144 relations: Action potential, Adaptive memory, Adrenaline, Ageing, Alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome, Alphabet, Alzheimer's disease, Amnesia, Amygdala, Anomic aphasia, Apolipoprotein E, Art of memory, Assassination of John F. Kennedy, Atkinson–Shiffrin memory model, Attention span, Autobiographical memory, Baddeley's model of working memory, Basal ganglia, Bell Labs, Brain damage, C. Randy Gallistel, Cell (journal), Cerebellum, Chunking (psychology), Cognition, Cold pressor test, Collective memory, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, Consciousness, Convergence-divergence zone, Cortisol, Cosmos Rossellius, Cram school, Declarative learning, DNA methylation, Echoic memory, Eidetic memory, Emotion and memory, Encoding (memory), Engram (neuropsychology), Episodic memory, Explicit memory, False memory, Forgetting, Frontal lobe, George Armitage Miller, George Sperling, Georges Chapouthier, Glucocorticoid, Glutamic acid, ..., Habituation, Haptic memory, Healthy diet, Henry Molaison, Hippocampus, Hippocampus anatomy, Hydrolase, Hyperthymesia, Iconic memory, Implicit learning, Implicit memory, Information, Interference theory, Intermediate-term memory, Jasmonic acid, Jee Hyun Kim, John F. Kennedy, John Robert Anderson (psychologist), Knowledge, Learning, Learning & Memory, Limbic system, Lobes of the brain, Long-term depression, Long-term memory, Long-term potentiation, Mammillary body, Memorization, Memory consolidation, Mental image, Mental representation, Method of loci, Mimosa pudica, Mind, Misinformation effect, Mnemonic major system, Motor learning, Motor skill, National Institutes of Health, Neuroanatomy of memory, Neurology, Neuron, Neurotransmission, Neurotransmitter, New Scientist, NMDA receptor, Operant conditioning, Optogenetics, Parietal lobe, Parkinson's disease, Personal identity, Phenomenon, Photosynthesis, Physical fitness, Politics of memory, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Prefrontal cortex, Priming (psychology), Prion, Procedural memory, Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, Prospective memory, Recall (memory), Retrospective memory, Richard C. Atkinson, Richard Shiffrin, Rote learning, Schizophrenia, Scholarpedia, Semantic memory, Semantic similarity, September 11 attacks, Short-term memory, Sleep, Spacing effect, Spike-timing-dependent plasticity, Storage (memory), Stress management, Striatum, Subliminal stimuli, Synapse, Telephone number, Temporal lobe, The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two, Tip of the tongue, Traumatic memories, Unconscious mind, Venus flytrap, Visual memory, Voltage-gated ion channel, Working memory, WWC1, Zeigarnik effect, 2014 Sydney hostage crisis. Expand index (94 more) » « Shrink index
In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise.
Adaptive memory is the study of memory systems that have evolved to help retain survival- and fitness-related information, i.e., that are geared toward helping an organism enhance its reproductive fitness and chances of surviving.
Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.
Ageing or aging (see spelling differences) is the process of becoming older.
Alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome (AKS), Korsakoff syndrome is an amnestic disorder caused by thiamine deficiency associated with prolonged ingestion of alcohol.
An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
Amnesia is a deficit in memory caused by brain damage, disease, or psychological trauma.
The amygdala (plural: amygdalae; also corpus amygdaloideum; Latin from Greek, ἀμυγδαλή, amygdalē, 'Almond', 'tonsil') is one of two almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep and medially within the temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans.
Anomic aphasia (also known as dysnomia, nominal aphasia, and amnesic aphasia) is a mild, fluent type of aphasia where an individual has word retrieval failures and cannot express the words they want to say (particularly nouns and verbs).
Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a class of proteins involved in the metabolism of fats in the body.
The art of memory (Latin: ars memoriae) is any of a number of loosely associated mnemonic principles and techniques used to organize memory impressions, improve recall, and assist in the combination and 'invention' of ideas.
John F. Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States, was assassinated on Friday, November 22, 1963, at 12:30 p.m. in Dallas, Texas, while riding in a presidential motorcade through Dealey Plaza.
The Atkinson–Shiffrin model (also known as the multi-store model or modal model) is a model of memory proposed in 1968 by Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin.
Attention span is the amount of concentrated time a person can spend on a task without becoming distracted.
Autobiographical memory is a memory system consisting of episodes recollected from an individual's life, based on a combination of episodic (personal experiences and specific objects, people and events experienced at particular time and place) and semantic (general knowledge and facts about the world) memory.
Alan Baddeley and Graham Hitch proposed a model of working memory in 1974, in an attempt to present a more accurate model of primary memory (often referred to as short-term memory).
