277 relations: Adolf Hitler, Adolf Hitler's rise to power, Aisleless church, Alliance 90/The Greens, Amidah, Amt (country subdivision), Amtsgericht, Anthony of Padua, Arno Breker, Art Nouveau, Aryanization (Nazism), Association football, Astrid Lindgren, Auschwitz concentration camp, Bad Bergzabern, Bad Homburg vor der Höhe, Bad Kreuznach, Bad Kreuznach (district), Bad Sobernheim, Bank, Baroque architecture, Baroque Revival architecture, Bavaria, Bärweiler, Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, Berlin, Bernburg, Bleachfield, Boarding school, Bohemia, Bonn, Breitenheim, Brewery, Bronze, Bronze Age, Bundesstraße, Burglary, Callbach, Calvinism, Canting arms, Castle, Catholic Church, Central place theory, Cession, Chapel, Charge (heraldry), Chemin de ronde, Chimney, Christian Democratic Union of Germany, Christian IV, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken, ..., Christianity, Church (building), Classical architecture, Clinker brick, Closet, Coat of arms, Coffee Hag albums, Coin, Commandry, Communication disorder, Congress of Vienna, Corbel, County of Veldenz, Dachau concentration camp, Darmstadt, De jure, Death marches (Holocaust), Desloch, Diepholz, Districts of Germany, Draisine, Eisenstadt, Electoral Palatinate, Electorate of Bavaria, Emigration, Escutcheon (heraldry), Eurasian blue tit, Evangelical Church in Germany, Evangelical Church in the Rhineland, Exile, Expressionist architecture, Family medicine, Fire department, France, Franciscans, Frankfurt, Frederick VI, Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg, Free Democratic Party (Germany), Free Voters, French Revolution, French Revolutionary Wars, Galicia (Eastern Europe), Georg Moller, German Empire, German language, Germany, Glan (Nahe), Glan Valley Railway, Gothic architecture, Gothic Revival architecture, Grand Duchy of Baden, Grand Duchy of Hesse, Gründerzeit, Guben, Gurs internment camp, Gustav, Duke of Zweibrücken, Gymnasium (school), Habsburg Monarchy, Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict, Hall church, Hawker (trade), Hazzan, Hebrew language, Heidelberg University, Hennweiler, Heraldry of the World, Hesse-Homburg, Historicism (art), Hospital, Hotel, House of Wittelsbach, Hundsbach, Hunsrück, Hurbanovo, Inn, Internal medicine, Israel, Israelites, Jerusalem, Jews, Judaism, Kamen, Kikinda, Kingdom of Bavaria, Kingdom of Hungary (1526–1867), Kirn, Kiryat Motzkin, Knee wall, Knights Hospitaller, Kreisstraße, Kristallnacht, Kusel, Kusel (district), Landwehr, Late Middle Ages, Lauter Valley Railway, Lauterecken, Lauterecken-Grumbach station, Löllbach, Leper colony, Liebenzell Mission, Limestone, London, Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor, Lunéville, Lusatia, Lutheranism, Lviv, Magazine, Magdalene of Jülich-Cleves-Berg, Magyarization, Mainz, Malt house, Mannheim, Mansard roof, Marco Reich, Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria, Müllheim, Münster, Medard, Meddersheim, Meisenheim (Verbandsgemeinde), Merxheim, Middle Ages, Mikveh, Military occupation, Mint (facility), Nazi Germany, Nazi Party, Neoclassical architecture, Neurology, New Apostolic Church, North Palatine Uplands, Oberderdingen, Oberleutnant, Odenbach, Odernheim am Glan, Odo of France, Oil mill, Order of Saint Augustine, Organ (music), Oriel window, Palatine Zweibrücken, Paul Schneider (pastor), Písek, Personal union, Pharmacy (shop), Poland, Post office, Primary school, Princess Elizabeth of the United Kingdom, Proportional representation, Prussia, Pulpit, Rabbi, Racibórz, Rail transport, Raumbach, Reformation, Rehborn, Reiffelbach, Relief, Renaissance architecture, Renaissance Revival architecture, Rhenish guilder, Rhineland-Palatinate, Rib vault, Rococo, Roman Catholic Diocese of Trier, Rundbogenstil, Sandstone, Schinderhannes, Schloss, School, Schultheiß, Schutzjude, Schweinschied, Sefer Torah, Semi-detached, Serbian Vojvodina, Shechita, Shofar, Silver, Sobibór extermination camp, Social Democratic Party of Germany, Speech-language pathology, Stahlhelm, Bund der Frontsoldaten, Staircase tower, Stanisław Leszczyński, Star of David, States of Germany, Staudernheim, Staudernheim station, Stolperstein, Stone Age, Sturmabteilung, Summer house, Surgery, Synagogue, Tanning (leather), Tauberbischofsheim, Tczew, Terracotta, Thaler, The Holocaust, Thirty Years' War, Timber framing, Tincture (heraldry), Tit (bird), Train station, Ukraine, Ulm, University of Wrocław, Weighing scale, Weimar Republic, West Francia, West Prussia, Westphalia, Widow, Wolfgang, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken, World War I, World War II, Wrocław, Wrought iron, Yad Vashem, Yeshiva, Zweibrücken. Expand index (227 more) » « Shrink index
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Adolf Hitler's rise to power began in Germany in September 1919 when Hitler joined the political party known as the Deutsche Arbeiterpartei – DAP (German Workers' Party).
