109 relations: Aegirine, Aeolian processes, African Plate, Al-Fashir, Alkali, Amphibole, Anorthoclase, Aquifer, Augite, Basalt, Basanite, Before Present, Benmoreite, Biotite, Cameroon line, Cinder cone, Common Era, Crust (geology), Darfur, Darfur Dome, Darfur genocide, Diatomaceous earth, Diopside, Erosion, Flash flood, Fractionation, Fresh water, Fumarole, Fur, Geothermal gradient, Greenschist, Haruj, Hawaiite, Hoggar Mountains, Holocene, Hot spring, Igneous rock, Ignimbrite, K–Ar dating, Laccolith, Lava, Lava dome, Lineament, Lithosphere, Maar, Magma chamber, Magnetite, Mantle (geology), Mantle plume, Marrah Mountains, ..., Mesa, Mesozoic, Metamorphic rock, Midob people, Miocene, Mugearite, Neoproterozoic, Nepheline, North Darfur, Nubian languages, Nubian Sandstone, Nuclear fallout, Oasis, Obsidian, Oligocene, Olivine, Orogeny, Ostracod, Paleozoic, Phenocryst, Phonolite, Phreatomagmatic eruption, Pleistocene, Plinian eruption, Pliocene, Poaceae, Precambrian, Pumice, Pyroclastic flow, Pyroxene, Red Sea Rift, Rift, River delta, Sahara, Sahel, Salt, Sandstone, Sanidine, Shrubland, Slavery, Spring (hydrology), Stress (mechanics), Subvolcanic rock, Sudan, Tagabo Hills, Tephrochronology, Thermoluminescence, Tibesti Mountains, Trachyte, Triple junction, Ulvöspinel, Volcanic cone, Volcanic crater, Volcanic Explosivity Index, Volcanic field, Wadi, Wadi Howar, Wetland, Xenolith. Expand index (59 more) » « Shrink index
Aegirine is a member of the clinopyroxene group of inosilicates.
Aeolian processes, also spelled eolian or æolian, pertain to wind activity in the study of geology and weather and specifically to the wind's ability to shape the surface of the Earth (or other planets).
The African Plate is a major tectonic plate straddling the equator as well as the prime meridian.
Al Fashir, Al-Fashir or El Fasher (الفاشر) is the capital city of North Darfur, Sudan.
In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.
Amphibole is an important group of generally dark-colored, inosilicate minerals, forming prism or needlelike crystals, composed of double chain tetrahedra, linked at the vertices and generally containing ions of iron and/or magnesium in their structures.
The mineral anorthoclase ((Na,K)AlSi3O8) is a crystalline solid solution in the alkali feldspar series, in which the sodium-aluminium silicate member exists in larger proportion.
An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, rock fractures or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt).
Augite is a common rock-forming pyroxene mineral with formula (Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe,Al,Ti)(Si,Al)2O6.
Basalt is a common extrusive igneous (volcanic) rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface of a planet or moon.
Basanite is an igneous, volcanic (extrusive) rock with aphanitic to porphyritic texture.
Before Present (BP) years is a time scale used mainly in geology and other scientific disciplines to specify when events occurred in the past.
Benmoreite is a silica-undersaturated volcanic rock of intermediate composition.
Biotite is a common phyllosilicate mineral within the mica group, with the approximate chemical formula.
The Cameroon line is a chain of volcanoes.
A cinder cone or scoria cone is a steep conical hill of loose pyroclastic fragments, such as either volcanic clinkers, cinders, volcanic ash, or scoria that has been built around a volcanic vent.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
Darfur (دار فور, Fur) is a region in western Sudan.
Darfur Dome or Darfur Volcanic Province is an area about 100x400 km in area in Western Sudan, the result of a volcanic plume which created its best-known and central feature, Deriba Crater.
The Darfur genocide refers to the systematic killing of Darfuri men, women, and children which has occurred during the ongoing conflict in Western Sudan.
Diatomaceous earth – also known as D.E., diatomite, or kieselgur/kieselguhr – is a naturally occurring, soft, siliceous sedimentary rock that is easily crumbled into a fine white to off-white powder.
Diopside is a monoclinic pyroxene mineral with composition MgCaSi2O6.
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that remove soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).
A flash flood is a rapid flooding of geomorphic low-lying areas: washes, rivers, dry lakes and basins.
Fractionation is a separation process in which a certain quantity of a mixture (gas, solid, liquid, enzymes, suspension, or isotope) is divided during a phase transition, into a number of smaller quantities (fractions) in which the composition varies according to a gradient.
Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water.
A fumarole (or fumerole – the word ultimately comes from the Latin fumus, "smoke") is an opening in a planet's crust, often in areas surrounding volcanoes, which emits steam and gases such as carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen sulfide.
