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Member state of the European Union

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The European Union (EU) consists of 28 member states. [1]

284 relations: Accession of Turkey to the European Union, Acquis communautaire, Akrotiri and Dhekelia, Albania, Amsterdam, Ankara Agreement, Apportionment in the European Parliament, Athens, Austria, Bailout, Balkans, Basque language, Belarusian language, Belgium, Berlin, Bern, Bicameralism, Bloomberg L.P., Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bratislava, Brexit, British Indian Ocean Territory, Brussels, Brussels and the European Union, Bucharest, Budapest, Bulgaria, Bulgarian language, Bulgarian lev, Caribbean, Catalan independence movement, Catalan language, Charles de Gaulle, Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, Clipperton Island, Coat of arms, Cold War, Colonial empire, Common Security and Defence Policy, Consensus decision-making, Constitution of Poland, Constitutional monarchy, Copenhagen, Copenhagen criteria, Costa v ENEL, Council of the European Union, Croatia, Croatian kuna, Croatian language, Currencies of the European Union, ..., Cyprus, Cyprus dispute, Czech koruna, Czech language, Czech Republic, Danish krone, Danish language, Denmark, Der Spiegel, Devolution, Diplomatic mission, Dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles, Dublin, Dutch language, East Germany, Eastern Bloc, Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union, Economy of the European Union, Edward Heath, Enhanced cooperation, Enlargement of the European Union, Estonia, Estonian language, EUobserver, Euro, Europa (Web portal), European Central Bank, European Citizens' Initiative, European Coal and Steel Community, European Commission, European Council, European Court of Auditors, European Court of Justice, European debt crisis, European Economic Area, European Economic Community, European Financial Stabilisation Mechanism, European Financial Stability Facility, European Fiscal Compact, European Parliament, European Public Prosecutor, European Single Market, European Stability Mechanism, European Union, European Union Association Agreement, European Union Institute for Security Studies, European Union law, European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo, European Union value added tax, Eurozone, Falkland Islands, Federacy, Federal Council (Austria), Federalism, Financial Times, Finland, Finnish language, Flag, Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Flag of Europe, Foreign policy, France, France–Germany relations, Free market, Freedom House, French Guiana, G6 (EU), Galician language, Geary–Khamis dollar, Georges Pompidou, German reunification, Germany, Gini coefficient, Greece, Greek language, Greenland, Greenland–European Union relations, Gross domestic product, Helsinki, High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina, House of Lords, Human Development Index, Human Development Report, Hungarian forint, Hungarian language, Hungary, Iceland, Inner Six, Institutions of the European Union, Intergovernmental organization, Irish Examiner, Italy, Jean-Claude Juncker, Kosovo, Languages of the European Union, Latvia, Latvian language, Liberal democracy, Liechtenstein, Lisbon, List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita, List of newspapers in Greece, Lithuania, Lithuanian language, Ljubljana, London, Los Angeles Times, Lower house, Luxembourg, Luxembourg City, Luxembourgish, Madrid, Malta, Maltese language, Member of the European Parliament, Microstates and the European Union, Minority language, Montenegro, Morocco, National Council (Slovenia), National parliaments of the European Union, Netherlands, Nicosia, Northern Ireland, Norway, Open Europe, Opt-outs in the European Union, Paris, Parliamentary republic, Parliamentary system, Partition of Belgium, Party-list proportional representation, Permanent Structured Cooperation, Plazas de soberanía, Poland, Polish language, Polish złoty, Portugal, Portuguese language, Pound sterling, Prague, Presidency of the Council of the European Union, President of France, President of the European Commission, Presidential system, Primacy of European Union law, Proportional representation, Protectorate, Representative democracy, Republic of Ireland, Republic of Macedonia, Reserve power, Riga, Robert Cooper (strategist), Romani language, Romania, Romanian language, Romanian leu, Rome, Rule of law, Rusyn language, Schengen Agreement, Schengen Area, Scotland, Self-governance, Semi-presidential system, Senate of Poland, Serbia, Serbian language, Slovak language, Slovakia, Slovene language, Slovenia, Sofia, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Sovereignty, Spain, Special member state territories and the European Union, Stabilisation and Association Process, Stockholm, Subsidiarity, Succession of states, Supranational union, Sweden, Swedish krona, Swedish language, Switzerland, Tallinn, The Economist, The Guardian, Theresa May, Treaties of the European Union, Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe, Treaty of Amsterdam, Treaty of Lisbon, Treaty of Nice, Trojan Horse, Turkey, Turkish constitutional referendum, 2017, Turkish language, Turks and Caicos Islands, Ukrainian language, Unicameralism, Unitary state, United Kingdom, United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, 2016, United Kingdom invocation of Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union, United Nations Buffer Zone in Cyprus, United Nations Development Programme, United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo, Universal suffrage, Upper house, Valletta, Vienna, Vietnamese language, Vilnius, Voting in the Council of the European Union, Wales, Ward (law), Warsaw, Weighted voting, Welsh language, West Germany, Yugoslavia, Zagreb, 1973 enlargement of the European Communities, 1981 enlargement of the European Communities, 1986 enlargement of the European Communities, 1995 enlargement of the European Union, 2004 enlargement of the European Union, 2007 enlargement of the European Union, 2013 enlargement of the European Union, 2016 Turkish coup d'état attempt, 2016–present purges in Turkey. Expand index (234 more) »