An aisleless church (Saalkirche) is a single-nave church building that consists of a single hall-like room.
Alliance 90/The Greens, often simply Greens (Bündnis 90/Die Grünen or Grüne), is a green political party in Germany that was formed from the merger of the German Green Party (founded in West Germany in 1980 and merged with the East Greens in 1990) and Alliance 90 (founded during the Revolution of 1989–1990 in East Germany) in 1993.
The Amidah (תפילת העמידה, Tefilat HaAmidah, "The Standing Prayer"), also called the Shmoneh Esreh ("The Eighteen", in reference to the original number of constituent blessings: there are now nineteen), is the central prayer of the Jewish liturgy.
Amt is a type of administrative division governing a group of municipalities, today only in Germany, but formerly also common in other countries of Northern Europe.
An Amtsgericht in Germany is a local court.
Saint Anthony of Padua (St.), born Fernando Martins de Bulhões (15 August 1195 – 13 June 1231), also known as Anthony of Lisbon, was a Portuguese Catholic priest and friar of the Franciscan Order.
Arno Breker (19 July 1900 – 13 February 1991) was a German architect and sculptor who is best known for his public works in Nazi Germany, where they were endorsed by the authorities as the antithesis of degenerate art.
Art Nouveau is an international style of art, architecture and applied art, especially the decorative arts, that was most popular between 1890 and 1910.
Aryanization (Arisierung) is a term coined during Nazism referring to the forced expulsion of so-called "non-Aryans", mainly Jews, from business life in Nazi Germany and the territories it controlled.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Astrid Anna Emilia Lindgren (born Ericsson;; 14 November 1907 – 28 January 2002) was a Swedish writer of fiction and screenplays.
Auschwitz concentration camp was a network of concentration and extermination camps built and operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II.
Bad Bergzabern is a municipality in the Südliche Weinstraße district, on the German Wine Route in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
Bad Homburg vor der Höhe is the district town of the Hochtaunuskreis, Hesse, Germany, on the southern slope of the Taunus, bordering among others Frankfurt am Main and Oberursel.
Bad Kreuznach is a town in the Bad Kreuznach district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
Bad Kreuznach is a district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
Bad Sobernheim is a town in the Bad Kreuznach district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
A bank is a financial institution that accepts deposits from the public and creates credit.
Baroque architecture is the building style of the Baroque era, begun in late 16th-century Italy, that took the Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical and theatrical fashion, often to express the triumph of the Catholic Church.
The Baroque Revival, also known as Neo-Baroque (or Second Empire architecture in France), was an architectural style of the late 19th century.
Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.
Bärweiler is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Bad Kreuznach district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
Bergen-Belsen, or Belsen, was a Nazi concentration camp in what is today Lower Saxony in northern Germany, southwest of the town of Bergen near Celle.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
Bernburg (Saale) is a town in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany, capital of the Salzlandkreis district.
A bleachfield, bleach green, bleaching green or croft was an open area of land (usually a field) used for spreading cloth and fabrics on the ground to be bleached by the action of the sun and water.
A boarding school provides education for pupils who live on the premises, as opposed to a day school.
Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic.
The Federal City of Bonn is a city on the banks of the Rhine in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, with a population of over 300,000.
Breitenheim is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Bad Kreuznach district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
A brewery or brewing company is a business that makes and sells beer.
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Bundesstraße (German for "federal highway"), abbreviated B, is the denotation for German and Austrian national highways.
Burglary (also called breaking and entering and sometimes housebreaking) is an unlawful entry into a building or other location for the purposes of committing an offence.
Callbach is a municipality in the Bad Kreuznach district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
Canting arms are heraldic bearings that represent the bearer's name (or, less often, some attribute or function) in a visual pun or rebus.
A castle (from castellum) is a type of fortified structure built during the Middle Ages by predominantly the nobility or royalty and by military orders.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Central place theory is a geographical theory that seeks to explain the number, size and location of human settlements in a residential system.
The act of cession is the assignment of property to another entity.
The term chapel usually refers to a Christian place of prayer and worship that is attached to a larger, often nonreligious institution or that is considered an extension of a primary religious institution.
