpaşazade, Abu Ayyub al-Ansari, Acrocorinth, Acropolis of Athens, Aegean Sea, Ahdname of Milodraž, Aksaray, Fatih, Akshamsaddin, Albania, Albanian principalities, Alexander Mikaberidze, Alfonso II of Naples, Ali Qushji, Allah, Alvise Loredan, Amasya, Anadoluhisarı, Anatolia, Anatolian beyliks, Ancona, Aq Qoyunlu, Arabic, Argos, Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople, Athens, Çanakkale, Çandarlı Halil Pasha the Younger, Çarşamba, Fatih, Çiçek Hatun, Đurađ Branković, Žabljak Crnojevića, Balkans, Ballaban Badera, Battle of Ankara, Battle of Kosovo, Battle of Otlukbeli, Battle of Varna, Battle of Vaslui, Bayburt, Bayezid I, Bayezid II, Belgrade, Benedetto Dei, Bey, Beyşehir, Beylerbey, Black Sea, Bobovac, Bogdan II of Moldavia, Boom (navigational barrier), ..., Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosporus, Boukoleon Palace, Bubonic plague, Bursa, Byzantine Empire, Caesar (title), Caliphate, Catholic Church, Cesare della Valle, Charlemagne, Christianity, Chronicle, Ciriaco de' 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Dervish Ahmed (Derviş Ahmed; "Ahmed the Dervish; 1400–1484), better known by his pen name Âşıki or family name Aşıkpaşazade, was an Ottoman historian, a prominent representative of the early Ottoman historiography.
Abu Ayyub al-Ansari (died 674) — born Khalid bin Zayd bin Kulayb in Yathrib — hailed from the tribe of Banu Najjar and was a close companion (Arabic: الصحابه, sahaba) of Muhammad.
Acrocorinth (Ακροκόρινθος), "Upper Corinth", the acropolis of ancient Corinth, is a monolithic rock overseeing the ancient city of Corinth, Greece.
The Acropolis of Athens is an ancient citadel located on a rocky outcrop above the city of Athens and contains the remains of several ancient buildings of great architectural and historic significance, the most famous being the Parthenon.
The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.
The Ahdname of Milodraž (Milodraška ahdnama/Милодрашка ахднама), also called the Ahdname of Fojnica (Фојничка ахднама/Fojnička ahdnama), was the ahdname issued on 28 May 1463 (or 1464) by the Ottoman sultan Mehmed the Conqueror to Bosnian Franciscans, represented by Anđeo Zvizdović.
Aksaray (literally "White Palace" in Turkish) is a neighborhood in Istanbul, Turkey.
Akshamsaddin (Muhammad Shams al-Din bin Hamzah, Ak Şemsettin) (b. 1389, Damascus - d. 16 February 1459, Göynük, Bolu), was an influential Ottoman religious scholar, poet, and mystic saint.
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.
The term Albanian Principalities refers to a number of principalities created in the Middle Ages in Albania and Epirus that were ruled by Albanian nobility.
Alexander Mikaberidze (ალექსანდრე მიქაბერიძე; born 27 January 1978) is a Georgian lawyer, author and historian who specializes in Napoleonic studies, Russian history and Georgian history.
Alfonso II (4 November 1448 – 18 December 1495), also called Alfonso of Aragon, was King of Naples from 25 January 1494 to 22 February 1495 with the title King of Naples and Jerusalem.
Ala al-Dīn Ali ibn Muhammed (1403 – 16 December 1474), known as Ali Qushji (Ottoman Turkish/Persian language: علی قوشچی, kuşçu – falconer in Turkish; Latin: Ali Kushgii) was an astronomer, mathematician and physicist originally from Samarkand, who settled in the Ottoman Empire some time before 1472.
Allah (translit) is the Arabic word for God in Abrahamic religions.
Alvise Loredan (1393 – 6 March 1466) was a Venetian nobleman of the Loredan family.
Amasya (Ἀμάσεια) is a city in northern Turkey and is the capital of Amasya Province, in the Black Sea Region.
Anadoluhisarı (Anatolian Castle), known historically as Güzelce Hisar ("the Beauteous Castle") is a medieval fortress located in Istanbul, Turkey on the Anatolian (Asian) side of the Bosporus.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Anatolian beyliks (Anadolu beylikleri, Ottoman Turkish: Tavâif-i mülûk, Beylik), sometimes known as Turkmen beyliks, were small principalities (or petty kingdoms) in Anatolia governed by Beys, the first of which were founded at the end of the 11th century.
Ancona ((elbow)) is a city and a seaport in the Marche region in central Italy, with a population of around 101,997.
The Aq Qoyunlu or Ak Koyunlu, also called the White Sheep Turkomans (Āq Quyūnlū), was a Persianate Sunni Oghuz Turkic tribal federation that ruled present-day Armenia, Azerbaijan, Eastern Turkey, most part of Iran, and Iraq from 1378 to 1501.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Argos (Modern Greek: Άργος; Ancient Greek: Ἄργος) is a city in Argolis, the Peloponnese, Greece and is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world.
The Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople (İstanbul Ermeni Patrikhanesi, Western Պատրիարքութիւն Հայոց Կոստանդնուպոլսոյ, Badriark'ut'iun Hayots' Gosdantnubolsoy) is an autonomous See.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
Çanakkale (pronounced) is a city and seaport in Turkey, in Çanakkale Province, on the southern (Asian) coast of the Dardanelles at their narrowest point.
Çandarlı Halil Pasha (died 1 June 1453), known as the Younger, was a highly influential Ottoman grand vizier under the sultans Murad II and, for the first few years of his reign, Mehmed II (from 1439 to 1 June 1453 precisely).
Çarşamba is a small part of Balat quarter of Istanbul, Turkey.
Çiçek Hatun (چیچک خاتون; died 3 May 1498) was a consort of Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror of the Ottoman Empire.
Đurađ Branković (Ђурађ Бранковић; Brankovics György; 1377 – 24 December 1456) was the Serbian Despot from 1427 to 1456 and a baron of the Kingdom of Hungary.
Žabljak Crnojevića (commonly referred to as Žabljak; Montenegrin Cyrillic: Жабљак Црнојевића,, is an abandoned medieval fortified town (fortress) in Montenegro. The fortress is located on the confluence of the Morača river in Lake Skadar.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
Ballaban Badera (also known as Ballaban Pasha or Ballaban Badheri) was an Ottoman military officer from Albania.
The Battle of Ankara (or Angora) was fought on 20 July 1402 at the Çubuk plain near Ankara between the forces of the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I and Timur (Tamerlane), ruler of the Timurid Empire.
The Battle of Kosovo took place on 15 June 1389 between an army led by the Serbian Prince Lazar Hrebeljanović and an invading army of the Ottoman Empire under the command of Sultan Murad Hüdavendigâr.
The Battle of Otlukbeli or Otluk Beli was a battle between Ak Koyunlu and the Ottoman Empire that was fought on August 11, 1473.
The Battle of Varna took place on 10 November 1444 near Varna in eastern Bulgaria.
The Battle of Vaslui (also referred to as the Battle of Podul Înalt or the Battle of Racova) was fought on 10 January 1475, between Stephen III of Moldavia and the Ottoman governor of Rumelia, Hadım Suleiman Pasha.
