28 relations: Active transport, Backwashing (water treatment), Biofouling, Biological membrane, Cell membrane, Chemical plant, Chemical potential, Cost, Cross-flow filtration, Dialysis, Fouling, Hollow fiber membrane, Homogeneity and heterogeneity, Ion, Laboratory, Mark van Loosdrecht, Membrane bioreactor, Membrane fouling, Membrane technology, Molecule, Mucous membrane, Nuclear envelope, Passive transport, Pervaporation, Reverse osmosis, Serous membrane, Synthetic membrane, Unit operation.
Active transport is the movement of molecules across a membrane from a region of their lower concentration to a region of their higher concentration—in the direction against the concentration gradient.
In terms of water treatment, including water purification and sewage treatment, backwashing refers to pumping water backwards through the filters media, sometimes including intermittent use of compressed air during the process.
Biofouling or biological fouling is the accumulation of microorganisms, plants, algae, or animals on wetted surfaces.
A biological membrane or biomembrane is an enclosing or separating membrane that acts as a selectively permeable barrier within living things.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
A chemical plant is an industrial process plant that manufactures (or otherwise processes) chemicals, usually on a large scale.
In thermodynamics, chemical potential of a species is a form of energy that can be absorbed or released during a chemical reaction or phase transition due to a change of the particle number of the given species.
In production, research, retail, and accounting, a cost is the value of money that has been used up to produce something or deliver a service, and hence is not available for use anymore.
In chemical engineering, biochemical engineering and protein purification, crossflow filtration (also known as tangential flow filtration) is a type of filtration (a particular unit operation).
In medicine, dialysis (from Greek διάλυσις, diàlysis, "dissolution"; from διά, dià, "through", and λύσις, lỳsis, "loosening or splitting") is the process of removing excess water, solutes and toxins from the blood in those whose native kidneys have lost the ability to perform these functions in a natural way.
Fouling is the accumulation of unwanted material on solid surfaces to the detriment of function.
Hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) are a class of artificial membranes containing a semi-permeable barrier in the form of a hollow fiber.
Homogeneity and heterogeneity are concepts often used in the sciences and statistics relating to the uniformity in a substance or organism.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
A laboratory (informally, lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed.
Mark van Loosdrecht (born 1959) is a Dutch professor of Environmental Biotechnology and Wastewater Engineering at Delft University of Technology.
Membrane bioreactor (MBR) is the combination of a membrane process like microfiltration or ultrafiltration with a biological wastewater treatment process, the activated sludge process.
Membrane fouling is a process whereby a solution or a particle is deposited on a membrane surface or in membrane pores in a processes such as in a membrane bioreactor, reverse osmosis, forward osmosis, membrane distillation, ultrafiltration, microfiltration, or nanofiltration so that the membrane's performance is degraded.
Membrane technology covers all engineering approaches for the transport of substances between two fractions with the help of permeable membranes.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.
The nuclear envelope, also known as the nuclear membrane, is made up of two lipid bilayer membranes which surrounds the nucleus, and in eukaryotic cells it encases the genetic material.
Passive transport is a movement of ions and other atomic or molecular substances across cell membranes without need of energy input.
Pervaporation (or pervaporative separation) is a processing method for the separation of mixtures of liquids by partial vaporization through a non-porous or porous membrane.
Reverse osmosis (RO) is a water purification technology that uses a semipermeable membrane to remove ions, molecules and larger particles from drinking water.
In anatomy, serous membrane (or serosa) is a smooth tissue membrane consisting of two layers of mesothelium, which secrete serous fluid.
An artificial membrane, or synthetic membrane, is a synthetically created membrane which is usually intended for separation purposes in laboratory or in industry.
In chemical engineering and related fields, a unit operation is a basic step in a process.