125 relations: Absolute zero, Adamantane, Agar, Alfa Aesar, Aluminium, Amplitude, Arene substitution pattern, Atomic mass, Atomic number, Atomic spacing, Benzene, Beryllium, Bismuth, Boiling point, Boltzmann constant, Cadmium, Carbon, Celsius, Chemical element, Chemical formula, Chlorine, Clausius–Clapeyron relation, Cocoa butter, Copper, Cubane, Cubic centimetre, Debye frequency, Debye model, Density, Diazine, Dichlorobenzene, Differential scanning calorimetry, Electronegativity, Emissivity, Enthalpy, Enthalpy of fusion, Entropy, Entropy of fusion, Equipartition theorem, Fahrenheit, Frederick Lindemann, 1st Viscount Cherwell, Freezing, Frequency, Gallium, Gibbs free energy, Glass, Glass transition, Gold, Gram, Heat, ..., Heat capacity, Helium, Hydrogen, Hysteresis, Indium, Iodine, Iron, Isopentane, Journal of Chemical Education, Kelvin, Kofler bench, Laboratory, Latent heat, Lead, Lindemann index, Liquid, Liquidus, List of chemical elements, Magnesium, Melting, Melting points of the elements (data page), Mercury (element), Molecular symmetry, Nature Precedings, Neopentane, Nickel, Nitrogen, Nucleation, Oil bath, Open data, Organic chemistry, Oxygen, Paraffin wax, Pentane, Phase (matter), Phase diagram, Planck constant, Planck's law, Platinum, Potassium, Pressure, Pyridine, Pyrometer, Random forest, Refractory, Silver, Slip melting point, Sodium, Softening point, Solder, Solid, Solidus (chemistry), Solution, Solvent, Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, State of matter, Structural isomer, Sublimation (phase transition), Sulfur, Supercooling, Tantalum, Tantalum hafnium carbide, Temperature, The Journal of Experimental Biology, Thermodynamic temperature, Thiele tube, Titanium, Triazine, Triple point, Tungsten, Viscous liquid, Water, Xylene, Zinc, Zone melting. Expand index (75 more) » « Shrink index
Absolute zero is the lower limit of the thermodynamic temperature scale, a state at which the enthalpy and entropy of a cooled ideal gas reach their minimum value, taken as 0.
Adamantane is a colorless, crystalline chemical compound with a camphor-like odor.
Agar (pronounced, sometimes) or agar-agar is a jelly-like substance, obtained from algae.
Alfa Aesar, headquartered in Ward Hill, Massachusetts, United States, is a supplier of reagents and materials for use in research and development, and analysis.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
The amplitude of a periodic variable is a measure of its change over a single period (such as time or spatial period).
Arene substitution patterns are part of organic chemistry IUPAC nomenclature and pinpoint the position of substituents other than hydrogen in relation to each other on an aromatic hydrocarbon.
The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
Atomic spacing refers to the distance between the nuclei of atoms in a material.
Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.
Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.
Bismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83.
The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor.
The Boltzmann constant, which is named after Ludwig Boltzmann, is a physical constant relating the average kinetic energy of particles in a gas with the temperature of the gas.
Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
The Celsius scale, previously known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units (SI).
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
The Clausius–Clapeyron relation, named after Rudolf Clausius and Benoît Paul Émile Clapeyron, is a way of characterizing a discontinuous phase transition between two phases of matter of a single constituent.
Cocoa butter, also called theobroma oil, is a pale-yellow, edible vegetable fat extracted from the cocoa bean.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Cubane (C8H8) is a synthetic hydrocarbon molecule that consists of eight carbon atoms arranged at the corners of a cube, with one hydrogen atom attached to each carbon atom.
A cubic centimetre (or cubic centimeter in US English) (SI unit symbol: cm3; non-SI abbreviations: cc and ccm) is a commonly used unit of volume that extends the derived SI-unit cubic metre, and corresponds to the volume of a cube that measures 1 cm × 1 cm × 1 cm.