In heraldry, a charge is any emblem or device occupying the field of an escutcheon (shield).
A chemin de ronde (French, "round path"' or "patrol path")—also called an allure, alure or, more prosaically, a wall-walk—is a raised protected walkway behind a castle battlement.
A chimney is a structure that provides ventilation for hot flue gases or smoke from a boiler, stove, furnace or fireplace to the outside atmosphere.
The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands, CDU) is a Christian democratic and liberal-conservative political party in Germany.
Christian IV, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld (6 September 1722 in Bischweiler – 5 November 1775 in Herschweiler-Pettersheim) was Duke of Zweibrücken from 1735 to 1775.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
A church building or church house, often simply called a church, is a building used for Christian religious activities, particularly for worship services.
Classical architecture usually denotes architecture which is more or less consciously derived from the principles of Greek and Roman architecture of classical antiquity, or sometimes even more specifically, from the works of Vitruvius.
Clinker bricks are partially-vitrified bricks used in the construction of buildings.
A closet (especially in North American usage) is an enclosed space used for storage, particularly that of clothes.
A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard.
The Coffee Hag albums were published in the early 20th century by the Kaffee Handelsgesellschaft AG (Kaffee HAG, Coffee Hag) in Bremen, Germany, starting with heraldic stamps and collector's albums.
A coin is a small, flat, (usually) round piece of metal or plastic used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender.
Commandry (British English), or commandery (American English), was the smallest division of the European landed estate or manor under the control of a commander of a military order.
A communication disorder is any disorder that affects an individual's ability to comprehend, detect, or apply language and speech to engage in discourse effectively with others.
The Congress of Vienna (Wiener Kongress) also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814.
In architecture a corbel is a structural piece of stone, wood or metal jutting from a wall to carry a superincumbent weight, a type of bracket.
The County of Veldenz was a principality in the contemporary Land Rhineland-Palatinate.
Dachau concentration camp (Konzentrationslager (KZ) Dachau) was the first of the Nazi concentration camps opened in Germany, intended to hold political prisoners.
Darmstadt is a city in the state of Hesse in Germany, located in the southern part of the Rhine-Main-Area (Frankfurt Metropolitan Region).
In law and government, de jure (lit) describes practices that are legally recognised, whether or not the practices exist in reality.
Death marches (Todesmärsche in German) refer to the forcible movements of prisoners of Nazi Germany between Nazi camps on pain of death during World War II.
Desloch is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Bad Kreuznach district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
Diepholz is a town and capital of the district of Diepholz in Lower Saxony, Germany.
In most German states, the primary administrative subdivision is a Landkreis ("rural district"); the exceptions are the states of North Rhine-Westphalia and Schleswig-Holstein, where the term is simply Kreis.
A draisine is a light auxiliary rail vehicle, driven by service personnel, equipped to transport crew and material necessary for the maintenance of railway infrastructure.
Eisenstadt (Kismarton, Željezni grad, Željezno, Železno) is a city in Austria, the state capital of Burgenland.
The County Palatine of the Rhine (Pfalzgrafschaft bei Rhein), later the Electorate of the Palatinate (Kurfürstentum von der Pfalz) or simply Electoral Palatinate (Kurpfalz), was a territory in the Holy Roman Empire (specifically, a palatinate) administered by the Count Palatine of the Rhine.
The Electorate of Bavaria (Kurfürstentum Bayern) was an independent hereditary electorate of the Holy Roman Empire from 1623 to 1806, when it was succeeded by the Kingdom of Bavaria.
Emigration is the act of leaving a resident country or place of residence with the intent to settle elsewhere.
In heraldry, an escutcheon is a shield that forms the main or focal element in an achievement of arms.
The Eurasian blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) is a small passerine bird in the tit family, Paridae.
The Evangelical Church in Germany (Evangelische Kirche in Deutschland, abbreviated EKD) is a federation of twenty Lutheran, Reformed (Calvinist) and United (Prussian Union) Protestant regional churches and denominations in Germany, which collectively encompasses the vast majority of Protestants in that country.
Protestant Church in the Rhineland (Evangelische Kirche im Rheinland; EKiR) is a United Protestant church body in parts of the German states of North Rhine-Westphalia, Rhineland-Palatinate, Saarland and Hesse (Wetzlar).
To be in exile means to be away from one's home (i.e. city, state, or country), while either being explicitly refused permission to return or being threatened with imprisonment or death upon return.
Expressionist architecture is an architectural movement in Europe during the first decades of the 20th century in parallel with the expressionist visual and performing arts that especially developed and dominated in Germany.
Family medicine (FM), formerly family practice (FP), is a medical specialty devoted to comprehensive health care for people of all ages; the specialist is named a family physician or family doctor.