Bayburt (Armenian: Baydbert) is a city in northeast Turkey lying on the Çoruh River and is the provincial capital of Bayburt Province.
Bayezid I (بايزيد اول; I. (nicknamed Yıldırım (Ottoman Turkish: یلدیرم), "Lightning, Thunderbolt"); 1360 – 8 March 1403) was the Ottoman Sultan from 1389 to 1402.
Bayezid II (3 December 1447 – 26 May 1512) (Ottoman Turkish: بايزيد ثانى Bāyezīd-i s̱ānī, Turkish: II. Bayezid or II. Beyazıt) was the eldest son and successor of Mehmed II, ruling as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1481 to 1512.
Belgrade (Beograd / Београд, meaning "White city",; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Serbia.
Benedetto Dei (1418–1492) was an Italian poet and historian.
“Bey” (بك “Beik”, bej, beg, بيه “Beyeh”, بیگ “Beyg” or بگ “Beg”) is a Turkish title for chieftain, traditionally applied to the leaders or rulers of various sized areas in the Ottoman Empire.
Beyşehir is a large town and district of Konya Province in the Akdeniz region of Turkey.
Beylerbey or Beylerbeyi (بكلربكی; "Bey of Beys", meaning "the Commander of Commanders" or "the Lord of Lords"; originally Beglerbeg in older Turkic) was a high rank in the western Islamic world in the late Middle Ages and early modern period, from the Seljuks of Rum and the Ilkhanids to Safavid Persia and the Ottoman Empire.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Bobovac is a fortified city of medieval Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Bogdan II was a prince of Moldavia from 1449 to 1451.
A boom or a chain (also boom defence, harbour chain, river chain, chain boom, boom chain or variants) is an obstacle strung across a navigable stretch of water to control or block navigation.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
The Bosporus or Bosphorus;The spelling Bosporus is listed first or exclusively in all major British and American dictionaries (e.g.,,, Merriam-Webster,, and Random House) as well as the Encyclopædia Britannica and the.
The Palace of Boukoleon (Βουκολέων) or Bucoleon was one of the Byzantine palaces in Constantinople (present-day Istanbul in Turkey.) The palace is located on the shore of the Sea of Marmara, to the south of the Hippodrome and east of the Little Hagia Sophia.
Bubonic plague is one of three types of plague caused by bacterium Yersinia pestis.
Bursa is a large city in Turkey, located in northwestern Anatolia, within the Marmara Region.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Caesar (English Caesars; Latin Caesares) is a title of imperial character.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Cesare della Valle (1776/77 - 1860) was Duke of Ventignano.
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
A chronicle (chronica, from Greek χρονικά, from χρόνος, chronos, "time") is a historical account of facts and events ranged in chronological order, as in a time line.
Ciriaco de' Pizzicolli or Cyriacus of Ancona (31 July 1391 – 1453/55) was a restlessly itinerant Italian humanist and antiquarian who came from a prominent family of merchants in Ancona.
The Classical Age of the Ottoman Empire (Klasik Çağ) concerns the history of the Ottoman Empire from the Conquest of Constantinople in 1453 until the second half of the sixteenth century, roughly the end of the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent (r. 1520-1566).
Constantine XI Dragases Palaiologos, Latinized as Palaeologus (Κωνσταντῖνος ΙΑ' Δραγάσης Παλαιολόγος, Kōnstantinos XI Dragasēs Palaiologos; 8 February 1405 – 29 May 1453) was the last reigning Byzantine Emperor, ruling as a member of the Palaiologos dynasty from 1449 to his death in battle at the fall of Constantinople in 1453.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
The Crimean Khanate (Mongolian: Крымын ханлиг; Crimean Tatar / Ottoman Turkish: Къырым Ханлыгъы, Qırım Hanlığı, rtl or Къырым Юрту, Qırım Yurtu, rtl; Крымское ханство, Krymskoje hanstvo; Кримське ханство, Krymśke chanstvo; Chanat Krymski) was a Turkic vassal state of the Ottoman Empire from 1478 to 1774, the longest-lived of the Turkic khanates that succeeded the empire of the Golden Horde.
Crimean Tatars or Crimeans (Crimean Tatar: Qırımtatarlar, qırımlar, Kırım Tatarları, Крымские Татары, крымцы, Кримськi Татари, кримцi) are a Turkic ethnic group that formed in the Crimean Peninsula during the 13th–17th centuries, primarily from the Turkic tribes that moved to the land now known as Crimea in Eastern Europe from the Asian steppes beginning in the 10th century, with contributions from the pre-Cuman population of Crimea.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
Dağpazarı is a village in the Mut district of Mersin Province, Turkey.
Dalmatia (Dalmacija; see names in other languages) is one of the four historical regions of Croatia, alongside Croatia proper, Slavonia and Istria.
The Dardanelles (Çanakkale Boğazı, translit), also known from Classical Antiquity as the Hellespont (Ἑλλήσποντος, Hellespontos, literally "Sea of Helle"), is a narrow, natural strait and internationally-significant waterway in northwestern Turkey that forms part of the continental boundary between Europe and Asia, and separates Asian Turkey from European Turkey.
The Dardanelles Gun or Great Turkish Bombardhttps://collections.royalarmouries.org/object/rac-object-6177.html (Şahi topu or simply Şahi) is a 15th-century siege cannon, specifically a super-sized bombard, which saw action in the 1807 Dardanelles Operation.
David Megas Komnenos (Δαβίδ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Dabid Megas Komnēnos) (1408 – 1 November 1463) was the last Emperor of Trebizond from 1459 to 1461.
The Byzantine Empire (the Eastern Roman Empire during the medieval period, after the fall of the Western Roman Empire) following the crisis of the Gothic Wars managed to re-establish itself in a golden age under the Justinian dynasty in the 6th century, and during the Early Middle Ages it continued to flourish even after the Muslim conquest of the Levant and the constant threat of Arab invasion.
Demetrios Palaiologos or Demetrius Palaeologus (Dēmētrios Palaiologos; ca. 1407–1470) was a Byzantine prince and Despot.
The Despotate of the Morea (Δεσποτᾶτον τοῦ Μορέως) or Despotate of Mystras (Δεσποτᾶτον τοῦ Μυστρᾶ) was a province of the Byzantine Empire which existed between the mid-14th and mid-15th centuries.
Devrekani is a town and district of the Kastamonu Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey.
Devrim (born November 12, 1978) is a Turkish actor living in London and Istanbul.
Devshirme (دوشيرمه, devşirme, literally "lifting" or "collecting"), also known as the blood tax or tribute in blood, was chiefly the practice where by the Ottoman Empire sent military officers to take Christian boys, ages 8 to 18, from their families in Eastern and Southeastern Europe in order that they be raised to serve the state.
In Muslim cultures of the Middle East, North Africa, Sicily and South Asia, a Diwan (دیوان, divân, ديوان, dīwān) is a collection of poems by one author, usually excluding his or her long poems (mathnawī).
The Dniester or Dnister River is a river in Eastern Europe.
Dominic Edward Cooper (born 2 June 1978) is an English actor.