The Debye frequency (Symbol: \omega_ or \omega_D) is a parameter in the Debye model.
In thermodynamics and solid state physics, the Debye model is a method developed by Peter Debye in 1912 for estimating the phonon contribution to the specific heat (heat capacity) in a solid.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
Diazines are a group of organic compounds having the molecular formula C4H4N2.
There are three distinct chemical compounds which are dichlorobenzenes.
Differential scanning calorimetry, or DSC, is a thermoanalytical technique in which the difference in the amount of heat required to increase the temperature of a sample and reference is measured as a function of temperature.
Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.
The emissivity of the surface of a material is its effectiveness in emitting energy as thermal radiation.
Enthalpy is a property of a thermodynamic system.
The enthalpy of fusion of a substance, also known as (latent) heat of fusion, is the change in its enthalpy resulting from providing energy, typically heat, to a specific quantity of the substance to change its state from a solid to a liquid, at constant pressure.
In statistical mechanics, entropy is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system.
The entropy of fusion is the increase in entropy when melting a substance.
In classical statistical mechanics, the equipartition theorem relates the temperature of a system to its average energies.
The Fahrenheit scale is a temperature scale based on one proposed in 1724 by Dutch-German-Polish physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736).
Frederick Alexander Lindemann, 1st Viscount Cherwell, (5 April 18863 July 1957) was a British physicist and an influential scientific adviser to the British government from the early 1940s to the early 1950s, particularly to Winston Churchill.
Freezing, or solidification, is a phase transition in which a liquid turns into a solid when its temperature is lowered below its freezing point.
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.
Gallium is a chemical element with symbol Ga and atomic number 31.
In thermodynamics, the Gibbs free energy (IUPAC recommended name: Gibbs energy or Gibbs function; also known as free enthalpy to distinguish it from Helmholtz free energy) is a thermodynamic potential that can be used to calculate the maximum of reversible work that may be performed by a thermodynamic system at a constant temperature and pressure (isothermal, isobaric).
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
The glass–liquid transition, or glass transition, is the gradual and reversible transition in amorphous materials (or in amorphous regions within semicrystalline materials), from a hard and relatively brittle "glassy" state into a viscous or rubbery state as the temperature is increased.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
The gram (alternative spelling: gramme; SI unit symbol: g) (Latin gramma, from Greek γράμμα, grámma) is a metric system unit of mass.
In thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one system to another as a result of thermal interactions.
Heat capacity or thermal capacity is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added to (or removed from) an object to the resulting temperature change.
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hysteresis is the dependence of the state of a system on its history.
Indium is a chemical element with symbol In and atomic number 49.
Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Isopentane, C5H12, also called methylbutane or 2-methylbutane, is a branched-chain alkane with five carbon atoms.
The Journal of Chemical Education is a monthly peer-reviewed academic journal available in both print and electronic versions.
The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.
A Kofler bench or Kofler hot-stage microscope is a metal strip with a temperature gradient (range room temperature to 300°C).
A laboratory (informally, lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed.
Latent heat is thermal energy released or absorbed, by a body or a thermodynamic system, during a constant-temperature process — usually a first-order phase transition.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
The Lindemann index is a simple measure of thermally driven disorder in atoms or molecules.
A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure.
The liquidus temperature, TL or Tliq specifies the temperature above which a material is completely liquid, and the maximum temperature at which crystals can co-exist with the melt in thermodynamic equilibrium.
, 118 chemical elements are identified.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Melting, or fusion, is a physical process that results in the phase transition of a substance from a solid to a liquid.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
Molecular symmetry in chemistry describes the symmetry present in molecules and the classification of molecules according to their symmetry.
Nature Precedings was an open access electronic preprint repository of scholarly work in the fields of biomedical sciences, chemistry, and earth sciences.
Neopentane, also called 2,2-dimethylpropane, is a double-branched-chain alkane with five carbon atoms.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Nucleation is the first step in the formation of either a new thermodynamic phase or a new structure via self-assembly or self-organization.