A fire department (American English) or fire brigade (British English), also known as a fire protection district, fire authority or fire and rescue service is an organization that primarily provides firefighting services for a specific geographic area.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi.
Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.
Frederick VI (30 July 1769 – 2 April 1829) reigned as Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg from 1820 until his death in 1829.
The Free Democratic Party (Freie Demokratische Partei, FDP) is a liberal and classical liberal political party in Germany.
Free Voters (Freie Wähler, FW or FWG) in Germany may belong to an association of persons which participates in an election without having the status of a registered political party.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution.
Galicia (Ukrainian and Галичина, Halyčyna; Galicja; Czech and Halič; Galizien; Galícia/Kaliz/Gácsország/Halics; Galiția/Halici; Галиция, Galicija; גאַליציע Galitsiye) is a historical and geographic region in Central Europe once a small Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia and later a crown land of Austria-Hungary, the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, that straddled the modern-day border between Poland and Ukraine.
Georg Moller (21 January 1784 – 13 March 1852) was an architect and a town planner who worked in the South of Germany, mostly in the region today known as Hessen.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The Glan is a river in southwestern Germany, right tributary of the Nahe River.
The Glan Valley Railway (Glantalbahn) is a non-electrified line along the Glan river, in the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate.
Gothic architecture is an architectural style that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages.
Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic or neo-Gothic) is an architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England.
The Grand Duchy of Baden (Großherzogtum Baden) was a state in the southwest German Empire on the east bank of the Rhine.
The Grand Duchy of Hesse and by Rhine (Großherzogtum Hessen und bei Rhein) was a state in western Germany that existed from the German mediatization to the end of the German Empire.
Gründerzeit (literally: “founders’ period”) was the economic phase in 19th-century Germany and Austria before the great stock market crash of 1873.
Guben (Polish and Sorbian: Gubin) is a town on the Lusatian Neisse river in the state of Brandenburg, Germany.
Gurs Internment Camp was a internment camp and prisoner of war camp constructed in 1939 in Gurs, a site in southwestern France, not far from Pau.
Count Palatine Gustav Samuel Leopold of the House of Wittelsbach (12 April 1670, Stegeborg Castle near Söderköping, Sweden – 17 September 1731, Zweibrücken, Germany) was the Count Palatine of Kleeburg from 1701 until 1731 and the Duke of Zweibrücken from 1718 until 1731.
A gymnasium is a type of school with a strong emphasis on academic learning, and providing advanced secondary education in some parts of Europe comparable to British grammar schools, sixth form colleges and US preparatory high schools.
The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.
The Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict is the first international treaty that focuses exclusively on the protection of cultural property in armed conflict. It was signed at The Hague, Netherlands on 14 May 1954 and entered into force on 7 August 1956. As of June 2018, it has been ratified by 132 states. The provisions of the 1954 Convention were supplemented and clarified by two protocols concluded in 1954 and 1999. All three agreements are part of International Humanitarian Law, which, in the form of further agreements, primarily includes provisions defining the permissible means and methods of warfare and aiming at the widest possible protection of persons not involved in the fighting. In contrast to these parts of International Humanitarian Law, the agreements on the protection of cultural property were drawn up under the auspices of the United Nations (UN); the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) is primarily responsible for the dissemination and monitoring of compliance. In addition to rules designed to ensure the protection and respect of cultural property during an armed conflict, these agreements also provide for security measures to be implemented in times of peace. As of June 2018, 132 states are party to the Hague Convention of 1954, 109 and 77 states respectively have acceded to the Protocols of 1954 and 1999. Blue Shield International, based in The Hague, is active in the field of international coordination with regard to military and civil structures for the protection of cultural assets. The guiding principles of the Convention and the motivation for its conclusion, dissemination and respect are summarised in the preamble, which states, among other things, "... that any damage to cultural property, irrespective of the people it belongs to, is a damage to the cultural heritage of all humanity, because every people contributes to the world's culture...".
A hall church is a church with nave and side aisles of approximately equal height, often united under a single immense roof.
A hawker is a vendor of merchandise that can be easily transported; the term is roughly synonymous with peddler or costermonger.
A hazzan or chazzan (חַזָּן, plural; Yiddish khazn; Ladino hassan) is a Jewish musician or precentor trained in the vocal arts who helps lead the congregation in songful prayer.
Heidelberg University (Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg; Universitas Ruperto Carola Heidelbergensis) is a public research university in Heidelberg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
Hennweiler is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Bad Kreuznach district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
Heraldry of the World (or NGW, for the original Dutch name Nederlandse GemeenteWapens (Dutch civic heraldry)) is an Internet-based heraldic resource.