Dracula Untold is a 2014 American dark fantasy action horror film directed by Gary Shore in his feature film debut and written by Matt Sazama and Burk Sharpless.
Drisht (Drishti) is a village, former bishopric and Latin titular see with an Ancient and notable medieval history (Latin Drivastum, Italian Drivasto) in Albania, 6 km from Mes Bridge (Albanian: Ura e Mesit).
The ducat was a gold or silver coin used as a trade coin in Europe from the later middle ages until as late as the 20th century.
Durrës (Durazzo,, historically known as Epidamnos and Dyrrachium, is the second most populous city of the Republic of Albania. The city is the capital of the surrounding Durrës County, one of 12 constituent counties of the country. By air, it is northwest of Sarandë, west of Tirana, south of Shkodër and east of Rome. Located on the Adriatic Sea, it is the country's most ancient and economic and historic center. Founded by Greek colonists from Corinth and Corfu under the name of Epidamnos (Επίδαμνος) around the 7th century BC, the city essentially developed to become significant as it became an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor the Byzantine Empire. The Via Egnatia, the continuation of the Via Appia, started in the city and led across the interior of the Balkan Peninsula to Constantinople in the east. In the Middle Ages, it was contested between Bulgarian, Venetian and Ottoman dominions. Following the declaration of independence of Albania, the city served as the capital of the Principality of Albania for a short period of time. Subsequently, it was annexed by the Kingdom of Italy and Nazi Germany in the interwar period. Moreover, the city experienced a strong expansion in its demography and economic activity during the Communism in Albania. Durrës is served by the Port of Durrës, one of the largest on the Adriatic Sea, which connects the city to Italy and other neighbouring countries. Its most considerable attraction is the Amphitheatre of Durrës that is included on the tentative list of Albania for designation as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Once having a capacity for 20,000 people, it is the largest amphitheatre in the Balkan Peninsula.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
The Ecumenical Patriarch (Η Αυτού Θειοτάτη Παναγιότης, ο Αρχιεπίσκοπος Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Νέας Ρώμης και Οικουμενικός Πατριάρχης, "His Most Divine All-Holiness the Archbishop of Constantinople, New Rome, and Ecumenical Patriarch") is the Archbishop of Constantinople–New Rome and ranks as primus inter pares (first among equals) among the heads of the several autocephalous churches that make up the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Edirne, historically known as Adrianople (Hadrianopolis in Latin or Adrianoupolis in Greek, founded by the Roman emperor Hadrian on the site of a previous Thracian settlement named Uskudama), is a city in the northwestern Turkish province of Edirne in the region of East Thrace, close to Turkey's borders with Greece and Bulgaria.
Edward Gibbon FRS (8 May 173716 January 1794) was an English historian, writer and Member of Parliament.
Elbasan (Albanian: Elbasan or Elbasani) is a city and a municipality in Elbasan County, central Albania.
An empire is defined as "an aggregate of nations or people ruled over by an emperor or other powerful sovereign or government, usually a territory of greater extent than a kingdom, as the former British Empire, Spanish Empire, Portuguese Empire, French Empire, Persian Empire, Russian Empire, German Empire, Abbasid Empire, Umayyad Empire, Byzantine Empire, Ottoman Empire, or Roman Empire".
The Empire of Trebizond or the Trapezuntine Empire was a monarchy that flourished during the 13th through 15th centuries, consisting of the far northeastern corner of Anatolia and the southern Crimea.
An eponym is a person, place, or thing after whom or after which something is named, or believed to be named.
Euboea or Evia; Εύβοια, Evvoia,; Εὔβοια, Eúboia) is the second-largest Greek island in area and population, after Crete. The narrow Euripus Strait separates it from Boeotia in mainland Greece. In general outline it is a long and narrow island; it is about long, and varies in breadth from to. Its geographic orientation is from northwest to southeast, and it is traversed throughout its length by a mountain range, which forms part of the chain that bounds Thessaly on the east, and is continued south of Euboea in the lofty islands of Andros, Tinos and Mykonos. It forms most of the regional unit of Euboea, which also includes Skyros and a small area of the Greek mainland.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Mehmed Zilli (25 March 1611 – 1682), known as Evliya Çelebi (اوليا چلبى), was an Ottoman explorer who travelled through the territory of the Ottoman Empire and neighboring lands over a period of forty years, recording his commentary in a travelogue called the Seyahatname ("Book of Travel").
The Eyüp Sultan Mosque (Eyüp Sultan Camii) is situated in the Eyüp district of Istanbul, outside the city walls near the Golden Horn.
The Fall of Constantinople (Ἅλωσις τῆς Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Halōsis tēs Kōnstantinoupoleōs; İstanbul'un Fethi Conquest of Istanbul) was the capture of the capital of the Byzantine Empire by an invading Ottoman army on 29 May 1453.
Fatih, historically Constantinople, is the capital district and a municipality (belediye) in Istanbul, Turkey which hosts all the provincial authorities, including the governor's office, police headquarters, metropolitan municipality and tax office while encompassing the peninsula coinciding with old Constantinople.
Fatih is a 2013 Turkish historical television drama series based on the life of Ottoman emperor Mehmed II.
The Fatih Mosque (Fatih Camii, "Conqueror's Mosque" in English) is an Ottoman mosque in the Fatih district of Istanbul, Turkey.
The Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge ("Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror Bridge"), also known as the Second Bosphorus Bridge (in Turkish: Fatih Sultan Mehmet Köprüsü, F.S.M. Köprüsü or 2. Köprü), is a bridge in Istanbul, Turkey spanning the Bosphorus strait (Turkish: Boğaziçi).
Feodosia (Феодо́сия, Feodosiya; Феодо́сія, Feodosiia; Crimean Tatar and Turkish: Kefe), also called Theodosia (from), is a port and resort, a town of regional significance in Crimea on the Black Sea coast.
Ferdinand I (2 June 1423 – 25 January 1494), also called Ferrante, was the King of Naples from 1458 to 1494.
Fetih 1453 (English: The Conquest 1453) is a 2012 Turkish epic action film directed by Faruk Aksoy and produced by Faruk Aksoy, Servet Aksoy and Ayşe Germen.
Franciscan Province of Bosna Srebrena (also Bosna Argentina; officially Provincia OFM Exaltationis S. Crucis - Bosna Argentina) is a province of the Franciscan order of the Catholic Church in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Franz Babinger (January 15, 1891 – June 23, 1967) was a well-known German orientalist and historian of the Ottoman Empire, best known for his biography of the great Ottoman emperor Mehmed II known as the Conqueror, originally published as Mehmed der Eroberer und seine Zeit.
Frederick III (21 September 1415 – 19 August 1493), was Holy Roman Emperor from 1452 until his death.
The French (Français) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation who are identified with the country of France.
Galata (in Greek was known as Galatas (Γαλατᾶς, Galatás)) was a neighbourhood opposite Constantinople (today's Istanbul, Turkey), located at the northern shore of the Golden Horn, the inlet which separates it from the historic peninsula of old Constantinople.
A galley is a type of ship that is propelled mainly by rowing.