The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) is a group of subcortical nuclei, of varied origin, in the brains of vertebrates including humans, which are situated at the base of the forebrain.
Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named AT&T Bell Laboratories, Bell Telephone Laboratories and Bell Labs) is an American research and scientific development company, owned by Finnish company Nokia.
Brain damage or brain injury (BI) is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells.
Charles Ransom Gallistel (born May 18, 1941) is a Professor of Psychology at Rutgers University.
Cell is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing research papers across a broad range of disciplines within the life sciences.
The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates.
In cognitive psychology, chunking is a process by which individual pieces of information are bound together into a meaningful whole (Neath & Surprenant, 2003).
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".
The cold pressor test is a cardiovascular test performed by immersing the hand into an ice water container, usually for one minute, and measuring changes in blood pressure and heart rate.
Collective memory is the shared pool of knowledge and information in the memories of two or more members of a social group.
Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health, is the public health graduate school of Columbia University.
Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.
The theory of convergence-divergence zones was proposed by Antonio Damasio, in 1989, to explain the neural mechanisms of recollection.
Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.
Cosmos Rossellius (died 1578) was a Florentine Dominican friar who wrote a book about memory.
Cram schools are specialized schools that train their students to meet particular goals, most commonly to pass the entrance examinations of high schools or universities.
Declarative learning is acquiring information that one can speak about (contrast with motor learning).
DNA methylation is a process by which methyl groups are added to the DNA molecule.
Echoic memory is the sensory memory register specific to auditory information (sounds).
Eidetic memory (sometimes called photographic memory) is an ability to vividly recall images from memory after only a few instances of exposure, with high precision for a brief time after exposure,The terms eidetic memory and photographic memory are often used interchangeably.
Emotion can have a powerful effect on humans and animals.
Memory has the ability to encode, store and recall information.
Engrams are theorized to be means by which memories are stored as biophysical or biochemical changes in the brain (and other neural tissue) in response to external stimuli.
Episodic memory is the memory of autobiographical events (times, places, associated emotions, and other contextual who, what, when, where, why knowledge) that can be explicitly stated or conjured.
Explicit memory (or declarative memory) is one of the two main types of long-term human memory.
A false memory is a psychological phenomenon where a person recalls something that did not happen.
Forgetting or disremembering is the apparent loss or modification of information already encoded and stored in an individual's long-term memory.
The frontal lobe, located at the front of the brain, is the largest of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the mammalian brain.
George Armitage Miller (February 3, 1920 – July 22, 2012) was an American psychologist who was one of the founders of the cognitive psychology field.
George Sperling (born 1934) is an American cognitive psychologist.
Georges Chapouthier (born 27 March 1945 in Libourne) is a French neuroscientist and philosopher.
Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Habituation is a form of learning in which an organism decreases or ceases its responses to a stimulus after repeated or prolonged presentations.
Haptic memory is the form of sensory memory specific to touch stimuli.
A healthy diet is a diet that helps to maintain or improve overall health.
Henry Gustav Molaison (February 26, 1926 – December 2, 2008), known widely as H.M., was an American memory disorder patient who had a bilateral medial temporal lobectomy to surgically resect the anterior two thirds of his hippocampi, parahippocampal cortices, entorhinal cortices, piriform cortices, and amygdalae in an attempt to cure his epilepsy.
The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.
Hippocampus anatomy describes the physical aspects and properties of the hippocampus, a neural structure in the medial temporal lobe of the brain that has a distinctive, curved shape that has been likened to the sea-horse monster of Greek mythology and the ram's horns of Amun in Egyptian mythology.
Hydrolase is a class of enzyme that is commonly used as biochemical catalysts that utilize water to break a chemical bond.
Hyperthymesia is a neurological disorder which leads people to be able to remember much more than the average person.
Iconic memory is the visual sensory memory (SM) register pertaining to the visual domain and a fast-decaying store of visual information.
Implicit learning is the learning of complex information in an incidental manner, without awareness of what has been learned.
Implicit memory is one of the two main types of long-term human memory.
Information is any entity or form that provides the answer to a question of some kind or resolves uncertainty.
Interference theory is a theory regarding human memory.
Intermediate-term memory (ITM) is a stage of memory distinct from sensory memory, working memory/short-term memory, and long-term memory.
Jasmonic acid (JA) is an organic compound found in several plants including jasmine.
Jee Hyun Kim, is an Australian behavioral neuroscientist whose work focuses on emotional learning and memory during childhood and adolescence.
John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.
John Robert Anderson (born August 27, 1947) is a Canadian-born American psychologist.
Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.
Learning is the process of acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences.