Accession of Turkey to the European Union

Turkey's application to accede to the European Economic Community, the predecessor of the European Union (EU), was made on 14 April 1987.

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Acquis communautaire

The Community acquis or acquis communautaire, sometimes called the EU acquis and often shortened to acquis, is the accumulated legislation, legal acts, and court decisions which constitute the body of European Union law.

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Akrotiri and Dhekelia

The Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia (SBA; Περιοχές Κυρίαρχων Βάσεων Ακρωτηρίου και Δεκέλιας, Periochés Kyríarchon Váseon Akrotiríou kai Dekélias; Egemen Üs Bölgeleri Ağrotur ve Dikelya), is a British Overseas Territory on the island of Cyprus.

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Albania

Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.

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Amsterdam

Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.

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Ankara Agreement

The Agreement Creating An Association Between The Republic of Turkey and the European Economic Community (commonly known as the Ankara Agreement), is a treaty, signed in 1963, which provides for the framework for the co-operation between Turkey and the European Union (EU).

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Apportionment in the European Parliament

The apportionment of seats within the European Parliament to each member state of the European Union is set out by the EU treaties.

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Athens

Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.

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Austria

Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.

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Bailout

A bailout is a colloquial term for the provision of financial help to a corporation or country which otherwise would be on the brink of failure or bankruptcy.

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Balkans

The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.

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Basque language

Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.

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Belarusian language

Belarusian (беларуская мова) is an official language of Belarus, along with Russian, and is spoken abroad, mainly in Ukraine and Russia.

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Belgium

Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.

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Berlin

Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.

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Bern

Bern or Berne (Bern, Bärn, Berne, Berna, Berna) is the de facto capital of Switzerland, referred to by the Swiss as their (e.g. in German) Bundesstadt, or "federal city".

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Bicameralism

A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.

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Bloomberg L.P.

Bloomberg L.P. is a privately held financial, software, data, and media company headquartered in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.

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Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.

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Bratislava

Bratislava (Preßburg or Pressburg, Pozsony) is the capital of Slovakia.

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Brexit

Brexit is the impending withdrawal of the United Kingdom (UK) from the European Union (EU).

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British Indian Ocean Territory

The British Indian Ocean Territory (BIOT) is a British overseas territory of the United Kingdom situated in the Indian Ocean halfway between Tanzania and Indonesia.

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Brussels

Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.

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Brussels and the European Union

Brussels in Belgium is considered the de facto capital of the European Union, having a long history of hosting the institutions of the European Union within its European Quarter.

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Bucharest

Bucharest (București) is the capital and largest city of Romania, as well as its cultural, industrial, and financial centre.

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Budapest

Budapest is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and one of the largest cities in the European Union.

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Bulgaria

Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.

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Bulgarian language

No description.

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Bulgarian lev

The lev (лев, plural: лева, левове / leva, levove) is the currency of Bulgaria.

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Caribbean

The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.

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Catalan independence movement

The Catalan independence movement (independentisme català; Spanish: independentismo catalán) is a political movement historically derived from Catalan nationalism, which seeks independence of Catalonia from Spain.

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Catalan language

Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.

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Charles de Gaulle

Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.

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Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union

The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union enshrines certain political, social, and economic rights for European Union (EU) citizens and residents into EU law.

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Clipperton Island

Clipperton Island (Île de Clipperton or Île de la Passion; Isla de la Pasión) is an uninhabited coral atoll in the eastern Pacific Ocean off the coast of Central America.

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Coat of arms

A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard.

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Cold War

The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).

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Colonial empire

A colonial empire is a collective of territories (often called colonies), mostly overseas, settled by the population of a certain state and governed by that state.