Gazara (Gazaria is a Russified version of the name; also Cassaria, Cacsarea, Gazaria, Gasaria) is the name given to the Genoese colonies in Crimea and around the Black Sea from the mid-13th century to the late 15th century.
Gülşah Hatun (کل شاہ خاتون; died 1487) was a consort of Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror of the Ottoman Empire.
Gülbahar Hatun (1432 – 1492) was the consort of Sultan Mehmed II, and mother of Sultan Bayezid II of the Ottoman Empire.
Gebze is a district in Kocaeli Province, Turkey.
Gedik Ahmed Pasha (died 18 November 1482) was an Ottoman statesman and admiral who served as Grand Vizier and Kapudan Pasha (Grand Admiral of the Ottoman Navy) during the reigns of sultans Mehmed II and Bayezid II.
Genghis Khan or Temüjin Borjigin (Чингис хаан, Çingis hán) (also transliterated as Chinggis Khaan; born Temüjin, c. 1162 August 18, 1227) was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death.
Gennadius II (Greek Γεννάδιος Βʹ; lay name Γεώργιος Κουρτέσιος Σχολάριος, Georgios Kourtesios Scholarios; c. 1400 – c. 1473) was a Byzantine philosopher and theologian, and Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople from 1454 to 1464.
Genoa (Genova,; Zêna; English, historically, and Genua) is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy.
The colonies of the Republic of Genoa were a series of economic and trade posts in the Mediterranean and Black Seas.
Gentile Bellini (c. 1429 – 23 February 1507) was an Italian painter of the school of Venice.
George of Trebizond (Γεώργιος Τραπεζούντιος; 1395–1486) was a Greek philosopher, scholar and humanist.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Gevherhan Hatun (کوھرخان خاتون) was an Ottoman princess, the daughter of Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror (reign 1444–46 and 1451–81) and his wife Empress Emine Gülbahar Hatun, an ethnic Albanian.
Ghazi (غازي) is an Arabic term originally referring to an individual who participates in ghazw (غزو), meaning military expeditions or raiding; after the emergence of Islam, it took on new connotations of religious warfare.
Gioachino Antonio Rossini (29 February 1792 – 13 November 1868) was an Italian composer who wrote 39 operas as well as some sacred music, songs, chamber music, and piano pieces.
In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.
In Islam, God (Allāh, contraction of الْإِلٰه al-ilāh, lit. "the god") is indivisible, the God, the absolute one, the all-powerful and all-knowing ruler of the universe, and the creator of everything in existence within the universe.
The Golden Horde (Алтан Орд, Altan Ord; Золотая Орда, Zolotaya Orda; Алтын Урда, Altın Urda) was originally a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire.
The Golden Horn (Altın Boynuz; Χρυσόκερας, Chrysókeras; Sinus Ceratinus), also known by its modern Turkish name as Haliç, is a major urban waterway and the primary inlet of the Bosphorus in Istanbul, Turkey.
Konstantinos Graitzas Palaiologos (Κωνσταντίνος Γραίτζας Παλαιολόγος) was the commander of the Byzantine garrison at Salmeniko Castle near Patras during the invasion of the Despotate of Morea by the forces of Mehmed II of the Ottoman Empire in 1460.
In the Ottoman Empire, the Grand Vizier (Sadrazam) was the prime minister of the Ottoman sultan, with absolute power of attorney and, in principle, dismissible only by the sultan himself.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
Hacı I Giray, Melek Haji Girai (بیر-حاجى كراى; Melek Hacı Geray, ملک خاجى كراى‎; died 1466) was the founder and the first ruler of the Crimean Khanate.
Hagia Sophia (from the Greek Αγία Σοφία,, "Holy Wisdom"; Sancta Sophia or Sancta Sapientia; Ayasofya) is a former Greek Orthodox Christian patriarchal basilica (church), later an Ottoman imperial mosque and now a museum (Ayasofya Müzesi) in Istanbul, Turkey.
Hakham Bashi (حاخامباشی, Hahambaşı) is the Turkish name for the Chief Rabbi of the nation's Jewish community.
Hatice Âlime (Halime) Hüma Hatun (هما خاتون, 1410 ‒ September 1449) was the fourth wife of Ottoman Sultan Murad II and mother of Mehmed II.
The Hexamilion wall (Εξαμίλιον τείχος, "six-mile wall") was a defensive wall constructed across the Isthmus of Corinth, guarding the only land route into the Peloponnese peninsula from mainland Greece.
The rule of the Jagiellonian dynasty in Poland between 1386 and 1572 spans the late Middle Ages and early Modern Era in European history.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
The House of Dănești was one of the two main lineages of the Wallachian noble family House of Basarab.
Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.
Ibrahim II (died 1464) was a bey of Karaman.
Imam (إمام; plural: أئمة) is an Islamic leadership position.
Imbros or İmroz, officially changed to Gökçeada since 29 July 1970,Alexis Alexandris, "The Identity Issue of The Minorities In Greece An Turkey", in Hirschon, Renée (ed.), Crossing the Aegean: An Appraisal of the 1923 Compulsory Population Exchange Between Greece and Turkey, Berghahn Books, 2003, (older name in Turkish: İmroz; Greek: Ίμβρος Imvros), is the largest island of Turkey and the seat of Gökçeada District of Çanakkale Province.
Indemnity is a contractual obligation of one party (indemnitor) to compensate the loss occurred to the other party (indemnitee) due to the act of the indemnitor or any other party.
Ishak of Karaman was a bey of the Karamanids, a Turkish principality in Anatolia in the 15th century.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
The Isthmus of Corinth is the narrow land bridge which connects the Peloponnese peninsula with the rest of the mainland of Greece, near the city of Corinth.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Jacob Notaras (Ιάκωβος Νοταράς) (Jacob/Iakobos, not Isaac/Isaakios, as is occasionally reported) was the youngest son of the Grand Duke Loukas Notaras.
Jajce is a town and municipality located in Central Bosnia Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Janissaries (يڭيچرى, meaning "new soldier") were elite infantry units that formed the Ottoman Sultan's household troops, bodyguards and the first modern standing army in Europe.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
John Hunyadi (Hunyadi János, Ioan de Hunedoara; 1406 – 11 August 1456) was a leading Hungarian military and political figure in Central and Southeastern Europe during the 15th century.
John IV Megas Komnenos (Ιωάννης Δ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Iōannēs IV Megas Komnēnos) (1403 – 1460) was Emperor of Trebizond from 1429 until his death.
John Tzelepes Komnenos (Ἰωάννης Κομνηνὸς Τζελέπης, Iōannēs Komnēnos Tzelepēs) was the son of the sebastokrator Isaac Komnenos.
Julian Cesarini the Elder (It.: Giuliano Cesarini, seniore) (1398 in Rome – November 10, 1444 in Varna, Bulgaria) was one of the group of brilliant cardinals created by Pope Martin V on the conclusion of the Western Schism.
Jurnalul Național is a Romanian newspaper, part of the INTACT Media Group led by Dan Voiculescu, which also includes the popular television station Antena 1.
Karaman Province (Karaman ili) is a province of central Turkey. It has an area of 9,163 km². It has a population of 232,633 (2010 est). According to the 2000 census the population was 243,210. Population density is 27.54 people/km². The traffic code is 70. The capital is the city of Karaman. Karaman was the location of the Karamanid emirate, which came to an end in 1486.