Hesse-Homburg was formed into a separate landgraviate in 1622 by the landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt; it was to be ruled by his son, although it did not become independent of Hesse-Darmstadt until 1668.
Historicism or also historism (Historismus) comprises artistic styles that draw their inspiration from recreating historic styles or imitating the work of historic artisans.
A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized medical and nursing staff and medical equipment.
A hotel is an establishment that provides paid lodging on a short-term basis.
The House of Wittelsbach is a European royal family and a German dynasty from Bavaria.
Hundsbach is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Bad Kreuznach district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
The Hunsrück is a low mountain range in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
Hurbanovo (until 1948 Stará Ďala, Ógyalla, Altdala) is a town and large municipality in the Komárno District in the Nitra Region of south-west Slovakia.
Inns are generally establishments or buildings where travelers can seek lodging and, usually, food and drink.
Internal medicine or general medicine (in Commonwealth nations) is the medical specialty dealing with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of adult diseases.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The Israelites (בני ישראל Bnei Yisra'el) were a confederation of Iron Age Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Kamen is a town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, in the district Unna.
Kikinda (Кикинда) is a city and the administrative center of the North Banat District in the autonomous province of Vojvodina, Serbia.
The Kingdom of Bavaria (Königreich Bayern) was a German state that succeeded the former Electorate of Bavaria in 1805 and continued to exist until 1918.
The Kingdom of Hungary between 1526 and 1867 was, while outside the Holy Roman Empire, part of the lands of the Habsburg Monarchy, that became the Empire of Austria in 1804.
Kirn is a town in the Bad Kreuznach district in Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany.
Kiryat Motzkin (קִרְיַת מוֹצְקִין) is a city in the Haifa District of Israel, north of the city of Haifa.
A knee wall is a short wall, typically under three feet (one metre) in height, used to support the rafters in timber roof construction.
The Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem (Ordo Fratrum Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani), also known as the Order of Saint John, Order of Hospitallers, Knights Hospitaller, Knights Hospitalier or Hospitallers, was a medieval Catholic military order.
A Kreisstraße (literally: "district road" or "county road") is a class of road in Germany.
Kristallnacht (lit. "Crystal Night") or Reichskristallnacht, also referred to as the Night of Broken Glass, Reichspogromnacht or simply Pogromnacht, and Novemberpogrome (Yiddish: קרישטאָל נאַכט krishtol nakt), was a pogrom against Jews throughout Nazi Germany on 9–10 November 1938, carried out by SA paramilitary forces and German civilians.
Kusel, until 1865 written Cusel, is a town in the Kusel district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
Kusel is a district (Kreis) in the south of Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
Landwehr, or Landeswehr, is a German language term used in referring to certain national armies, or militias found in nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Europe.
The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from 1250 to 1500 AD.
The Lauter Valley Railway (Lautertalbahn) is a branch line in the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate.
Lauterecken is a town in the Kusel district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
Lauterecken-Grumbach station is the station of the town of Lauterecken in the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate.
Löllbach is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Bad Kreuznach district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
A leper colony, leprosarium, or lazar house is a place to quarantine people with leprosy (Hansen's disease).
The Liebenzell Mission is a cluster of like-minded Evangelical mission organizations in Austria, Canada, Germany, Hungary, Japan, Korea, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and the United States.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Louis IV (Ludwig; 1 April 1282 – 11 October 1347), called the Bavarian, of the house of Wittelsbach, was King of the Romans from 1314, King of Italy from 1327, and Holy Roman Emperor from 1328.
Lunéville (German, obsolete) is a commune in the Meurthe-et-Moselle department in France.
Lusatia (Lausitz, Łužica, Łužyca, Łużyce, Lužice) is a region in Central Europe.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Lviv (Львів; Львов; Lwów; Lemberg; Leopolis; see also other names) is the largest city in western Ukraine and the seventh-largest city in the country overall, with a population of around 728,350 as of 2016.
A magazine is a publication, usually a periodical publication, which is printed or electronically published (sometimes referred to as an online magazine).
Duchess Magdalene of Jülich-Cleves-Berg (2 November 1553 – 30 August 1633) was the fifth child of Duke William "the rich" of Jülich-Cleves-Berg and Maria of Austria, a daughter of Emperor Ferdinand I. She married in 1579 with Count Palatine John I ''the lame'' of Zweibrücken.
Magyarization (also Magyarisation, Hungarization, Hungarisation, Hungarianization, Hungarianisation), after "Magyar", the autonym of Hungarians, was an assimilation or acculturation process by which non-Hungarian nationals came to adopt the Hungarian culture and language, either voluntarily or due to social pressure, often in the form of a coercive policy.
Satellite view of Mainz (south of the Rhine) and Wiesbaden Mainz (Mogontiacum, Mayence) is the capital and largest city of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany.