Fur is the hair covering of non-human mammals, particularly those mammals with extensive body hair that is soft and thick.
Geothermal gradient is the rate of increasing temperature with respect to increasing depth in the Earth's interior.
Greenschists are metamorphic rocks that formed under the lowest temperatures and pressures usually produced by regional metamorphism, typically and 2–10 kilobars.
Haruj (هروج, also known as Haroudj) is a large volcanic field spread across in central Libya.
Hawaiite is an olivine basalt with a composition between alkali basalt and mugearite.
The Hoggar Mountains (جبال هقار, Berber: idurar n Ahaggar, Tuareg: Idurar Uhaggar), also known as the Ahaggar Mountains, are a highland region in the central Sahara, southern Algeria, along the Tropic of Cancer.
The Holocene is the current geological epoch.
A hot spring is a spring produced by the emergence of geothermally heated groundwater that rises from the Earth's crust.
Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ignis meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic.
Ignimbrite is a variety of hardened tuff.
Potassium–argon dating, abbreviated K–Ar dating, is a radiometric dating method used in geochronology and archaeology.
A laccolith is a sheet intrusion (or concordant pluton) that has been injected between two layers of sedimentary rock.
Lava is molten rock generated by geothermal energy and expelled through fractures in planetary crust or in an eruption, usually at temperatures from.
In volcanology, a lava dome or volcanic dome is a roughly circular mound-shaped protrusion resulting from the slow extrusion of viscous lava from a volcano.
See also Line (geometry) A lineament is a linear feature in a landscape which is an expression of an underlying geological structure such as a fault.
A lithosphere (λίθος for "rocky", and σφαίρα for "sphere") is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial-type planet, or natural satellite, that is defined by its rigid mechanical properties.
A maar is a broad, low-relief volcanic crater caused by a phreatomagmatic eruption (an explosion which occurs when groundwater comes into contact with hot lava or magma).
A magma chamber is a large pool of liquid rock beneath the surface of the Earth.
Magnetite is a rock mineral and one of the main iron ores, with the chemical formula Fe3O4.
The mantle is a layer inside a terrestrial planet and some other rocky planetary bodies.
A mantle plume is an upwelling of abnormally hot rock within the Earth's mantle, first proposed by J. Tuzo Wilson in 1963.
The Marrah Mountains or Marra Mountains (Fur, Fugo Marra; جبل مرة, Jebel Marra (Sudanese Arabic – “woman mountains” due to the outline of a reclining woman when viewed from the south-east, also known in English as Gimbala) is a range of volcanic peaks in a massif that rises up to. It is the highest mountain in Sudan.
Mesa (Spanish and Portuguese for table) is the American English term for tableland, an elevated area of land with a flat top and sides that are usually steep cliffs.
The Mesozoic Era is an interval of geological time from about.
Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock types, in a process called metamorphism, which means "change in form".
The Midob people are an ethnic group from the Meidob Hills region in Darfur, Sudan.
The Miocene is the first geological epoch of the Neogene Period and extends from about (Ma).
Mugearite is a type of oligoclase-bearing basalt, comprising olivine, apatite, and opaque oxides.
The Neoproterozoic Era is the unit of geologic time from.
Not to be confused with Nephrite. Nepheline, also called nephelite (from Greek: νεφέλη, "cloud"), is a feldspathoid: a silica-undersaturated aluminosilicate, Na3KAl4Si4O16, that occurs in intrusive and volcanic rocks with low silica, and in their associated pegmatites.
North Darfur State (ولاية شمال دارفور Wilāyat Šamāl Dārfūr; Shamal Darfor) is one of the wilayat or states of Sudan.
The Nubian languages (لغات نوبية) are a group of related languages spoken by the Nubians of Nubia, a region along the Nile in southern Egypt and northern Sudan.
The Nubian Sandstone is a variety of sedimentary rock deposited on the Precambrian basement in the eastern Sahara, north-east Africa and Arabian Peninsula.
Nuclear fallout, or simply fallout, is the residual radioactive material propelled into the upper atmosphere following a nuclear blast, so called because it "falls out" of the sky after the explosion and the shock wave have passed.
In geography, an oasis (plural: oases) is an isolated area in a desert, typically surrounding a spring or similar water source, such as a pond or small lake.
Obsidian is a naturally occurring volcanic glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock.
The Oligocene is a geologic epoch of the Paleogene Period and extends from about 33.9 million to 23 million years before the present (to). As with other older geologic periods, the rock beds that define the epoch are well identified but the exact dates of the start and end of the epoch are slightly uncertain.
The mineral olivine is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg2+, Fe2+)2SiO4.
An orogeny is an event that leads to a large structural deformation of the Earth's lithosphere (crust and uppermost mantle) due to the interaction between plate tectonics.