The Karamanids or Karamanid dynasty (Modern Turkish: Karamanoğulları, Karamanoğulları Beyliği), also known as the Principality of Karaman and Beylik of Karaman (Karaman Beyliği), was one of the Islamic Anatolian beyliks, centered in south-central Anatolia around the present-day Karaman Province.
Kasım of Karaman (died 1493) was the last bey of the Karaman Beylik, a Turkish principality in Anatolia in the 15th century.
Kastamonu is the capital district of the Kastamonu Province, Turkey.
A külliye (كلية) is a complex of buildings associated with Ottoman architecture centered on a mosque and managed within a single institution, often based on a waqf (charitable foundation) and composed of a madrasa, a Dar al-Shifa ("clinic"), kitchens, bakery, Turkish bath, other buildings for various charitable services for the community and further annexes.
Kenan İmirzalıoğlu (born 18 June 1974, Ankara) is a Turkish actor and former model of Turcoman descent.
Khotyn (Хотин,; Hotin; see other names) is a city in Chernivtsi Oblast of western Ukraine, and is the administrative center of Khotyn Raion within the oblast, and is located south-west of Kamianets-Podilskyi.
Kilitbahir Castle (Turkish: Kilitbahir Kalesi) is a fortress on the west side of the Dardanelles, opposite the city of Çanakkale, where there is a corresponding fortress (Kale-i Sultaniye), from which Çanakkale takes its name.
The Kingdom of Bosnia (Bosansko Kraljevstvo) was a South Slavic medieval Kingdom that evolved from the Banate of Bosnia (1154–1377).
The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the twentieth century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920).
The Kingdom of Serbia (Краљевина Србија / Kraljevina Srbija), often rendered as Servia in English sources during the time of its existence, was created when Milan I, ruler of the Principality of Serbia, was proclaimed king in 1882.
Ključ is a town and municipality located in Una-Sana Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Konya (Ikónion, Iconium) is a major city in south-western edge of the Central Anatolian Plateau and is the seventh-most-populous city in Turkey with a metropolitan population of over 2.1 million.
Konya Province (Konya ili) is a province of Turkey in central Anatolia. The provincial capital is the city of Konya. By area it is the largest province of Turkey. Its traffic code is 42. Solar power plant Kızören in Konya in an area of 430 square meters will be able to produce 30,000 megawatts of electricity.
Koroni or Corone (Κορώνη) is a town and a former municipality in Messenia, Peloponnese, Greece.
Krujë (Kruja, see also the etymology section) is a town and a municipality in north central Albania.
Kuban (Кубань; Пшызэ; Кубань) is a geographic region of Southern Russia surrounding the Kuban River, on the Black Sea between the Don Steppe, the Volga Delta and the Caucasus, and separated from the Crimean Peninsula to the west by the Kerch Strait.
Lala (لله, Lala) was a Turkish and Persian title (of Persian origin) meaning tutor and statesman in the Ottoman and Safavid Empire.
Lamia (Λαμία, Lamía) is a city in central Greece.
Laonikos Chalkokondyles, Latinized as Laonicus Chalcondyles (Λαόνικος Χαλκοκονδύλης, from λαός "people", νικᾶν "to be victorious", an anagram of Nikolaos which bears the same meaning; c. 1430 – c. 1470), was a Byzantine Greek historian from Athens.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Lazar Branković (Лазар Бранковић; c. 1421 – 20 February 1458) was a Serbian despot, prince of Rascia from 1456 to 1458.
The League of Lezhë (Besëlidhja e Lezhës) was a military alliance of Albanian feudal lords forged in Lezhë on 2 March 1444, with Skanderbeg as leader of the regional Albanian and Serbian chieftains united against the Ottoman Empire.
Lemnos (Λήμνος) is a Greek island in the northern part of the Aegean Sea.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
Lezhë (Lezha or Lezhë) is a town and municipality in northwest Albania, in the county with the same name.
The sultans of the Ottoman Empire (Osmanlı padişahları), who were all members of the Ottoman dynasty (House of Osman), ruled over the transcontinental empire from its perceived inception in 1299 to its dissolution in 1922.
Loukas Notaras (Λουκᾶς Νοταρᾶς) (5 April 1402 – 3 June 1453) was the last megas doux of the Byzantine Empire.
Madrasa (مدرسة,, pl. مدارس) is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious (of any religion), and whether a school, college, or university.
Mahmud Pasha Angelović (Махмуд-паша Анђеловић/Mahmud-paša Anđelović; Veli Mahmud Paşa; 1420–1474) was the Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire from 1456 to 1466 and again from 1472 to 1474, who also wrote Persian and Turkish poems under the pseudonym Adni (the "Eden-like").
Maltepe is a district in the suburbs of Istanbul, Turkey between Kadıköy and Kartal on the Marmara sea.
The Mamluk Sultanate (سلطنة المماليك Salṭanat al-Mamālīk) was a medieval realm spanning Egypt, the Levant, and Hejaz.
Mani | conventional_long_name.
Maometto II is an 1820 opera in two acts by Gioachino Rossini to an Italian libretto by Cesare della Valle.
Mara Branković (c. 1416 in Vučitrn – 14 September 1487), also known as Sultana Marija, Mara Hatun, Despina Hatun, or Amerissa, was the daughter of Serbian monarch Đurađ (George) Branković and Eirene Kantakouzene.
Matthias Corvinus, also called Matthias I (Hunyadi Mátyás, Matija Korvin, Matia Corvin, Matej Korvín, Matyáš Korvín), was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1458 to 1490.
Meñli I Giray (۱منكلى كراى) (1445–1515), also spelled as Mengli I Giray, was a khan of the Crimean Khanate (1466, 1469–1475, 1478–1515) and the sixth son of Hacı I Giray.
Mehmet Akif Alakurt (born July 23, 1979 in Ordu, Turkey) is a Turkish actor and model.
Mesih Pasha or Misac Pasha (died November 1501) was an Ottoman statesman of Byzantine Greek origin, being a nephew of the last Roman emperor, Constantine XI Palaiologos.
Michael Critobulus (c. 1410 – c. 1470) was a Greek politician, scholar and historian.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
In the Ottoman Empire, a millet was a separate court of law pertaining to "personal law" under which a confessional community (a group abiding by the laws of Muslim Sharia, Christian Canon law, or Jewish Halakha) was allowed to rule itself under its own laws.
A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone (hermits).
Monemvasia (Μονεμβασία) is a town and a municipality in Laconia, Greece.
The Morea revolt of 1453–1454 was a failed peasant rebellion carried out against the rule of the brothers Thomas and Demetrios Palaiologos, rulers of the Byzantine Despotate of the Morea in the Peloponnese peninsula.
A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Murad II (June 1404 – 3 February 1451) (Ottoman Turkish: مراد ثانى Murād-ı sānī, Turkish:II. Murat) was the Ottoman Sultan from 1421 to 1444 and 1446 to 1451.
The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.