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Common Security and Defence Policy

The Common Security and Defence Policy, CSDP, whose structures are sometimes referred to as the European Defence Union) is the EU's policy arrangements and related institutions in the fields of defence and crisis management. The implementation of the CSDP involves the deployment of military or civilian missions for peace-keeping, conflict prevention and strengthening international security in accordance with the principles of the United Nations Charter. Military missions are carried out by EU forces established with contributions from the member states' armed forces. The CSDP also entails collective self-defence amongst member states as well as a Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO) in which 25 of the 28 national armed forces pursue structural integration. The Union's High Representative (HR/VP), currently Federica Mogherini, is responsible for proposing and implementing CSDP decisions. Such decisions are adopted by the Foreign Affairs Council (FAC), generally requiring unanimity. The CSDP structures, headed by the HR/VP, comprise relevant sections of the External Action Service (EEAS)—including the Military Staff (EUMS) with its operational headquarters (MPCC)—a number of FAC preparatory bodies—such as the Military Committee (EUMC)—as well as four agencies, including the Defence Agency (EDA).

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Consensus decision-making

Consensus decision-making is a group decision-making process in which group members develop, and agree to support a decision in the best interest of the whole.

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Constitution of Poland

The current Constitution of Poland was adopted on 2 April 1997.

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Constitutional monarchy

A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.

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Copenhagen

Copenhagen (København; Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark.

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Copenhagen criteria

The Copenhagen Criteria are the rules that define whether a country is eligible to join the European Union.

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Costa v ENEL

Flaminio Costa v ENEL (1964) Case 6/64 was a landmark decision of the European Court of Justice which established the primacy of European Union law (then Community law) over the laws of its member states'.

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Council of the European Union

The Council of the European Union, referred to in the treaties and other official documents simply as the Council is the third of the seven Institutions of the European Union (EU) as listed in the Treaty on European Union.

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Croatia

Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.

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Croatian kuna

The kuna is the currency of Croatia, in use since 1994 (ISO 4217 code: HRK).

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Croatian language

Croatian (hrvatski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and other neighboring countries.

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Currencies of the European Union

There are eleven currencies of the European Union used officially by member states.

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Cyprus

Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.

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Cyprus dispute

The Cyprus dispute, also known as the Cyprus conflict, Cyprus issue or Cyprus problem, is the ongoing issue of Turkish military invasion and occupation of the northern third of the island since 1974.

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Czech koruna

The koruna (sign: Kč; code: CZK) is the currency of the Czech Republic since 1993, and in English it is sometimes referred to as Czech crown.

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Czech language

Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.

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Czech Republic

The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.

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Danish krone

The krone (plural: kroner; sign: kr.; code: DKK) is the official currency of Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands, introduced on 1 January 1875.

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Danish language

Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.

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Denmark

Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.

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Der Spiegel

Der Spiegel (lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.

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Devolution

Devolution is the statutory delegation of powers from the central government of a sovereign state to govern at a subnational level, such as a regional or local level.

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Diplomatic mission

A diplomatic mission or foreign mission is a group of people from one state or an organisation present in another state to represent the sending state/organisation officially in the receiving state.

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Dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles

The Netherlands Antilles was an autonomous Caribbean country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

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Dublin

Dublin is the capital of and largest city in Ireland.

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Dutch language

The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.

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East Germany

East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.

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Eastern Bloc

The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.

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Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union

The Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) is an umbrella term for the group of policies aimed at converging the economies of member states of the European Union at three stages.

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Economy of the European Union

The European Union is the second largest economy in the world in nominal terms and according to purchasing power parity (PPP).

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Edward Heath

Sir Edward Richard George Heath (9 July 1916 – 17 July 2005), often known as Ted Heath, was a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1974 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1965 to 1975.

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Enhanced cooperation

In the European Union (EU), enhanced cooperation is a procedure where a minimum of nine EU member states are allowed to establish advanced integration or cooperation in an area within EU structures but without the other members being involved.

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Enlargement of the European Union

The European Union (EU) has expanded a number of times throughout its history by way of the accession of new member states to the Union.

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Estonia

Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.

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Estonian language

Estonian (eesti keel) is the official language of Estonia, spoken natively by about 1.1 million people: 922,000 people in Estonia and 160,000 outside Estonia.

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EUobserver

EUobserver is a European online newspaper, launched in 2000 by the Brussels-based organisation EUobserver.com ASBL.

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Euro

The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.

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Europa (Web portal)

Europa is the official web portal of the European Union (EU), providing information on how the EU works, related news, events, publications and links to websites of institutions, agencies and other bodies.

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European Central Bank

The European Central Bank (ECB) is the central bank for the euro and administers monetary policy of the euro area, which consists of 19 EU member states and is one of the largest currency areas in the world.

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European Citizens' Initiative

The European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) is a European Union mechanism aimed at increasing direct democracy by enabling "EU citizens to participate directly in the development of EU policies", introduced with the Treaty of Lisbon in 2007.