An oil bath is a type of heated bath used in a laboratory, most commonly used to heat up chemical reactions.
Open data is the idea that some data should be freely available to everyone to use and republish as they wish, without restrictions from copyright, patents or other mechanisms of control.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Paraffin wax is a white or colourless soft solid, derived from petroleum, coal or oil shale, that consists of a mixture of hydrocarbon molecules containing between twenty and forty carbon atoms.
Pentane is an organic compound with the formula C5H12—that is, an alkane with five carbon atoms.
In the physical sciences, a phase is a region of space (a thermodynamic system), throughout which all physical properties of a material are essentially uniform.
A phase diagram in physical chemistry, engineering, mineralogy, and materials science is a type of chart used to show conditions (pressure, temperature, volume, etc.) at which thermodynamically distinct phases occur and coexist at equilibrium.
The Planck constant (denoted, also called Planck's constant) is a physical constant that is the quantum of action, central in quantum mechanics.
Planck's law describes the spectral density of electromagnetic radiation emitted by a black body in thermal equilibrium at a given temperature T. The law is named after Max Planck, who proposed it in 1900.
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
Pyridine is a basic heterocyclic organic compound with the chemical formula C5H5N.
A pyrometer is a type of remote-sensing thermometer used to measure the temperature of a surface.
Random forests or random decision forests are an ensemble learning method for classification, regression and other tasks, that operate by constructing a multitude of decision trees at training time and outputting the class that is the mode of the classes (classification) or mean prediction (regression) of the individual trees.
A refractory mineral is a mineral that is resistant to decomposition by heat, pressure, or chemical attack.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
The Slip melting point (SMP) or "slip point" is one conventional definition of the melting point of a waxy solid.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
The softening point is the temperature at which a material softens beyond some arbitrary softness.
Solder (or in North America) is a fusible metal alloy used to create a permanent bond between metal workpieces.
Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas, and plasma).
In chemistry, materials science, and physics, the solidus is the locus of temperatures (a curve on a phase diagram) below which a given substance is completely solid (crystallized).
In chemistry, a solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.
In physics, a state of matter is one of the distinct forms in which matter can exist.
Structural isomerism, or constitutional isomerism (per IUPAC), is a form of isomerism in which molecules with the same molecular formula have different bonding patterns and atomic organization, as opposed to stereoisomerism, in which molecular bonds are always in the same order and only spatial arrangement differs.
Sublimation is the transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase, without passing through the intermediate liquid phase.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Supercooling, also known as undercooling, is the process of lowering the temperature of a liquid or a gas below its freezing point without it becoming a solid.
Tantalum is a chemical element with symbol Ta and atomic number 73.
Tantalum hafnium carbide is a refractory chemical compound with a general formula TaxHfy-xCy, which can be considered as a solid solution of tantalum carbide and hafnium carbide.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
The Journal of Experimental Biology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal in the field of comparative physiology and integrative biology.
Thermodynamic temperature is the absolute measure of temperature and is one of the principal parameters of thermodynamics.
The Thiele tube, named after the German chemist Johannes Thiele, is a laboratory glassware designed to contain and heat an oil bath.
Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.
A triazine is class of nitrogen-containing heterocycles.
In thermodynamics, the triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which the three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium.
Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.
In condensed matter physics and physical chemistry, the terms viscous liquid, supercooled liquid, and glassforming liquid are often used interchangeably to designate liquids that are at the same time highly viscous (see Viscosity of amorphous materials), can be or are supercooled, and able to form a glass.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
Xylene (from Greek ξύλο, xylo, "wood"), xylol or dimethylbenzene is any one of three isomers of dimethylbenzene, or a combination thereof.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
Zone melting (or zone refining or floating zone process or travelling melting zone) is a group of similar methods of purifying crystals, in which a narrow region of a crystal is melted, and this molten zone is moved along the crystal.