Mystras or Mistras (Μυστρᾶς/Μιστρᾶς), also known as Myzithras (Μυζηθρᾶς) in the Chronicle of the Morea, is a fortified town and a former municipality in Laconia, Peloponnese, Greece.
Mytilene (Μυτιλήνη) is a city founded in the 11th century BC.
Nafpaktos (Ναύπακτος) is a town and a former municipality in Aetolia-Acarnania, West Greece, Greece, situated on a bay on the north coast of the Gulf of Corinth, west of the mouth of the river Mornos.
Nafplio (Ναύπλιο, Nauplio or Nauplion in Italian and other Western European languages) is a seaport town in the Peloponnese in Greece that has expanded up the hillsides near the north end of the Argolic Gulf.
The National Portrait Gallery (NPG) is an art gallery in London housing a collection of portraits of historically important and famous British people.
Neamț Citadel (Cetatea Neamț or Cetatea Neamțului) is a medieval fortress located in north-eastern part of Romania, near Târgu Neamț, Neamț County.
Mevlânâ Mehmed Neşri (c. 1450 - d. 1520), also commonly referred to as Neşri (نشرى) was an Ottoman historian, a prominent representative of the early Ottoman historiography.
The Night Attack at Târgoviște (Atacul de noapte de la Târgovişte, Tirgovişte Baskını) was a battle fought between forces of Vlad III the Impaler of Wallachia and Mehmed II of the Ottoman Empire on Thursday, June 17, 1462.
Novo Brdo (Serbian Cyrillic: Ново Брдо), or Novobërda or Artana (Novobërdë or Artanë), is a town and municipality located in the Pristina district of eastern Kosovo.
The Oghuz, Oguz or Ghuzz Turks were a western Turkic people who spoke the Oghuz languages from the Common branch of Turkic language family.
Orban, also known as Urban (died 1453), was an iron founder and engineer from Brassó, Transylvania, in the Kingdom of Hungary (today Brașov, Romania), who cast superguns for the Ottoman siege of Constantinople in 1453.
Orhan Gazi (اورخان غازی، اورخان بن عثمان بن ارطغرل; Orhan Gazi) (c. 1281 – March 1362) was the second bey of the nascent Ottoman Sultanate (then known as the Ottoman Beylik or Emirate) from 1323/4 to 1362.
Otranto (Salentino: Uṭṛàntu; Griko: Δερεντό, translit. Derentò; translit; Hydruntum) is a town and comune in the province of Lecce (Apulia, Italy), in a fertile region once famous for its breed of horses.
The Ottoman dynasty (Osmanlı Hanedanı) was made up of the members of the imperial House of Osman (خاندان آل عثمان Ḫānedān-ı Āl-ı ʿOsmān), also known as the Ottomans (Osmanlılar).
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Ottoman Empire was governed by different sets of laws during its existence.
Ottoman Turkish (Osmanlı Türkçesi), or the Ottoman language (Ottoman Turkish:, lisân-ı Osmânî, also known as, Türkçe or, Türkî, "Turkish"; Osmanlıca), is the variety of the Turkish language that was used in the Ottoman Empire.
Padishah, sometimes rendered as Padeshah or Padshah (پادشاه, padişah) is a superlative sovereign title of Persian origin, composed of the Persian pād "master" and the widespread shāh "king", which was adopted by several monarchs claiming the highest rank, roughly equivalent to the ancient Persian notion of "The Great" or "Great King", and later adopted by post-Achaemenid and Christian Emperors.
Patras (Πάτρα, Classical Greek and Katharevousa: Πάτραι (pl.),, Patrae (pl.)) is Greece's third-largest city and the regional capital of Western Greece, in the northern Peloponnese, west of Athens.
The Treaty of Edirne and the Peace of Szeged were two halves of a peace treaty between Sultan Murad II of the Ottoman Empire and King Vladislaus of the Kingdom of Hungary.
The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Πελοπόννησος, Peloponnisos) is a peninsula and geographic region in southern Greece.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Peter Aaron (Petru Aron) (died 1467), bastard son of Alexandru cel Bun, was a Voivode (Prince) of Moldavia on three separate occasions: October 1451 to February 1452, August 1454 to February 1455, and May 1455 to April 1457.
Petrus Gyllius or Gillius (or Pierre Gilles) (1490–1555) was a French natural scientist, topographer and translator.
Philhellenism ("the love of Greek culture") and philhellene ("the admirer of Greeks and everything Greek"), from the Greek φίλος philos "friend, lover" and ἑλληνισμός hellenism "Greek", was an intellectual fashion prominent mostly at the turn of the 19th century.
Pir Ahmet of Karaman was a bey of Karaman Beylik, a Turkish principality in Anatolia in the 15th century.
Piraeus (Πειραιάς Pireás, Πειραιεύς, Peiraieús) is a port city in the region of Attica, Greece.
Pope Saint Leo III (Leo; 12 June 816) was pope from 26 December 795 to his death in 816.
Pope Pius II (Pius PP., Pio II), born Enea Silvio Bartolomeo Piccolomini (Aeneas Silvius Bartholomeus; 18 October 1405 – 14 August 1464) was Pope from 19 August 1458 to his death in 1464.
Pope Sixtus IV (21 July 1414 – 12 August 1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was Pope from 9 August 1471 to his death in 1484.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
Radivoj of Bosnia (Radivoj Ostojić/Радивој Остојић; died in late May or early June 1463) was anti-king of Bosnia from 1432 until 1435, when he lost all control over the kingdom but did not relinquish the title, and again from 1443 until 1446, when he abandoned his claim.
Radu III the Fair, Radu III the Handsome or Radu III the Beautiful (Radu cel Frumos), also known by his Turkish name Radu Bey (1437/1439—1475), was the younger brother of Vlad III and voivode (war-lord or a prince) of the principality of Wallachia.
Rahova is a neighbourhood of southwest Bucharest, Romania, situated in Sector 5, west of Dâmboviţa River.
The Republic of Genoa (Repúbrica de Zêna,; Res Publica Ianuensis; Repubblica di Genova) was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean.
The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.
Rhodes (Ρόδος, Ródos) is the largest of the Dodecanese islands of Greece in terms of land area and also the island group's historical capital.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Rum Mehmed Pasha (1466–d. 1470) was an Ottoman statesman, known for being the Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire from 1466 to 1469 and the main rival of Mahmud Pasha Angelovic.
The Rum Mehmed Pasha Mosque (Rum Mehmet Paşa Camii) is an old Ottoman mosque located in a large and densely populated district of Üsküdar, in Istanbul, Turkey.
Rumelihisarı (also known as Rumelian Castle and Roumeli Hissar Castle) or Boğazkesen Castle (literally meaning "Strait-Cutter Castle") is a medieval fortress located in Istanbul, Turkey, on a series of hills on the European banks of the Bosphorus.
Abū-Muhammad Muslih al-Dīn bin Abdallāh Shīrāzī (ابومحمد مصلحالدین بن عبدالله شیرازی), better known by his pen-name Saadi (سعدی Saʿdī()), also known as Saadi of Shiraz (سعدی شیرازی Saadi Shirazi), was a major Persian poet and literary of the medieval period.