A malt house, or maltings, is a building where cereal grain is converted into malt by soaking it in water, allowing it to sprout and then drying it to stop further growth.
Mannheim (Palatine German: Monnem or Mannem) is a city in the southwestern part of Germany, the third-largest in the German state of Baden-Württemberg after Stuttgart and Karlsruhe with a 2015 population of approximately 305,000 inhabitants.
A mansard or mansard roof (also called a French roof or curb roof) is a four-sided gambrel-style hip roof characterized by two slopes on each of its sides with the lower slope, punctured by dormer windows, at a steeper angle than the upper.
Marco Reich (born 30 December 1977) is a German retired footballer who played as a midfielder.
Maximilian I Joseph (27 May 1756 – 13 October 1825) was Duke of Zweibrücken from 1795 to 1799, Prince-Elector of Bavaria (as Maximilian IV Joseph) from 1799 to 1806, then King of Bavaria (as Maximilian I Joseph) from 1806 to 1825.
Müllheim is a town in Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany.
Münster (Low German: Mönster; Latin: Monasterium, from the Greek μοναστήριον monastērion, "monastery") is an independent city (Kreisfreie Stadt) in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Medard is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Kusel district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
Meddersheim is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Bad Kreuznach district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
Meisenheim is a Verbandsgemeinde ("collective municipality") in the district of Bad Kreuznach, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
Merxheim is a small town and Ortsgemeinde in the Bad Kreuznach district in Rhineland-Palatinate, western Germany.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Mikveh or mikvah (mikva'ot, mikvoth, mikvot, or (Yiddish) mikves, "a collection") is a bath used for the purpose of ritual immersion in Judaism to achieve ritual purity.
Military occupation is effective provisional control by a certain ruling power over a territory which is not under the formal sovereignty of that entity, without the violation of the actual sovereign.
A mint is an industrial facility which manufactures coins that can be used in currency.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The National Socialist German Workers' Party (abbreviated NSDAP), commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party, was a far-right political party in Germany that was active between 1920 and 1945 and supported the ideology of Nazism.
Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century.
Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
The New Apostolic Church (NAC) is a chiliastic Christian church that split from the Catholic Apostolic Church during a 1863 schism in Hamburg, Germany.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
The North Palatine Uplands (Nordpfälzer Bergland), sometimes incorrectly shortened to Palatine Uplands (Pfälzer Bergland), is a low mountain range and landscape unit in the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate and belongs mainly to the Palatinate region.
Oberderdingen is a municipality in the district of Karlsruhe, in Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
Oberleutnant (OF-1a) is the highest lieutenant officer rank in the armed forces of Germany (Bundeswehr), Austrian Armed Forces, and Military of Switzerland.
Odenbach is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Kusel district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
Odernheim am Glan is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Bad Kreuznach district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
Odo (or Eudes) (c. 859/860 – 1 January 898) was the elected King of Francia from 888 to 898 as the first king from the Robertian dynasty.
An oil mill is a grinding mill designed to crush or bruise oil-bearing seeds, such as linseed or peanuts, or other oil-rich vegetable material, such as olives or the fruit of the oil palm, which can then be pressed to extract vegetable oils, which may used as foods or for cooking, as oleochemical feedstocks, as lubricants, or as biofuels.
The Order of Saint Augustine (Ordo sancti Augustini, abbreviated as OSA; historically Ordo eremitarum sancti Augustini, OESA, the Order of Hermits of Saint Augustine), generally called Augustinians or Austin Friars (not to be confused with the Augustinian Canons Regular), is a Catholic religious order.
In music, the organ (from Greek ὄργανον organon, "organ, instrument, tool") is a keyboard instrument of one or more pipe divisions or other means for producing tones, each played with its own keyboard, played either with the hands on a keyboard or with the feet using pedals.
An oriel window is a form of bay window which protrudes from the main wall of a building but does not reach to the ground.
Palatine Zweibrücken, or the County Palatine of Zweibrücken, is a former state of the Holy Roman Empire.
Paul Robert Schneider (August 29, 1897 – July 18, 1939) was an Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union pastor who was the first Protestant minister to be martyred by the Nazis.
Písek (Pisek) is a middle-sized town in the South Bohemian Region of the Czech Republic.
A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct.
A pharmacy (also called "drugstore" in American English or "community pharmacy" or "chemist's" in Commonwealth English) is a retail shop which provides prescription drugs, among other products.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
A post office is a customer service facility forming part of a national postal system.
A primary school (or elementary school in American English and often in Canadian English) is a school in which children receive primary or elementary education from the age of about seven to twelve, coming after preschool, infant school and before secondary school.
Princess Elizabeth of the United Kingdom (22 May 1770 – 10 January 1840) was the seventh child and third daughter of King George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems by which divisions into an electorate are reflected proportionately into the elected body.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
Pulpit is a raised stand for preachers in a Christian church.