Learning & Memory is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the neurobiology of learning and memory.
The limbic system is a set of brain structures located on both sides of the thalamus, immediately beneath the cerebrum.
The lobes of the brain were originally a purely anatomical classification, but have been shown also to be related to different brain functions.
Long-term depression (LTD), in neurophysiology, is an activity-dependent reduction in the efficacy of neuronal synapses lasting hours or longer following a long patterned stimulus.
Long-term memory (LTM) is the stage of the Atkinson–Shiffrin memory model where informative knowledge is held indefinitely.
In neuroscience, long-term potentiation (LTP) is a persistent strengthening of synapses based on recent patterns of activity.
The mammillary bodies are a pair of small round bodies, located on the undersurface of the brain that, as part of the diencephalon, form part of the limbic system.
Memorization is the process of committing something to memory.
Memory consolidation is a category of processes that stabilize a memory trace after its initial acquisition.
A mental image or mental picture is the representation in a person's mind of the physical world outside that person.
A mental representation (or cognitive representation), in philosophy of mind, cognitive psychology, neuroscience, and cognitive science, is a hypothetical internal cognitive symbol that represents external reality, or else a mental process that makes use of such a symbol: "a formal system for making explicit certain entities or types of information, together with a specification of how the system does this".
The method of loci (loci being Latin for "places") is a method of memory enhancement which uses visualizations with the use of spatial memory, familiar information about one's environment, to quickly and efficiently recall information.
Mimosa pudica (from pudica "shy, bashful or shrinking"; also called sensitive plant, sleepy plant, action plant, Dormilones, touch-me-not, shameplant, or shy plant) is a creeping annual or perennial flowering plant of the pea/legume family Fabaceae and Magnoliopsida taxon, often grown for its curiosity value: the compound leaves fold inward and droop when touched or shaken, defending themselves from harm, and re-open a few minutes later.
The mind is a set of cognitive faculties including consciousness, perception, thinking, judgement, language and memory.
The misinformation effect happens when a person's recall of episodic memories becomes less accurate because of post-event information.
The major system (also called the phonetic number system, phonetic mnemonic system, or Herigone's mnemonic system) is a mnemonic technique used to aid in memorizing numbers.
Motor learning is a change, resulting from practice or a novel experience, in the capability for responding.
A motor skill is a learned ability to cause a predetermined movement outcome with maximum certainty.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.
The neuroanatomy of memory encompasses a wide variety of anatomical structures in the brain.
Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neurotransmission (Latin: transmissio "passage, crossing" from transmittere "send, let through"), also called synaptic transmission, is the process by which signaling molecules called neurotransmitters are released by the axon terminal of a neuron (the presynaptic neuron), and bind to and activate the receptors on the dendrites of another neuron (the postsynaptic neuron).
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.
The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (also known as the NMDA receptor or NMDAR), is a glutamate receptor and ion channel protein found in nerve cells.
Operant conditioning (also called "instrumental conditioning") is a learning process through which the strength of a behavior is modified by reinforcement or punishment.
Optogenetics is a biological technique which involves the use of light to control cells in living tissue, typically neurons, that have been genetically modified to express light-sensitive ion channels.
The parietal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals. The parietal lobe is positioned above the temporal lobe and behind the frontal lobe and central sulcus. The parietal lobe integrates sensory information among various modalities, including spatial sense and navigation (proprioception), the main sensory receptive area for the sense of touch (mechanoreception) in the somatosensory cortex which is just posterior to the central sulcus in the postcentral gyrus, and the dorsal stream of the visual system. The major sensory inputs from the skin (touch, temperature, and pain receptors), relay through the thalamus to the parietal lobe. Several areas of the parietal lobe are important in language processing. The somatosensory cortex can be illustrated as a distorted figure – the homunculus (Latin: "little man"), in which the body parts are rendered according to how much of the somatosensory cortex is devoted to them.Schacter, D. L., Gilbert, D. L. & Wegner, D. M. (2009). Psychology. (2nd ed.). New York (NY): Worth Publishers. The superior parietal lobule and inferior parietal lobule are the primary areas of body or spacial awareness. A lesion commonly in the right superior or inferior parietal lobule leads to hemineglect. The name comes from the parietal bone, which is named from the Latin paries-, meaning "wall".
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
In philosophy, the matter of personal identity deals with such questions as, "What makes it true that a person at one time is the same thing as a person at another time?" or "What kinds of things are we persons?" Generally, personal identity is the unique numerical identity of a person in the course of time.
A phenomenon (Greek: φαινόμενον, phainómenon, from the verb phainein, to show, shine, appear, to be manifest or manifest itself, plural phenomena) is any thing which manifests itself.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
Physical fitness is a state of health and well-being and, more specifically, the ability to perform aspects of sports, occupations and daily activities.