Sahn-ı Seman Medrese or Semâniyye (meaning: eight courtyards) is a 15th-century Ottoman Medrese complex in Istanbul, Turkey, which was part of the Fatih Mosque.
The Salmeniko Castle (Κάστρο του Σαλμενίκου, Kastro tou Salmenikou) or Orgia or Oria Castle (Κάστρο Οργιάς/Ωριάς, cf. Kastro tis Orias) was a castle at the foot of Panachaiko mountain, in the modern municipality of Aigialeia, Achaea, Greece.
Samothrace (also Samothraki, Samothracia) (Σαμοθρᾴκη, Ionic Σαμοθρηΐκη; Σαμοθράκη) is a Greek island in the northern Aegean Sea.
The Sanjak of Gelibolu or Gallipoli (Ottoman Turkish: Sancak-i/Liva-i Gelibolu) was a second-level Ottoman province (sanjak or liva) encompassing the Gallipoli Peninsula and a portion of southern Thrace.
Sanjak-bey, sanjaq-bey or -beg (meaning "Lord of the Standard") was the title given in the Ottoman Empire to a Bey (a high-ranking officer, but usually not a Pasha) appointed to the military and administrative command of a district (sanjak, in Arabic liwa'), answerable to a superior wāli or other provincial governor.
The Saronic Gulf (Greek: Σαρωνικός κόλπος, Saronikós kólpos) or Gulf of Aegina in Greece is formed between the peninsulas of Attica and Argolis and forms part of the Aegean Sea.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
The Serbian Despotate (Српска деспотовина / Srpska despotovina) was a medieval Serbian state in the first half of the 15th century.
Serbian (српски / srpski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs.
Shkodër or Shkodra, historically known as Scutari (in Italian, English and most Western European landuages) or Scodra, is a city in the Republic of Albania.
The Siege of Belgrade, Battle of Belgrade or Siege of Nándorfehérvár was a military blockade of Belgrade that occurred from July 4–22, 1456.
The Siege of Belgrade occurred from 25 July - 29 August 1521.
The First Arab Siege of Constantinople in 674–678 was a major conflict of the Arab–Byzantine wars, and the first culmination of the Umayyad Caliphate's expansionist strategy towards the Byzantine Empire, led by Caliph Mu'awiya I. Mu'awiya, who had emerged in 661 as the ruler of the Muslim Arab empire following a civil war, renewed aggressive warfare against Byzantium after a lapse of some years and hoped to deliver a lethal blow by capturing the Byzantine capital, Constantinople.
The Siege of Jajce was a siege in 1463 and was part of the Ottoman–Hungarian Wars.
The second siege of Krujë took place from 1466 to 1467.
The Third Siege of Krujë by the Ottoman Empire occurred in 1467 at Krujë in Albania.
The Siege of Negroponte was fought between the forces of the Ottoman Empire, led by Sultan Mehmed II in person, and the garrison of the Venetian colony of Negroponte (Chalcis), the capital of the Venetian possession of Euboea in Central Greece.
The Siege of Shkodra of 1478–79 was a confrontation between the Ottoman Empire and the Albanians and Venetians at Shkodra (Scutari in Italian) and its Rozafa Castle during the First Ottoman-Venetian War (1463–79).
The Siege of Trebizond was the successful siege of the city of Trebizond, capital of the Empire of Trebizond, by the Ottomans under Sultan Mehmed II, which ended on 15 August 1461.
Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta (19 June 1417 – 7 October 1468) was an Italian condottiero and nobleman, a member of the House of Malatesta and lord of Rimini, Fano, and Cesena from 1432.
Silifke (Σελεύκεια, Seleukeia, Seleucia ad Calycadnum) is a town and district in south-central Mersin Province, Turkey, west of the city of Mersin, on the west end of Çukurova.
Sinop (Σινώπη, Sinōpē, historically known as Sinope) is a city with a population of 36,734 on the isthmus of İnce Burun (İnceburun, Cape Ince), near Cape Sinope (Sinop Burnu, Boztepe Cape, Boztepe Burnu) which is situated on the most northern edge of the Turkish side of the Black Sea coast, in the ancient region of Paphlagonia, in modern-day northern Turkey.
Sipahi (translit) were two types of Ottoman cavalry corps, including the fief-holding provincial timarli sipahi, which constituted most of the army, and the regular kapikulu sipahi, palace troops.
Sittî Mükerreme Hâtun or Sittişah Hatun (died September 1486).
George Castriot (Gjergj Kastrioti, 6 May 1405 – 17 January 1468), known as Skanderbeg (Skënderbej or Skënderbeu from اسکندر بگ İskender Bey), was an Albanian nobleman and military commander, who served the Ottoman Empire in 1423–43, the Republic of Venice in 1443–47, and lastly the Kingdom of Naples until his death.
Smederevo (Смедерево) is a city and the administrative center of the Podunavlje District in eastern Serbia.
Southern Italy or Mezzogiorno (literally "midday") is a macroregion of Italy traditionally encompassing the territories of the former Kingdom of the two Sicilies (all the southern section of the Italian Peninsula and Sicily), with the frequent addition of the island of Sardinia.
Spiridon Trikoupis (Σπυρίδων Τρικούπης; April 20, 1788 – February 24, 1873) was a Greek statesman, diplomat, author and orator.
Stefan Branković (Стефан Бранковић; c. 1417 – 9 October 1476), also known in historiography as Stefan the Blind (Стефан Слепи), was briefly the despot (ruler) of the Serbian Despotate between 1458 and 1459, member of the Branković dynasty.
Stephen III of Moldavia, known as Stephen the Great (Ștefan cel Mare;; died on 2 July 1504) was voivode (or prince) of Moldavia from 1457 to 1504.
Stephen Tomašević or Stephen II (Stjepan/Stefan Tomašević, Стјепан/Стефан Томашевић; died on 25 May 1463) was the last sovereign from the Bosnian Kotromanić dynasty, reigning as Despot of Serbia briefly in 1459 and as King of Bosnia from 1461 until 1463.
Suceava is the largest city and the seat of Suceava County, situated in the historical region of Bukovina from Central EuropeKlaus Peter Berger,, Kluwer Law International, 2010, p. 132 and north-eastern Romania respectively.
Sultan (سلطان) is a position with several historical meanings.
Sultan Cem or Cem Sultan (December 22, 1459 – February 25, 1495) (جم; Cem Sultan), also referred to as Jem Sultan, or Zizim by the French, was a pretender to the Ottoman throne in the 15th century.
The Sultanate of Rûm (also known as the Rûm sultanate (سلجوقیان روم, Saljuqiyān-e Rum), Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate, Sultanate of Iconium, Anatolian Seljuk State (Anadolu Selçuklu Devleti) or Turkey Seljuk State (Türkiye Selçuklu Devleti)) was a Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim state established in the parts of Anatolia which had been conquered from the Byzantine Empire by the Seljuk Empire, which was established by the Seljuk Turks.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
The Tatars (татарлар, татары) are a Turkic-speaking peoples living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries.
Târgoviște (alternative spelling: Tîrgoviște) is a city in Romania, and the county seat of the Dâmbovița County.
Türbe is the Turkish word for "tomb", and for the characteristic mausoleums, often relatively small, of Ottoman royalty and notables.