In Judaism, a rabbi is a teacher of Torah.
Racibórz (Ratibor, Ratiboř, Raćibůrz) is a town in Silesian Voivodeship in southern Poland.
Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks.
Raumbach is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Bad Kreuznach district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
Rehborn is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Bad Kreuznach district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
Reiffelbach is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Bad Kreuznach district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material.
Renaissance architecture is the European architecture of the period between the early 14th and early 17th centuries in different regions, demonstrating a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture.
Renaissance Revival (sometimes referred to as "Neo-Renaissance") is a broad designation that covers many 19th century architectural revival styles which were neither Grecian (see Greek Revival) nor Gothic (see Gothic Revival) but which instead drew inspiration from a wide range of classicizing Italian modes.
Rhenish guilder (Rheinischer Gulden; florenus Rheni) is the name of the golden, base currency coin of the Rhineland in the 14th and 15th centuries.
Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz) is one of the 16 states (Bundesländer) of the Federal Republic of Germany.
The intersection of two to three barrel vaults produces a rib vault or ribbed vault when they are edged with an armature of piped masonry often carved in decorative patterns; compare groin vault, an older form of vault construction.
Rococo, less commonly roccoco, or "Late Baroque", was an exuberantly decorative 18th-century European style which was the final expression of the baroque movement.
The Roman Catholic diocese of Trier, in English traditionally known by its French name of Treves, is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic church in Germany.
Rundbogenstil (Round-arch style), is a nineteenth-century historic revival style of architecture popular in the German-speaking lands and the German diaspora.
Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized (0.0625 to 2 mm) mineral particles or rock fragments.
Johannes Bückler (c.1778 – 21 November 1803), nicknamed Schinderhannes, was a German outlaw who orchestrated one of the most famous crime sprees in German history.
Schloss (pl. Schlösser), formerly written Schloß, is the German term for a building similar to a château, palace, or manor house; or what in the United Kingdom would be known as a stately home or country house.
A school is an institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students (or "pupils") under the direction of teachers.
In medieval Germany, the Schultheiß was the head of a municipality (akin to today's office of mayor), a Vogt or an executive official of the ruler.
Schutzjude ("protected Jew") was a status for German Jews granted by the imperial, princely or royal courts.
Schweinschied is a municipality in the district of Bad Kreuznach in Rhineland-Palatinate, in western Germany.
A Sefer Torah (ספר תורה; "Book of Torah" or "Torah scroll"; plural: Sifrei Torah) is a handwritten copy of the Torah, the holiest book in Judaism.
A semi-detached house (often abbreviated to semi) is a single family dwelling house built as one of a pair that share one common wall.
The Serbian Vojvodina (Српска Војводина / Srpska Vojvodina) was a short-lived self-proclaimed Serb autonomous province within the Austrian Empire during the Revolutions of 1848, which existed until 1849 when it was transformed into the new (official) Austrian province named Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar.
In Judaism, shechita (anglicized:; שחיטה;; also transliterated shehitah, shechitah, shehita) is slaughtering of certain mammals and birds for food according to kashrut.
A shofar (pron., from Shofar.ogg) is an ancient musical horn typically made of a ram's horn, used for Jewish religious purposes.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Sobibór (or Sobibor) was a Nazi German extermination camp built and operated by the SS near the railway station of Sobibór during World War II, within the semi-colonial territory of General Government of the occupied Second Polish Republic.
The Social Democratic Party of Germany (Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, SPD) is a social-democratic political party in Germany.
Speech-language pathology is a field of expertise practiced by a clinician known as a speech-language pathologist (SLP), also sometimes referred to as a speech and language therapist or a speech therapist. SLP is considered a "related health profession" along with audiology, optometry, occupational therapy, clinical psychology, physical therapy, and others.
The Stahlhelm, Bund der Frontsoldaten ("Steel Helmet, League of Front Soldiers", also known in short form as Der Stahlhelm) was one of the many paramilitary organizations that arose after the German defeat of World War I. It was part of the "Black Reichswehr" and in the late days of the Weimar Republic operated as the armed branch of the national conservative German National People's Party (DNVP), placed at party gatherings in the position of armed security guards (Saalschutz).
A staircase tower (Treppenturm, also Stiegenturm or Wendelstein) is a tower-like wing of a building with a circular or polygonal plan that contains a stairwell, usually a helical staircase.
Stanisław I Leszczyński (also Anglicized and Latinized as Stanislaus I, Stanislovas Leščinskis, Stanislas Leszczynski; 20 October 1677 – 23 February 1766) was King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania, Duke of Lorraine and a count of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Star of David (✡), known in Hebrew as the Shield of David or Magen David (Hebrew rtl; Biblical Hebrew Māḡēn Dāwīḏ, Tiberian, Modern Hebrew, Ashkenazi Hebrew and Yiddish Mogein Dovid or Mogen Dovid), is a generally recognized symbol of modern Jewish identity and Judaism.