Politics of memory is the organisation of collective memory by political agents; the political means by which events are remembered and recorded, or discarded.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)Acceptable variants of this term exist; see the Terminology section in this article.
In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe.
Priming is a technique whereby exposure to one stimulus influences a response to a subsequent stimulus, without conscious guidance or intention.
Prions are misfolded proteins that are associated with several fatal neurodegenerative diseases in animals and humans.
Procedural memory is a type of implicit memory (unconscious memory) and long-term memory which aids the performance of particular types of tasks without conscious awareness of these previous experiences.
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry is a peer-reviewed academic journal publishing review articles and original research reports pertaining to neuropsychopharmacology and biological psychiatry.
Prospective memory is a form of memory that involves remembering to perform a planned action or recall a planned intention at some future point in time.
Recall in memory refers to the mental process of retrieval of information from the past.
Retrospective memory refers to memory of people, words, and events encountered or experienced in the past.
Richard Chatham Atkinson (born 19 March 1929) is an American professor of psychology and academic administrator.
Richard Shiffrin (born March 13, 1942) is professor of cognitive science in the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences at Indiana University, Bloomington.
Rote learning is a memorization technique based on repetition.
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.
Scholarpedia is an English-language online wiki-based encyclopedia with features commonly associated with open-access online academic journals, which aims to have quality content.
Semantic memory is one of the two types of declarative or explicit memory (our memory of facts or events that is explicitly stored and retrieved).
Semantic similarity is a metric defined over a set of documents or terms, where the idea of distance between them is based on the likeness of their meaning or semantic content as opposed to similarity which can be estimated regarding their syntactical representation (e.g. their string format).
The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
Short-term memory (or "primary" or "active memory") is the capacity for holding, but not manipulating, a small amount of information in mind in an active, readily available state for a short period of time.
Sleep is a naturally recurring state of mind and body, characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, inhibition of nearly all voluntary muscles, and reduced interactions with surroundings.
The spacing effect is the phenomenon whereby learning is greater when studying is spread out over time, as opposed to studying the same amount of content in a single session.
Spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) is a biological process that adjusts the strength of connections between neurons in the brain.
Memory is the ability of the mind to store and recall information that was previously acquired.
Stress management is a wide spectrum of techniques and psychotherapies aimed at controlling a person's level of stress, especially chronic stress, usually for the purpose of improving everyday functioning.
The striatum, or corpus striatum (also called the neostriatum and the striate nucleus) is a nucleus (a cluster of neurons) in the subcortical basal ganglia of the forebrain.
Subliminal stimuli (the prefix sup- literally "below, or less than", while the prefix sub- literally "up to"), contrary to supraliminal stimuli or "above threshold", are any sensory stimuli below an individual's threshold for conscious perception.
In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.
A telephone number is a sequence of digits assigned to a fixed-line telephone subscriber station connected to a telephone line or to a wireless electronic telephony device, such as a radio telephone or a mobile telephone, or to other devices for data transmission via the public switched telephone network (PSTN) or other private networks.
The temporal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals.
"The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information" is one of the most highly cited papers in psychology.
Tip of the tongue (or TOT) is the phenomenon of failing to retrieve a word from memory, combined with partial recall and the feeling that retrieval is imminent.
The management of traumatic memories is important when treating mental health disorders such as post traumatic stress disorder.
The unconscious mind (or the unconscious) consists of the processes in the mind which occur automatically and are not available to introspection, and include thought processes, memories, interests, and motivations.
The Venus flytrap (also referred to as Venus's flytrap or Venus' flytrap), Dionaea muscipula, is a carnivorous plant native to subtropical wetlands on the East Coast of the United States in North Carolina and South Carolina.
Visual memory describes the relationship between perceptual processing and the encoding, storage and retrieval of the resulting neural representations.
Voltage-gated ion channels are a class of transmembrane proteins that form ion channels that are activated by changes in the electrical membrane potential near the channel.
Working memory is a cognitive system with a limited capacity that is responsible for temporarily holding information available for processing.
Protein KIBRA also known as kidney and brain expressed protein (KIBRA) or WW domain-containing protein 1 (WWC1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the WWC1 gene.
In psychology, the Zeigarnik effect states that people remember uncompleted or interrupted tasks better than completed tasks.
The 2014 Sydney hostage crisis, also known as the Sydney siege and Lindt Cafe siege, occurred on 15–16 December 2014 when a lone gunman, Man Haron Monis, held hostage ten customers and eight employees of a Lindt chocolate café located at Martin Place in Sydney, Australia.