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European Coal and Steel Community

The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was an organisation of 6 European countries set up after World War II to regulate their industrial production under a centralised authority.

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European Commission

The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.

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European Council

The European Council, charged with defining the European Union's (EU) overall political direction and priorities, is the institution of the EU that comprises the heads of state or government of the member states, along with the President of the European Council and the President of the European Commission.

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European Court of Auditors

The Court of Auditors (European Court of Auditors, ECA) (French: Cour des comptes européenne) is the fifth institution of the European Union (EU).

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European Court of Justice

The European Court of Justice (ECJ), officially just the Court of Justice (Cour de Justice), is the supreme court of the European Union in matters of European Union law.

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European debt crisis

The European debt crisis (often also referred to as the Eurozone crisis or the European sovereign debt crisis) is a multi-year debt crisis that has been taking place in the European Union since the end of 2009.

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European Economic Area

The European Economic Area (EEA) is the area in which the Agreement on the EEA provides for the free movement of persons, goods, services and capital within the European Single Market, including the freedom to choose residence in any country within this area.

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European Economic Community

The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.

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European Financial Stabilisation Mechanism

The European Financial Stabilisation Mechanism (EFSM) is an emergency funding programme reliant upon funds raised on the financial markets and guaranteed by the European Commission using the budget of the European Union as collateral.

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European Financial Stability Facility

The European Financial Stability Facility (EFSF) is a special purpose vehicle financed by members of the eurozone to address the European sovereign-debt crisis.

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European Fiscal Compact

The Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Governance in the Economic and Monetary Union; also referred to as TSCG or more plainly the Fiscal Stability Treaty is an intergovernmental treaty introduced as a new stricter version of the Stability and Growth Pact, signed on 2 March 2012 by all member states of the European Union (EU), except the Czech Republic and the United Kingdom.

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European Parliament

The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).

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European Public Prosecutor

The European Public Prosecutor's Office (EPPO) is an independent body of the European Union (EU) to be established under the Treaty of Lisbon between 20 of the 28 members of the EU following the method of enhanced cooperation.

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European Single Market

The European Single Market, Internal Market or Common Market is a single market which seeks to guarantee the free movement of goods, capital, services, and labour – the "four freedoms" – within the European Union (EU).

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European Stability Mechanism

The European Stability Mechanism (ESM) is an intergovernmental organization located in Luxembourg City, which operates under public international law for all eurozone Member States having ratified a special ESM intergovernmental treaty.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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European Union Association Agreement

A European Union Association Agreement (for short, Association Agreement or AA) is a treaty between the European Union (EU), its Member States and a non-EU country that creates a framework for co-operation between them.

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European Union Institute for Security Studies

The European Union Institute for Security Studies (EUISS) is a Paris-based agency of the European Union.

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European Union law

European Union law is the system of laws operating within the member states of the European Union.

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European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo

The European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo (EULEX Kosovo) is a deployment of European Union (EU) police and civilian resources to Kosovo.

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European Union value added tax

The European Union value added tax (or EU VAT) is a value added tax on goods and services within the European Union (EU).

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Eurozone

No description.

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Falkland Islands

The Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) is an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean on the Patagonian Shelf.

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Federacy

A federacy is a form of government where one or several substate units enjoy considerably more independence than the majority of the substate units.

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Federal Council (Austria)

The Federal Council (German: Bundesrat is the second chamber of the Austrian Parliament, representing the nine States of Austria (Bundesländer) on federal level. As part of a bicameral legislature alongside of the National Council (Nationalrat), it can be compared with an upper house or a senate. In fact, however, it is far less powerful than the National Council: although it has to approve every new law decided for by this "lower" chamber, the latter can—in most cases—overrule the Federal Council's refusal to approve. The Bundesrat has its seat at the Austrian Parliament Building in Vienna, in a conclave of the former Herrenhaus chamber of the Imperial Council (Reichsrat). During a major renovation of the Parliament Building the Federal Council meets in the Hofburg.

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Federalism

Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government (the central or 'federal' government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system.

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Financial Times

The Financial Times (FT) is a Japanese-owned (since 2015), English-language international daily newspaper headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.

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Finland

Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.

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Finnish language

Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.

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Flag

A flag is a piece of fabric (most often rectangular or quadrilateral) with a distinctive design and colors.