Germany is a federal republic consisting of sixteen states (Land, plural Länder; informally and very commonly Bundesland, plural Bundesländer).
Staudernheim is a municipality in the district of Bad Kreuznach in Rhineland-Palatinate, in western Germany.
Staudernheim station is a through station, located 35.3 km from Bingen on the Nahe Valley Railway (Bingen–Saarbrücken), in Staudernheim in the district of Bad Kreuznach in the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate.
A Stolperstein (plural Stolpersteine; literally "stumbling stone", metaphorically a "stumbling block") is a cobblestone-size, concrete cube bearing a brass plate inscribed with the name and life dates of victims of Nazi extermination or persecution.
The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make implements with an edge, a point, or a percussion surface.
The Sturmabteilung (SA), literally Storm Detachment, functioned as the original paramilitary wing of the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
A summer house or summerhouse has traditionally referred to a building or shelter used for relaxation in warm weather.
Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
A synagogue, also spelled synagog (pronounced; from Greek συναγωγή,, 'assembly', בית כנסת, 'house of assembly' or, "house of prayer", Yiddish: שול shul, Ladino: אסנוגה or קהל), is a Jewish house of prayer.
Tanned leather in Marrakesh Tanning is the process of treating skins and hides of animals to produce leather.
Tauberbischofsheim (East Franconian: Bischem) is a German town in the north-east of Baden-Württemberg on the river Tauber with a population of about 13,200.
Tczew (Dërszewò) is a town on the Vistula River in Eastern Pomerania, Kociewie, northern Poland with 60,279 inhabitants (June 2009).
Terracotta, terra cotta or terra-cotta (Italian: "baked earth", from the Latin terra cocta), a type of earthenware, is a clay-based unglazed or glazed ceramic, where the fired body is porous.
The thaler was a silver coin used throughout Europe for almost four hundred years.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648.
Timber framing and "post-and-beam" construction are traditional methods of building with heavy timbers, creating structures using squared-off and carefully fitted and joined timbers with joints secured by large wooden pegs.
Tinctures constitute the limited palette of colours and patterns used in heraldry.
The tits, chickadees, and titmice constitute the Paridae, a large family of small passerine birds which occur mainly in the Northern Hemisphere and Africa.
A train station, railway station, railroad station, or depot (see below) is a railway facility or area where trains regularly stop to load or unload passengers or freight.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
Ulm is a city in the federal German state of Baden-Württemberg, situated on the River Danube.
The University of Wrocław (UWr; Uniwersytet Wrocławski; Universität Breslau; Universitas Wratislaviensis) is a public research university located in Wrocław, Poland.
Weighing scales (or weigh scales or scales) are devices to measure weight.
The Weimar Republic (Weimarer Republik) is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state during the years 1919 to 1933.
In medieval historiography, West Francia (Latin: Francia occidentalis) or the Kingdom of the West Franks (regnum Francorum occidentalium) was the western part of Charlemagne's Empire, inhabited and ruled by the Germanic Franks that forms the earliest stage of the Kingdom of France, lasting from about 840 until 987.
The Province of West Prussia (Provinz Westpreußen; Zôpadné Prësë; Prusy Zachodnie) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1773 to 1824 and again from 1878 (with the Kingdom itself being part of the German Empire from 1871); it also briefly formed part of the Weimar Republic's Free State of Prussia until 1919/20.
Westphalia (Westfalen) is a region in northwestern Germany and one of the three historic parts of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia.
A widow is a woman whose spouse has died and a widower is a man whose spouse has died.
Count Palatine Wolfgang of Zweibrücken (Pfalzgraf Wolfgang von Zweibrücken; 26 September 1526 – 11 June 1569) was member of the Wittelsbach family of the Counts Palatine and Duke of Zweibrücken 1532–1559.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Wrocław (Breslau; Vratislav; Vratislavia) is the largest city in western Poland.
puddled iron, a form of wrought iron Wrought iron is an iron alloy with a very low carbon (less than 0.08%) content in contrast to cast iron (2.1% to 4%).
Yad Vashem (יָד וַשֵׁם; literally, "a monument and a name") is Israel's official memorial to the victims of the Holocaust.
Yeshiva (ישיבה, lit. "sitting"; pl., yeshivot or yeshivos) is a Jewish institution that focuses on the study of traditional religious texts, primarily the Talmud and the Torah.
Zweibrücken (Deux-Ponts, Palatinate German: Zweebrigge) is a town in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, on the Schwarzbach river.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.