Thasos or Thassos (Θάσος) is a Greek island, geographically part of the North Aegean Sea, but administratively part of the Kavala regional unit.
The Conquest of Constantinople (İstanbul'un Fethi) is a 1951 Turkish adventure film directed by.
Theodosius II (Flavius Theodosius Junior Augustus; Θεοδόσιος Βʹ; 10 April 401 – 28 July 450),"Theodosius II" in The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, New York & Oxford, 1991, p. 2051.
Stephen Thomas (Stjepan Tomaš/Стјепан Томаш; 1411 – July 1461), a member of the House of Kotromanić, reigned from 1443 until his death as the penultimate King of Bosnia.
Thomas Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Thomas Palaiologos; 1409 – 12 May 1465) was Despot in Morea from 1428 until the Ottoman conquest in 1460.
The Tiled Kiosk (Çinili Köşk) is a pavilion set within the outer walls of Topkapı Palace and dates from 1472 as shown on the tile inscript above the main entrance.
A timar was land granted by the Ottoman sultans between the fourteenth and sixteenth centuries, with a tax revenue annual value of less than 20 000 akçes.
Timur (تیمور Temūr, Chagatai: Temür; 9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405), historically known as Amir Timur and Tamerlane (تيمور لنگ Temūr(-i) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol conqueror.
The Topkapı Palace (Topkapı Sarayı or in طوپقپو سرايى, Ṭopḳapu Sarāyı), or the Seraglio, is a large museum in Istanbul, Turkey.
Toponymy is the study of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use, and typology.
The Treaty of Constantinople was signed on January 25, 1479, which officially ended the fifteen-year war between the Republic of Venice and the Ottoman Empire.
The Triarchy of Negroponte was a crusader state established on the island of Euboea (Negroponte) after the partition of the Byzantine Empire following the Fourth Crusade.
A tribute (/ˈtrɪbjuːt/) (from Latin tributum, contribution) is wealth, often in kind, that a party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often the case in historical contexts, of submission or allegiance.
Troy (Τροία, Troia or Τροίας, Troias and Ἴλιον, Ilion or Ἴλιος, Ilios; Troia and Ilium;Trōia is the typical Latin name for the city. Ilium is a more poetic term: Hittite: Wilusha or Truwisha; Truva or Troya) was a city in the far northwest of the region known in late Classical antiquity as Asia Minor, now known as Anatolia in modern Turkey, near (just south of) the southwest mouth of the Dardanelles strait and northwest of Mount Ida.
A tughra (طغرا tuğrâ) is a calligraphic monogram, seal or signature of a sultan that was affixed to all official documents and correspondence.
Turahanoğlu Ömer Bey (Ὀμάρης or Ἀμάρης;PLP 21056 1435–1484) was an Ottoman general and governor.
A turban (from Persian دولبند, dulband; via Middle French turbant) is a type of headwear based on cloth winding.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
The Turkish lira (Türk lirası; sign: ₺; code: TRY; usually abbreviated as TL) is the currency of Turkey and the self-declared Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.
Turkish people or the Turks (Türkler), also known as Anatolian Turks (Anadolu Türkleri), are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living mainly in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most widely spoken Turkic language.
The Arabic term ulama (علماء., singular عالِم, "scholar", literally "the learned ones", also spelled ulema; feminine: alimah and uluma), according to the Encyclopedia of Islam (2000), in its original meaning "denotes scholars of almost all disciplines".
Ulcinj (Montenegrin Cyrillic: Улцињ,; Albanian: Ulqin or Ulqini) is a town on the southern coast of Montenegro and the capital of Ulcinj Municipality.
The University of Toronto Press is a Canadian scholarly publisher and book distributor founded in 1901.
Uzun Hasan or Uzun Hassan (1423 – January 6, 1478) (اوزون حسن, Uzun Həsən; Uzun Hasan, where uzun means "tall"; اوزون حسن) was the 9th shahanshah of the Oghuz Turkic Aq Qoyunlu dynasty, also known as the White Sheep Turkomans, and generally considered to be its strongest ruler.
Vassal states were a number of tributary or vassal states, usually on the periphery of the Ottoman Empire under suzerainty of the Porte, over which direct control was not established, for various reasons.
A vassal state is any state that is subordinate to another.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
Vettore Cappello (Vettor Cappello; –1467) was a merchant, statesman and military commander of the Republic of Venice.
The Via Egnatia (Greek: Ἐγνατία Ὁδός) was a road constructed by the Romans in the 2nd century BC.
A vizier (rarely; وزير wazīr; وازیر vazīr; vezir; Chinese: 宰相 zǎixiàng; উজির ujira; Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu): वज़ीर or وزیر vazeer; Punjabi: ਵਜ਼ੀਰ or وزير vazīra, sometimes spelt vazir, vizir, vasir, wazir, vesir or vezir) is a high-ranking political advisor or minister.
Vlad III, known as Vlad the Impaler (Vlad Țepeș) or Vlad Dracula (1428/311476/77), was voivode (or prince) of Wallachia three times between 1448 and his death.
Vladislav II (died c. August 20, 1456) was a Voivode or ruler of the principality of Wallachia, from 1447 to 1448, and again from 1448 to 1456.The way Vladislav II came to the throne is debatable.
Wallachia or Walachia (Țara Românească; archaic: Țeara Rumânească, Romanian Cyrillic alphabet: Цѣра Рȣмѫнѣскъ) is a historical and geographical region of Romania.
A waqf (وقف), also known as habous or mortmain property, is an inalienable charitable endowment under Islamic law, which typically involves donating a building, plot of land or other assets for Muslim religious or charitable purposes with no intention of reclaiming the assets.
A warship is a naval ship that is built and primarily intended for naval warfare.
Zaganos Pasha (Zağanos Paşa; fl. 1446 – 1462 or 1469) was an Ottoman military commander, with the titles and ranks of kapudan pasha and the highest military rank, grand vizier, during the reign of Sultan Mehmed II "the Conqueror".
The Zigana Pass (Zigana Geçidi) is a mountain pass situated on the Pontic Mountains in Gümüşhane Province close to its border with Trabzon Province in northeastern Turkey.
El-Fātiḥ, Fatih Mehmed, Fatih Sultan Mehmed, Fatih Sultan Mehmed (II), Fatih Sultan Mehmet, Fatih Sultan Mehmet Han, II. Mehmet, Kayser-i Rûm, Mahomet II, Mahommed II, Mehemet II, Mehmed II, Mehmed II Al-Fatih, Mehmed Ii, Mehmed the conqueror, Mehmet II, Mehmet Ii, Mehmet The Conqueror, Mehmet el-Fatih, Mehmet the Conqueror, Meḥmed-i sānī, Meḥmed-i s̠ānī, Mohamed II, Mohammed II of Turkey, Muhammad Al Fatih, Muhammad II the Great, Muhammad al-Fatih, Muhammad the Conqueror, Muhammed bin Murad, Ottoman sultan Muhammad II, Sultan Mehmed II, Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror, Sultan Mehmet II, Sultan Mehmet The Conqueror, Sultan Mehmet al-Fatih, Turcarum Imperator, محمد الثانى, محمد ثانى.