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Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina

The national flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina contains a wide medium blue vertical band on the fly side with a yellow right triangle abutting the band and the top of the flag. The remainder of the flag is medium blue with seven full five-pointed white stars and two half stars top and bottom along the hypotenuse of the triangle. The three points of the triangle stand for the three constituent peoples of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Bosniaks, Croats, and Serbs. The triangle represents the approximate shape of the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The stars, representing Europe, are meant to be infinite in number and thus they continue from top to bottom. The flag features colours often associated with neutrality and peace – white, blue, and yellow. They are also colours traditionally associated with Bosnia. The blue background is suggestive of the flag of Europe.

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Flag of Europe

The European Flag is an official symbol of two separate organisations—the Council of Europe (CoE) and the European Union (EU).

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Foreign policy

A country's foreign policy, also called foreign relations or foreign affairs policy, consists of self-interest strategies chosen by the state to safeguard its national interests and to achieve goals within its international relations milieu.

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France

France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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France–Germany relations

The relations between France and Germany, since 1871, according to Ulrich Krotz, has three grand periods: 'hereditary enmity' (down to 1945), 'reconciliation' (1945–63) and since 1963 the 'special relationship' embodied in a cooperation called Franco-German Friendship (Amitié franco-allemande; Deutsch-Französische Freundschaft).

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Free market

In economics, a free market is an idealized system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.

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Freedom House

Freedom House is a U.S.-based 501(c)(3) U.S. government-funded non-governmental organization (NGO) that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom, and human rights.

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French Guiana

French Guiana (pronounced or, Guyane), officially called Guiana (Guyane), is an overseas department and region of France, on the north Atlantic coast of South America in the Guyanas.

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G6 (EU)

The G6 (Group of Six) in the European Union is an unofficial group of the interior ministers of the six European Union member states – France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, and the United Kingdom – with the largest populations and thus with the majority of votes in the Council of the European Union.

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Galician language

Galician (galego) is an Indo-European language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch.

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Geary–Khamis dollar

The Geary–Khamis dollar, more commonly known as the international dollar (Int'l. dollar or Intl. dollar, abbreviation: Int'l$., Intl$. or Int$), is a hypothetical unit of currency that has the same purchasing power parity that the U.S. dollar had in the United States at a given point in time.

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Georges Pompidou

Georges Jean Raymond Pompidou (5 July 19112 April 1974) was Prime Minister of France from 1962 to 1968—the longest tenure in the position's history—and later President of the French Republic from 1969 until his death in 1974.

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German reunification

The German reunification (Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic (GDR, colloquially East Germany; German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik/DDR) became part of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, colloquially West Germany; German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland/BRD) to form the reunited nation of Germany, and when Berlin reunited into a single city, as provided by its then Grundgesetz (constitution) Article 23.

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Germany

Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Gini coefficient

In economics, the Gini coefficient (sometimes expressed as a Gini ratio or a normalized Gini index) is a measure of statistical dispersion intended to represent the income or wealth distribution of a nation's residents, and is the most commonly used measurement of inequality.

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Greece

No description.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Greenland

Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

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Greenland–European Union relations

Greenland, an autonomous constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark (which also includes the countries of Denmark and Faroe Islands) is one of the EU countries’ overseas countries and territories (OCT).

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Gross domestic product

Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.

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Helsinki

Helsinki (or;; Helsingfors) is the capital city and most populous municipality of Finland.

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High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina

The High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina, together with the Office of the High Representative (OHR) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, were created in 1995 immediately after the signing of the Dayton Agreement which ended the 1992–95 Bosnian War.

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House of Lords

The House of Lords of the United Kingdom, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Human Development Index

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.

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Human Development Report

The Human Development Report (HDR) is an annual milestone published by the Human Development Report Office of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).

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Hungarian forint

The forint (sign: Ft; code: HUF) is the currency of Hungary.

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Hungarian language

Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.

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Hungary

Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.

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Iceland

Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.

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Inner Six

The Inner Six, or simply "the Six", were the six founding member states of the European Communities.

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Institutions of the European Union

The institutions of the European Union are the seven principal decision making bodies of the European Union (EU).

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Intergovernmental organization

An intergovernmental organization or international governmental organisation (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as member states), or of other intergovernmental organizations.

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Irish Examiner

The Irish Examiner, formerly The Cork Examiner and then The Examiner, is an Irish national daily newspaper which primarily circulates in the Munster region surrounding its base in Cork, though it is available throughout the country.

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Italy

Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Jean-Claude Juncker

Jean-Claude Juncker (born 9 December 1954) is a Luxembourgish politician serving as President of the European Commission since 2014.

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Kosovo

Kosovo (Kosova or Kosovë; Косово) is a partially recognised state and disputed territory in Southeastern Europe that declared independence from Serbia in February 2008 as the Republic of Kosovo (Republika e Kosovës; Република Косово / Republika Kosovo).