Ostracods, or ostracodes, are a class of the Crustacea (class Ostracoda), sometimes known as seed shrimp.
The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era (from the Greek palaios (παλαιός), "old" and zoe (ζωή), "life", meaning "ancient life") is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon.
1 euro coin (diameter 2.3 cm) for scale. A phenocryst is an early forming, relatively large and usually conspicuous crystal distinctly larger than the grains of the rock groundmass of an igneous rock.
Phonolite is an uncommon volcanic rock, of intermediate chemical composition between felsic and mafic, with texture ranging from aphanitic (fine-grain) to porphyritic (mixed fine- and coarse-grain).
Phreatomagmatic eruptions are volcanic eruptions resulting from interaction between magma and water.
The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations.
Plinian eruptions or Vesuvian eruptions are volcanic eruptions marked by their similarity to the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD, which destroyed the ancient Roman cities of Herculaneum and Pompeii.
The Pliocene (also Pleiocene) Epoch is the epoch in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.333 million to 2.58 million years BP.
Poaceae or Gramineae is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses, commonly referred to collectively as grass.
The Precambrian (or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pЄ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic Eon.
Pumice, called pumicite in its powdered or dust form, is a volcanic rock that consists of highly vesicular rough textured volcanic glass, which may or may not contain crystals.
A pyroclastic flow (also known as a pyroclastic density current or a pyroclastic cloud) is a fast-moving current of hot gas and volcanic matter (collectively known as tephra) that moves away from a volcano reaching speeds of up to.
The pyroxenes (commonly abbreviated to Px) are a group of important rock-forming inosilicate minerals found in many igneous and metamorphic rocks.
The Red Sea Rift is a spreading center between two tectonic plates, the African Plate and the Arabian Plate.
In geology, a rift is a linear zone where the lithosphere is being pulled apart and is an example of extensional tectonics.
A river delta is a landform that forms from deposition of sediment carried by a river as the flow leaves its mouth and enters slower-moving or stagnant water.
The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic.
The Sahel is the ecoclimatic and biogeographic zone of transition in Africa between the Sahara to the north and the Sudanian Savanna to the south.
Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.
Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized (0.0625 to 2 mm) mineral particles or rock fragments.
Sanidine is the high temperature form of potassium feldspar with a general formula K(AlSi3O8).
Shrubland, scrubland, scrub, brush, or bush is a plant community characterised by vegetation dominated by shrubs, often also including grasses, herbs, and geophytes.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
A spring is any natural situation where water flows from an aquifer to the Earth's surface.
In continuum mechanics, stress is a physical quantity that expresses the internal forces that neighboring particles of a continuous material exert on each other, while strain is the measure of the deformation of the material.
A subvolcanic rock, also known as a hypabyssal rock, is an intrusive igneous rock that is emplaced at medium to shallow depths (>2 km) within the crust, and has intermediate grain size and often porphyritic texture between that of volcanic and plutonic rocks.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
The Tagabo Hills is a volcanic field in the region of Darfur in Sudan.
Tephra horizons in south-central Iceland. The thick and light coloured layer at the height of the volcanologist's hands is rhyolitic tephra from Hekla. Tephrochronology is a geochronological technique that uses discrete layers of tephra—volcanic ash from a single eruption—to create a chronological framework in which paleoenvironmental or archaeological records can be placed.
Thermoluminescence is a form of luminescence that is exhibited by certain crystalline materials, such as some minerals, when previously absorbed energy from electromagnetic radiation or other ionizing radiation is re-emitted as light upon heating of the material.
The Tibesti Mountains are a mountain range in the central Sahara, primarily located in the extreme north of Chad, with a small extension into southern Libya.
Trachyte is an igneous volcanic rock with an aphanitic to porphyritic texture.
A triple junction is the point where the boundaries of three tectonic plates meet.
Ulvöspinel or ulvite is an iron titanium oxide mineral with formula: Fe2TiO4 or TiFe2+2O4.
Volcanic cones are among the simplest volcanic landforms.
A volcanic crater is a roughly circular depression in the ground caused by volcanic activity.
The Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) is a relative measure of the explosiveness of volcanic eruptions.
A volcanic field is an area of the Earth's crust that is prone to localized volcanic activity.
Wadi (wādī; ואדי), alternatively wād (وَاد), is the Arabic and Hebrew term traditionally referring to a valley.
Wadi Howar (Wadi Howa) is a wadi in Sudan and Chad.
A wetland is a land area that is saturated with water, either permanently or seasonally, such that it takes on the characteristics of a distinct ecosystem.
A xenolith ("foreign rock") is a rock fragment that becomes enveloped in a larger rock during the latter's development and solidification.