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Languages of the European Union

The languages of the European Union are languages used by people within the member states of the European Union (EU).

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Latvia

Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.

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Latvian language

Latvian (latviešu valoda) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.

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Liberal democracy

Liberal democracy is a liberal political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of classical liberalism.

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Liechtenstein

Liechtenstein, officially the Principality of Liechtenstein (Fürstentum Liechtenstein), is a doubly landlocked German-speaking microstate in Central Europe.

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Lisbon

Lisbon (Lisboa) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 552,700, Census 2011 results according to the 2013 administrative division of Portugal within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2.

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List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita

Three lists of countries below calculate gross domestic product (at purchasing power parity) per capita, i.e., the purchasing power parity (PPP) value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given year, divided by the average (or mid-year) population for the same year.

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List of newspapers in Greece

The number of national daily newspapers in Greece was 68 in 1950, and it increased to 156 in 1965.

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Lithuania

Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.

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Lithuanian language

Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.

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Ljubljana

Ljubljana (locally also; also known by other, historical names) is the capital and largest city of Slovenia.

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London

London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Los Angeles Times

The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.

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Lower house

A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house.

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Luxembourg

Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.

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Luxembourg City

Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg, Luxembourg, Luxemburg), also known as Luxembourg City (Stad Lëtzebuerg or d'Stad, Ville de Luxembourg, Stadt Luxemburg, Luxemburg-Stadt), is the capital city of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (also named "Luxembourg"), and the country's most populous commune.

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Luxembourgish

Luxembourgish, Luxemburgish or Letzeburgesch (Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuergesch) is a West Germanic language that is spoken mainly in Luxembourg.

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Madrid

Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole.

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Malta

Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.

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Maltese language

Maltese (Malti) is the national language of Malta and a co-official language of the country alongside English, while also serving as an official language of the European Union, the only Semitic language so distinguished.

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Member of the European Parliament

A Member of the European Parliament (MEP) is a person who has been elected to serve as a popular representative in the European Parliament.

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Microstates and the European Union

There are a number of microstates in Europe.

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Minority language

A minority language is a language spoken by a minority of the population of a territory.

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Montenegro

Montenegro (Montenegrin: Црна Гора / Crna Gora, meaning "Black Mountain") is a sovereign state in Southeastern Europe.

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Morocco

Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.

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National Council (Slovenia)

The National Council (Državni svet) is according to the Constitution of Slovenia the representative of social, economic, professional and local interest groups in Slovenia and has a legislative function working as a corrective mechanism of the National Assembly, although it does not itself pass acts.

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National parliaments of the European Union

The national parliaments of the European Union are those legislatures responsible for each member state of the European Union (EU).

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Netherlands

The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.

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Nicosia

Nicosia (Λευκωσία; Lefkoşa) is the largest city on the island of Cyprus.

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Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.

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Norway

Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.

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Open Europe

Open Europe is a socially and economically liberal pan-European think tank and campaign group with offices in London and Brussels and an independent partner organisation in Berlin operated by staff from a number of EU states.

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Opt-outs in the European Union

In general, the law of the European Union is valid in all of the twenty-eight European Union member states.

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Paris

Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.

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Parliamentary republic

A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament).

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Parliamentary system

A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.

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Partition of Belgium

The partition of Belgium is a hypothetical situation which has been discussed by both Belgian and international media, especially in the context of events such as the 2007–11 Belgian political crisis.

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Party-list proportional representation

Party-list proportional representation systems are a family of voting systems emphasizing proportional representation (PR) in elections in which multiple candidates are elected (e.g., elections to parliament) through allocations to an electoral list.

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Permanent Structured Cooperation

The Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO) is the part of the European Union's (EU) security and defence policy (CSDP) in which 25 of the 28 national armed forces pursue structural integration.

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Plazas de soberanía

The plazas de soberanía (literally "places of sovereignty") are the Spanish sovereign territories in North Africa.

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Poland

Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.

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Polish language

Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.

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Polish złoty

The złoty (pronounced; sign: zł; code: PLN), which is the masculine form of the Polish adjective 'golden', is the currency of Poland.

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Portugal

Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.

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Portuguese language

Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.

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Pound sterling

The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.

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Prague

Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.

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Presidency of the Council of the European Union

The presidency of the Council of the European Union is responsible for the functioning of the Council of the European Union, the upper house of the EU legislature.

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President of France

The President of the French Republic (Président de la République française) is the executive head of state of France in the French Fifth Republic.

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President of the European Commission

The President of the European Commission is the head of the European Commission, the executive branch of the:European Union.

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Presidential system

A presidential system is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.

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Primacy of European Union law

The primacy of European Union law (sometimes referred to as supremacy) is an EU law principle that when there is conflict between European law and the law of Member States, European law prevails; the norms of national law have to be set aside.

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Proportional representation

Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems by which divisions into an electorate are reflected proportionately into the elected body.

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Protectorate

A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state.

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Representative democracy

Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.

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Republic of Ireland

Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.

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Republic of Macedonia

Macedonia (translit), officially the Republic of Macedonia, is a country in the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Reserve power

In a parliamentary or semi-presidential system of government, a reserve power is a power that may be exercised by the head of state without the approval of another branch of the government.

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Riga

Riga (Rīga) is the capital and largest city of Latvia.

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Robert Cooper (strategist)

Sir Robert Francis Cooper (born 1947 in Essex, United Kingdom) is a British diplomat and adviser currently serving as a Special Advisor at the European Commission with regard to Myanmar.

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Romani language

Romani (also Romany; romani čhib) is any of several languages of the Romani people belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Romania

Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.

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Romanian language

Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.

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Romanian leu

The Romanian leu (plural lei; ISO 4217 code RON; numeric code 946) is the currency of Romania.

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Rome

Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).

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Rule of law

The rule of law is the "authority and influence of law in society, especially when viewed as a constraint on individual and institutional behavior; (hence) the principle whereby all members of a society (including those in government) are considered equally subject to publicly disclosed legal codes and processes".

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Rusyn language

Rusyn (Carpathian Rusyn), по нашому (po našomu); Pannonian Rusyn)), also known in English as Ruthene (sometimes Ruthenian), is a Slavic language spoken by the Rusyns of Eastern Europe.

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Schengen Agreement

The Schengen Agreement is a treaty which led to the creation of Europe's Schengen Area, in which internal border checks have largely been abolished.

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Schengen Area

The Schengen Area is an area comprising 26 European states that have officially abolished passport and all other types of border control at their mutual borders.

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Scotland

Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.

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Self-governance

Self-governance, self-government, or autonomy, is an abstract concept that applies to several scales of organization.

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Semi-presidential system

A semi-presidential system or dual executive system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible for the legislature of a state.

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Senate of Poland

The Senate (Senat) is the upper house of the Polish parliament, the lower house being the 'Sejm'.

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Serbia

Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.

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Serbian language

Serbian (српски / srpski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs.

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Slovak language

Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).

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Slovakia

Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.

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Slovene language

Slovene or Slovenian (slovenski jezik or slovenščina) belongs to the group of South Slavic languages.

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Slovenia

Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.

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Sofia

Sofia (Со́фия, tr.) is the capital and largest city of Bulgaria.

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South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands

South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (SGSSI) is a British Overseas Territory in the southern Atlantic Ocean.

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Sovereignty

Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.

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Spain

Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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Special member state territories and the European Union

The special territories of the European Union are 31 territories of EU member states which, for historical, geographical, or political reasons, enjoy special status within or outside the European Union.

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Stabilisation and Association Process

In talks with countries and territories that have expressed a wish to join the European Union, the EU typically concludes Association Agreements in exchange for commitments to political, economic, trade, or human rights reform in that country or territory.

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Stockholm

Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.

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Subsidiarity

Subsidiarity is a principle of social organization that holds that social and political issues should be dealt with at the most immediate (or local) level that is consistent with their resolution.

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Succession of states

Succession of states is a theory and practice in international relations regarding successor states.

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Supranational union

A supranational union is a type of multinational political union where negotiated power is delegated to an authority by governments of member states.

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Sweden

Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

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Swedish krona

The krona (plural: kronor; sign: kr; code: SEK) has been the currency of Sweden since 1873.

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Swedish language

Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.

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Switzerland

Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Tallinn

Tallinn (or,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Estonia.

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The Economist

The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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Theresa May

Theresa Mary May (Brasier; born 1 October 1956) is a British politician serving as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party since 2016.

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Treaties of the European Union

The Treaties of the European Union are a set of international treaties between the European Union (EU) member states which sets out the EU's constitutional basis.

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Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe

The Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe (TCE; commonly referred to as the European Constitution or as the Constitutional Treaty) was an unratified international treaty intended to create a consolidated constitution for the European Union (EU).

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Treaty of Amsterdam

The Treaty of Amsterdam, officially the Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty on European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts, was signed on 2 October 1997, and entered into force on 1 May 1999; it made substantial changes to the Treaty of Maastricht, which had been signed in 1992.

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Treaty of Lisbon

The Treaty of Lisbon (initially known as the Reform Treaty) is an international agreement that amends the two treaties which form the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU).

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Treaty of Nice

The Treaty of Nice was signed by European leaders on 26 February 2001 and came into force on 1 February 2003.

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Trojan Horse

The Trojan Horse is a tale from the Trojan War about the subterfuge that the Greeks used to enter the independent city of Troy and win the war.

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Turkey

Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Turkish constitutional referendum, 2017

A constitutional referendum was held throughout Turkey on 16 April 2017 on whether to approve 18 proposed amendments to the Turkish constitution that were brought forward by the governing Justice and Development Party (AKP) and the Nationalist Movement Party (MHP).

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Turkish language

Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).

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Turks and Caicos Islands

The Turks and Caicos Islands (and), or TCI for short, are a British Overseas Territory consisting of the larger Caicos Islands and smaller Turks Islands, two groups of tropical islands in the Lucayan Archipelago of the Atlantic Ocean and northern West Indies.

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Ukrainian language

No description.

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Unicameralism

In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.

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Unitary state

A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, 2016

The United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, also known as the EU referendum and the Brexit referendum, took place on 23 June 2016 in the United Kingdom (UK) and Gibraltar to gauge support for the country either remaining a member of, or leaving, the European Union (EU) under the provisions of the European Union Referendum Act 2015 and also the Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act 2000.

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United Kingdom invocation of Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union

The United Kingdom's invocation of Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union happened on 29 March 2017, and it began the United Kingdom's withdrawal from the European Union (EU), commonly referred to as Brexit.

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United Nations Buffer Zone in Cyprus

The United Nations Buffer Zone in Cyprus is a demilitarized zone, patrolled by the United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP), that was established in 1964 and extended in 1974 after the cease fire of, following the Turkish invasion of Cyprus, and de facto partition of the island into the area controlled by the Republic of Cyprus (southern Cyprus save for the British Sovereign Base Areas) and the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus in the North.

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United Nations Development Programme

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the United Nations' global development network.

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United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo

The United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) is the officially mandated mission of the United Nations in Kosovo.

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Universal suffrage

The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adult citizens, regardless of property ownership, income, race, or ethnicity, subject only to minor exceptions.

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Upper house

An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature (or one of three chambers of a tricameral legislature), the other chamber being the lower house.

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Valletta

Valletta is the capital city of Malta, colloquially known as "Il-Belt" (lit. "The City") in Maltese.

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Vienna

Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.

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Vietnamese language

Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language.

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Vilnius

Vilnius (see also other names) is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 574,221.

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Voting in the Council of the European Union

The procedures for voting in the Council of the European Union are described in the treaties of the European Union.

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Wales

Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.

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Ward (law)

In law, a ward is someone placed under the protection of a legal guardian.

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Warsaw

Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.

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Weighted voting

Weighted voting is an electoral system in which not all voters have the same amount of influence over the outcome of an election.

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Welsh language

Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.

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West Germany

West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.

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Yugoslavia

Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija/Југославија; Jugoslavija; Југославија; Pannonian Rusyn: Югославия, transcr. Juhoslavija)Jugosllavia; Jugoszlávia; Juhoslávia; Iugoslavia; Jugoslávie; Iugoslavia; Yugoslavya; Югославия, transcr. Jugoslavija.

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Zagreb

Zagreb is the capital and the largest city of Croatia.

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1973 enlargement of the European Communities

The 1973 enlargement of the European Communities was the first enlargement of the European Communities (EC), now the European Union (EU).

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1981 enlargement of the European Communities

The 1981 enlargement of the European Communities was the second enlargement of what is now the European Union, then the European Communities (EC).

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1986 enlargement of the European Communities

The 1986 enlargement of the European Communities was the third enlargement of what is now the European Union, then the European Communities (EC).

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1995 enlargement of the European Union

The 1995 enlargement of the European Union saw Austria, Finland, and Sweden accede to the European Union (EU).

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2004 enlargement of the European Union

The 2004 enlargement of the European Union was the largest single expansion of the European Union (EU), in terms of territory, number of states, and population to date; however, it was not the largest in terms of gross domestic product.

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2007 enlargement of the European Union

The 2007 enlargement of the European Union saw Bulgaria and Romania join the European Union (EU) on 1 January 2007.

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2013 enlargement of the European Union

The 2013 enlargement of the European Union saw Croatia join the European Union as its 28th member state on 1 July 2013.

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2016 Turkish coup d'état attempt

On 15 July 2016, a coup d'état was attempted in Turkey against state institutions, including the government and President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan.

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2016–present purges in Turkey

The 2016–present purges in Turkey are an ongoing series of purges by the government of Turkey enabled by a state of emergency in reaction to the 15 July failed ''coup d'état''.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Member_state_of_the_European_Union

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